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Sticking and scratching problems after batch annealing,

including coil compression stresses effects


ECSC agreement n7210-PR-219
Final Report
01 July 2000 - 31 December 2004

SUMMARY

General
The completion date of the project was postponed by one year, due to delays in the development of the
industrial stress measurement system by BFI at EKO-Stahl.

Objective of the project


Batch annealing remains a significant workshop in cold plants. Two of its major problems are
sticking and scratches, both defects of surface aspect unacceptable for automotive industry.
The global objective of the present project was to enlarge the scope of previous studies on
sticking, generally done on sheet samples, both with other parameters (atmosphere, steel composition),
and by changing size of samples (laboratory tests on narrow coils, industrial tests).
The change in size for sticking experiments allows to validate previous results on sheet sample
and to experimentally quantify the effect of parameters inaccessible on sheet samples such as coiling
tension, thermal stresses, flatness, thickness and thickness profile (global and localized).
Another objective was to investigate and quantify scratching phenomenon, particularly as a
counterpart of sticking. This can only be made using coils and is easier at laboratory scale (narrow
coils).
We also aimed at defining connection between force adherence inside coil and sticking or
scratching occurrence. These relationships had to be established with the help of a model assessing
coiling stresses and thermal stresses, validated by a stress measurement at the inner wrap level of
industrial coils while coiling.
All the laboratory tests had to be validated on industrial trials and statistical studies made at
EKO Stahl, which encounters sticking and even more scratching problems, so the conclusions get more
foundations.
Comparison of initially planned activities and work accomplished
The main deviations from the initial plan of activities come from unsuccessful development of
the industrial coiling stress measurement system by BFI.

With the industrial coiling stress developed by BFI and implemented at EKO-Stahl, we
expected to study the links between 3 things: defect apparition, coiling stresses and parameters
influencing the coiling stresses (namely the coiling tension, the thickness profile and the flatness).
Without any reliable measurement, this was impossible, and no longer was useful the comparison with
existing models for coiling stresses and thermal stresses.

Description of activities and discussion


CRM was in charge of laboratory simulation of sticking of sheet samples.
A first part of the work consisted in the development of an installation for the experiments. This
system allows to reproduce the annealing cycle on pairs of samples that are pressed together at different
levels of stress, everything in a controlled atmosphere. Usually the pressure was applied during one
hour at the start of the cooling phase, and the intensity of the sticking evaluated by tensile tests.
The experiments showed proportionality between the de-cohesion strength and the pressure
applied between samples at the annealing. Some saturation occurred when the pressure applied during
the whole cycle is greater or equal to 5 MPa.
The trial plan was then mainly oriented towards interaction between the steel grade (especially
the effect of Mn and Si content), and the atmosphere conditions (dew point, CO2 injection, H2 or HNx
or cleanliness of the surface. Along with the characterisation by the de-cohesion strength was
implemented surface analysis.
High Mn and Si steels, even if exhibiting more surface oxidation, did not see their sticking
intensity really lowered. A higher dew point (0C) brings less selective and less homogeneous
oxidation.
CO2 injection proved to be difficult to use as a sticking prevention mean: either it is introduced
too soon before the cooling phase and it has no effect, or it is introduced at the start of the cooling phase
and it reduces the sticking, but it lets visible oxidation of the surface after the annealing.
Some decrease of the sticking strength was seen coming along with a decrease of the
temperature of annealing. No influence was seen from the atmosphere gas (H2 or HNx). No effect of
the cleanliness was seen, but the installation with a high atmosphere renewal per sample surface unit, is
not representative of the industrial case.
CRM was also in charge of an industrial study of the sticking specifically due to localized overthickness, with the help of Sidmar.
Strip sampling has been organised before temper mill to determine the correlation between
sticking and strip profile. It appears that the sticking problem is generally correlated with overthicknesses if the height of the irregularities is greater than around 3 m.
Calculations have been performed to determine the influence of irregularities in the strip profile
on radial stresses. These calculations show that the production of strips with flat profile (crown of 5
m) is significantly more detrimental for sticking because small irregularities have rapidly an important
effect on the local radial stresses. With a high crown (20 m), the defects located near the strip edges
can be neglected, only the centre peaks defects remain important. The presence of a sharp peak is much
more detrimental than a drop in the strip profile.
This is confirmed by direct analysis of the industrial sample profiles. An attempt has been made
for the validation of this model based on a trial carried out at BFI for the development of the coiling
stress measurement system. But it appeared that the data was not reliable enough due to high sensitivity
of the exact location of the sensors relatively to the over-thickness created.

Arcelor Research (formerly IRSID) was in charge of the simulation of sticking and scratching
on narrow coils on its laboratoryrolling mill pilot.
This also began by the development of a simulation method for the defects.
For sticking, this includes the preparation of the coils (roughness, coiling tension), the
annealing in an small industrial batch annealing plant, and the characterisation of the sticking intensity.
After several attempts, sticking could be obtained by coiling at above 50 MPa, with Ra 0.5 m, and

annealing at 700C. A measurement method for sticking intensity was developed that consists in
measuring the un-coiling tension while the un-coiler was let free turning. It was clearly seen that
sticking marks appear as coil breaks at the exit of the un-coiler that cannot be rubbed out by the temper
mill.
We could see the evolution of the sticking intensity along the coils as a gaussian curve with its
maximum at mid-radius of the coil. The sticking force varies linearly with the coiling tension. A very
strong decrease of the sticking was seen with higher roughness (between Ra 0.5 m and 3.7 m) and
lower annealing temperature (650C to 700C). An attempt was made to test the effect of an excess of
oil on the strip, with no clear conclusion due to bad conditions of trial.
For scratching, the simulation seemed at first sight easier than for sticking. Scratching could be
tested at first without intermediate annealing. Scratching sensitivity was characterised by the un-coiling
tension that provokes, nearly statically, the deviation of a straight radius line marked on the coil.
Scratching marks have been observed at microscope: 1.5 mm long, 0.15 mm wide, 15 m above and
under the surface.
For a coil prepared at room temperature, the un-coiling tension that provokes scratching is
about 6 times the coiling tension. This is in contradiction with common industrial belief which would
have stated it at the same value. We have not been able to get scratching after the annealing of the coils,
although we would have forecasted easier scratching. We got sticking instead. We took care of potential
unexpected perturbations (coil history, mandrel expansion) on this result. We studied the effect of the
roughness and presence of oil: only the oil had a clear effect on scratching promotion in our conditions
of test.
An important result came from the coils annealed that were only slightly stuck, when we tried
to unstick a length of 300 mm in two different modes: tangentially (in fact shearing ie the scratching
sollicitation) or radially (in fact peeling ie the normal uncoiling). Only 3 N was enough to un-stick the
strip by peeling, while 10000 N were unable to do it by shearing. This means that to get scratching, the
coil must be absolutely not stuck.
The BFI, with some support of FQZ and EKO-Stahl, was in charge of the development and the
use of an industrial coiling stress measurement system, able to study the effect of both strip thickness
profile and flatness.
This development began by experiments on a laboratory coiling simulator with strip of 350 mm
wide. The mandrel coiler has been equipped with 5 radial piezo force sensors inserted below its surface.
It could be got very good signals, with the expected general form of curve for the stress evolution with
the radius. Even each winding addition could be seen by a sudden rise in the signal. The difference
between the measurement across the width could be attributed to the coil flatness.
It was decided to assess the potential risk of high thermal stresses arising during the contraction
of a warm coil over a cold mandrel. This was done by a special trial where the strip was heated by
radiant heater just before the coiling. Even if no tremendous over-stresses were detected during this
trial, a doubt subsisted due to the very slow coiling (2 m/min) and it was decided to limit the force
transmitted to the sensors by a geometric means, and by the way of to limit the sensitivity too.
Another trial was made to test the sensitivity of the system to changes in thickness profile,
which was simulated with adhesive tape, and the conclusion was very good.
One segment of the coiler at the exit of the reversing mill of EKO-Stahl was implemented with
15 sensors over its width. This implementation suffered some delay and a mechanical break of the
electronic boxes. A reliable solution was found to these problems proved by 6 months of operation
without problem.
The signals of 14 coils were analysed. For the finishing pass with normal coiling tension, the
signal of some sensors, if not perfect, had a rather logical shape. Others delivered no signal, while a
static test proved that it was not a sensor defect. For the intermediate passes with 5 times the normal
tension, the signals raised quickly then curiously decreased below zero. Several explanations were
imagined and tested. Some raised possible ways of improvement: loose windings at the start of the coils
due to a thicker part, sensor drift. But the main explanation of the very surprising behaviour came from
finite element calculation, which showed an important deformation of the segment in which the sensors

were inserted. This deformation was caused by a discontinuous support of the segment (which can be
considered as a beam). This discontinuous support is inherent to the classical wedge-shape piece that is
commonly used for the expansion of the mandrel.
Consequently, the expected correlation of the coiling stresses along the width, with sticking and
scratching defects on one hand, flatness and thickness profile on the other hand could not be pushed
further on.
If it had to be done again, one should take better care of the possible deformation of the coiler.
In fact, even on the coiler of the reversing mill of EKO-Stahl, they were locations (above the punctual
supports of the segment) where deformation was acceptable. Moreover, one should come back to the
design used at the BFI laboratory coiler for the head that insures pressure transmission to the sensor, in
order to improve sensitivity, since the expected thermal stresses were not so important.
FQZ was in charge of several industrial studies among which a statistical correlation between
the defect occurrence and process parameters.
Globally, rather poor correlation rates were determined.
With increasing strip thickness the scratching defect increases. This is evident for both rolling
plants, especially with material thicker than 2.0 mm. A possible explanation for this is the limitation of
the maximum strip tensions at both rolling plants.
The used annealing regimes show a growth of the sticking defect rate when the soaking
temperature is increasing, while at the same time the scratching defect rate drops.
When one of the examined defects occurred in a coil, one or more of the same defects occurred
in coils rolled shortly beforehand or afterwards. It can therefore be concluded that a possible direct
influence of the rolling mill, as far as the materials have about the same properties.
Individual steel grades (electro steel grades, IF steel) show comparatively low defect rates, but
since many parameters are different in the treatment of these steel grades, this does not prove any
metallurgical effect.
As expected, no influence was found for the annealing places and the annealing hoods. The
same is true of the influence of the coil position in the stack.
FQZ also tried to develop a defect detection device based on the sound analysis. The treatment
was initially based on the noise intensity, from which the occurrence of sticking or scratching could be
related to an increase or decrease in the signal level. But making the difference between the two defects
was sometimes difficult. No correlation could be made with the coiling tension variations observed at
the tandem mill.
Another measurement was implemented at the coiler of the tandem mill which intended to
correlate the vibrations observed at this place and the defects. No correlation could be made.

Conclusions
The pressure between windings during annealing is confirmed as a major ingredient for
sticking, both on trials on samples (direct pressure applied during one hour), and narrow coils (coiling
tension). We have not the confirmation of this fact on industrial coils. The effect of the pressure on
sticking (measured by sheering or peeling force) is nearly proportional.
An increase of the soaking temperature pushes the sticking up, as was striking on narrow coils,
confirmed by statistical studies on industrial coils, and also seen on sticking of pressured samples.
Sticking is also promoted by a factor 3 when the roughness is increased from 0.5 m to 1 m
then 3.5m, as was shown on narrow coils. This confirms result from bibliography [1] on samples.
Investigations on sticking of samples at the laboratory showed an increase of the surface
oxidation with wet atmosphere, HNx rather than H2 atmosphere, or high Mn or Si content of the steel
grade composition. But no real influence on adherence was seen. CO2 injections as a sticker prevention
brought either no effect, or a remaining oxidation.
A dedicated statistical study together with a model showed that localized irregularities of the
thickness profile is correlated to sticking when their height is positive and greater than 3 m, especially
when the thickness profile is flat (less than 5m of crown).

Scratching was reproduced readily after coiling. The un-coiling tension necessary to get
scratching of the coil was found 5 times more than the coiling tension. Scratching could not be obtained
after annealing of the prepared coil, although we would have expected easier scratching under these
conditions.
But it was seen that very slight adherence between windings is sufficient to avoid scratching, or
said in another way, that scratching can occur only when absolutely no adherence by sticking exits
between the windings. This is somewhat confirmed by a statistical study which shows higher sticking
and lower scratching rates for high temperature annealing cycles, and the reverse for low annealing
temperature.
An industrial measurement of the coiling stresses was developed and installed on the coiler of
the reversing mill at EKO-Stahl. It was aimed at studying the correlation of the stress repartition across
the width with the thickness profile, the flatness profile, and the scratching and sticking defects rates.
Unfortunately, the signals obtained with the system were not good enough to be exploited, mainly due
to severe deformation of the industrial mandrel itself. In a possible future re-development, more care in
the location of the force sensors should make the measurement work in a much better way.

Table of Contents
i Summary

ii List of figures and tables

13

iii List of References

19

1. Introduction

21

1.1.

STATE OF THE ART

21

1.2.

OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

22

1.3.

PRESENTATION OF THE REPORT

22

2. Laboratory study on sticking of sheet samples (CRM)

25

2.1. DEVELOPMENT OF A MECHANICAL TEST TO EVALUATE SHEET


STICKING

25

2.2. STEEL GRADES

25

2.3. TRIALS AND INTERPRETATION

25

2.3.1. Effect of the pressure between samples on sticking

25

2.3.2. Effect of dew point on sticking of various steel grades (Mn, Si) on sticking 26
2.3.3. Applicability of CO2 injection as sticking prevention

26

2.3.4. Effect of the atmosphere gas and of the cleanliness

27

3.Trials on narrow coils at laboratory scale (Arcelor Research)

29

3.1. COILS USED IN THE STUDY

29

3.2. STICKING ON NARROW COILS AT LABORATORY

29

3.2.1. Defect reproduction, observations and development of a quantitative


method

29

3.2.1.1. First attempt to reproduce sticking

29

3.2.1.2. First success in reproducing sticking

29

3.2.1.3. Measuring the sticking force along narrow coils

30

3.2.2. Quantification of the effect of different parameters on sticking

30

3.2.2.1. Effect of the coiling tension

30

3.2.2.2. Effect of the roughness

31

3.2.2.3. Influence of the annealing temperature on sticking

31

3.2.2.4. Influence of the oil quantity on sticking

32

3.2.3. Conclusion on sticking trials on narrow coils

32

3.3. SCRATCHING ON NARROW COILS AT LABORATORY

33

3.3.1. First scratching on coil and trial method

33

3.3.2. Scratching marks

33

3.3.3. Influence of the coil history on scratching

33

3.3.4. Influence of annealing on scratching

34

3.3.5. Influence of the coil handling on scratching

34

3.3.6. Influence of roughness on scratching

34

3.3.6.1. Scratching with high roughness and without annealing: effect of


coiling tension and lubrication
34
3.3.6.2. Influence of annealing combined with roughness on scratching 35
3.3.7. Conclusion on scratching trials on narrow coils
4. Stress measurement on industrial coils (BFI, with the help of FQZ and EKO)

35
37

4.1. INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION OF OBJECTIVE

37

4.2. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS

37

4.2.1. Laboratory facilities

37

4.2.2. Sensor installation in the laboratory coiler

38

4.2.3. Laboratory trials

38

4.2.3.1. Coiling trials for signal validation

38

4.2.3.2. Coiling trials to determine disturbances

39

4.2.3.2.1. Influence of temperature

40

4.2.3.2.2. Influence of strip thickness profile

40

4.2.3.2.3. Conventional coiling trial

41

4.2.3.3. Evaluation of the laboratory trials


4.3. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

41
42

4.3.1. Plant facilities

42

4.3.2. Sensor installation at the industrial coiler

42

4.3.2.1. Conditioning of the measuring signal

43

4.3.2.2. Electronic equipment

43

4.3.2.3. Installation of the electronic equipment

44

4.3.3. Trials with the industrial coiler

45

4.3.3.1. Results of the trials campaign

45

4.3.3.2. Checking of the sensors (FQZ,EKO)

46

10

4.3.3.3. Assessment of the trials with laboratory and industrial coiler

46

4.3.3.4. Accompanying FE-calculations concerning deformation of reel


sleeve segment
47
4.3.3.4.1. Model description

47

4.3.3.4.2. Results of FE calculations

47

4.4. CONCLUSION OF STRESS MEASUREMENT ON INDUSTRIAL COILS


5.Industrial investigations (FQZ, EKO and CRM)
5.1. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DEFECT FREQUENCY IN RELATION TO
VARIOUS PARAMETERS (FQZ, EKO)
5.1.1. Examination of the influence of material parameters

48
49
49
49

5.1.1.1. Steel grade statistical analysis

49

5.1.1.2. Strip thickness statistical analysis

50

5.1.1.3. Strip width statistical analysis

50

5.1.1.4. Coil mass statistical analysis

50

5.1.2. Examinations at the hood type annealing plant

50

5.1.2.1. Annealing regime statistical analysis (based on of 1st half 2002) 51


5.1.2.2. Annealing place statistical analysis

51

5.1.2.3. Annealing hoods statistical analysis

51

5.1.2.4. Coil position in the furnace analysis

51

5.1.3. Conclusion of the statistical analysis in EKO plant

52

5.2. CORRELATION BETWEEN OVER-THICKNESSES AFTER COLD ROLLING


AND STICKING DURING BATCH ANNEALING (CRM + SIDMAR)
52
5.2.1. Influence of irregularities in the strip profile on radial stresses after cold
rolling

53

5.2.2. Study of influence of real profile irregularities on radial stress repartition

53

5.2.3. Validation of the model

53

5.2.3.1. Generalities

53

5.2.3.2. Results without over-thicknesses

54

5.2.3.3. Results with over-thicknesses

54

5.2.4. Conclusion on over-thicknesses

54

5.3. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE UPCOILER OF THE FOUR-HIGH TANDEM MILL


OF EKO
55
5.3.1. Strip vibration measurements between stand 4 and the up-coiler of the
four-high tandem mill

11

55

5.3.2. Process Capability Analysis of coiler tension at the tandem mill

56

5.4. NOISE LEVEL MEASUREMENTS AT THE TEMPER MILL

56

5.5. IMPACT OF THE MODIFICATIONS TO THE PROCESSES/EQUIPMENT


AND PROCESS OPTIMISATION AT EKO-STAHL

57

5.5.1. List of the modifications occurred in 2001

57

5.5.1.1. Modifications at the four-high tandem mill and reversing mill

57

5.5.1.2. Modifications at the batch annealing equipment

57

5.5.1.3. Modifications at the temper mill

58

5.5.2. Results of the modifications during year 2001

58

5.5.3. Global results on sticking and scratching over the whole project period

58

6. Conclusions

59

6.1. MAIN RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH

59

6.2. MEASURES FOR PRACTICAL USE IN COLD ROLLING

59

Figures and tables

61

Annex I of the contract

158

12

List of Figures and Tables


Figure 1: Batch annealing simulator
Figure 2:

Schematic representation of the samples disposition during annealing under


compressive stresses

Table 3:

Steel composition (10-3 wt%)

Figure 4:

Batch annealing simulation on an ELC steel grade (C- 0.1%Mn)

Figure 5:

Influence on sticking of the pressure applied during the first hour of the cooling (C0.1%Mn).

