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CAPE PENINSULA UNIVERSITY OF

TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING

Fluid Mechanics III

MFE030
Lecturer:
Hoffman

Friction factor (k)
Student Name
214245888

LM SHEFER-BOSWELL

214134644

N.F DWAYIYO

212038028

Crit
eria

Lab 1
Student Number

MB KHUMALO

Assessment

Mr

Group

Comments

Max

Results

4

Discussion

3

Conclusion

3

Appendix

5

Total

15

Remarks


TABLE OF CONTENTS

    We make it happen !!

Results………………………………………………………………….1.. Experimental Apparatus………………………………………………3 4. Discussion of Results…………………………………………………5 7....5 Appendix A: Experimental Readings Appendix B: Sample Calculations ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . Aim of the Experiment……………………………………………….2 2.4 6. Theoretical Background……………………………………………. Experimental Procedure………………………………………………3 5.2 3. Conclusion……………………………………………………………..

The flow rate being calculated by calibrating the rotameter. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND The head loss associated with flow through any fitting in a pipeline can be expressed in the form: hl = k v2/2g where hl = head loss k = friction factor v = velocity in Ø13.2 to a Ø13.6 pipe line (v2) g = gravitational acceleration Fig.6 in a pipe line. (As in MFE020 Fluid Mechanics II Lab 1) . The Velocity head is calculated by firstly determining the mean velocity of the flow by dividing the flow rate by the cross-sectional area of the pipe downstream of the contraction. 1: Schematic Diagram of the Sudden contraction Inverted air-filled manometer A H 1 B H 2 Flow 1 Sudden Contraction 2 The k-factor for the fitting can be determined calculating the slope of the graph found when plotting the Head Loss vs Velocity Head. 2.1. AIM OF THE LABORATORY EXPERIMENT To determine the friction factor (k-factor) of a sudden contraction from a Ø26.

2: Attach a return tube to feed the water back to the test bench. Losses in Piping Apparatus (fitted with manometers) 4. Consider the manometer fitted across the contraction. 3: Plug in the power lead of the test bench and start the pump. 10: Repeat steps 8 and 9 until maximum flow is reached. 9: Increase the flow slightly. pump.gH2 (P1 – P2) / g = H1 – H2 3.g H1 = P2 . 4: Open the valve on the test bench to maximum 5: Open the valve on the piping apparatus to maximum 6: Close valve on the piping apparatus and check that the manometer attached to the sudden contraction is free of bubbles.1 3. ie PA = P B therefore where P1 = PA + g H1 P1 . The pressure at point A is equal to the pressure at B (since the inverted manometer is filled with air). apply Bernoulli’s Law to the sudden contraction Z1 + p1/g + v21 /2g = Z2 + p2/g + v22/2g + hl therefore hl = (v21 – v22)/2g + (P1 – P2) / g The velocities are calculated as explained above. 8: Note the level of the float in the rotameter and the levels in the manometer limbs.To determine the Head Loss (hl). . level and about halfway on the scale. control-valve and catchment tank with level sight-glass. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Step Step Step Step Step Step Step Step Step Step 1: Connect the pipeline to the discharge from the pump.2 Fluid mechanics test bench fitted with rotameter. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS 3. 7: Open valve slightly.

CONCLUSIONS It is evident that with such an experimental procedure. And as such it is clear that there is room for improvement regarding the means or procedure to attain a k-factor of a pipe . Using a stop watch to measure water flow and manually or visually recording results provide ample opportunities for error. These include things such as inaccurate recordings during experimentation. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS After following the experimental procedures and doing the required calculation it was possible to arrive at a suitably accurate friction factor for a sudden contraction. Due to the aforementioned factors the recorded k. RESULTS Figure 2: Head loss vs Velocity Head 6. faulty calculations and incorrect visual representation of the results. Although the K-factor determined is adequate. there are however many possible reasons for error.5. for any given pipe configuration. 8. when we considering the method used to determine it. there are numerous possible causes for errors to occur in the pursuit of obtaining a friction factor.factor for this particular pipe contraction is pertinent. These sources of error are prevalent as human limitations are a strong factor.

fitting. Fluid Mechanics 3rd Ed. Gasiorek JM. Douglas JF. Swaffield JA. . and it is applicable. With that said as a result of these experimental proceedings and applying the theory a friction factor was in fact obtained for this specific sudden contraction in a pipe line.

055 0.181 0.181 Calculation 320 Calculatio n 97.568 0.216 0.585 2.99 0.02 0.610 0.032 2 345 325 145.56 0.223 9 515 400 359.2 mm Area1 = Manomet er Upstream Manometer Calibration Equation = Area2 = 145.59 0.128 0.067 0.112 0.071 0.097 5 410 355 227.095 0.065 0.166 0.703 2.122 6 430 365 256.005 0.125 0.172 0.79 0.068 4 385 340 200.20 0.012 Calculati on 0.312 0.08 0.130 0.27 mm2 Downstream Diameter (d2) = 13.546 2.12 0.381 0.800 0.192 8 480 385 315.022 1 330 315 116.318 1.46 0.372 1.017 0.423 1.13 mm2 Flow Rate Velocity Velocity Upstream Q V1 Downstrea m V2 Velocity Head Velocity Difference Pressure Differenc e Head Loss V22/2g (V12 V22)/2g (p1 p2) /pg hl L H1 Downstrea m H2 mm mm mm X10-6 m3/s m/s m/s m m mH2O m Readin g 0 Reading Reading 310 Calculatio n 0.038 0.027 0.020 0.149 7 455 375 294.240 0.023 Calculatio n 0.084 0.080 0.010 Calculatio n 0.030 0.115 0.281 10 535 405 379.6 mm Float height 539.271 1.666 2.209 0.033 0.23 0.347 0.APPENDIX A: Experimental Readings and Results Upstream Diameter (d1) = 26.45 0.015 0.045 0.762 0.047 3 365 335 171.052 0.315 .475 1.473 0.671 Calculatio n 0.025 0.051 0.158 0.097 0.185 0.

.

92 13.005 0.02 34.181 m/s = V1 0.19 Volume (m^3) 0.005 0.005 0.95 19.85 13.005 0.25 29.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 Area = 539.93 21.13 mm2 = 145.14 24.005 0.671m/s= V2 .27 mm2 Flow rate Velocity 0.31 43.53 17 15.005 0.005 0.APPENDIX B: Sample Calculations: Time taken (s) 51.

Velocity head = Velocity head = 0.023 mm Pressure difference Velocity difference m/s From Bernoulli’s equation .

Signed: Dated: Signed: Dated: .FACTOR LAB 1 by MB KHUMALO 214245888 LM SHEFER-BOSWELL 214134644 N.mH2O DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING K.F DWAYIYO 212038028 Subject: Fluid Mechanics 3 Lecturer Mr Hoffman Date: 19/05/15 We swear that this is the original work of the authors. All information obtained directly or indirectly from other sources has been fully acknowledged.

Signed: Dated: .