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In imaging science, image processing is processing of images using mathematical

operations by using any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a
photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or a set of
characteristics or parameters related to the image. Most image-processing techniques involve
treating the image as a two-dimensional signal and applying standard signal-processing
techniques to it.
Image processing usually refers to digital image processing, but optical and analog image
processing also are possible. This article is about general techniques that apply to all of them.
The acquisition of images (producing the input image in the first place) is referred to as imaging.
Image processing components allow developers to transform, filter, convert color spaces
and draw onto images. Many times, you can't control what the images look like as they come
into your software application. They may come from various places and in various states of view
ability. Your job as a programmer is not only to support the input of images, but to make them
look their best once they arrive.
Image processing components are available to handle a wide array of image enabling functions.
Whether you need to:
Automatically trim a bitmap to remove blank space around the edges
Rotate the image
Change the orientation by flipping the image horizontally or vertically
Change brightness using gamma correction
Stretch the range of intensities
Change saturation
Halftone for display or printing
Sharpen or blur
Combine two images so that one appears to be an underlying texture of the other
Anti-alias the image
Or any other image processing routine you can think of, there are image processing components
available which will make processing your images as easy as adding a component.

Applications of Digital Image Processing

Some of the major fields in which digital image processing is widely used are mentioned below

Image sharpening and restoration

Medical field

Remote sensing

Transmission and encoding

Machine/Robot vision

Color processing

Pattern recognition

Video processing

Microscopic Imaging


Image encryption using chaotic

In recent years, the chaos based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and
efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques. In this communication, we
propose a new approach for image encryption based on chaotic logistic maps in order to meet the
requirements of the secure image transfer. In the proposed image encryption scheme, an external
secret key of 80-bit and two chaotic logistic maps are employed. The initial conditions for the
both logistic maps are derived using the external secret key by providing different weight age to
all its bits. Further, in the proposed encryption process, eight different types of operations are
used to encrypt the pixels of an image and which one of them will be used for a particular pixel

is decided by the outcome of the logistic map. To make the cipher more robust against any
attack, the secret key is modified after encrypting each block of sixteen pixels of the image. The
results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the
proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image
encryption and transmission


2.1. Logistic map analysis
The cryptosystems, based on widely-used one-dimensional discrete chaotic maps, such as
Logistic map, are weak in
security. As known Logistic map is dened as: x
(1 _ x
), where k 2 (0, 4), n =0,1,... [17]. The parameter
k and initial value x
may represent the key. The parameter k can be divided into three segments, which can be
by experiments on following conditions: x
= 0.3. When k 2 (0, 3), as shown in Fig. 1(a), the calculation results come to
the same value after several iterations without any chaotic behavior. When k 2 [3, 3.6), the phase
space concludes several
points only, as showed in Fig. 1(b), the system appears periodicity. While k 2 [3.6, 4), it becomes
a chaotic system
with periodicity disappeared. So we can draw the following conclusions: (1) The Logistic map
does not satisfy uniform
distribution property. When k 2 [0, 3.6) the points concentrate on several values and could not be
used for encryption
purpose. (2) Cryptosystems based on Logistic map has small key space and weak security.