Figure 6:

Influence of compressive stresses on strip sticking on various steel grades (annealing


at 660C / 100%H2 / DP-50C)

Figure 7:

Saturation of the effect of compressive stresses on strip sticking, when duration of


applicationis increased (annealing at 660C / 100%H2 / DP-50C)

Figure 8:

Influence on sticking of the pressure applied at two different dew points (DP) during
the first hour of the cooling

Figure 9:

Influence of the water vapour amount in the furnace on strip decarburation

Figure 10: Influence of the soaking temperature, for a 5MPa compression stress, during
annealing in 100% H2 in various dew points on sticking (measured by a lap shear
test)
Figure 11: Influence of the soaking temperature, for a 1 MPa compression stress, during
annealing in 100% H2 in various dew points on sticking (measured by a lap shear
test)
Figure 12: SEM view of the C-1.1%Mn 0.2%Si samples after strip de-cohesion at different
magnification (left pictures: area not affected by sticking right pictures: area
affected by sticking) Annealing at 720C / dew point 50C with an applied stress of 5
MPa
Figure 13: Auger analysis made on the area not affected by sticking (Sample C-1.1%Mn 0.2%Si
/ 720C / DP-50C)
Figure 14: SEM view of the C-1.1%Mn 0.2%Si samples after strip de-cohesion at different
magnification (left pictures: area not affected by sticking right pictures: area
affected by sticking) Annealing at 720C / dew point +10C with an applied stress of 5
MPa
Figure 15: Auger analysis made on the area not affected by sticking (Sample C-1.1%Mn 0.2%Si
/ 720C / DP+10C)
Figure 16: SEM view of the C-1.2%Mn samples after strip de-cohesion at different
magnification (left pictures: area not affected by sticking right pictures: area
affected by sticking) Annealing at 720C / dew point -50C with an applied stress of 5
MPa

13

Figure 17: SEM view of the C-1.2%Mn samples after strip de-cohesion at different
magnification (left pictures: area not affected by sticking right pictures: area
affected by sticking) Annealing at 720C / dew point +10C with an applied stress of 5
MPa
Figure 18: Influence of CO2 injection at the end of the soaking on sticking
Figure 19: Influence of soaking time on sticking
Figure 20: Influence of the H2 amount during annealing at different soaking temperature on
sticking
Figure 21: Influence of surface cleanliness before annealing on sticking
Figure 22: Scheme for the sticking force and the uncoiling tension
Figure 23 : Pictures of the strip uncoiled from a strongly stuck coil on Arcelor Research pilot
mill
Figure 24: Uncoiling behavior of a strongly stuck coil on our pilot mill
Figure 25: Uncoiling of stuck coils wound after rolling at different tension levels
Figure 26: Coiling tension influence on sticking intensity
Figure 27: Uncoiling of stuck coils of different roughnesses and wounded at a same coiling
tension
Figure 28: Influence of the roughness on sticking intensity
Figure 29: Uncoiling of stuck coils annealed at different temperatures
Figure 30: Uncoiling of stuck coils with different amounts of oil
Figure 31: Observation of 2 scratching marks with interferometry microscope
Figure 32: Evolution of a radius mark on coil side after scratching during trials
Figure 33: Stress distribution upon the coiler resulting from different thickness profiles of the
strip
Figure 34: Radial stress distribution upon the coiler resulting from different types of flatness
defects
Figure 35: Schematic view of the tension roller plant
Figure 36: Overall view of the tension roller plant
Figure 37: Piezo transducer with integrated cable
Figure 38: Sensor installation at the laboratory coiler with electronic unit mounted on the face of
the mandrel body
Figure 39: Measuring laboratory coiler with installed force tranducers across the axis and
transmitter unit

14

Figure 40: Course of measured radial forces at different strip positions


Figure 41: Measured course of radial forces in dependence of the number of windings
Figure 42: Flatness deviation b) for two measured positions based on measured radial forces a)
Table 43: Schedule for test series with the laboratory coiler
Figure 44: Positions for temperature measuring and arrangement of the strip position for
simulating local thickness deviations
Figure 45: Stress distribution across the strip width during coiling
Figure 46: Thickness profile of the coiled strip
Figure 47: Arrangement of the radiant heater a) with view upon the coiler with integrated force
transducers b)
Figure 48: Course of strip- and coiler temperature during coiling
Figure 49: Course of strip- and coiler temperature during cooling time
Figure 50: Measured course of radial forces in dependence of the number of windings (during
coiling a heated strip)
Figure 51: Measured course of radial forces in dependence of the holding time
Figure 52: Feeding tape for simulating strip thickness deviations at strip center; a) initial state
and b) final state
Figure 53: Measured course of radial forces in dependence of the number of windings (during
coiling a strip with simulated thickness deviations)
Figure 54: Measured course of radial forces in dependence of the number of windings (during
conventional coiling)
Figure 55: Design of industrial coiler and mounting position of the sensors
Figure 56: Design of industrial coiler and mounting position of the sensors
Figure 57: Gradients of measured radial forces for determination of the amplifier measuring
ranges
Figure 58: Assembly drawing of the measuring equipment
Figure 59: Front view of the modified measuring coiler
Figure 60: Milled recess on the face of the reel mandrel for picking up the measuring cables
Figure 61: Installed measuring coiler in the reversing mill at EKO Stahl GmbH
Table 62:

Strip and rolling conditions of the rolling trials

Figure 63: Measured distribution of radial forces over the barrel length of the measuring coiler
(final pass no.7)

15

Figure 64: Course of the radial force during coiling measured by sensor 7 (final pass no.7)
Figure 65: Course of the radial force during coiling measured by sensor 8 (final pass no.7)
Figure 66: Course of the radial force during coiling measured by sensor 4 (final pass no.7)
Figure 67: Course of the radial force during coiling measured by sensor 11 (final pass no.7)
Figure 68: Measured distribution of radial forces over the barrel length of the measuring coiler
(pass no.1)
Figure 69: Appearance of the force signal (sensor 9, pass no. 1)
Figure 70: Course of the measured radial force during coiling and subsequent uncoiling
Figure 71: Course of the measured radial force during coiling with clamped thick and thin strip
head end
Figure 72: Basic positions of the pressure sensors in the mandrel viewed from top
Figure 73: Results of measurement of the 15 pressure sensors at static pressure 176.5 N
Figure 74: Example sensor 14 with high sensor sensitiveness and problems with reproduce the
range
Figure 75: Example sensor 14 with to high drift
Figure 76: Mesh structure of sensor area
Figure 77: Wedge shaped supporting surface of reel sleeve segment
Figure 78: Contact zone between sensor and bolt
Figure 79: Contact zone between sensor and reel sleeve segment
Figure 80: Contact zone between bolt thread and reel sleeve segment
Figure 81: Constant pressure distribution upon surface of sleeve segment and sensor cap
Figure 82: Total displacement of reel sleeve segment
Figure 83: Total displacement of reel sleeve segment, sensor area detailed
Figure 84: Displacement in z-direction of reel sleeve segment
Figure 85: Displacement in z-direction of reel sleeve segment, sensor area detailed
Figure 86: Stress distribution of sensor in z-direction
Table 87 : Statistics of defect coils depending on steel grade (year 2001)
Figure 88: Share of defects at quarto tandem mill classified by steel grade
Figure 89: Share of defects at 6 rolls reversing mill classified by steel grade
Table 90:

Statistics of defect coils depending on thickness (year 2001)

16

Figure 91 : Share of defects at quarto tandem mill classified by strip thickness


Figure 92: Share of defects at 6 rolls reversing mill classified by strip thickness
Table 93:

Statistics of defect coils depending on width (year 2001)

Figure 94: Share of defects at quarto tandem mill classified by coil width
Figure 95: Share of defects at 6 rolls reversing mill classified by coil width
Table 96:

Statistics of defect coils depending on weight (year 2001)

Figure 97: Share of defects at quarto tandem mill classified by coil weight
Figure 98: Share of defects at 6 rolls reversing mill classified by coil weight
Table 99:

Statistics of defect coils depending on the annealing regime (1st half of year 2002)

Figure 100: Share of defects classified by annealing regime


Figure 101: Share of defects classified by annealing regime, grouped by families
Figure 102: Correlation between the annealing cycle soaking temperature and sticking and
scratching defects
Table 103: Statistics (part 1) of defect coils depending on the annealing place (year 2001)
Table 104: Statistics (part 2) of defect coils depending on the annealing place (year 2001)
Figure 105: Share of defects on Nassheuer furnace classified by annealing place
Figure 106: Share of defects on Nassheuer furnace classified by annealing place
Table 107: Statistics of defect coils depending on annealing hood (year 2001)
Figure 108: Share of defects classified by annealing hood
Table 109: Statistics of defect coils depending on annealing position in stack
(year 2001)
Figure 110: Share of defects classified by annealing position in stack
Table 111: Correlation between thickness profile and sticking
Figure 112: Description of the different profile irregularities introduced along the strip width
(scales in mm)
Figure 113: Influence of various defects of a magnitude of 3 m, introduced on a strip having a
profile of 30 m, on the radial stress after cold rolling
Figure 114: Influence of various defects of a magnitude of 3 m, introduced on a strip having a
profile of 10 m, on the radial stress after cold rolling
Figure 115: Influence of various defects of a magnitude of 3 m, introduced on a strip having a
profile of 5 m, on the radial stress after cold rolling

17

Figure 116: Influence of various defects of a magnitude of 1 m, introduced on a strip having a


profile of 5 m, on the radial stress after cold rolling
Figure 117: Strips irregularities measured on industrial coils
Figure 118: Influence of the irregularities, observed on industrial coils on radial stresses
repartition
Figure 119: Experimental coiler
Figure 120: Radial stress evolution with a constant thickness profile
Figure 121: Calculated radial stresses in the case of over-thickness
Figure 122: Measured radial stresses in the case of over-thickness
Figure 123: Sketch for the test set-up of the vibration measurement with Laser-vibrometer
Figure 124: Picture of the installation site and the measuring environment
Figure 125: Air cooled protective housing of the vibration measurement
Figure 126: Vibration signal and result of an FFT analysis
Figure 127: Result of process capability analysis of the coiler tension at the tandem mill (Example
for November 2004)
Figure 128: Partial high noise level of coil nr 338544 at temper mill with peaks (tendency to
sticking) and the coiler tension at tandem mill
Figure 129: A normal noise level of coil nr 337301 at temper mill and the coiler tension with
strong variations at tandem mill
Figure 130: Noise level of coil nr 301640 with differences in level at temper mill and the normal
tension at tandem mill
Figure 131: Noise level of coil nr 310405 with valleys (slack windings ?) and differences in level at
temper mill and the normal tension at tandem mill
Figure 132: Noise level of coil nr 305983 with valleys (slack windings ?) at temper mill and
normal tension at tandem mill
Figure 133: Very high noise level of coil nr 244375 at temper mill and normal tension at tandem
mill. This coil was recorded as sticking coil
Figure 134: It is the same coil as previous figure. Set points (red points and green line) and actual
values (black line) are normally at tandem mill. Beginning and end of coiler tension is
reflected to previous figure
Figure 135: Evolution of sticking and scratching defects rates in 2001 at EKO-Stahl
Figure 136: Evolution of the rate of different kinds of sticking defects in 2001 at EKO-Stahl

18

List of References
[1]

Pawelski, O, W. Rasp, G: Martin: Untersuchungen zur Verringerung der Kleberneigung


zwischen den Bandwindungen bei der Herstellung von Kaltband. Verein zur Frderung von
Forschungsarbeiten auf dem Gebiet der Walzwerkstechnik in der Httenindustrie, Bericht Nr.:
AW 111, Dsseldorf 1990

[2]

de Groen, Jan-Hein, E.E. Schoone: Recent developments in technological and practical measures
in the field of stickers and scratches at CORUS cold rolling mill 2 Ijmuiden,
LOI Internat.
Customer Convention on Heat Treatment of Steel Strip and Wire, LOI Thermprocess Essen,
Bonn, DE, 12.-15. May, 2004

[3]

Sims, R. B., J. A. Place: The stresses in the reels of cold reduction mills. British Journal of
applied Physics 4 (1953), pp. 213-216

[4]

Wilkening, H.: Die Ermittling der radialen Haspelbelastung beim Wickeln von bandfrmigem
Gut. Dr.-Ing. Diss. RWTH Aachen 1965

[5]

Leifgen, Uta, A. Sinter: Sticker prevention in batch annealing - StickerMod: basics and results,
LOI Internat. Customer Convention on Heat Treatment of Steel Strip and Wire, LOI
Thermprocess Essen, Bonn, DE, 12.-15. May, 2004

19

1. Introduction
1.1.

State of the art

Batch annealing remains a significant workshop in cold plants. Two of its major problems are
sticking and scratches, both defects of surface aspect unacceptable for automotive industry.
When cold-rolled strip is annealed in tight-coil batch annealing furnaces, it can happen that coil
wraps adhere or stick together. The adhering wraps in question then offer greater resistance when the
wound strip is uncoiled, e.g. in temper mills. This can cause discontinuities or also cross breaks in the
surface of the rolled material that are referred to as strip sticker marks. Even where the cohesion is the
same, the separation of adhering or stuck-together wraps can lead to various surface defects. Thinnergauge strips, because of their lower bending rigidity, tend to form cross breaks, whereas thicker-gauge
strips are more likely to suffer local surface damage [1].
Another surface defect besides strip sticker marks can be caused when batch-annealed strip is
uncoiled, and appears in the form of scratches. Unlike the formation of stickers, scratches are more
likely to come about if there is little adhesion, in other words little or no sticking, between the wraps. In
this case there is a danger of interwrap slip in the body of the coil.
A multitude of operating-related factors ranging from the geometry of the hot strip to the
uncoiling conditions at the temper mill, and their interaction, are responsible for the occurrence of strip
sticker formations. In the cold rolling as example the strip transverse thickness profile, coiling tension,
surface roughness and rolling oil residues are important influencing parameters.
The mechanism of two surfaces adhering together can be compared to joining methods such as
pressure welding, sintering or diffusion welding. The most important parameters that influence these
methods are temperature, time, pressure, surface condition and reactivity. It is possible for individual
wraps to adhere or stick together in batch annealing furnaces. The mentioned parameters of pressure,
temperature and time then appear as a radial stress field or in the anneal heat-treatment cycle curve, i.e.
the temperature-time gradient of the anneal. The anneal heat-treatment cycle curve influences adhesion
directly through temperature and time as well as indirectly through the thermal stresses resulting from
the temperature field.
Reactivity is dependent on the catalysing or retarding effect of the cleanness of the strip surface.
The presence of strip deposits such as emulsion residues, oxide layers, iron abrasion fines and antisticking agents is governed by whether the strips are degreased or whether anti-sticking agents are used.
Such contaminated surfaces can have a retarding influence on the reactions and, as a result, generally
reduce the likelihood of wraps adhering or sticking together [1,2].
Significant importance is also attributed to the surface topography of the rolled material. A
reduction of the cohesion is achievable particularly through high vertical roughness values such as Ra
and Rt.
Besides the thermal stresses resulting from the temperature field during the annealing process, the
level of strip tension under which the strip is coiled also determines the radial stress field within wound
coils. The radial loading of the coiler mandrel and, consequently, the compression of the wraps grow
continually during the coiling process. The authors in [3,4] perceive the coiling process as a successive
shrinking-on of individual, concentric 'rings'. The shrinking-on of each wrap increases the surface
pressure between the underlying wraps by a steadily diminishing amount until a radius limit value is
reached, i.e. from a certain coiling radius onward, additional strip wraps do not lead to any notable
increase in the radial loading of the mandrel.
Differences in tensile stress over the strip width can lead to excessive stresses locally. The cause
of these irregular stress distributions is flatness defects, whereas strip thickness profile defects cause
geometrical deviations in the wound coil. Both defects, consequently, bring about irregular radial stress
distributions over the strip cross-section in the wound coil.
There are, in principle, three approaches for avoiding or reducing strip sticker marks.

21

Influence the wound state of the coil prior to annealing


Reduce the cohesion during annealing, and/or
Influence the uncoiling process after annealing to arrest the sticker-induced formation of
surface defects
The radial stress field of the coiled body can be influenced, for example, through the level of
tension applied during coiling. Higher coiling tensions lead to higher radial stresses and, hence, to
greater surface pressures between the wraps, thereby accelerating the reactions needed for adjacent
areas to adhere or stick together. Low coiling tensions, on the other hand, must be avoided, since
excessively low surface pressures are conducive to the formation of scratches through relative
movements of the wraps.
Measures to shorten the annealing duration decrease the likelihood of cohesion. One such
measure is an intensive convective heat transfer through the use of high-convection hydrogen
atmosphere furnaces. The high thermal conductivity of hydrogen increases the radial thermal
conductivity in comparison with the protective gases otherwise normally used [1]. Lowering the
soaking temperature, cooling with a heating hood and lowering the starting temperature of rapid cooling
is recommended in [5] for the reduction of sticking defects.
If the adhesion in the coil is not so heavily pronounced, it is possible to reduce the formation of
sticker-induced surface defects by increasing the uncoiling speed. The use of so-called anti-sticking
rollers very largely avoids any uncontrolled tearing-apart of lightly adhering strip wraps and thereby
reduces the defect rate.

1.2. Objectives of the project


The global objective of the present project was to enlarge the scope of previous studies on
sticking, generally done on sheet samples, both with other parameters (atmosphere, steel composition),
and by changing size of samples (laboratory tests on narrow coils, industrial tests).
The change in size for sticking experiments allows to validate previous results on sheet sample
and to experimentally quantify the effect of parameters inaccessible on sheet samples such as coiling
tension, thermal stresses, flatness, thickness and thickness profile (global and localized).
Another objective was to investigate and quantify scratching phenomenon, particularly as a
counterpart of sticking. This can only be made using coils and is easier at laboratory scale (narrow
coils).
We also aimed at defining connection between force adherence inside coil and sticking or
scratching apparition. These relationships had to be established with the help of a model assessing
coiling stresses and thermal stresses, validated by a stress measurement at the inner wrap level of
industrial coils at their coiling stage.
All the laboratory tests had to be validated on industrial trials and statistical studies made at
EKO Stahl, which encounters fair amount of sticking and even more scratching problems, so the
conclusions get more foundations.

1.3. Presentation of the report


The report structure will follow these successive objectives starting with investigation on
sticking of samples at the laboratory, mainly oriented towards atmosphere (protection gas, dew point,
CO2 injections), steel grade (especially the effect of Mn and Si content), cleanliness, but including also
pressure between samples, its duration, and temperature.
Then we will go on with reproduction of sticking on narrow coils, and quantitative study of the
effect of the coiling tension, the roughness, the temperature, and cleanliness. On these narrow coils, we
will also study the scratching starting with observations of the defect, then determination of the
scratching risk in relation to coiling tension, roughness, slippiness and annealing. We will present some
interesting observations about the link between sticking to scratching.

22

An important part of the report will deal with the development of an industrial measurement of
the coiling stresses. This equipment was aimed at studying the correlation of the stress repartition across
the width with the thickness profile, the flatness profile, and the scratching and sticking defects rates.
Unfortunately, this development did not reach the expected level of success.
In another part, we will present statistical studies on an industrial plant about cross relation
between defects and various parameters. A special focus will be made on the occurrence of localized
over-thicknesses. This will be completed with an attempt of development of defect detection device
based on the sound analyse, which would have facilitated the statistical studies, and a special study of
the vibrations at the up-coiling stage after tandem mill.

23

2. Laboratory study on sticking of sheet samples (CRM)


2.1. Development of a mechanical test to evaluate sheet sticking
The development of a laboratory simulator (Figure 1) has made it possible to impose, to a stack
of specimens, a compressive stress during an annealing cycle, very similar to the actual batch annealing
treatments. The gas composition can be controlled in a wide range of composition and can also be
analysed continuously by mass spectrometry (CH4, C2H4, CO2, H2) or by other specific methods (CO,
H2O). Finally surface chemistry can be assessed by classical surface analysis techniques (Auger,
GDOS, XPS, ).
That simulator can treat stacks of rectangular samples (Figure 2), which overlap each other from
175 (5x35), 350 (10x35) and 525 (15x35) mm during the same annealing cycle. That practice will
allow applying 3 levels of stresses during one annealing. Stainless steel inserts were introduced between
the different samples to allow a good sample arrangement. Moreover, as the stainless steel inserts are
covered with selective oxidation, no sticking can occur between the inserts and the samples.
Thermocouples are introduced in these stainless steel inserts at the bottom, middle and top part of the
stack to better control the temperature homogeneity. After the annealing trial, the adhesion strength is
measured by a classical tensile test.

2.2. Steel grades


The steel composition of the samples used for the sticking measurements is summarised in Table
3. Increasing amounts of alloying elements were selected to influence further external selective
oxidation during batch annealing.

2.3. Trials and interpretation


2.3.1. Effect of the pressure between samples on sticking
First trials were made to simulation heat cycles under variable levels of compressive stress on a
classical ELC steel grade (0.026 % C, 0.128 % Mn, 0.052 % Al). The gas evolution, taking place during
the annealing cycle, was assessed in a quantitative way.
Figure 4 gives an example of such annealing cycle and gas analysis during batch annealing
simulations. The detected species coming from the gas metal reactions was not reported because their
amount is not significant. Indeed, the total surface of the samples (284 cm) was too low for the gas
flow (4.5 l/h) imposed during the annealing cycle, which leads to a too important signal dilution.
These first annealing were performed in an atmosphere containing 5 % of hydrogen without
controlling the dew point, which stabilizes at around 45C at high temperature.
During the trials, a strength of 1300 N was applied during 1 hour on the samples at the beginning
of the cooling (Figure 4). For that trial, the applied stresses (7.4, 3.7 and 2.5 MPa) produce an
important sheet sticking. Indeed, during the lap shear tests, no sheet de-cohesion was observed without
reaching the plastic deformation of the steel sheet. When a weaker strength is applied during annealing
(900 N), the de-cohesion stress measured during the lap-shear test is lower than the yield stress of the
steel sheet. Figure 5 summarises the relation between the stress applied during the first hour of cooling
(between 680C and 665C) and the de-cohesion stress measured during the lap-shear test.

25

Other trials were carried on various steel grades, which confirmed a linear effect of the stress
applied during annealing (Figure 6). However, a saturation was observed when the duration for this
stress application was increased (Figure 7).

2.3.2. Effect of dew point on sticking of various steel grades (Mn, Si) on sticking
A first set of trials have been made to determine the influence on sticking of the hydrogen and
water vapour amounts during the same annealing cycle for the C-Mn0.3 steel grade.
Figure 8 summarises the influence of the applied stresses on the sample sticking for two amounts
of water injection:
Dry hydrogen: dew point around 30C depending on water desorption from the furnace
Wet hydrogen: dew point of 0C
The different trials indicate that a dew point of 0C does not influence the strip sticking, which
should be explained by a low surface coverage by external selective oxidation. Indeed, if the surface is
covered by an oxide, no sticking can be made due to the fact that sticking needs metallic bonds for
sintering. In our case the low coverage of the surface by Mn selective oxides could be explained by the
nodular shape of that kind of oxides. Moreover, the increase of the dew point should promote internal
selective oxidation, which will limit surface oxidation. That higher dew point during annealing
promotes however the strip decarburation according to the gas metal reaction: Csteel + H2O CO +
H2, as it is illustrated on Figure 9.
Further trials have been made on different steel chemistries. It appears that even if the Mn
amount in the steel increases up to 1.2 wt % and the silicon amount up to 0.2 wt %, no influence of the
dew point (between 50C and +10C) or of the soaking temperature (660C or 720C) can be observed
if a pressure of 5 MPa is applied on the samples during cooling (see Figure 10). Moreover, if the
pressure is applied during the whole thermal cycle, the same important sticking is observed on the
different steel grades (Figure 7). For the thin (0.52 mm) low carbon steel grade (C-0.3%Mn), the
sticking force ( 3000 N) can be greater than the yield point elongation.
Scanning Auger analysis, made on the samples after their separation by a tensile test, indicates
that sticking occurs on some small over-thickness (Figure 12, Figure 14, Figure 16, Figure 17).
Between the areas, where sticking occurs, a homogeneous Mn, Si and Al external selective oxidation is
observed when the annealing is made at a low dew point (-50C) (Figure 13). At a higher dew point
(+10C) the selective oxidation coverage is less homogeneous (Figure 15) and highly oxidizible
elements (Al, Si) are less present on the top surface. The same kind of results is observed on another C1.2%Mn steel grade (Figure 16 and Figure 17). If the continuous surface selective oxidation, observed
on high alloyed steel grades, is not sufficient to avoid iron diffusion and strip sticking, it can be
imagined that sticking can not be avoided on classical steel grades, alloyed with less elements.
If the pressure, applied during cooling, decreases down to 1 MPa, a significant reduction of the
sticking force is however observed. Here again, no clear influence of the steel chemistry on strip
sticking can be observed. The reduction of the soaking temperature seems however to slightly reduce
sticking, probably due to a decrease of the iron diffusion kinetic. That means however, that a reduction
of sticking can be obtained by a decrease of the cooling rate in the batch annealing furnace (decrease of
the thermal stresses) with however a decrease of productivity.

