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The President and Congress help one another in the making of laws.

Congress enacts the bill and

the President approves it.
The president prepares a budget and Congress enacts an appropriation bill pursuant to that
The president enters into a treaty with foreign countries and the Senate ratifies thesame.4.
The Supreme Court may declare a treaty, international or executive agreement, or law, as
unconstitutional, and it has also the power to declare invalid any act done by the other
departments of government.5.
The grant of amnesty by the President is subjected to the concurrence of a majority of all the
members of the Congress.6.
The president appoints, with consent of the Commission on Appointments, members of the
Constitutional Commissions, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the
armed forces from the rank of colonel or captain, and other officers whose appointments are
vested in the President in the 1987 Constitution.7.
The members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president, based on a list prepared by
the Judicial and Bar Council. These appointments do not need the consent of the Commission
on Appointments
Checks by the President

may veto or disapprove bills enacted by the Congress (Sec. 27:1)

Through pardoning power, he may modify or set aside the judgments of courts (Art. VII,
Sec 19

Checks by the Congress


Congress may override the veto of the President (Sec. 27:1)

Reject certain appointments of the President (Art. VII, Sec. 16)

Revoke the proclamation of martial law or suspension of the writ of habeas corpus by the
President (Art. VII, Section 18)

Amend or revoke the decision of the Court by the enactment of a new law or by an
amendment of the old

The power to impeach the President and the members of the Supreme Court.

Checks by the Judiciary

The Supreme Court as the final arbiter may declare legislative measures or executive acts
unconstitutional (Art. VIII, Sec 4:2)

Determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack
or excess of jurisdiction on the part of the Congress or President (Art. VIII

Limitations and Prohibitions

The President's powers and privileges are not absolute. The following are the limitations and
prohibitions on the Presidential office:

Aside from his/her salary, the president cannot receive any other emolument from
the Philippine Government or any other source.

Unless otherwise provided in the Constitution, the president cannot also hold any other
office or employment or directly or indirectly practice any other profession, and cannot
participate in any business, or be financially interested in any contract, franchise, or special
privilege granted by the Government, including government-owned or controlled
corporations or their subsidiaries, during his/her tenure. Also, the President's spouse and
relatives by consanguinity or affinity up to the fourth civil degree may not be appointed as
members of the Constitutional Commissions, or the Office of the Ombudsman, or as
Secretaries, Undersecretaries, chairmen or heads of bureaus or offices, including
government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries, during the President's

Starting two months before the next presidential elections and up to the end of his/her
term, the president cannot anymore appoint anyone to offices or positions, except temporary
appointments to executive positions, and only when continued vacancies therein will
prejudice public service or endanger public safety.

Also, suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or declaration of martial
law may only be made for a period of 60 days, and within 48 hours after such suspension or
declaration the president must submit a written or personal report to Congress, which then
has the power to extend or revoke such proclamation or suspension by majority vote of all its
members. Furthermore, theSupreme Court may review the sufficiency or legality of such
suspension or declaration in an appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen.

The president may not grant pardon to a person who has been found guilty in
an impeachment case.

Any treaty or international agreement entered into by the President must have the
concurrence of at least two-thirds of all the members of the Senate in order to be valid