2.3.3. Applicability of CO2 injection as sticking prevention

To avoid that productivity loss, the effect of a total oxidation before cooling was tested by CO2
injection at the end of the soaking. Indeed, as sticking is due to the presence of metallic iron when

26

stresses are applied, the growth of a controlled iron oxide layer should strongly reduce sticking. The
Figure 18 does not show clear evidence of such treatment, even if the oxidation is made during the last
2 hours of the soaking, which means that the reduction kinetic is too rapid in pure hydrogen.
Indeed, if the iron oxide is too quickly reduced, sticking will again occur. Moreover, the porous
iron layer, made by the oxidation / reduction process will probably promote sticking. If the CO2
injection is made during the beginning of the cooling, the sticking is strongly reduced but iron oxide
remains on the surface.
All these results seems to indicate that it is difficult to control the CO2 injections to reduce
sticking while avoiding residual iron oxide on the top surface. That study does however not take into
account the diffusion of the gases between the turns in an industrial configuration. Indeed, an industrial
trial has shown that the scale, on an hot rolled strip, can not be reduced on the strip axes in an industrial
batch annealing, even in a pure hydrogen atmosphere. The strip edges were only reduced on a length of
20 cm, probably due to water vapour diffusion problems.
Finally, the application of the compressive stresses at the end of the heating also induces strong
strip sticking. That result seems to indicate that the strip is already sufficiently clean to allow iron selfdiffusion and sticking.
The increase of the soaking time to increase the amount of selective oxidation has only a very
limited effect on sticking (Figure 19). That result seems to indicate that at low temperature (660C), the
diffusion kinetic of the alloying elements is too slow to increase sufficiently the thickness of the
selective oxidation layer.

2.3.4. Effect of the atmosphere gas and of the cleanliness


The annealing, made in nitrogen / 5 % hydrogen atmosphere (Figure 20), increase the sticking
phenomena. That behaviour is probably related to the presence of a more metallic layer on the top
surface. The increase of the dew point during annealing can indeed promote more easily internal
oxidation in an atmosphere containing 5 % hydrogen than in a pure hydrogen atmosphere.
One of the difference between the atmosphere containing 5 % and 100% hydrogen is the surface
cleanliness after annealing. It is indeed well known that pure hydrogen promotes surface cleanliness. To
check that point, the strip surface was cleaned by a simple dip in an alkaline bath containing only
phosphates to avoid any deposit on the strip surface. The Figure 21 indicates that the surface
cleanliness of the cold rolled strip has no significant effect on sticking, which should means that the oil
distillation is sufficient in our simulator to prepare correctly the surface. Indeed, in an industrial batchannealing furnace, that oil distillation will be much more difficult and the influence of such parameter
can significantly increase. Moreover, the influence of such parameter can be more important if dirtier
strips are annealed.
To conclude, it seems that it is very difficult to reduce the sticking phenomena by a modification
of the annealing atmosphere. The last point, which has to be improved is the CO2 injection, but the
process window of that technology seems to be very narrow.

27

3. Trials on narrow coils at laboratory scale (Arcelor Research)


The work of Arcelor Research was to simulate sticking and scratching on narrow coils, in order
to quantify the effect of different parameters on defect occurrence or intensity. The parameters tested
were coiling tension, coil size, roughness, oil quantity, soaking temperature.

3.1. Coils used in the study


The coils that were used for the study had the following characteristics as a base :
Coming from tandem exit
Steel grade: ELC
N2
C
Mn
P
S
Si
Al
Ni
Cr
Cu
resid.
20/40 150/230 <12 <15 <20 30/60 <60 <35 <50 4/7 <100
Values in except for N2 in ppm.

Size:

Thickness: 0,8 mm

Width: 60 and 100 mm


Outside diameter: 1200 to 1300 mm
Inner diameter: 508 mm
Roughness: grounded Ra 0,4
The coils of width 60 mm were used for the trials on sticking, the width 100 mm being dedicated
to scratching studies.
This roughness was rather low compared with usual strip roughness at tandem mill exit, but made
it possible to be increased by roughness transfer on the Arcelor Research pilot mill (it would have been
more difficult to decrease it).

3.2. Sticking on narrow coils at laboratory


3.2.1. Defect reproduction, observations and development of a quantitative method
3.2.1.1. First attempt to reproduce sticking
To get some sticking, a first coil was prepared, recoiled under 300 MPa tension, which is very
high. The roughness was kept low (grounded Ra 0,4 ). It has then been added on top of the stack in a
small but industrial batch-annealing unit (ETILAM), where it followed the conventional thermal cycle
(H2 atmosphere - soaking temperature 650). Uncoiling was conducted under 40 MPa (200 DaN),
without skin-passing. Some sticking noise could be heard, but only sporadic marks (in fact breaks)
occurred. It seems that, despite the high coiling tension, the first soaking temperature had been chosen
too low.
3.2.1.2. First success in reproducing sticking
Another trial was attempted again in more severe annealing conditions, that is :

29

- annealing at 700c during 12h (instead of 650c during 6 hours)


- insulation of the sides of the coil (with 75 mm thick layer of Kerlane) in order to promote the
thermal stresses (instead of no insulation)
The other conditions were left unchanged.
This time, we were successful with a strong sticking observed on the coil.
The coil was mainly uncoiled at a tension of 1000 N and speed of 25 m/min.
We could hear since the beginning of the uncoiling process the metallic sound of the sticking.
As the uncoiling process went, we could hear the intensity of the sticking and the mean angle of
the unsticking point increase (Figure 22). This can be explained if we consider that the uncoiling
tension is constant. This one can be separated into 2 components, radial and tangential, and the radial
component develops to overcome an increasing sticking force. As a proof, we tried to uncoil with
higher tensions (2000 N and 4000 N), this resulting in a smaller angle for the unsticking point. So one
could state:
Sticking force = Radial Force = Tension x sin()
We even directly measured this force in a quasi-static test with a load hanged on the strip (Figure
22c). The result was 700 N, near the middle diameter of the coil, where the intensity seemed the
highest. (This measure was coherent with our difficulty to draw by hand the strip to the coiler, after
having taken samples). As a confirmation, the angle of the unsticking point reached nearly 90 at
this stage.
We took samples at different stages of the uncoiling, presented in Figure 23. It appears clear to
us from observations that the rather regularly spaced sticking marks are in the beginning folds created at
the unsticking point. After travelling on the different rolls of the line, and coiling these folds attenuate,
but still leave marks. One can imagine how higher can play the temper mill on the transformation of
these folds into marks. May be some soft folds can disappear totally thanks to the temper mill bite and
roughness transfer, but everyone knows that there are others that leave marks.
We can also see information in the tension signal registration shown in Figure 24. First, one can
see that the mean tension is close to the target asked to the control (1000 N). There is a low frequency
variation (period 4 s), in a chain type. To us, it corresponds to the slow move of the unsticking point
angle, may be due to tension regulation problems. There is also a high frequency variation (period 0.04
s to 0.07 s), easier to see when tension is at high tide, corresponding after conversion in length to the
sticking marks space on strip.
3.2.1.3. Measuring the sticking force along narrow coils
Finding the right conditions to get some significant sticking on a narrow coil was a necessary step
towards study of the sticking. But our objective is above, that is to classify the effect of different
parameters. For this we needed a quantitative method.
From our observations and tests on the first coil, we had the idea to measure the force necessary
to unwind the coil, with the uncoiler let free turning. (The principle is exactly the same as when we
unwind an adhesive tape roll). In this case, the tangential force F of Figure 22b must just equilibrate
the resistant torque due to the bearings of the coiler. When the peeling force Fr is high enough (say 100
N), the angle quickly tends to be 90 and the measured tension T is nearly equal to Fr.
This method was first used to measure the sticking intensity evolution when the coiling tension
(before annealing) changes.

3.2.2. Quantification of the effect of different parameters on sticking


3.2.2.1. Effect of the coiling tension
Four coils were prepared for this trial with different coiling tensions under the following
conditions :
Roughness: EDT Ra 0,85 (obtained by roughness transfer)

30

Annealing : on top of the stack in a small industrial batch-annealing unit (ETILAM)


Soaking 700 during 12 h
H2 atmosphere
No insulation of the sides of the coils
Other conditions were identical to 1.
The coiling tensions were left constant all along the coil and set to 75, 140, 250 and 360 MPa
(exactly 77, 136, 247, 360 MPa). These specific tension are high compared to the industrial case, but we
had to use them to get a sticking force high enough to be measured.
The results appear in Figure 25 where we see that we measure the sticking intensity evolution all
along the coil length. The scattered points below 1000 N/m width corresponds to starts/stops of the
uncoiling, necessary to withdraw the forming coil on the coiler, unstable due to the sticking folds.
The point of highest sticking intensity is nearly at 850 mm diameter left, which is nearly the middiameter of the coils, as often observed in the industrial case. We can say that the sticking intensity is
nearly proportional to the coiling tension, for the tensions 75, 140 and 250 MPa (Figure 26). The case
with a tension of 360 MPa gives a same intensity than the case 250 MPa in most of the uncoiling
process, but curiously a lower intensity in the end of the uncoiling process. Probably is there a kind of
saturation phenomenon, for example high temperature plasticity.
3.2.2.2. Effect of the roughness
Three other coils were prepared under the same conditions as for the test of the effect of tension,
except that the tension was left unchanged at 150 MPa , and their roughness were varied. One coil was
kept in its incoming roughness from the one but last stand of an industrial rolling mill, that is 0,47 ,
grounded. The two other coils had their roughness changed to 1,0 and 3,7 m by rolling them with
EDT rolls.
The results appear in the Figure 27 where we still see the sticking intensity evolution all along
the coil length. There is a great influence of the roughness on the sticking intensity (Figure 28), as
commonly admitted, and as said in bibliography [1].
For the 3,7 m coil, the uncoiling force measurement is not fully representative since the strand
did not quit the coil with a 90 angle (see explanations on Figure 22).
3.2.2.3. Influence of the annealing temperature on sticking
Two coils were prepared for this trial under the same following conditions :
Roughness: Ra 0.47 grounded
Coiling tension: 150 MPa
One coil was annealed in the following conditions
Annealing : on top of the stack in a small industrial batch-annealing unit (ETILAM)
At 650C
H2 atmosphere
No insulation of the sides of the coils
This first coil was uncoiled and its sticking adherence measured. During the uncoiling process,
some sticking marks were created between 830 and 700 mm of remaining diameter, and the sticking
characteristic metallic sound could be heard from the start to the end. Never the angle of the unsticking
point reached 90( case b of Figure 22), which means that the unsticking force is less that the measured
uncoiling tension.
We can compare our result at 650C to the previous trial (Figure 27) with the coil at 0.47 used
in the test of roughness influence, prepared in all the same conditions, except that it was annealed at
700C. This comparison appears in the Figure 29 where we can see a very big increase of the sticking
with the temperature. We can also suppose that the unsticking force (obtained directly from the
uncoiling tension) measured for the coil annealed at 650C is in fact the force necessary to overcome
the uncoiler friction torque, this force increasing proportionally to the reverse of the remaining
diameter. We reach here the accuracy limits of our method.

31

We intended to anneal the second coil at 730C. Unfortunately, it was impossible to find an
agreement with our subcontractor for such a high temperature annealing. Since the great influence of
the soaking temperature was established between 650C and 700C, we decided to give up this trial,
and used the prepared coil as reference coil for the test of oil influence below.
3.2.2.4. Influence of the oil quantity on sticking
One coil was prepared in the following conditions:
Roughness: Ra 0.47 grounded
Coiling tension: 150 MPa
For all the other trials, the chemical state of the surface was what it came from the exit of the
industrial tandem mill (with grounded rolls on the last stand).
No measurement of the oil quantity was made on these as-coming coils, since the rolling date
(December 2000) was too old when we interested in it. Nevertheless, it should be classical, that is
between 150 and 300 mg/m2.
During the coiling process, we sprayed pure oil on the strip, and controlled the deposit with our
wiping installation (air knives and scrapers). Nevertheless, too much oil was left on the coil, since the
coil was dripping, even after several coiling/wiping passes.
We measured for this coil the amount of oil on samples cut off at the end of the last
coiling/wiping pass, close to the coiler. The measurement says: 2100 mg/m2, which is pretty much.
The coil was then left on the ground with its axis vertical for dripping. After one week, the
dripping had stopped. It was turned upside down every 2 weeks before annealing, to avoid oil
accumulation on one side (not the same amount along its 60 mm width) as says our experience.
Then, the oily coil was annealed in a same stack with a reference coil. The annealing conditions
were planned to be 700C, 12 hours, on top of the stack in a small industrial batch-annealing unit
(ETILAM), H2 atmosphere, no insulation of the sides of the coils.
Unfortunately, a mistake was done about the soaking temperature set to 650C instead of 700C.
The result is that the coils were only a bit stuck, with some sticking marks happening during their
uncoiling.
The Figure 31 shows the resulting unsticking force versus remaining diameter for the two coils.
On the same figure is represented the curve for the coil previously annealed on purpose at 650C from
2.2.2.3. . One can see that the results are reproducible. Only a small difference can be seen between
the oily coil and the other ones, in the range 800-700 mm of remaining diameter, where the oily coil
exhibits a higher unsticking force, in good agreement with the sticking marks observations. Anyway,
we are at the limit of accuracy of our method, and we do not consider it as a proof of an effect of the oil
quantity on sticking.
No further test could be attempted, thanks to increasing difficulties to work with our
subcontractor.

3.2.3. Conclusion on sticking trials on narrow coils


We succeeded in reproducing the sticking defect on narrow coils. The observations showed that
the sticking defect is at first a fold generated at the exit of the coil whose mark cannot be rubbed out in
the temper mill pinch. We found a method to quantify the sticking intensity along the length of the
coils. The maximum of sticking was always at mid-radius of the coils. We showed the great influence
of the annealing temperature, of the roughness and of the coiling tension of the coils. Significant
sticking was found at 700C, while nearly inexistent at 650C, and this very sharp effect was also found
about roughness with sticking increased by 4 between Ra 1.0m and Ra 0.4 m. The sticking is simply
proportional to the coiling tension. We have not found any influence of the oil quantity, but this does
not prove that there is not, since, by mistake and impossibility to do the trial it again, the annealing
conditions were not enough sticky (650C instead of 700C).

32

3.3. Scratching on narrow coils at laboratory


The goal for that part of the study was to experiment the scratching phenomenon and to quantify
the effect of relevant parameters. A specific goal was to show the evolution from scratching to sticking
depending on the control parameters.

3.3.1. First scratching on coil and trial method


For the first trials, the roughness of the coils was left unchanged.
One first coil, as coming from cutting line, was mounted on the mandrel of the uncoiler unit. As
preparation, it was coiled on the coiler at a constant tension of 2000 N, that is 25 MPa. Then, we
applied a process of uncoiling in order to measure the tension above which slipping occurs.
There is a difficulty about scratching quantification, which is that scratching occurrence must
depend not only on uncoiling tension, but also on coil size (or radius) left on the mandrel. And, once
scratching has happened at a special radius, it concerns all the coil, and consequently it is impossible to
make another measurement for another radius. We had to make a choice for this trial, and we chose to
make the measurement of the limit tension at the maximum size of the coil.
So we applied increasing steps of tension, starting at 1000 N, each time during one or two
rotations of the coil, until slipping occurs. We got it for a tension of 12000 N (no slipping at 10000 N),
which is very far above the coiling tension: so far, from industrial plants, we had heard of a risk of
slipping when uncoiling at a tension (just) above coiling tension.
Our slipping appeared suddenly, with a very strong noise, lasting one to five seconds. It started
from the inner radius (as showed the evolution of a marker line along a radius), propagating to the outer
radius.
After the first slipping, we continue the test with increased uncoiling tensions. We got another
slipping at 15000 N (290 mm measured on outer lap, against 200 mm at 12000 N), and again at 20000
N (975 mm).

3.3.2. Scratching marks


Scratching marks were observed on the strip after slipping occurs. They appear by clusters,
scattered on the surface. The Figure 31 shows two marks observed on interferometry microscope. The
size of a mark is approximately 1,5 mm long and 0,15 mm wide, with under-scratches of 0,3 mm long
and 0,15 mm wide. Each under-scratch begins by a hole of 10-15 m depth, and ends by a hill of 10-15
m. On original surface, the strias from grounding were 2,5m above and under the mid plan.

3.3.3. Influence of the coil history on scratching


We wanted to get another measurement to confirm our result. We wrote first a radius mark on the
coil (the same coil as used in 1.3.1., let on the coiler). Then we coiled backwards on uncoiler the coil,
then again forwards at 2000 N. The Figure 32 was taken at this stage. One can notice that this second
radius mark is (a bit) helicodal as the first one, but not for the same reason. The first one occurred by
slipping at 20000 N (see previous paragraph), the second by simply coiling an already shrunk coil, or
crushed roughness.
This time, we were not able to get slipping at maximum radius of coil until 22000 N, neither
during its uncoiling (backwards) at 20000 N.
So, we took another "fresh coil", theoritically similar to the first one, and did the same trial as in
121.
A partial slipping occurred at a uncoiling tension of 7000 N, from the inner radius to 90 mm
thickness of laps, with a length of 30 mm (measured at inner lap). A total slipping happened at 10000 N
(333 mm thickness of laps) for a length of 730 mm measured on outer lap.

33

Even if there are quantitative differences between this third trial and the first one, it can be related
to simple deviation. But the second trial shows a great influence of the history of the coil, say its coiling
history. Perhaps, the unstudied parameter behind the coil history effect is the roughness, or something
related to it. Or the scratching marks produced during the first slipping make grappling points between
the laps. Anyway, this made things a bit more difficult for the following of the study.

3.3.4. Influence of annealing on scratching


We first prepared 2 coils on our coiler with a 2000 N coiling tension. One was annealed at 650,
the other at 700 in the small industrial batch-annealing unit at ETILAM, under H2 atmosphere. We
repeated our scratching test process, that is uncoiling each time 2 or 3 external laps of the coils at
increasing tension steps. We were surprised to be unable to get scratching on both coils, even with an
uncoiling tension until 15000 N. We stopped at this value corresponding to the yield stress ( 200 MPa)
of this ELC steel grade after annealing.
On the coil annealed at 700c, we found on the contrary some sticking, when uncoiling the whole
coil. This sticking, even of low intensity, can absolutely explain why we could not get scratching. But,
it is surprising that in rather scratching conditions -- coiling tension : 25 MPa, and nearly no thermal
stress (if we suppose (no measure) that thermal flow on the sides of this narrow coil yields thermal
homogeneity), we did not get more scratching than without annealing. Usually, it is well known that
most of the scratching problems of the cold rolling plants occurs at uncoiling on temper mill stage, just
after annealing.

3.3.5. Influence of the coil handling on scratching


One difference between the trials with annealing and without annealing, left apart the thermal
cycle itself, was the handling of the coil, and particularly moving of the coil from the coiler (of the
tandem mill) to the uncoiler (of the temper mill). As we simulate the tandem mill and the temper mill
with the same pilot mill, we tested the influence of (only) the handling by moving the coil (coiled with a
tension of 2000 N) from the coiler to the uncoiler.
We got scratching when the uncoiling tension reached 15000 N, that is more or less, the same
result as without handling (may be a bit more). So the conclusion is that handling is not involved in our
result about the effect of annealing on scratching.

3.3.6. Influence of roughness on scratching


For this set of coils for scratching, the roughness has been changed by rolling with 3,9 m Ra
rolls, always under similar conditions. The measured roughness on coils was: Ra = 2,9 m.
3.3.6.1. Scratching with high roughness and without annealing: effect of coiling tension and
lubrication
We made several trials with the same coil. After coiling it (under 2000 N tension, our standard
value for the previous trials) in line with the roughness transfer, we first retracted then expanded the
coiling mandrel to simulate the handling between coilers.
Then we did our common test for the uncoiling tension that gives scratching and did not get
scratching until 11000 N. Since we got in previous trials scratching near 11000 N for coils with low
roughness (Ra = 0,4 m), and expected a lower scratching tension for higher roughness, we stopped the
trial.
We then added emulsion on the strip by unwinding then rewinding the coil under the same
tension (2000 N), with the rolling mill lubrication system in action. Scratching did not occur until
11000 N.

34

Then the coil was unwinded, then rewinded under a lower tension (1000 N = 12,5 MPa). This
time, scratching occurred for 8700 N.

3.3.6.2. Influence of annealing combined with roughness on scratching


Another coil with high roughness (Ra = 2,9 m) was coiled under 2000 N of tension, then
annealed at ETILAM at 700C.
No scratching could be got until 15000 N, which is near the yield strength of the steel.
As for the previous annealed coils, we got sticking instead.
On this lightly stuck coil, we made interesting observations about sticking compared to
scratching :

370 mm
not stuck

300 mm
stuck

Strip
cut
out !

Strip
weight

- 500 mm of strip in cantilever (weight : 3,1 N) produces auto-unsticking of the remaining strip.
The equivalent force is 31 N/m width with a torque of 7,7 N.m/m width exerted on the unsticking line
- 10000 N (105 N/m width) exerted tangentially are unable to unstick a length of stuck strip of
300 mm.
The ratio between the forces necessary to unstick the strip, depending on their direction is
tremendous: at least 3000. In one case, we speak of peeling, in the other pure shear. The first one is the
case of the sticking mark formation, the second one of the scratching formation.
So we better understand why we could not get scratches on our lightly stuck coil. We can even
make the assumption that scratching can only occur when absolutely no adherence exists between the
laps.

3.3.7. Conclusion on scratching trials on narrow coils


The study of the scratching on narrow coils was more difficult that for sticking. Reproducing the
scratching has been easy without annealing, but impossible to get after annealing. As results, we always
found that, to get scratching, we had to apply an uncoiling tension at least 6 times more than the coiling
tension under which the coil was prepared. Without annealing, low roughness (Ra 0.45m) gives easier
scratching (5 times coiling tension), as well as an oily coil with high roughness (2.9m) compared to
the same roughness without oil. We studied the influence of perturbations such as the effect of an
already scratched coil (significant) or the coil handling (negligible). We also described a typical
scratching mark, which is approximately 1,5 mm long and 0,15 mm wide, and in height 10-15 m
above and below the normal surface. With annealed coils lightly stuck, we found a tremendous

35

influence of the force application on the un-sticking force: by sheering (stress solicitation in case of
scratching) the force to unstuck was at least 10000 times more than by peeling (normal uncoiling). This
brings to the conclusion that, unless absolutely non stuck, a coil should not scratch!

36

4. Stress measurement on industrial coils (BFI, with the help of


FQZ and EKO)
4.1. Introduction and definition of objective
The tendency of wraps in a wound coil to adhere or stick together is decisively influenced by the
radial stress field that comes about in the coil. This radial distribution of pressure develops under the
influence of the coiler tension during the coiling process and under the thermal stresses resulting from
the temperature field during the annealing phase.
A rectangular strip cross-section and ideally flat strip are required in order to achieve a uniform
tensile stress distribution over the width of the strip. In operating practice, however, these conditions are
never met. Profile defects, for example, lead to geometrical deviations in the wound coil, resulting in a
non-uniform radial stress distribution over the width of the strip (Figure 33). Flatness defects have a
similar effect (Figure 34) and, depending on the location, type and magnitude of the flatness deviation,
contribute differently to the stress distribution. The consequence of coiling defective strips is that zones
of increased radial stress come about which contribute to a local increase in the surface pressure
between wraps and, therefore, to a greater tendency to stick together during the annealing process.
The aim of this research work was to measure the local radial coiling stress over the width of
strip during the coiling process in a cold rolling mill, i. e. prior to the annealing of the strip, and to
detect local excessive stresses and evaluate them. The effect of the radial loading of the coiler mandrel
steadily increasing and, therefore, of the compression between the wraps also steadily increasing during
the coiling process was to be used for the measurement.
It thus becomes possible to analyse the rolling process for correlations between rolling
parameters and the radial stress distribution that comes about in the coil, and to develop rolling
strategies as a means of avoiding or reducing critical excessive stresses locally. In cases where rolling
mills are fitted with tensile stress measuring rolls to measure the tensile stress distribution over the strip
width, it is already possible, for example, to take online action to control the distribution of tension if a
correlation can be made between the measurement of the radial coiling stress distribution and the strip
tension distribution.
The measurement task consisted in developing measuring devices that can be integrated in the
coiler body, so as to measure the radial loading over the width of the coiler during the coiling of strip.
The location selected to install the measuring equipment was the exit-side coiler of a six-high cold
rolling reversing mill operated by EKO Stahl GmbH. There had been no previous experience in solving
such a measuring problem. We therefore developed the activities in the laboratory prior to field tests.

4.2. Laboratory investigations


4.2.1. Laboratory facilities
The coiler of the tension roller system with integrated bending unit, which forms part of the BFI's
laboratory equipment (Figures 35 and 36), was chosen for the installation of the measuring system
force sensors. The geometrical dimensions of the laboratory equipment are consistent with those of an
actual production unit. For the other characteristics, mainly the coiling speed is different. The
equipment specifications are given in Figure 35.

37

4.2.2. Sensor installation in the laboratory coiler


Piezo-quartz sensors were chosen as the force sensors. The selected piezo sensors are suitable for
measuring dynamic as well as quasi-static load processes. The specifications are shown in Figure 37.
To install the sensors, the laboratory coiler was provided with five radial bores, which are arranged in a
line in the coiler body at intervals of 67.5 mm, starting from the centre of the body. This also makes it
possible to encompass the edge zones with adequate accuracy when coiling 350 mm-wide strip. Design
specifications concerning the arrangement and installation of the force sensors can be inferred from the
technical drawings in Figure 38.
The sensors installed in the bores are covered with a cap. The force sensors are fixed within the
bores by means of a screw, which secures the cap and the sensor in place relative to the sensor contact
surface in the bore. The tightening force selected is around 20 kN so that the sensor and cap remain
fixed in place in the bore also under dynamic conditions (centrifugal forces) and the characteristic curve
of the sensor is also linear in low load ranges. The installed quartz force sensor has a diameter of 28.5
mm and covers a working range from 0 to 60 kN. Because of the selected tightening force of 20 kN, the
load limit is reduced from 60 kN to 40 kN. The surface area of the cap via which the radial winding
forces are transmitted to the sensor measures 960 mm. The installation geometry and installation
conditions can be inferred from the technical drawings in Figure 5a.
A contactless rotary transmitter with integrated charge transducer unit is flanged to the end face
of the mandrel head to transmit the measurement data from the rotating coiler body to the electronic
analysis system. Figure 39 shows the installed measuring coiler and the electronic unit flanged to the
mandrel head.

4.2.3. Laboratory trials


Coiling trials were first of all carried out, in which the radial loading of the coiler was recorded
during the winding process to evaluate the signal quality. Further series of trials then took place to
determine the influence of the strip thickness profile and strip temperature on the radial winding stresses
in the coil. The results are compared with a conventional trial in which faultless strip was wound on the
measuring coiler.

4.2.3.1. Coiling trials for signal validation


A coiling trial involving a strip 300 mm in width and 0.7 mm in thickness was conducted to
verify the accuracy of the signals supplied by the installed force sensors. Taking the example of sensor
E, Figure 40 illustrates the course of the radial force measured on the coiler as a function of the number
of wraps and number of coiler revolutions. The specific back tension applied to the strip was approx. 40
N/mm2 during the entire trial. The course of the curve in the main diagram shows, as expected, a
continuous increase of the radial force induced in the coiler. The measured range of 9.5 kN relates to
approx. 220 revolutions of the coiler.
Figure 40 additionally demonstrates the course of the signal measured by sensor E in a sectional
view showing two subsequent revolutions of the coiler for three different coiling positions marked a), b)
and c). Starting from a sensor position indicated as 0 = 00, the measuring signal increases to a
maximum value at a position of approx. 350. This level is maintained until an angle of 0 2200, before
the signal decreases to a value that corresponds to the starting value of the next wrap beginning with the
3600/00 position of the succeeding revolution. As can be seen with positions a) to c), the curves
illustrate that the slope of radial pressure recorded by the sensor decreases with the number of windings.
The diagram shows that the measuring signals are almost uniform during a complete revolution
(winding position c). A reason for the non-uniform course of the radial pressure during the first

38

windings is the interference of the mandrel clamping cone, which causes heterogeneities during the
coiling of the first wraps.
Figure 41 shows the measurement results from a second trial sequence for an entire coil when a
strip was coiled under a constant mean back tension of 55 N/mm2. The strip data were as follows:
steel grade:
LC DDQ
strip width:
300 mm
strip thickness: 0.4 mm
strip length:
1206 m
number of wraps:
600
coil inner diameter:
400 mm
coil outer diameter:
880 mm
Because of the clamping conditions, the strip did not cover sensor A. The course of the radial
forces measured on the coiler is therefore illustrated for sensors B, C, D and E as a function of the
number of windings, for approx. 576 revolutions of the coiler. The diagram relates to two different
states: the dynamic state during the coiling process, and the static state describing the holding time
under tension when the equipment had come to a stop.
The course of the forces recorded by sensors B, C, D and E clearly show different levels. Sensors
D and C, positioned at the strip centre, indicate the highest level of stress for the entire strip length.
Sensors B and E gathering the data at the strip edges supply the lowest radial pressure values. In the
latter case, however, the intersection point of curves E and B, corresponding to approx. 310 windings,
indicates an additional elongation of local strip fibres, e.g. during cold rolling, at the strip edge position
represented by sensor B. A lower tension is thus induced locally. This relationship is illustrated in
Figure 42, which shows schematically the possible length distribution of strip for two measuring
positions before and after the point of intersection.
From the course of the curves in Figure 41 it can basically be deduced that the technique
employed to measure the radial pressure on the coiler mandrel is able to detect local radial force
deviations distinctly. The trials show differences of approx. 6 kN in the measured forces (corresponding
to a deviation of 45%) between sensors B and D, even when the strip is completely wound (values for
approx. 570 wraps).
No disturbances are expected during data collection due to a loss of charge of the piezo sensors in
use. This is supported by the course of curves measured within a period (approx. 60 min) in which the
bridle was held under tension, as illustrated in Figure 41. The slight drop in the measured forces will be
insignificant with regard to considerably shorter rolling times per pass at industrial installations.

4.2.3.2. Coiling trials to determine disturbances


During the industrial rolling of cold strip, differing strip and process conditions can lead to
disturbances that exert an influence on the radial stress field inside the coiled strip and simultaneously
increase the likelihood of adhesion occurring. The effect of such disturbances on the radial forces
introduced into the coiler was investigated during coiling operations. Disturbance variables include:
Temperature differences between coiler and strip
Varying strip thickness profiles and
Varying local strip flatness
Differences in temperature between the coiler and the strip occur especially when the rolling
stand is re-started after an operational shutdown. These temperature gradients lead, in turn, to thermal
stresses.
Non-uniform radial pressure on the coiler over the coiling width can be caused by a) varying
thickness profile of the hot strip (Figure 33) or b) varying strip length distribution over the strip width
(Figure 34), or by combinations of a) and b).
Several trials were conducted with the coiler of the tension bridle equipment to assess the abovedescribed influences on the radial stress distribution inside the coil and across the body length of the
measuring coiler.

39

The test schedule (Table 43) shows the operating conditions set for the trials.
Figure 44 documents the points for radial force and temperature measurement and the procedure
for the "profile trial" described in the test schedule.
The local stress distribution across the strip width was recorded continuously over the coiled strip
length by the stressometer roll, which is installed upstream of the coiler. The analysis of these data
shows that the tested strip had a virtually identical flatness or stress profile over its entire length, as seen
in Figure 45 for the strip head-end, strip center and strip tail-end. The coiled strip can be regarded as
almost free from flatness defects. The initial strip thickness profile in Figure 46 does not show any
irregularities.

4.2.3.2.1. Influence of temperature

To simulate different coiler and strip temperatures, the strip was heated to around 120C using a
heating unit (Figure 47) equipped with 20 quartz radiation heaters. The coiler was at room temperature
(23C) before coiling the first strip winding.
The trial was conducted in two stages. First, the strip and coiler temperatures and the radial forces
acting on the coiler were measured during coiling. The second stage involved a cooling phase during a
holding period of about 240 minutes after the equipment had been brought to a stop.
Figure 48 shows the temperature progression for the strip and the coiler during the coiling phase
of 122 minutes, which corresponds to 157 strip windings. As expected, the strip temperature drops
rapidly from about 120C to around 30C during the winding of the first wrap due to radiation and
convection. This rapid loss of temperature within a single revolution is assisted by the low winding
velocity of the equipment, corresponding to 15 sec/wrap, and the low mass of the strip in relation to the
coiler. The coiler temperature steadily rises with increasing coiling time (no. of windings) and
approaches the strip surface temperature of about 30C. In cases where no further heating energy is
introduced into the coiled strip/coiler system via the coiled hot strip windings, the coiler and strip centre
temperatures initially converge quickly, then decrease continuously, as shown in Figure 49.
Figures 50 and 51 show, similar to the temperature plots, the progression of the radial coiler
loading as measured by the pressure sensors, again for the coiling phase and the holding period after the
equipment was brought to a stop. The 300-mm-wide test strip was clamped in the coiler in such a way
that sensors A to D were completely covered. During coiling, sensors B and C, which were covered by
the strip center, registered a virtually identical increase in tension over the number of windings. The
individual sensors registered values between 14.5 kN and 18 kN for the radial force acting on the coiler.
The tension readings for coiler loading in the strip edge zones (sensors A and D) diverged greatly. The
strip side facing the drive (i.e. the trace for sensor A) showed a considerably lower rise in tension.
A temperature-related tension progression during a holding period of about 250 minutes is
illustrated in Figure 51. In the first 13 minutes after the coiler has been stopped, the radial stress rises
significantly. After around 26 minutes, a sudden settling of the coiler mandrel evidently influenced the
force progression measurement. This incident was accompanied by a loud bang. The gradual increase in
radial force after this incident was reversed after about 100 minutes of the holding time, and the force
decreased slowly thereafter.

4.2.3.2.2. Influence of strip thickness profile

When strips that have a non-rectangular thickness profile over their width are coiled, this leads,
similar to the situation of strip having larger flatness defects, to an irregular stress distribution across the
strip width and hence to varying radial loading of the coiler.

40

To simulate different thickness profiles over the strip width, tapes with a width of 50 mm and a
thickness of 0.1 mm were fed in at different locations across the strip width and coiled along with the
strip, so that they lay between the windings. Starting with the strip centre, 20 windings were coiled with
the tape (Figure 52). The tape was then shifted to the drive side (29 coiled windings) and finally to the
operator side (28 coiled windings) and coiled on top of the previously coiled windings
The radial coiler loading resulting during this trial is plotted in Figure 53. The coiling locations
are shaded in colour in the graph.
Sensors C and D registered the greatest increase in radial force, as expected, when the tape was
fed in at the strip centre (windings 11 to 30). When coiling was continued with the tape shifted to the
drive side, there was a redistribution of stress in the strip region around sensor B, combined with a clear
increase in stress from windings 31 to 58. This effect extends to the region around sensor C. Sensors E
and D, positioned on the operator side, registered a simultaneous decrease in stress. The relationships
change when the tape is wound in the strip edge zone on the operator side, and the strip longitudinal
stress are redistributed in the strip section around sensor E. Sensor E registers the steepest rise in radial
forces, as expected, in strip windings 59 to 85. Sensor D, unlike the other sensors, shows a steady
decrease in stress from winding 30 onwards. This can be attributed to the fact that, when the tape is
being fed in, there is a redistribution of stress at the strip centre and the strip edge on the operator side,
concentrated at neighbouring sensor regions C and E. As shown by the course of the radial forces
starting from winding 86, the influence of local thickness deviations remains effective, although the
strip has been coiled without feeding in more tape until the coiler is stopped at winding 111.

4.2.3.2.3. Conventional coiling trial

In addition to the trials described above, a conventional coiling trial was conducted without strip
heating or tapes interleaving. The radial forces registered in this case by sensors A to D for a total of
211 strip windings rise to values between 17.5 kN and 28 kN (Figure 54).

4.2.3.3. Evaluation of the laboratory trials


The radial stresses introduced into the coil during the winding trials are composed, where the
"temperature experiment" is concerned, of the mechanically induced stresses to which the strip is
subjected when wound under tension, and of the thermally induced stresses. Besides these radial force
components in the coil, the sensors are then subjected to additional radial loading exerted by the coiler
on the coil when temperature gradients are present in the coiler body. This happens when strip
temperature and surface temperature are not identical. Because of this "non-straightforward" stress
situation acting on the force sensors, it is not possible to make any clear evaluation of the described
"temperature experiment" with regard to the formation of thermally induced radial stresses within the
coil. If the radial forces recorded for the "temperature experiment " (Figure 50) during the winding
process are compared with the results for conventional winding without any temperature influence
(Figure 54), a somewhat lower radial force level emerges on average in the temperature case, e.g. for a
number of 140 windings. As with the rise in coiler temperature (Figure 48), each new winding causes a
similar temperature rise in the already wound strip wraps, which leads to radial-stress-diminishing strip
strain. A radial stress field thus results in the coil which, compared with the conventional winding trial
(without temperature influence), leads to lower loading of the coiler.
The conditions become clearer if the coil remains in the static state during the cooling phase. The
beginning of the cooling phase is marked in Figure 49 (temperature gradient) and Figure 51 (radial
force diagram) by "0". During the cooling phase, changes in the radial force are caused only by thermal
effects, since no additional winding stresses are introduced into the coil. The increase of the radial
loading shown in the radial force diagram (Figure 51), which starts at the beginning of the holding

41

period at point in time "0" and progresses for around 13 min., is consequently attributable to the
cooling-related contraction strains in the coil. This is confirmed by the cooling temperature curves of
the coil shown in Figure 49. The coiling temperature remains almost constant during the considered
period, such that it is possible to rule out any coiling-related influence on the radial loading of the force
sensors.
The effect of thermally induced stresses exerted by the coiler on the sensor will play a
significantly greater role in high-speed industrial installations, e.g. when re-starting a rolling line after a
stoppage, than has been possible to simulate in the laboratory facility. Given the low maximum strip
speed that the bridle unit can handle, the strip and coiling temperature already converge as a result of
thermal radiation losses once the winding process has started.
The coiling trials involving locally wound tape showed that the sensors used are clearly able to
register and resolve the thus induced redistribution of tension over the strip width. This also holds true
when existing tension profiles are redistributed during coiling. This is illustrated by the response of
sensor E in Figure 53 during the transition from winding 59 to 85. Limited changes in the thickness
profile over the length of the strip continue to have a strong influence on the formation of the radial
stresses in subsequent, defect-free coil wraps. The radial stress gradient, for example, is preserved
over all the wraps ranging from 85 to 111, even when no further changes in coil geometry are induced
by the introduction of additional foil.

4.3. Field investigations


4.3.1. Plant facilities
The coiler of the six-high cold-rolling reversing mill operated by EKO Stahl GmbH is a so-called
expanding reel, whose diameter is expanded prior to winding on the strip and is reduced at the end of
winding to remove the coil. The coiler comprises a solid mandrel, which takes the form of a square
shaft, and four segments, the so-called reel sleeves, that are each arranged as a circular segment about
the mandrel. Wedge-shaped surfaces are worked into the coiler mandrel and into the reel sleeve, thereby
enabling the reel sleeves to expand or collapse through displacement of the mandrel in axial direction.
The coiler type can be inferred from Figures 22 and 23.

4.3.2. Sensor installation at the industrial coiler


To measure the radial winding forces, the coiler has been modified by fitting one reel sleeve with
15 quartz force sensors. The installed force sensors are identical in design to the sensors used in the
laboratory coiler.
Based on the test results obtained with the laboratory coiler, the sensors are exposed to maximum
radial forces of approx. 25 kN. These conditions can be expected at the industrial facility for maximum
strip tensions of 50 N/mm2. Additional, thermally induced stressing of the sensors occurs if greater
differences arise between the coiling temperature and strip temperature, e.g. when the equipment is restarted after a lengthy repair stoppage. Reliable calculation of this increase in stress is very difficult,
however. In order to avoid any thermally caused overloading, the sensor has been designed and
positioned inside the reel sleeve in such a way that the radial forces on the sensor are transmitted via a
cap. The effective section of this force transmission cap has been reduced by a ratio of 1:12, based on
the conditions for the laboratory coiler (compare Figures 38 and 55).

42

4.3.2.1. Conditioning of the measuring signal


To ensure optimum measured-value resolution over the entire expected working range, i.e. from
the smallest radial force acting on the sensor to the highest, the measured-value amplification
electronics have been designed in such a way that it is possible to switch between three amplification
ranges, depending on the load case. The procedure is described in the following.
Referring to Figure 57, the measuring problem can be described using the curve that represents
the signal of the radial forces, recorded during the test series with sensor D installed in the coiler of the
laboratory equipment. During the first 200 windings the mean increase of the radial force is about 60 N
for every winding, whereas the force gradient decreases rapidly to approx. 6 N/n if the number of
windings is greater than 400. This small deviation in the radial force from winding to winding arises at
simultaneously high absolute force levels which may exceed up to Fr,max= 25 kN. The purpose of the
measurements is, therefore, to resolve the minimal radial force difference of Fr,min= 6N.
If this minimum force difference is put into proportion with the maximum radial force, then the
following ratio is obtained:
Fr,min / Fr,max 1 / 4000
In general it is not possible to cover the different described measuring purposes with one single
force sensor in order to realise the mentioned large data resolution. A charge amplifier covering three
different measuring ranges is used as a solution.
The electric charge produced on the quartz force sensors is directly proportional to the force
applied to the quartz. The amount of electric charge proportional to the force is evaluated by means of a
charge amplifier, which is directly connected to the quartz and converts the electric charge into a
proportional voltage.
Using different feedback capacitors in the charge amplifier, the signal amplification can be
changed and the measuring range of the quartz force sensor set for different measuring purposes. This
switching of the sensor range within the three measuring ranges mentioned above can be affected
during the measuring procedure by connecting and disconnecting several capacitors with the help of the
computer.
A further possibility of adapting the sensor range is a short-circuit of charge amplifier feedback.
A zero-reset is thus activated which makes the total signal range available.
In the case of zero-reset during measuring cycles, it is necessary to summarise the force values
just before the zero reset is actuated in order to determine the absolute force level.
For application at the industrial coiler, the three selected ranges of the charge amplifier are
graded by a ratio of 1:4. In this case the insensitive range of the charge amplifier was determined in
such a way that the radial forces acting on the coiler can be reproduced as 1162 N/V. Based on the
resolution of 5 mV of the data processing unit, the measured forces can be represented in steps of 5.81
N/5mV.
4.3.2.2. Electronic equipment
In the event of mechanical loading, the quartz contained inside the force sensors emits a
proportional electric charge. Since the electrical charges cannot be directly gripped from the rotating
coiler, the signal conversion and transmission unit is designed and constructed on a telemetry
basis.
The signal conversion and transmission unit consists of:
signal converter module
control and transmission module
receiver module
power module
charge module.
Signal converter module
The charge generated by the piezo-electric force sensor is a measurement value that is difficult to
access. For this reason the sensor is provided with downstream electronics, which convert the charge

43

signal into a voltage signal that is proportional to the measured physical value. Conversion takes place
via a charging amplifier, which basically consists of an inverse voltage amplifier with a high inner
amplification and capacitive negative feedback.
15 such charging amplifiers are installed in the signal converter module. The measurement
signal delivers an output voltage in the range of 5 V.
Each charging amplifier has three measurement ranges for improved resolution of the physical
measurand.
Measurement range 1:
10,000 pC/V
Measurement range 2:
2,500 pC/V
Measurement range 3:
625 pC/V
With a sensitivity of 4.3 pC/N for the employed force sensors, 1 V is equivalent to
2325 N:
in measurement range 1
581 N:
in measurement range 2
145 N:
in measurement range 3
The measurement ranges can be selected automatically or via a stator-sided control signal. An
angle-of-rotation-synchronous impulse, which at the same time is used as a control signal for the reset
procedure of the charging amplifier, must be employed for the automatic range selection.
Control and transmission module
The control and transmission module contains:
the control system for selection of the measurement ranges
the control system for the residual signal
the A/D converter for the 15 measurement signals
the codification module for the digital transmission signals and
a radio module for the transceiver (transmitter and receiver)
The radio module has the following technical specifications:
carrier frequency
2.4 GHz
data rate approx.
192 kbit/s
transmitting power
10 mW
Receiver module
The receiver module has a transceiver, which has the same technical data as the radio module in
the control and transmission module. The output signal of the receiver module is transmitted to Ethernet
10base T-connection with TCP/IP protocol via a converter RS232, from where it is transmitted to the
data processing unit (PC).
Power and charge module
The power module that provides the supply voltage for both the signal converter module and the
control and transmission module has an exchangeable storage battery set consisting of three Li-ionic
storage batteries, each of which have a rated voltage of 7.5 V. The operating period of the storage
batteries is 8 hrs. The required charging time of the storage batteries is 1 hour.
Operating conditions for the signal conversion transmission unit
The high coiler speed of max. 10 1/s and the relatively large radius of 0.26 m, on which the
modules are attached to the front of the coiler, lead to accelerations of approx. 1000 m/s2.
During the development and construction of the components for the signal conversion
transmission unit, particular consideration had to be given to the extremely high centrifugal forces. A
test stand on which every structural component was tested was therefore built for simulation of the
actual velocity conditions inside the reversing mill.

4.3.2.3. Installation of the electronic equipment


The electronic components are housed in a separate holding device mounted directly on the face
of the mandrel body. According to the technical drawings shown in the Figures 58 and 59, this
equipment had been newly designed and reconstructed after severe damage during the first start-up

44

period of the measuring coiler. These measures were necessary for enhanced protection of the
electronics. For this purpose the holding device is equipped with pockets for inserting the protective
boxes containing the charge amplifier and transmitter unit electronics. The protective boxes are securely
fixed by two retaining rings. This modification included a different routing of the sensor cables, which
now no longer exit the coiler mandrel through an opening in the face as show in Figure 60. Figure 61
illustrates the installed measuring coiler with mounted holding device for the electronics.

4.3.3. Trials with the industrial coiler


Measurements were conducted on 14 strips using the modified industrial coiler. The test data are
compiled in Table 62. Of the 14 strips, 10 were rolled with 7 reducing passes each, and 4 with 5
reducing passes each, to final cold strip thickness. The coiling and uncoiling tensions in the passes
preceding the finishing pass ranged between 125 kN and 155 kN. In the finishing pass the coiling
tension was reduced by around 80 %, compared with the tensions in the intermediate passes, to 28 kN.
For the reversing rolling process, when threading-in for the first pass, the strip head-end, i.e. a
section of strip corresponding to the hot strip thickness, is secured in place in the gripper slot of the
coiler, and some 3 - 5 wraps are wound on before the strip in its intermediate thickness is wound onto
the coiler after the first roll pass. These first wraps usually remain on the coiler until rolling reduction to
the final cold strip thickness takes place. This standard industrial procedure was also selected for the 10
strips that were rolled in 7 passes. For the 4 strips finished in 5 passes, in contrast, the non-rolled hot
strip head-end was separated from the coiler and the thinner strip end in the thickness being rolled at the
time clamped in place.

4.3.3.1. Results of the trials campaign


In case of the strips rolled in 7 passes, a radial force distribution measured over the strip width, as
depicted in Figure 63 in a 3D representation, emerges for the finishing pass. The radial force values
measured by the 15 depicted sensors display very great variations in some instances. If the individual
plots of sensors 7 and 8 (Figures 64 and 65) are considered, for example, these exhibit an initially
progressive rise in radial force over the length of the strip (number of wraps) that reaches a saturation
value.
While this distribution of the radial winding stress is consistent with the expected pressure
profiles, measuring force readings over the strip length emerge for other sensors, such as sensor 4
(Figure 66) and sensor 11 (Figure 67), which are irreconcilable with the mechanisms taking place in
regard to the build-up of the winding stresses. As early as the start of winding, sensor 11 shows a radial
force level that is preserved throughout the winding operation. Sensor 4, in contrast, provides measured
values that indicate both pressure (positive radial force values) and tension (negative radial force
values).
The radial force measurements of the sensors are, in part, even more inconsistent for all the roll
passes that precede the finishing pass and for which the winding operation is conducted at a much high
level of tension. This is illustrated in Figure 68 by the example of pass 1.
Figure 69 shows, in a higher measured-value resolution, the corresponding measured-value
reading from sensor 9 during the coiling of the strip. The maximum radial force value, which is attained
after a few strip wraps, falls after around 1/3 of the wound strip length to the original force level again.
The pressure force plot is strongly superimposed by oscillations appearing as rotation-dependent sine
waves. This is illustrated by the enlarged view in the top right-hand part of the diagram.
Figure 70 compares two different measuring states, namely the one during coiling (small part of
the diagram) and the one during the uncoiling of the strip from the measuring coiler. The measuredvalue plots show the same characteristics for both directions of winding.
Figure 71 depicts a further phenomenon that has to be considered in connection with the
gripping of the strip ends in the gripper slot of the measuring coiler. The smaller part of the diagram
shows the radial force, already represented in the preceding diagrams, when the gripped hot strip end

45

remains in the gripper slot during the reversing winding operations. The rotation-dependent measuredvalue dynamics then diminishes considerably when the non-rolled hot strip head-end is separated and
the strip in the thickness being rolled at the time is used for the start of coiling. In contrast to the
flexurally resistant thick hot strip, the thinner cold strip fits snugly around the circumference of the
coiler mandrel in the region of the gripper slot as early as the first strip wrap. This avoids any local
formation of hollow spaces between the coiler mandrel and inner wraps of the coil which, in case of the
thicker strip, leads to dynamic, rotation-dependent flexing processes.

4.3.3.2. Checking of the sensors (FQZ,EKO)

In parallel to the modification and testing of the system by BFI at the reversing mill, and since
the results of the campaign were far from the results expected, FQZ carried out checking of the 15
pressure sensors. The order of the sensors in the mandrel is shown in Figure 72.
All sensors one after another were subjected to a pressure of 176.5 N (static state).
The results were satisfactory and the basic functionality of the sensors could thus be
demonstrated (Figure 73).
Deviations with the reproduce of pressure and scale graduation were recognized (Figure 74), but
they did not keep on examining.
One sensor did not keep on being able to be used (too high drift of the measurement signal,
Figure 75).
Even if the installation did not work perfectly, the problems detected could not by themselves
explain the strange behaviour of the signals of Figures 63 and 68.

4.3.3.3. Assessment of the trials with laboratory and industrial coiler


Comparisons of the measurement data from the field trials with those from the coiling trials using
the BFI bridle reveal clear differences in the measured-value behaviour. In contrast to the measuring
coiler of the reversing mill, the measuring set-up at the laboratory coiler supplies plausible measured
variables, which reflect the wrap-dependent growth of the radial stress. Sensor measurement data
conspicuous at the industrial coiler through their negative characteristics are absent for the measuring
set-up used on the laboratory coiler. If the distribution of forces between the strip and sensor is
considered, then these states are physically precluded from the viewpoint of the coiling process.
The cause has to be seen in influences between coiler body and force sensor. It is then necessary
to evaluate differences in the coiler design and the sensor installation geometry of the laboratory and
industrial coilers. The same sensor type has been used in both measuring set-ups.
The technical drawings of the laboratory and industrial coilers are taken as a basis for the
considerations that follow (Figure 38 and Figures 55, 56).
The laboratory coiler is designed as a thick-walled tubular body, whose surface contains bores to
accommodate the measuring sensors. The forces are transmitted from the strip to the sensors via caps,
which have a surface area of 960 mm2.
The industrial coiler comprises a solid mandrel, which takes the form of a square shaft, and four
segments or so-called reel sleeves that are each arranged as circular segments about the mandrel. The
coiler segment containing the bores to accommodate the sensors is supported by wedge-shaped surfaces
in relation to the coiler mandrel. The coiler elements are supported only by parts of the wedge-shaped
surfaces. For this reason, the segments of the industrial coiler can be regarded as less rigid plate-like
beams compared with the thick-walled laboratory coiler. The way in which the forces are transmitted
from the strip to the sensors installed in the coiler segment is the same as for the laboratory coiler,
namely via caps. The effective cross-section for the transmission of the forces, however, had been
reduced in comparison with the laboratory coiler in a ratio of 1:12 to a surface area of 78 mm in order

46

to avoid any overloading of the sensors under any operating conditions, e.g. due to thermally induced
radial stress increases.
The above-described differences in design between the laboratory and industrial coiler
consequently give rise to two fundamentally different influences to which the sensors are exposed. The
sensors installed in the industrial coiler are subjected to loads and stresses reduced in a ratio of 1:12
compared with the laboratory coiler, while the radial stress between coil and coiler is identical. Elastic
deformations are triggered in the coiler segment due to its low bending rigidity which, depending on the
loading condition, have an effect on the sensor-securing elements and diminish its tightening force. The
sensor is thereby relieved counter to the radial force exerted by the strip. This effect can lead to a
situation where the sensor displays measured values, as a function of the strip coiling tension and buildup height, that seems to show a reduction of the radial stresses in the coil as the wound diameter
increases. This deformation influence can assume dimensions that lead to negative measured values.
During the subsequent unwinding of the coil from the coiler, the deformations previously introduced in
the coiler segment recede.
It has been possible to demonstrate this by means of FE calculations.

4.3.3.4. Accompanying FE-calculations concerning deformation of reel sleeve segment

4.3.3.4.1. Model description


Using a CAD model as a basis, an FE model has been generated that includes one of the sensors
with its securing elements. The model has been networked with tetrahedron elements. Figure 76 shows
the interconnection at the installed sensor. The performed calculations relate to the linear-elastic range.
To support the reel sleeve, as realised on the industrial coiler, partial support of the wedge-shaped
surfaces in relation to the coiler mandrel has been taken into account in the model (Figure 77).
The following contacts between individual elements have been defined as fixed:
Annular surface between sensor and screw (Figure 78)
Annular surface between sensor and reel sleeve (Figure 79)
Cylinder surface between screw and reel sleeve in proximity of thread (Figure 80)
A pressure of 50 MPa has been assumed as the load on the reel sleeve surface (Figure 81) and on
the force transmission caps (78 mm) to the sensors.
A Young's Modulus of 200,000 MPa has been taken into account for reel sleeve and caps, and
71,000 MPa for the sensor. A value of 0.3 serves as the poisson ratio for all three elements.

4.3.3.4.2. Results of FE calculations


The results of the calculations, shown in Figures 82 to 85, indicate strong deformations of the
reel sleeve, which also cause bending of the screw and distortions in the region of the sensor. The
magnitude of the influence exerted on the sensor depends to a strong extent on the sensor position in the
reel sleeve (particularly in regions with pronounced gradients and on the thin sides of the reel sleeve).
Shown in Figure 86 are the stresses in the sensor in z-direction. The lilac-coloured areas denote tensile
stresses, which indicate partial relief of the sensor.

47

4.4. Conclusion of stress measurement on industrial coils


Coiling trials on an industrial coiler have shown that reliable measurement of the radial winding
stress over the entire coil thickness is not possible with the modified reel sleeve. Excessive stresses
locally, brought about for example by changes in strip flatness over the strip width or by strip profile
changes, which are seen as a yardstick for the likelihood of stickers, cannot be detected by the discussed
embodiment of the measuring coiler.
Responsible in this regard is not the employed measuring technique, but rather the design of the
coiler body. The not-so-rigid and hence deformation-prone coiler segment in which the sensors are
accommodated and secured in place is to be regarded as the main cause of the measured-value
corruption in connection with the radial forces exerted by the wound coil on the sensors. The reel sleeve
is supported in relation to the coiler mandrel by means of wedge-shaped surfaces, which provide
support, not over large areas but only partially. As a result, wave-like bending deformation is
introduced into the coiler segment. These deformations affect the sensor-securing elements by reducing
their tightening force and thereby corrupt the values of the radial forces exerted by the coil on the
sensors.
From the present viewpoint, no design modifications can be made to this or also similar coiler
types which would ensure reliable measurement of the radial stresses exerted by the wound coil on the
coiler surface.
In contrast to the measurements conducted on the industrial coiler, the measurements with the
coiler modified as a measuring coiler on the BFI's bridle unit have shown that it is possible to measure
the radial forces exerted by the wound coil on the coiler surface reliably and plausibly.
Successful measurement using the applied measuring technique, however, requires installation
conditions in which the employed force sensors have to be embedded in a rigid environment. It is
essential to meet this requirement in order to preclude any measured-value corruption as a result of
deformation-induced stresses being transmitted to the sensor-securing elements and, hence, to the
sensor itself.
The modified coiler used as a measuring coiler for the measurements at the reversing mill of
EKO Stahl GmbH does not meet these conditions, unlike the coiler of the BFI bridle unit. The
precondition for measuring the radial stress distribution over the strip width during strip coiling under
production conditions, in order to examine relationships between local radial pressure and strips'
susceptibility to sticker mark formation, has consequently not been realised.

48

5. Industrial investigations (FQZ, EKO and CRM)


5.1. Statistical analysis of defect frequency in relation to various parameters
(FQZ, EKO)

5.1.1. Examination of the influence of material parameters


This section presents the examinations in regard to the general material properties of rolled coils
at the two rolling mills, four-high tandem and reversing stand of EKO-Stahl.
The starting point of the analyses are the defects registered with their coil number and specific
data during final inspection in the rolling period 10/2000 to 12/2001. (Coils with the final inspection
date January 2001 were rolled starting October, 2000). The defective coils were selected and marked.
The analyses were based on this. By marking the defective coils at the rolling units during the course of
processing, conclusions can be drawn in regard to possible parameter changes and material influences.
While checking the temporal course of the rolling process, it was ascertained that when a defect
occurred on the examined strip, there were usually also one or more defects of the same kind in coils
rolled shortly before or afterwards. One can therefore conclude that in so far as the material has
comparable properties, there is a possible direct influence by the rolling mill.
In the examinations described here, main properties such as steel grade and strip geometry were
taken into account.

5.1.1.1. Steel grade statistical analysis

To examine the influence of the utilised steel grades on the frequency of the defects scratching
and sticking in the year 2001, the steel grades were summarised under the following steel grade groups
in order to improve the informative value of the statistics and enhance comparability:

structural steel grades


soft unalloyed steel grades with high coiling temperature
Electro steel grades
soft unalloyed steel grades from Russia
high strength microalloyed steel grades
soft unalloyed steel grades with low coiling temperature
IF steels
high strength IF steels

In the Table 87, the evaluated coils (total number and number of defective coils) are shown for
the individual steel grade groups. Production at the two rolling mills was examined separately.
The evaluation results are summarised in Fig. 88 and 89.
The first evaluation of the results shows that the examined defects occur at both rolling units. It
appears that the frequency of scratching is higher at the four-high tandem, and the frequency of strip
sticking is higher at the reversing mill. The statistical comparability of the data sets must be taken into
account. What is interesting is that at both rolling units electrotechnical steel shows a very low number
of defects. Possible reasons for this could lie in the low roughness of these grades, as well as in the
more even strip cross-section.

49

The IF steels rolled at the four-high tandem also show a high quality standard, which could be the
result of increased technological inspections.

5.1.1.2. Strip thickness statistical analysis

A further examination was carried out on the defect behaviour in regard to strip thickness. For
this, 8 thickness categories were created for both rolling units, which are statistically summarised in
Table 90. The visual illustration of the statistical analysis is shown in Fig. 91 and 92.
The interrelationships of defect frequency in regard to the strip thicknesses rolled at the four-high
tandem (Fig. 91) show that with increasing strip thickness the danger of scratching increases, while
sticking is reduced. A possible explanation for the development trend of scratching is that the
maximum strip tension of the coiler at the rolling mill is limited to 130 kN. Due to the unit-related
restrictions of the coiler performance, this tendency cannot be counteracted.
The same explanation applies for the conditions at the reversing mill, which also has a limited
coiler tension (156 kN).

5.1.1.3. Strip width statistical analysis

The Figures 93 to 95 show the statistical evaluations in regard to strip width.


The evaluations show that with increasing strip width the tendency to sticking is reduced,
something which is especially evident with the statistically relevant width groups at the reversing mill.
A simultaneous increase of the portion of scratching is not clearly detectable, as would be expected in
the context of the aforementioned discussion on the influence of strip thickness.
5.1.1.4. Coil mass statistical analysis

The coil mass was analysed as a further influential factor on the frequency of sticking and
scratching.
These examinations become significant in the context of the planned examinations of the
distribution of stresses in the coil during the coiling process by BFI.
Table 96 shows the statistical figures, the visual evaluation is shown in the Figures 97 & 98.
In regard to the conditions at the four-high tandem, it can be discerned that with increasing coil
mass the defect frequency of strip scratching tends to increase (Fig.9). Although this trend is not equally
detectable at the reversing stand, it does exist in principle.
Apparently this statistical influence demonstrates the significance of complying to stable
geometrical and cinematic coiler conditions over a large coiling height.

5.1.2. Examinations at the hood type annealing plant


A further focus is on the annealing plant, which plays a role on the frequency of the material
defects sticking and scratching due to its influence on the stress distribution in the wound coil.
In this context, the important influences in terms of these defects are in particular the duration
and temperatures of the heat-up, holding and cooling phases of the annealing process.
In the analyses performed, the general unit-specific conditions during the annealing process were
first examined in regard to defect frequency, in order to exclude their influence on the evaluation of the
stress-relevant technological parameters to be performed in the future. These investigations were carried
out on the statistical influence of:

50

- the annealing furnaces


- the annealing regime
- the annealing hoods
- the stacking position
The results are shown in the Figures 99 to 110.
To enhance the informative value, the examined defect groups sticking and scratching were
divided into subgroups as follows:
defect 22
defect 23
defect 24
defect 25

point sticking
edge sticking
surface sticking
bulb sticking

defect 40
defect 69

coiler scratching
coiler marking

}
}

sticking

}
}
}

scratching

5.1.2.1. Annealing regime statistical analysis (based on data of 1st semester 2002)
Table 99 as well as Figure 100 show the evaluated coils in terms of the applicable annealing regime.
To verify whether the annealing regimes affect defect accumulation, identical/similar annealing regimes
were classed under annealing regime groups (Figure 101).
Figure 102 shows the measured correlation between defect frequency and annealing temperature. One
can see an growth of the sticking defect rate when the soaking temperature is increasing, while at the
same time the scratching defect rate drops.

5.1.2.2. Annealing place statistical analysis

In Tables 103 and 104 the statistical figures on the influence of the annealing place on the
development of the examined defects are compiled.
The annealing places 1-30 are equipped with Nassheuer furnaces and the annealing places 31-62
with furnaces manufactured by Fa. Ebner.
The distribution of the recorded coils across the annealing places is almost equal. According to
the visual illustration in Fig. 105 and 106, no furnace-specific distinctions in regard to defect frequency
can be discerned.

5.1.2.3. Annealing hoods statistical analysis

The results of the statistical evaluation of the defects sticking and scratching in regard to the
utilised annealing hoods are shown in Table 107 and Figure 108.
No statistical interconnections can be deduced from this examination.

51

5.1.2.4. Coil position in the furnace analysis

A further analysis investigated whether the position of the coil in the annealing stack has an
influence on the frequency of defects.
The illustration of the position of the coils in the stack during the annealing process in the furnace
(Tab. 109 and Fig. 110) shows that the furnaces are predominantly operated with 3 coils. Positions 4
and 5 are occupied less frequently. Due to the low number of coils, a significant statistical statement
cannot be made for position 5 (top position).
Although the various heat-up and cooling conditions of the coils in the annealing stack would
lead to the expectation that the position of the individual coil has an influence, no unambiguous
connection can be established. The result of the analysis carried out, moreover, allows the assertion that
with the evaluated coils the furnace position has no influence on the defect frequency.

5.1.3. Conclusion of the statistical analysis in EKO plant

The statistical study shows that :


When one of the examined defects occurred in a coil, one or more of the same defects occurred
in coils rolled shortly beforehand or afterwards. It can therefore be concluded that a possible direct
influence of the rolling mill as far as the materials have about the same properties.
At both rolling plants, both types of defects can be determined. Sticking tends to occur more at
the reversing mill and scratching is more frequent at the four-high tandem. Individual steel grades
(electro steel grades, IF steel) show comparatively low defect rates.
With increasing strip thickness the defect coiler scratching increases. This is evident for both
rolling plants, especially with material thickness of more than 2.0 mm. A possible explanation for this is
the limitation of the maximum strip tensions at both rolling plants.
With increasing coil mass, the defect frequency is higher; for the four-high tandem, in particular
Based on the statistical examinations, the utilised annealing regimes show a growth of the
sticking defect rate when the soaking temperature is increasing, while at the same time the scratching
defect rate drops.
As expected, no influence was found for the annealing places and the annealing hoods. The
same is true of the influence of the coil position in the stack.

5.2. Correlation between over-thicknesses after cold rolling and sticking


during batch annealing (CRM + Sidmar)
Strip sampling has been organised before temper mill to determine the correlation between
sticking and strip profile. An example of such measurements (around 200) is reported on Table 111.
This figure indicates the influence of over-thicknesses above the strip profile in the width direction on
sticking after batch annealing. It appears that the sticking problem is generally correlated with these
over-thicknesses if the height of the irregularities is greater than around 3m. Sticking in the coil is also
correlated with other parameters like the strip profile and the tension introduced during coiling after
cold rolling.

52

To take also these parameters into account, calculations have be performed to determine the
influence of irregularities in the strip profile on radial stresses. To achieve that goal, the study was
separated in three steps:
a) Simulation of the influence of artificial irregularities distributed along the strip width on
radial stress calculated at a distance of 400 mm from the coil axis (see Figure 112).
b) Study of the influence of real profile irregularities on radial stress repartition.
c) Validation of the model

5.2.1. Influence of irregularities in the strip profile on radial stresses after cold rolling

The results are summarised on Figure 113 to Figure 116. It appears that:
For important strip profiles (Figure 113), only the defects located on strip centre influence
significantly the radial stresses repartition. In that case, the influence of the defect width, contained
between 50 mm and 100 mm, can be neglected. Moreover, the change from a constant (curves with the
label C) coiling tension of 40N/mm to a decreasing (curves with the label D) coiling tension above a
radius of 600 mm, does not influence significantly the radial stresses repartition.
When the strip profile becomes flatter (Figure 114 and Figure 115), the defects closer from
the strip edges are more and more important for the local radial stresses. The height of the different
defects is of course very important as it can be seen from the comparison of Figure 115 and Figure
116.
The most detrimental defect is the very local peaks, which induce a sharper increase of the
radial stresses. The presence of shaft in the profiles seems to be less detrimental for the sticking
problem.

5.2.2. Study of influence of real profile irregularities on radial stress repartition

The influence of real profile irregularities on radial stress repartition is summarised on Figure
117 and Figure 118. These results mainly confirm the previous simulations indicating that shafts in the
optimal profiles are less important that peaks for the increase of the local radial stresses.

5.2.3. Validation of the model


5.2.3.1. Generalities
In collaboration with the BFI experimental work, the simulation of a coiling with an overthickness provided by a tape inserted between the windings has been carried out by our model. But to
be able to perform some calculations, different simplifications and assumptions have been made:
the model does not allow different materials with different resistance properties : as a
consequence, it is not possible to compare the absolute values of the results. We have, in fact, adjusted
the over-thickness in order to be similar to the results of BFI.
the model does not calculate transversal stresses : the model considers the strip divided into
separate independent sheets except that the repartition of the traction is distributed as a function of the
coil profile ; as a result the radial tension shows very steep gradients at the edges of the inserted tape ; it
also means that variations of the tape position could have much influence on the stress profile at these
positions.
Input data:

53

The mandrel is supposed cylindrical


The strip is 297.85 mm wide ant the thickness is given every 1.15 mm
The tape (width = 50mm, thickness = 0.1mm) is inserted at the 11th winding at 130 mm from
the strip edge; hence, its position is : 130 180
- The relative position of the sensors from the strip edge are represented on Figure 119
Traction force is 9.8 kN, that is to say an average stress of 81.14 N/mm2

5.2.3.2. Results without over-thicknesses

The Figure 120 compares the radial stresses calculated without inserting a tape, at the position of
the 4 sensors.
These results are to be compared to the measurements after the 10 first windings:
- The calculations give a lower value for the sensor C ; that is due to the fact that the strip is a
little thinner in that region
- After the winding 10, the calculated values for the sensors D and C do not differ from the
values E and B. It is the case for the measured values. A possible explanation would be the existence of
a small crown for the mandrel.

5.2.3.3. Results with over-thickness


An over-thickness of 0.05 mm has been added abruptly at the 11th winding. The Figure 121
shows the results obtained in that case, and Figure 122 the corresponding measured values.
From the comparison between the calculated and the measured values we may note that :
The stresses under the sensors E and B outside the tape are quite similar
Unlike to measurements, the radial stress calculated at D is greater than the one obtained in
C. In fact, the sensor D is nearer the tape and must then be more influenced by the over-thickness.
The absolute values of the maximum values are quite similar too, but this fact has no real
meaning since the parameters of the model have been adapted to get such result.
The stresses calculated under the tape are much higher and the gradient near the edges are
very steep. So the comparison in this region is depending too much on the precision of the position of
the tape and of the sensors as well as on the approximations of the model. A better comparison would
be made with measurements just under the tape.
In conclusion, by making a few assumptions, it was possible to perform a simulation of the
experimental trial of coiling a sheet and introducing an over-thickness.
The results of the calculations are qualitatively in rather good accordance with the results.
Nevertheless, the meaning of this comparison is limited since the model is not perfectly adapted
to such a trial (different materials) and since the studied points are around the tape edges where the
variations of stresses are very quick.

5.2.4. Conclusion on over-thicknesses


In conclusion, the production of strips with low profile (5 m) is significantly more detrimental
for sticking because small irregularities have rapidly an important effect on the local radial stresses.
With a high (20 m) strip profile, the defects located near the strip edges can be neglected, only the
centre peaks defects are still important. The presence of a sharp peak is much more detrimental than a
shaft in the strip profile. The developed model has been validated by a laboratory trial.

54

5.3. Investigations on the upcoiler of the four-high tandem mill of EKO


5.3.1. Strip vibration measurements between stand 4 and the up-coiler of the four-high
tandem mill

Strip natural vibration was measured directly on exit from the rolling line prior to up-coiling at
the four-stand cold rolling mill of EKO Stahl with the aim of detecting possible interrelations with the
occurrence of sticking and scratching defects.
Following successful feasibility tests, the strip vibration measuring system was applied for
recording data on in all 277 coils.
The measurements used a measuring set-up consisting of the following components:
Laser with cooling frame
OVF Controller for the laser vibrometer
PC with monitor for data storage
The Figures 123 and 124 show a sketch and a photograph of the installation site and the
measuring environment. On account of a number of restrictions (installation site, mechanical parts), the
measurement covered only a portion of the potential angle of 10 at which the laser may be aimed at
the strip, in order to achieve still usable readings. In addition, emulsion vapours had a detrimental effect
on the measuring laser. To guarantee that the laser operated according to specification, it was housed in
an air-cooled protective casing (Figure 125).
Within the trial period, a host of measurement data was recorded. A usability assessment showed
71 data sets to be suitable for further vibration analysis. These data sets show that 7 coils are subject to
sticking and 5 coils to scratching.
Figure 126 offers a model diagram of the records and evaluations. In addition to the actual
measured value, the diagram shows the result of an FFT analysis of the vibration signal.
However, this value is applicable only until the beginning of the continuous roll process, as this is
normally the time limit for the availability of measured values. This insight and the amplitude height of
the vibrations do not provide information about the defects to be evaluated, however. Even in coils
where this pattern was not clearly discernible, there was no indication of or tendency to sticking and
scratching. This is due to the fact that the length of the data sets in relation to the coil length does not
suffice to make a representative statement on the overall coil. Most recordings come to an end before
the plant goes into continuous roll mode. The area where, as known from experience, most defects
occur was rarely registered or not covered at all.
A thorough analysis of the records revealed that the data at hand give no clue to any relationship
between statistic characteristics of the measured values and the occurrence of sticking and scratching
defects.
The data records only suggested that the up-coiling was accompanied by vibrations whose
frequencies lay in the region from 15 to 25 Hz depending on the strip geometry.
The design of the device installed at EKO Stahl precluded recording of measured values over the
coil sections where the defects were known to occur. The data collected are limited to the top section of
any coil.
Because of high costs to be involved in required mechanical modification and adjustment, no
further measurements were performed.

55

5.3.2. Process Capability Analysis of coiler tension at the tandem mill


The stability of the coiler tension at the tandem mill, that is the difference between the set point
and actual value, are controlled regularly and at the end of the month in the form of a Process
Capability Analysis' documents. This long-term-check is supposed to exclude the cause from
uncontrolled coiler tension deviations that could lead to defects sticking and scratching. This statistical
check tool is very sensitive and shows least deviations from the normal and known production state. In
the Figure 127 the result of analysis is shown for one month: November 2004.

5.4. Noise level measurements at the temper mill


Noise intensity was measured and recorded over coil length using a stationary measuring system
at the un-coiler of the temper mill. In the course of visual assessment of over 1000 data records,
pronounced acoustic peaks (corresponding to sticking places generating tear noises) on the one hand
and acoustic valleys resulting from loose turns on the other were sought for and subsequently
investigated in more depth for possible relations to the up-coiling tension in the mill train.
In spite of relatively high local up-coiling tension variations at the four-high tandem mill, no
relations or effects of these could be observed with respect to rising or falling noise level in uncoiling.
Similarly, measured noise peaks, valleys or level changes at the temper mill could not be traced back to
any noticeable up-coiling tension deviations at the tandem mill. Hence, the conclusion that the detected
sticking and scratching defects at EKO Stahl cannot be positively attributed to up-coiling tension
variations; rather, an unfavourable interaction of several unknown causes is in place.
Figures 128 to 134 are example coils which graphically represented coiler tension at the tandem
mill and noises at the input of the temper rolling mill, that are supposed to clarify this determination
better.
Elaborate measurements and frequency analyses of the uncoiling noises were additionally
performed using a special device. The PC-based data logging system was applied to about 100 coils for
recording of uncoiling noise over a frequency range up to 22.5 kHz at a sampling frequency of 70 kHz,
followed by FFT frequency analysis. The unfavourable aspect of the measurements was that only one
coil with sticking defects was involved and accordingly no results that allow of generalisation could be
obtained.
However, the level of coiler tension and the corresponding adjustments have already been serving
successfully as a quickly realisable control element for the influencing and optimisation of tendencies
towards sticking or scratching for years and will also be used for this purpose in the future.

56

5.5. Impact of the modifications to the Processes/Equipment and Process


Optimisation at EKO-Stahl

In the period January to December 2001, tests to optimise the technology were carried out
especially at the four stand cold-rolling mill to detect causes and remove defects of the quality
problems, i.e. to reduce strip sticking and coiler scratching.
The following important modifications to the processes and equipment were made that were
supposed to affect occurrence of sticking and scratching defects.

5.5.1. List of the modifications occurred in 2001

5.5.1.1. Modifications at the four-high tandem mill and reversing mill

Product-bound increase in set-up coiling tension values to improve coil progress at the temper
mill entry (loose turns)
Product-bound decrease in set-up coiling tension values to prevent sticking
(These changes in coiling tension set-up values were all limited to a range of

1 ... 4 %.)

Increased strip tension between stands 3 and 4


Measures taken to enhance coil stability through improving strip shape and prevention of strip
distortion, namely:
- lowering the draft distribution factors at stand 4 to diminish surface deposit (related to
sticking defects)
- adjusting work roll bend setting at stand 3 to improve strip shape for selected product
ranges
Adjusting work roll surface roughness (surface deposit, customer requirements, varied for the
various product ranges)
- decreasing the average roughness value Ra
- increasing the peak count value Pc
The maximum coiling tension force at the four-high tandem mill up-coiler was increased from
115 to 120 kN.
The strip surface roughness was increased for lower strip thickness in order to minimise the
propensity to sticking.
5.5.1.2. Modifications at the batch annealing equipment

Adjustments on the flushing mode were undertaken in order to improve strip cleanliness (a
slight decrease in the flushing rate at the heating stage, followed by rate redistribution over the holding
period and initial cooling step and accompanied by saving of hydrogen).
With thicknesses of 0.7 mm, a 6 h long cooling step (slow air cooling under heating bell with
switched-off burners), previously restricted to some selected annealing modes, was adopted in all cases
to reduce sticking defects.

57

5.5.1.3. Modifications at the temper mill

Increasing the coiling tension at strip top to 135 % of the set-up value (for a denser coil core)

5.5.2. Results of the modifications during year 2001

As a general statement on the effectiveness of the aforementioned technological measures as


regards the adjustable parameters of the rolling mill (four-high tandem mill), the assessment can be
made that their influence brought about no demonstrable reduction of the defects coiler scratching or
strip sticking.
At the beginning of the year, the influence of increasing the coiler tension on the reduction of
strip scratching, while maintaining the tendency towards strip sticking, can be discerned. The
effectiveness of the subsequent technological measures, however, cannot be statistically proven based
on the development of defects. The influence of the technological changes to the rolling process as a
result of introducing a different emulsion is apparently larger in regard to reducing surface defects than
the influence of the optimisation measures that were carried out.
What is remarkable in this context is the simultaneous increase of both defects examined, even
though the physical causes of the defects (strip tension ratios) are opposed to each other according to
the current opinion (Figures 135 and 136).

5.5.3. Global results on sticking and scratching over the whole project period

Batch annealed coils of second and third quality are routinely checked for defect rates during
final quality inspection. The results are logged and later summarised in daily analyses and monthly and
annual quality reports. A current and regular overview is thus always available at EKO Stahl.
The monthly summaries gave rates of 0.03 to 0.21 % for sticking defects and between 0.6 and
1.47 % for scratching defects in the course the project. The scratching marks were therefore about 10
times as frequent as the sticking defects.
Based on the respective rolled product quantities subjected to batch annealing, the rates of
sticking and scratching defects alike were about 5 times more frequent at the four-high tandem mill than
at the reversing mill.
The defect rates could be kept at about the same level during the entire project time.
In the periods of more frequent occurrence, actions to reduce defect rates were taken that
involved appropriate technical and process engineering measures (mainly changes in set-up values of
coiling tension at the four-high tandem mill). In spite of work by specialist teams, the elucidation of
exact causes during such defect prevention campaigns proved impossible.

58

6. Conclusions
6.1. Main results of the research
The pressure between windings during annealing is confirmed as a major ingredient for
sticking, both on trials on samples (direct pressure applied during one hour), and narrow coils (coiling
tension). We have not the confirmation of this fact on industrial coils. The effect of the pressure on
sticking (measured by sheering or peeling force) is nearly proportional.
An increase of the soaking temperature pushes the sticking up, as was striking on narrow coils,
confirmed by statistical studies on industrial coils, and also seen on sticking of pressured samples.
Sticking is also divided by a factor 3 when the roughness is increased from 0.5 m to 1 m then
3.5m, as was shown on narrow coils. This confirms result from bibliography [1] on samples.
Investigations on sticking of samples at the laboratory showed an increase of the surface
oxidation with wet atmosphere, HNx rather than H2 atmosphere, or high Mn or Si content of the steel
grade composition. But no real influence on adherence was seen. CO2 injections as a sticker prevention
brought either no effect, or a remaining oxidation.
A dedicated statistical study together with a model showed that localized irregularities of the
thickness profile is correlated to sticking when their height is positive and greater than 3 m, especially
when the thickness profile is flat (less than 5m of crown).
Scratching was reproduced readily after coiling. The un-coiling tension necessary to get
scratching of the coil was found 5 times more than the coiling tension. Scratching could not be obtained
after annealing of the prepared coil, although we would have expected easier scratching under these
conditions.
But it was seen that very slight adherence between windings is sufficient to avoid scratching, or
said in another way, that scratching can occur only when absolutely no adherence by sticking exits
between the windings. This is somewhat confirmed by a statistical study which shows higher sticking
and lower scratching rates for high temperature annealing cycles, and the reverse for low annealing
temperature.
An industrial measurement of the coiling stresses was developed and installed on the coiler of the
reversing mill at EKO-Stahl. It was aimed at studying the correlation of the stress repartition across the
width with the thickness profile, the flatness profile, and the scratching and sticking defects rates.
Unfortunately, the signals obtained with the system were not good enough to be exploited, mainly due
to severe deformation of the industrial mandrel itself. In a possible future re-development, more care in
the location of the force sensors should make the measurement work in a much better way.

6.2. Measures for practical use in cold rolling


The following measures can be derived from the technical results of the study.
To avoid both sticking and scratching, one should always manage to get some slight adherence
between windings (slight sticking). This will not turn into sticking defects marks, and will prevent
scratching.
To do this, the best thing is to adjust the coiling tension level until defect crisis disappear.
If a set point change is planned (for example annealing cycle with higher temperature or lower
roughness target at the tandem exit) one should also adjust the coiling tension level (for the examples
given, tension should be lowered).
Another idea that can be used would be to adjust the coiling tension, coil per coil, depending on
the measured roughness. But it is often more difficult to implement.

59

One should pay attention to coils whose thickness profile presents a localized over-thickness
greater than 3m. These coils should be diverted from good aspect use or coiled at a lower tension. If a
lot of these cases exist, one should consider increasing the target crown at hot rolling mill.

60

Figure 1: Batch annealing simulator

61

Strength
Thermocouple
Stainless
steel inserts

Thermocouple

Samples

Strength

Thermocouple

Figure 2: Schematic representation of the samples disposition


during annealing under compressive stresses

62

Steel number

Mn

Ti

Nb

Al

Si

C- 0.1%Mn

26

128

52

C- 0.3%Mn

70

315

11

40

IF-0.4%Mn +P

410

14

19

70

34

IF- 0.8%Mn +P,B

3.2

750

27

25

77

41

17

C-1.2% Mn

137

1250

12

44

14

C-1.1%Mn 0.2%Si

92

1105

16

12

39

202

Table 3: steel composition (10-3 wt%)

63

700

600
500

4
400
3

H2

300

GAS FLOW

H2O x 100

200

T (C)

100

0
0

10

15

20

25

T IME (H OU R S )

700

1500
F (N)

600

T (C)

1000

500
500

400
300

200
-500
100
-1000

0
0

10

15

20

25

T IME (H OU R S)

Figure 4: Batch annealing simulation on an ELC steel grade


(C- 0.1%Mn)

64

Tensile Strength: 360 N/mm


Yield Strength: 280 N/mm

De-cohesion strength (N/mm)

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

Applied pressure (N/mm)

Figure 5: Influence on sticking of the pressure applied during


the first hour of the cooling (C- 0.1%Mn).

Decohesion strength (N)

7000
6000

C-0.3%Mn

5000

IF 0.4%Mn +P

4000

IF 0.8%Mn +P,B

3000
2000

C-1.2%Mn

1000

C-1.1%Mn 0.2%Si

0
0

10

Stress applied during cooling (MPa)

Figure 6: Influence of compressive stresses on strip sticking


on various steel grades (annealing at 660C / 100%H2 / DP50C)

65

Decohesion strength (N)

7000
6000

C-0.3%Mn

5000

IF 0.4%Mn +P

4000
3000

IF 0.8%Mn +P,B

2000

C-1.2%Mn

1000

C-1.1%Mn 0.2%Si

0
0

10

Stress applied during the whole cycle (MPa)

De-cohesion strength (N/mm)

Figure 7: Saturation of the effect of compressive stresses on


strip sticking, when duration of applicationis increased
(annealing at 660C / 100%H2 / DP-50C)

C-Mn03 steel grade

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

DP (0C)
DP (0C)
DP (bottle)
DP (bottle)

Applied pressure (N/mm)


Figure 8: Influence on sticking of the pressure applied at two
different dew points (DP) during the first hour of the cooling

66

0.3

700

CO wet
CO dry

0.25

600

T (C)

500

0.2

400
0.15
300
0.1

200

0.05

100

0
0

10

15

20

25

T IME (H OU R S )

Figure 9: Influence of the water vapour amount in the furnace


on strip decarburation

67

Decohesion strength (N

Annealing 720C with 5 MPa during first hour of cooling


6000
5000
4000

DP-50C

3000

DP0C
DP+10C

2000
1000
0
P
Si
n+
.2%
n
%M
P,B
0
4
.
n
0
n+
%M
Mn
M
IF
%
%M
1.2
%
1
.
8
.
1
C
0.3
0
CC
F
I

DP+10C
DP0C
DP-50C

Annealing 660C with 5 MPa during first hour of cooling


Decohesion strength (N)

6000
5000
4000

DP-50C
DP+10C

3000
2000
1000
0
+P

i
%S
Mn
,B
0.2
n
+P
. 4%
n
0
n
M
F
%M
M
I
Mn
2
%
.
%
1
.
-1
.8
.3%
C
0
0
C-1
IF
C

DP+10C
DP-50C

Figure 10: Influence of the soaking temperature, for a 5MPa


compression stress, during annealing in 100% H2 in various
dew points on sticking (measured by a lap shear test)

68

Annealing 720C with 1 MPa during first hour of cooling


Decohesion strength (N

6000
5000
4000

DP-50C

3000

DP0C
DP+10C

2000
1000
0
P
Si
n+
.2%
n
%M
P,B
0
4
.
n
0
n+
%M
Mn
M
IF
%
%M
1.2
%
1
.
8
.
1
C
0.3
0
CC
F
I

DP+10C
DP0C
DP-50C

Annealing 660C with 1 MPa during first hour of cooling

Decohesion strength (N)

6000
5000
4000
3000

DP-50C
DP0C

2000

DP+10C

1000
0
+P
i
%S
Mn
,B
%
0.2
+P
.4
Mn
n
0
n
Mn
M
F
2%
M
I
.
%
1
%
1
.3%
.
.8
C
0
1
0
C
C
IF

DP+10C
DP0C
DP-50C

Figure 11: Influence of the soaking temperature, for a 1 MPa


compression stress, during annealing in 100% H2 in various
dew points on sticking (measured by a lap shear test)

69

Area without sticking

Area with sticking

O1

Al2

Si2

Mn1

Fe3

Full area 10000X

52.47

7.24

18.13

10.09

12.08

GRAIN AREA 1

52.82

8.62

12.66

10.29

15.61

JOINT PT2

32.44

8.98

21.48

34.07

3.02

JOINT PT3

41.96

5.07

14.4

28.38

10.19

Full area 10000X

61.3

23.81

Figure 12: SEM view of the C-1.1%Mn 0.2%Si samples after strip decohesion at different magnification (left pictures: area not affected
by sticking right pictures: area affected by sticking) Annealing at
720C / dew point 50C with an applied stress of 5 MPa

70

Al

SEM

Fe

Mn

Si

Figure 13: Auger analysis made on the area not affected by sticking
(Sample C-1.1%Mn 0.2%Si / 720C / DP-50C)

71

C1

O1

Al2

Si2

Mn1

Fe3

Area without sticking

Full area 10000X


AREA 1 RICH MN
AREA 2 POOR MN
PT3 NODULE

0
3.86
5.64
3.38

66.83
62.23
57.04
62.66

0
0
0
0

6.26
5.65
6.32
3.88

21.24
26.55
18.62
27.2

5.67
1.7
12.38
2.88

Area with sticking

Full area 10000X


AREA 4
AREA 5
PT6
PT7

16.44
11.17
12.92
8.59
7.19

59.52
61.87
60.78
45.08
48.36

0
1.26
1.11
3.23
2.66

0
0
0
9.15
9.25

2.68
0
0
16.71
14.89

21.36
25.7
25.19
17.24
17.64

Figure 14: SEM view of the C-1.1%Mn 0.2%Si samples after strip decohesion at different magnification (left pictures: area not affected
by sticking right pictures: area affected by sticking) Annealing at
720C / dew point +10C with an applied stress of 5 MPa

72

Al

SEM

Fe

Si

Mn

Figure 15: Auger analysis made on the area not affected by sticking
(Sample C-1.1%Mn 0.2%Si / 720C / DP+10C)

73

C1

O1

Al2

Si2

Mn1

Fe3

Area without sticking

Full area 10000X


AREA 1
PT 2 NODULE

9.84
0
0

50.86
53.99
58.68

10.02
11.27
5.61

6.63
5.74
4.83

10.96
12.94
25.21

11.69
16.05
5.68

Area with sticking

Full area 10000X


AREA 3
AREA 4
PT5 NODULE
PT6 NODULE

15.05
11.82
11.01
7.71
10.39

59.01
60.64
61.31
58.02
41.65

0
0
0
3.18
5.67

0
0
0
0
7.5

2.56
2.24
1.42
16.55
16.81

23.38
25.3
26.26
14.54
17.99

Figure 16: SEM view of the C-1.2%Mn samples after strip decohesion at different magnification (left pictures: area not affected
by sticking right pictures: area affected by sticking) Annealing at
720C / dew point -50C with an applied stress of 5 MPa

74

C1

O1

Al2

Si2

Mn1

Fe3

Area without sticking

FULL
AREA 1
PT2

0
0
0

70.61
71.67
68.35

0
0
0

0
0
0

16.42
7.87
22.1

12.97
20.46
9.55

Area with sticking

FULL
AREA 3
PT4

15.46
11.18
11.19

59
62.17
49.93

0
0
8.53

0
0
0

4.49
1.01
17.44

21.06
25.63
12.9

Figure 17: SEM view of the C-1.2%Mn samples after strip decohesion at different magnification (left pictures: area not affected
by sticking right pictures: area affected by sticking) Annealing at
720C / dew point +10C with an applied stress of 5 MPa

75

Annealing 660C with 1 MPa during first hour of cooling

Decohesion strength (N

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000

.4
IF 0

1H

n
%M

+P

.1
C-1

0
Mn

.2 %

Si

.8
IF 0

n
%M

B
+P ,

.2
C-1

Mn
.3
C-0

CO2

2H

n
%M

Figure 18: Influence of CO2 injection at the end of the soaking on


sticking

Decohesion strength (N

Annealing 720C with 1 MPa during first hour of cooling


6000
5000
4000

5H

3000

1H

2000
1000
0

1H

P
i
n+
%S
%M
P ,B
0 .2
4
.
n
0
Mn
n+
n
M
IF
M
2%
%
.
%
1
1
.
%M
8
.
3
.
C
0
0
C-1
IF
C-

Figure 19: Influence of soaking time on sticking

76

5H

Compressive stresses of 1 MPa during first hour of cooling

Decohesion strength (N

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000

720C-5%H2
720C-100%H2
660C-5%H2

0
.4
IF 0

P
i
n+
%S
,B
%M
0.2
n
+P
n
%M
Mn
Mn
%M
%
1
.
8
-1.2
.
1
.3%
C
0
C
IF
C- 0

660C-100%H2

Figure 20: Influence of the H2 amount during annealing at different


soaking temperature on sticking

Annealing 660C with 1 MPa during first hour of cooling

Decohesion strength (N)

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0

10

20

40

80

160

320

Cleaning time (s)

Figure 21: Influence of surface cleanliness before annealing on


sticking

77

(a) :

(b) :

(c) :

= 0 ; T = F

0 ; Fr = T sin

= 90 ; Fr = T sin

Figure 22: Scheme for the sticking force and the uncoiling tension

78

Figure 23 : Pictures of the strip uncoiled from a strongly stuck coil on Arcelor
Research pilot mill

79

Figure 24: Uncoiling behavior of a strongly stuck coil on our pilot mill

80

Figure 25: Uncoiling of stuck coils wound after rolling at different tension
levels

81

Figure 26: Coiling tension influence on sticking intensity

82

Figure 27: Uncoiling of stuck coils of different roughnesses and wounded at a


same coiling tension

83

Coiling tension : 150 MPa ; annealing temperature : 700C

Figure 28: Influence of the roughness on sticking intensity

84

Figure 29: Uncoiling of stuck coils annealed at different temperatures

85

Figure 30: Uncoiling of stuck coils with different amounts of oil

86

Figure 31: Observation of 2 scratching marks with interferometry microscope

87

Ra = 0,4 m

Coiling tension = 200 DaN

Radius mark from


first slipping

Radius mark from


second re-coiling

Figure 32: Evolution of a radius mark on coil side after scratching during
trials

88

89

Figure 33: Stress distribution upon the coiler resulting from different thickness profiles of the strip

90

Figure 34:

Radial stress distribution upon the coiler resulting from different types of flatness defects

91

Figure 35: Schematic view of the tension roller plant

Figure 36: Overall view of the tension roller plant

92

Figure 37: Piezo transducer with integrated cable

93

94

Figure 38: Sensor installation at the laboratory coiler with electronic unit mounted on the face of the
mandrel body

95

Figure 39: Measuring laboratory coiler with installed force tranducers across the axis and transmitter unit

12
Sensor E

Radial force in kN

10
8

6
c

4
2
0

a
0

Revolutions

50

15000

20000

25000

a
revol. i
: 0

220

revol. i+1

360
220

Figure 40: Course of measured radial forces at different strip position

96

97

Radial forces in kN

0
200
Number of windings

400

Transducer C

Transducer E ( OS )

Transducer D

Coiling

Transducer B

600

Force tra
nsducer

Holding time

Figure 41: Measured course of radial forces in dependence of the number of windings

12

16

20

24

Sensor

a)

D
C
E
Radial force

Measuring position 1

Measuring position 2

Start

End
Number of windings

b)
B

Length distribution

Measuring position 2
C
D

Measuring position 1
Strip width

Figure 42: Flatness deviation b) for two measured positions based on


measured radial forces a)

98

Table 43: Schedule for test series with the laboratory coiler

99

Figure 44: Positions for temperature measuring and arrangement of the strip position for simulating local thickness deviations

100

Figure 45: Stress distribution across the strip width during coiling

101

102

Figure 46: Thickness profile of the coiled strip

Figure 47: Arrangement of the radiant heater


a) with view upon the coiler
b) b)with integrated force transducers

103

104

Figure 48: Course of strip- and coiler temperature during coiling

105

Figure 49: Course of strip- and coiler temperature during cooling time

106

Figure 50: Measured course of radial forces in dependence of the number of windings (during coiling a heated strip)

107

Figure 51: Measured course of radial forces in dependence of the holding time

Figure 52: Feeding tape for simulating strip thickness deviations at strip center;
a) initial state and
b) final state

108

109

Figure 53: Measured course of radial forces in dependence of the number of windings (during coiling a
strip with simulated thickness deviations)

110

conventional coiling)

Figure 54: Measured course of radial forces in dependence of the number of windings (during

111

Figure 55: Design of industrial coiler and mounting position of the sensors

112

Figure 56: Design of industrial coiler and mounting position of the sensors

113

Figure 57: Gradients of measured radial forces for determination of the amplifier measuring ranges

114

Figure 58: Assembly drawing of the measuring equipment

115

Figure 59: Front view of the modified measuring coiler

116

Figure 60: Milled recess on the face of the reel mandrel for picking up the measuring cables

117

Figure 61: Installed measuring coiler in the reversing mill at EKO Stahl GmbH

Table 62: Strip and rolling conditions of the rolling trials

118

Figure 63: Measured distribution of radial forces over the barrel


length of
the measuring coiler (final pass no.7)

Figure 64: Course of the radial force during coiling measured by


sensor 7 (final pass no.7)

119

Figure 65: Course of the radial force during coiling measured by


sensor 8 (final pass no.7)

Figure 66: Course of the radial force during coiling measured by


sensor 4 (final pass no.7)

120

Figure 67: Course of the radial force during coiling measured by


sensor 11 (final pass no.7)

Figure 68: Measured distribution of radial forces over the barrel length of
the measuring coiler (pass no.1)

121

Figure 69: Appearance of the force signal (sensor 9, pass no. 1)

Figure 70: Course of the measured radial force during coiling and
subsequent uncoiling

122

Figure 71: Course of the measured radial force during coiling with
clamped thick and thin strip head end

B side

A side

1
1

Rolling
directi

Figure 72: Basic positions of the pressure sensors in the mandrel viewed from
top

123

E isen h tten stadt, 2 8 Ju l 2 0 0 4

Scale graduation

S ig n a l d ifferen ces a t a sen so r lo a d o f 1 7 6 .5 N

500
450

+
+

400

+
+

+
+
+

350
300

A vera ge
3 86.2

250
200
150
100
50
1

10

11

12

13

14
15
S e n so r n u m b e r

Figure 73: Results of measurement of the 15 pressure sensors at static pressure


176.5 N

high sensor
sensiti eness
Problem with reproduce

=176.5 N

Figure 74: Example sensor 14 with high sensor sensitiveness and problems with
reproduce the range

124

High drift
defect
=176.5 N

Figure 75: Example sensor 14 with to high drift

Figure 76: Mesh structure of sensor area

125

Figure 77: Wedge shaped supporting surface of reel sleeve segment

Figure 78: Contact zone between sensor and bolt

126

Figure 79: Contact zone between sensor and reel sleeve segment

Figure 80: Contact zone between bolt thread and reel sleeve segment

127

Figure 81: Constant pressure distribution upon surface of sleeve


segment and sensor cap

Figure 82: Total displacement of reel sleeve segment

128

Figure 83: Total displacement of reel sleeve segment, sensor area detailed

Figure 84: Displacement in z-direction of reel sleeve segment

129

Figure 85: Displacement in z-direction of reel sleeve segment,


sensor area detailed

Figure 86: Stress distribution of sensor in z-direction

130

high strength IF steels

IF steels

soft unalloyed steel grades with


low coiling temperature

high strength microalloyed steel


grades

soft unalloyed steel grades from


Russia

Electro steel grades

soft unalloyed steel grades with


high coiling temperature

structural steel grades

quarto tandem mill


sticking
scratching
all listed coils
coils without defect
6 rolls reversing mill
sticking
scratching
all listed coils
coils without defect

0
85
0
23
14
271
4
0
20
131
0
195
33
1449
91
0
3879 4856 1299 4190 2906 34504 16276 214
3859 4640 1299 3972 2859 32784 16181 214
0
5
1393
1388

0
1
100
99

8
2
1859
1849

4
2
240
234

28
21
1763
1714

45
65
3047
2937

7
4
638
627

0
1
25
24

Table 87 : Statistics of defect coils depending on steel grade (year 2001)


share of defects at "quarto tandem mill"
classify to grade of steel
8%
6%
w ithout defects
scratching

4%

sticking

2%

high strength
IF steels

IF steels

soft
unalloyed
steel grades

high strength
microalloyed
steel grades

soft
unalloyed
steel grades

Electro steel
grades

soft
unalloyed
steel grades

structural
steel grades

0%

Figure 88: Share of defects at quarto tandem mill classified by steel grade
share of defects at "6-rolls reversing mill"
classify to grade of steel
8%

6%
w ithout defects

4%

scratching
sticking

2%

high strength
IF steels

IF steels

soft
unalloyed
steel grades

high strength
microalloyed
steel grades

soft
unalloyed
steel grades

Electro steel
grades

soft
unalloyed
steel grades

structural
steel grades

0%

Figure 89: Share of defects at 6 rolls reversing mill classified by


steel grade

131

>2.00mm

>1.75-2.00mm

>1.50-1.75mm

>1.25-1.50mm

>1.00-1.25mm

>0.75-1.00mm

>0.50-0.75mm

<0.50mm

quarto tandem mill


sticking
scratching
all listed coils
coils without defect
6 rolls reversing mill
sticking
scratching
all listed coils
coils without defect

27
81
174
44
37
2
25
7
13
65
241 161 417
40 386 596
2131 10453 23104 8630 9514 1757 7971 5660
2091 10307 22689 8425 9060 1715 7560 5057
16
18
3220
3186

23
15
2760
2722

40
27
2085
2018

8
11
461
442

5
18
885
862

0
1
36
35

0
5
180
175

0
6
281
275

Table 90: Statistics of defect coils depending on thickness (year


2001)
share of defects at "quarto tandem mill"
classify to thickness
12%
9%
w ithout defect
6%

scratching
sticking

3%

>2.00mm

>1.752.00mm

>1.501.75mm

>1.251.50mm

>1.001.25mm

>0.751.00mm

>0.500.75mm

<0.50mm

0%

Figure 91 : Share of defects at quarto tandem mill classified by strip thickness


share of defects at "6-rolls reversing mill"
classify to thickness
12%

9%
w ithout defect
scratching

6%

sticking

3%

>2.00mm

>1.752.00mm

>1.501.75mm

>1.251.50mm

>1.001.25mm

>0.751.00mm

>0.500.75mm

<0.50mm

0%

Figure 92: Share of defects at 6 rolls reversing mill classified by strip


thickness
132

>1.5m

>1.4-1.5m

>1.3-1.4m

>1.2-1.3m

>1.1-1.2m

>1.0-1.1m

>0.9-1.0m

=0.8-0.9m

quarto tandem mill


sticking
26
78
82
43
112
18
11
27
scratching
34
73 496
84
730 102
67
333
all listed coils
3951 7262 9905 6068 18642 7948 4757 10685
coils without defect
3891 7111 9327 5941 17800 7828 4679 10325
6 rolls reversing mill
sticking
22
9
29
8
12
5
5
2
scratching
6
5
30
4
20
11
3
22
all listed coils
389 477 2031 1619 3090 890 642
770
coils without defect
361 463 1972 1607 3058 874 634
746

Table 93: Statistics of defect coils depending on width (year 2001)


share of defects at "quarto tandem mill"
classify to width
8%
6%
w ithout defects
4%

scratching
sticking

2%

>1.5m

>1.41.5m

>1.31.4m

>1.21.3m

>1.11.2m

>1.01.1m

>0.91.0m

0.80.9m

0%

Figure 94: Share of defects at quarto tandem mill classified by coil width
share of defects at "6-rolls reversing mill"
classify to width
8%

6%
w ithout defects

4%

scratching
sticking

2%

>1.5m

>1.4-1.5m

>1.3-1.4m

>1.2-1.3m

>1.1-1.2m

>1.0-1.1m

>0.9-1.0m

0.8-0.9m

0%

Figure 95: Share of defects at 6 rolls reversing mill classified by


coil width

133

>31.0t

>27.5-31.0t

>24.0-27.5t

>20.5-24.0t

>17.0-20.5t

>13.5-17.0t

>10.0-13.5t

=7.0-10.0t

quarto tandem mill


sticking
scratching
all listed coils
coils without defect
6 rolls reversing mill
sticking
scratching
all listed coils
coils without defect

2
3
11
86
102
123
48
22
8
23
66
218
499
727 237 140
409 1599 3372 13502 14992 22406 9469 3424
399 1573 3295 13198 14391 21556 9184 3262
2
4
10
25
26
20
5
0
1
4
5
14
29
27
13
8
116 271 475 1614 3193 3017 938 266
113 263 460 1575 3138 2970 920 258

Table 96: Statistics of defect coils depending on weight (year 2001)


share of defects at "quarto tandem mill"
classify to weigth
5%
4%
w ithout defect
3%

scratching
sticking

2%
1%

>31.0t

>27.531.0t

>24.027.5t

>20.524.0t

>17.020.5t

>13.517.0t

>10.013.5t

7.0-10.0t

0%

Figure 97: Share of defects at quarto tandem mill classified by coil weight
share of defects at "6-rolls reversing mill"
classify to weigth
5%
4%
w ithout defect

3%

scratching
2%

sticking

1%

>31.0t

>27.531.0t

>24.027.5t

>20.524.0t

>17.020.5t

>13.517.0t

>10.013.5t

7.0-10.0t

0%

Figure 98: Share of defects at 6 rolls reversing mill classified by coil


weight
134

defect 24

defect 25

30
0
0
4
1
11
0
16
2
0
0
0
17
6
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

20 804 474
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
45 20
1
6
2
11 31 13
0
0
0
12 39 15
1
8
3
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
10
1
0
5
60 20
0
6
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
28 10
1
9
2
0
0
0
0
16
2
0
11
4
1
17
7
2
23
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

% defect scratching

defect 23
10
0
0
1
0
1
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
4
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

% defect sticking

defect 22
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

defect 69

number of coils
10413
0
10
1385
821
1057
0
1145
220
42
67
19
747
1227
124
18
15
914
302
26
182
95
350
946
0
0
0
42
167
296
7

defect 40

annealing regime number


100
101
102
110
112
115
116
120
122
125
127
135
137
140
141
142
145
147
148
149
150
155
160
165
170
172
175
176
180
181
185

0,59
0,00
0,00
0,87
0,24
2,27
0,00
2,62
1,36
0,00
0,00
0,00
3,61
1,39
0,81
0,00
0,00
0,44
0,33
0,00
0,55
0,00
0,29
0,42
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00

7,72
0,00
0,00
3,25
0,73
2,93
0,00
3,41
3,64
4,76
0,00
5,26
0,13
4,89
4,84
11,11
0,00
3,06
2,98
0,00
8,79
11,58
4,86
2,43
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,60
0,00
0,00

The defects sticking and scratching were split up of EKO for a better evaluation. In the case
of the defect sticking decides the position and the appearance about the classification. The
difference between defect 40 and 69 lies in the appearance of the defect.
Defect 22:

point sticking

defect 40:

scratching

Defect 23:

edge sticking

defect 69:

surface mark

Defect 24:

surface sticking

Defect 25:

ridge sticking

Table 99: Statistics of defect coils depending on the annealing regime (1st
half of year 2002)

135

share of defects (annealing regime number)


25,00

defect rate [%]

20,00

15,00

sticking
scratching

10,00

5,00

181

180

176

175

172

170

165

160

155

150

149

148

147

145

140

137

135

120

116

115

112

110

102

101

100

0,00

Figure 100: Share of defects classified by annealing regime

12
scratching
sticking

defect rate [%]

10

0
100

110

115

120

125

135

140

147

148

150

155

160

165

180

annealing regime group

Figure 101: Share of defects classified by annealing regime,


grouped by families

136

181

15

sticking
scratching

12
2

sticking [%]

scratching [%]

R = 0,6655

R = 0,2914

-1
590

600

610

620

630

640

650

660

670

680

690

0
700

metal temperature [C]

Figure 102: Correlation between the annealing cycle soaking temperature and
sticking and scratching defects

137

% defect scratching

% defect sticking

0 9 6 40 1 2,15 6,15
0 4 1 31 1 0,71 4,40
2 5 1 37 1 1,22 5,64
0 6 2 23 4 1,19 3,42
3 6 4 26 0 2,01 4,01
1 3 3 20 2 0,93 3,10
1 4 6 26 3 1,65 3,91
2 8 1 41 0 1,31 5,99
2 7 2 28 1 1,68 4,28
9 3 2 30 0 2,12 4,55
0 2 2 33 0 0,60 4,95
1 2 2 33 3 0,74 4,90
1 2 1 29 2 0,58 4,19
1 10 3 25 1 2,06 3,68
0 8 0 29 1 1,19 4,33
1 13 0 29 2 2,08 4,30
2 7 0 34 0 1,28 5,45
0 2 2 19 0 0,64 3,05
0 5 1 27 0 0,79 4,29
0 1 0 29 3 0,16 4,55
0 2 1 29 0 0,48 4,68
2 4 3 19 0 1,16 3,16
3 3 3 27 1 1,35 4,05
0 3 3 19 4 0,88 2,78
1 3 3 27 1 0,94 4,23
1 5 3 24 2 1,19 3,57
4 4 1 27 5 1,36 4,09
0 4 1 31 3 0,74 4,56
0 8 4 32 3 1,67 4,86
1 0 4 26 3 0,75 3,87
2 6 3 32 1 1,80 5,23
1 5 3 26 0 1,40 4,05

defect 69

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

defect 40

defect 23

650
704
656
673
648
645
665
685
654
660
667
673
692
679
670
674
624
623
630
637
620
602
667
683
639
672
660
680
659
671
612
642

defect 25

defect 22

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62

defect 24

number of coils

Table 103: Statistics (part 1) of


defect coils depending on the
annealing place (year 2001)

annealing place

% defect scratching

% defect sticking

defect 69

defect 23

2 2 1 35 1 0,79 5,54
2 9 3 32 1 2,08 5,12
1 2 0 32 2 0,48 5,14
1 1 1 42 2 0,47 6,61
4 3 3 31 4 1,56 4,84
2 4 3 44 4 1,18 6,50
6 2 4 29 0 2,01 4,87
2 3 0 30 2 0,74 5,54
0 3 2 28 4 1,00 4,68
2 13 1 40 4 2,45 6,13
5 2 2 35 4 1,55 6,04
2 4 0 34 0 0,92 5,22
6 3 0 14 1 1,69 3,37
4 1 2 23 1 1,63 5,36
5 2 0 22 0 1,75 5,50
2 0 0 28 2 0,42 5,94
2 3 0 21 3 1,12 4,72
2 3 2 15 2 1,40 3,01
3 6 1 34 0 1,90 6,45
3 3 0 40 1 1,19 7,94
4 1 3 34 3 1,32 5,61
1 2 3 35 3 0,96 5,58
2 2 4 17 0 1,50 3,65
1 4 2 35 0 1,11 5,54
5 6 2 38 1 2,02 6,40
6 3 3 33 2 1,91 5,26
5 4 2 36 1 1,87 6,12
4 1 1 25 3 0,90 3,76
6 3 1 30 1 1,58 4,74
3 2 4 35 3 1,32 5,12

defect 40

defect 22
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

defect 25

number of coils
632
625
622
635
640
677
596
542
598
653
579
651
415
429
400
471
445
499
527
504
606
627
466
632
594
627
588
665
633
683

defect 24

annealing place
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Table 104: Statistics (part 2) of


defect coils depending on the
annealing place (year 2001)

138

share of defects (annealing place)


8,00

defect rate [%]

7,00
6,00
5,00

sticking

4,00

scratching

3,00
2,00
1,00
26

21

16

11

0,00

1-30 Nassheuer furnace

Figure 105: Share of defects on Nassheuer furnace classified by


annealing place

share of defects (annealing place)


8,00

defect rate [%]

7,00
6,00
5,00

sticking

4,00

scratching

3,00
2,00
1,00
61

56

51

46

41

36

31

0,00

31-62 Ebner furnace

Figure 106: Share of defects on Nassheuer furnace classified by


annealing place

139

annealing hood

number of coils

defect 22

defect 23

defect 24

defect 25

defect 40

defect 69

% defect sticking

% defect scratching

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

2382
2337
2311
2423
2330
2177
2335
2299
2294
2403
2321
2365
2303
2270
2263
1139
1190
1129

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

13
7
12
9
7
9
12
7
7
10
7
6
7
7
7
4
1
2

13
10
20
17
16
19
7
20
17
12
16
23
11
13
10
9
11
7

6
6
11
4
6
14
8
5
10
6
11
2
9
6
9
1
4
3

100
105
99
139
127
121
103
123
106
100
132
95
105
113
119
56
45
47

7
9
2
4
8
10
4
7
3
2
7
6
10
2
11
3
6
2

1,26
0,90
1,77
1,16
1,24
1,93
1,11
1,26
1,48
1,17
1,34
1,31
1,13
1,15
1,15
1,23
1,26
1,06

4,20
4,49
4,28
5,74
5,45
5,56
4,41
5,35
4,62
4,16
5,69
4,02
4,56
4,98
5,26
4,92
3,78
4,16

Table 107: Statistics of defect coils depending on annealing hood


(year 2001)

share of defects (annealing hood)


7,00

5,00
4,00

sticking
3,00

scratching

2,00
1,00

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

0,00
1

defect rate [%]

6,00

number of hood

Figure 108: Share of defects classified by annealing hood

140

defect 40

defect 69

% defect sticking

% defect scratching

defect 25

defect 24

defect 23

defect 22

number of coils

annealing position

1 11482 0 32 79 39
2 11483 0 47 77 27
3 11477 1 36 63 31
4 3671 1 19 29 23
5 164 0 0 3 1

556
564
545
162
8

35
29
28
11
0

1,26
1,25
1,09
1,93
2,44

4,84
4,91
4,75
4,41
4,88

Table 109: Statistics of defect coils depending on annealing position in


stack (year 2001)

share of defects (annealing position)


6,00

defect rate [%]

5,00
4,00

sticking

3,00

scratching
2,00
1,00

0,00

number of position

Figure 110: Share of defects classified by annealing position in


stack
N

Profile (m)

Over-thickness (m)

Sticking

12_01
12_02
12_03
12_04
12_05
12_06
12_07
12_08
12_09
12_10

14
14
7
10
6
23
2
10
11
2

1
3
6
15
8.5
2
2
4
3.5
6

OK
NOK
NOK
NOK
NOK
OK
OK
NOK
NOK
NOK

Table 111: Correlation between thickness profile and sticking

141

0.775

0.775

Peak - 50 mm

Peak - 100mm

p121

p111

0.770

p211

p221

0.770

p321

p311
p112

0.765

p122

0.765

p222

p212
p312

0.760

p322

0.760

p123

p113
p213

0.755

p223

0.755

p313

p323

0.750

0.750

0.745

0.745
0

0.775

400

800

1200

1600
0.775

Shaft - 50 mm

400

800

1200

Shaft - 100mm

p124

p114

0.770

p214

p224

0.770

p324

p314
p115

0.765

p125

0.765

p225

p215
p315

0.760

p325

0.760

p126

p116
p216

0.755

p226

0.755

p316

p326

0.750

0.750

0.745

0.745
0

400

800

p117

0.775

1200

1600

Positive step

p328

p119

0.760

p219

p129
p229

p319

0.755

0.750

0.750

0.745

0.745
400

Negative step

p228

0.765

p318

1600

p128

p218

0.755

1200

p327

0.770

p118

0.760

800

p227

p317

0.765

400
p127

0.775

p217

0.770

1600

800

1200

1600

p329

400

800

1200

1600

Figure 112: Description of the different profile irregularities


introduced along the strip width (scales in mm)

142

-15

-15
Stress (N/mm2)

Stress (N/mm2)

-35
-55

111
112

-75

113

-35
-55

116
115

-75

-95

114

-95

Influence of shaft localization


Influence of peak localization

-115
1

11

13

15

-115
17

-15

-15

-35

-35

-55

119

11

13

15

17

118

-75

100

-55

129
128

-75

117

127
-95

-95

Influence of negative steps

Influence of positive steps

-115

-115
1

7
9
11
Along the with

13

15

17

-15

-15

-35
-55
100-0mm
-75

114-50mm

-95

7
9
11
Along the with

11

13

15

17

100- C
100- D

-75

111- C
111- D

-95

111-50mm
121-100mm

Influence of type of coiling tension

-115
1

-55

-115
1

-35

124-100mm

Influence of peaks
and shaft width

Along the with

Stress (N/mm2)

Stress (N/mm2)

Along the with

Stress (N/mm2)

Stress (N/mm2)

Along the with

13

15

17

11

13

15

17

Along the with

Figure 113: Influence of various defects of a magnitude of 3 m, introduced


on a strip having a profile of 30 m, on the radial stress after cold rolling

143

-15

-15

-35
-55

Stress (N/mm2)

Stress (N/mm2)

211
212

-75

213

-95

-35
216

-55

215
-75

214

-95

Influence of peak localization

Influence of shaft localization

-115

-115
1

11

13

15

17

11

13

-15

-15

-35

-35

-55

17

219

-75

200

-55

229
228

-75

218

227

217

-95

-95

Influence of negative steps

Influence of positive steps


-115

-115
1

7
9
11
Along the with

13

15

17

-15

-15

-35

-35

Stress (N/mm2)

Stress (N/mm2)

15

Along the with

Stress (N/mm2)

Stress (N/mm2)

Along the with

-55
200-0mm
-75

214-50mm

Influence of peaks
and shaft width

-95

7
9
11
Along the with

13

15

17

200- C
-55

200- D
211- C

-75

211- D

224-100mm
-95

211-50mm

Influence of type of coiling tension

221-100mm
-115

-115
1

7
9
11
Along the with

13

15

17

7
9
11
Along the with

13

15

17

Figure 114: Influence of various defects of a magnitude of 3 m,


introduced on a strip having a profile of 10 m, on the radial stress
after cold rolling

144

-15

-15

-35
-55

Stress (N/mm2)

Stress (N/mm2)

311
312

-75

313

-95

-35
-55

316
315

-75

314

-95

Influence of peak localization

Influence of shaft localization

-115

-115
1

11

13

15

17

-15

-15

-35

-35

-55
319
-75

11

13

15

318

300

-55

329
328

-75

327

317
-95

-95

Influence of positive steps

Influence of negative steps

-115

-115
1

7
9
11
Along the with

13

15

17

-15

-15

-35

Stress (N/mm2)

Stress (N/mm2)

17

Along the with

Stress (N/mm2)

Stress (N/mm2)

Along the with

300-0mm
314-50mm

-55

324-100mm
311-50mm

-75

7
9
11
Along the with

13

15

17

-35
300- C
-55

300- D
311- C

-75

311- D

321-100mm

Influence of peaks
and shaft width

-95

-95

Influence of type of coiling tension


-115

-115
1

7
9
11
Along the with

13

15

17

7
9
11
Along the with

13

15

17

Figure 115: Influence of various defects of a magnitude of 3 m,


introduced on a strip having a profile of 5 m, on the radial stress
after cold rolling

145

-15

-15
Stress (N/mm2)

Stress (N/mm2)

-35
-55

311
312

-75

313

-35
-55

316
315

-75

-95

314

-95

Influence of shaft localization

Influence of peak localization


-115

-115
1

11

13

15

17

-15

-15

-35
-55
319
318

-75

11

13

17

-35
300

-55

329
328

-75

317

327

-95

-95

Influence of negative steps

Influence of positive steps


-115

-115
1

11

13

15

17

Along the with


5

-15

-15

-35
-55

300-0mm
314-50mm

-75

324-100mm

11

13

15

17

-35

300- C
300- D

-55

311- C
311- D

-75

311-50mm

Influence of peaks
and shaft width

-95

Along the with

Stress (N/mm2)

Stress (N/mm2)

15

Along the with

Stress (N/mm2)

Stress (N/mm2)

Along the with

-95

321-100mm

Influence of type of coiling tension

-115

-115
1

11

13

15

17

Along the with

11

13

15

17

Along the with

Figure 116: Influence of various defects of a magnitude of 1 m,


introduced on a strip having a profile of 5 m, on the radial stress
after cold rolling

146

Strip profile (m)

0.775
0.77
0.765
0.76
0.755

00
16

00
14

00
12

00
10

0
80

60

0
40

20

0.75

strip width (mm)


Figure 117: Strips irregularities measured on industrial coils

Radial stress (N/mm2)

5
-15
1_2
2_2
3_2
4_2

-35
-55
-75
1

7 9 11 13 15 17
Along the with

Figure 118: Influence of the irregularities, observed on industrial


coils on radial stresses repartition

147

Figure 119: Experimental coiler

148

Radial stresses (N/mm)

-6

B
C
D
E

-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
0

10

20
Number of windings

30

40

Figure 120: Radial stress evolution with a constant thickness profile

Radial stress (N/mm2)

-7

E
D
C
B

-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
0

10

20
30
Number of windings

40

Figure 121: Calculated radial stresses in the case of over-thickness

149

Radial forces in kN

wrapped up foil

Transducer C

without
wrapped
up foil

5
4

Transducer D

longitudinal
strip tension:
9.8 kN

3
2

Transducer E
(OS)
Transducer B

1
0
0

10

20
30
Number of windings

40

Figure 122: Measured radial stresses in the case of over-thickness

place of installation
Laser

holder

holder

second possible place


of installation

rolling direction

coiler

coil

Sundwigroller
driving table

Figure 123: Sketch for the test set-up of the vibration measurement
with Laser-vibrometer

150

nd

Possible 2 place of
laser installation

Place of Laser
installation

Laser

Area of measurement

Coiling
mandrel

driving table

Figure 124: Picture of the installation site and the measuring environment

Supply for
blow off lens

Cooling input

Figure 125: Air cooled protective housing of the vibration measurement

151

Header and
processing data

field of the vibration measure

measured
value
strength

Data record usable

FFT analysis
(frequency range 5-40 Hz)

Figure 126: Vibration signal and result of an FFT analysis

152

Figure 127: Result of process capability analysis of the coiler tension at the
tandem mill (Example for November 2004)

Figure 128: Partial high noise level of coil nr 338544 at temper mill with
peaks (tendency to sticking) and the coiler tension at tandem mill

153

Figure 129: A normal noise level of coil nr 337301 at temper mill and the
coiler tension with strong variations at tandem mill

Figure 130: Noise level of coil nr 301640 with differences in level at temper
mill and the normal tension at tandem mill

154

Figure 131: Noise level of coil nr 310405 with valleys (slack windings ?) and
differences in level at temper mill and the normal tension at tandem mill

Figure 132: Noise level of coil nr 305983 with valleys (slack windings ?) at
temper mill and normal tension at tandem mill

155

G_Pegel [dB]

Bd-Nr: 244375
RNR: 19432

Dressierzeit: 03.11.2002 13:39:43 Uhr

Abmessung: 0.973 x 1260 cm

115
110
105
100

Geruschpegel am Dressiergerst

95
90

BZ G4-Aufh [kN]

85
90
80
70

Haspelzug am Quartotandem

60
50
40
30

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

A h

[]

Figure 133: Very high noise level of coil nr 244375 at temper mill and normal
tension at tandem mill. This coil was recorded as sticking coil
Bild: QTB12
Aut: QT_MESSEN_V6
DAC: MPL QT_V6

H-Strom [kA]

Haspelzugverlauf Soll - Ist , Haspelstrom


2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5

Haspelzug [kN]

0
100

Haspelzug

100 % Haspelzug

80

Soll : 41 kN
Ist : 41.6 kN

60

40

20

0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

Walzzeit: 24.10.2002 18:32 Uhr

Qualittsanalyse
Quartotandem

2500
Bandlnge [m]

HGA-Bund

x-Raster: 3.65 m

Bd-Nr: 244375

0.97 mm x 1260 mm
St-M: 313

Figure 134: It is the same coil as previous figure. Set points (red points and
green line) and actual values (black line) are normally at tandem mill.
Beginning and end of coiler tension is reflected to previous figure

156

evolution "sticking and scratching" in 2001


1,00

defect rate [%]

0,80
0,60

scratching
sticking

0,40
0,20

dec

nov

oct

sep

aug

jul

jun

mai

apr

mar

feb

jan

0,00

Figure 135: Evolution of sticking and scratching defects rates


in 2001 at EKO-Stahl

evolution "typ of sticking" in 2001


0,25

point sticking
0,15

edge sticking
surface sticking

0,10

ridge sticking
0,05

dec

nov

oct

sep

aug

jul

jun

mai

apr

mar

feb

0,00
jan

defect rate [%]

0,20

Figure 136: Evolution of the rate of different kinds of sticking


defects in 2001 at EKO-Stahl

157

ANNEX 1

Sticking and scratching problems after batch annealing,


including coil compression stresses effects

1. OBJECTIVES
Batch annealing remains a significant workshop in cold plants. Two of its
major problems are sticking and scratches, both defects of surface aspect
unacceptable for automotive industry. One can think that sticking and scratching are
strongly related.
One objective of the present project is to enlarge the scope of previous
studies on sticking, generally done on sheet samples, both with other parameters
(atmosphere, steel composition), and by changing size of samples (laboratory tests
on narrow coils, industrial tests) .
The change in size for sticking experiments will allow to validate previous
results on sheet sample and to experimentally quantify the effect of parameters
inaccessible on sheet samples such as coiling tension, thermal stresses, flatness,
thickness and thickness profile (global and localized).
Another objective is to investigate and quantify scratching phenomenon,
particularly as a counterpart of sticking. This can only be made using coils and is
easier at laboratory scale (narrow coils).
We also aim at defining connection between force adherence inside coil and
sticking or scratching apparition. These relationships will be established with the
help of a model assessing coiling stresses and thermal stresses , validated by a
stress measurement at the inner wrap level of industrial coils at their coiling stage.
The possibility of very high soaking temperature for new products with very
low yield stresses will be analysed as regards sticking problems.
All the laboratory tests will be validated on industrial trials and statistical
studies made at EKO Stahl which encounters fair amount of sticking and even more
scratching problems, so the conclusions get more foundations.

158

2. WORK PROGRAM AND DISTRIBUTION OF WORK

2.1. Working tasks of IRSID


2.1.1. Pilot tests on sticking of narrow coils
2.1.1.1. To simulate sticking on narrow coils
Several experiments (rolling, annealing, and uncoiling) will be done to find
the good range of coiling tension, roughness, soaking temperature, uncoiling
tension and uncoiling diameter that leads to sticking problems on a narrow coil.
A description of the sticking mechanism will then be made.
2.1.1.2. To measure sticking on narrow coils
A quantification method will be developed. The two main ideas are :
measurement of the marks spacing and intensity
stuck surface ratio measured on metallographic section of two laps
2.1.1.3. Parametric study
A systematic quantification of the sticking intensity for the following
parameters will be made :
coiling tension
coil size
roughness
oil quantity
soaking temperature
cooling speed
thickness profile, with BFI
The results will be compared with bibliography (pressure/coiling tension,
roughness, soaking temperature) and CRM (cleanliness)
2.1.2. Pilot tests on scratching of narrow coils
2.1.2.1. To simulate scratching on narrow coils
Several experiments (rolling, annealing, and uncoiling) will be done to find
the good range of coiling tension, roughness, soaking temperature, uncoiling
tension and uncoiling diameter that leads to scratching problems on a narrow coil.
A description of the scratching mechanism will then be made.

159

2.1.2.2. To measure scratching on narrow coils


A quantification method will be developed. The main idea is : while uncoiler
locked, increasing uncoiling tension until laps slipping occurs and measuring the
changes of a radius line plotted on the coil side.
Direct observations on scratching marks will also be made.
2.1.2.3. Parametric study
A quantification of the scratching to sticking evolution according to coiling
tension will be made, all other parameters unchanged.
From this results and detailed parametric study of sticking, one will
extrapolate what would be a detailed parametric study of scratching.

2.2. Working tasks of CRM


2.2.1. Laboratory study on sticking of sheet samples
2.2.1.1. Development of a mechanical test to evaluate sheet sticking
The study of the effect of the different parameters on sticking of stack of
samples will need some quantifying mean. A mechanical test will be developed at
the beginning of the research.
2.2.1.2. Experimental plan
Different parameters will be investigated to determine their influence on the
sheet sticking:
gas composition
steel composition
cleanliness
The research will be especially focussed on atmosphere containing 100 % H2
but the case of atmosphere containing 5 % H2 will be also take into account
sporadically. Moreover, some other gas injections during the batch annealing cycle
(H2O, CO2,) will be made to modify the surface chemistry before cooling and
control surface sticking.
The amount of manganese and silicon in classical ELC (Extra Low carbon)
but also IF (Interstice Free) steels will be especially studied to determine if selective
oxidation can control strip sticking. Different dew point in the atmosphere, stress
amount (10,20,50 MPa) and various soaking temperature will be tested for each
steel grade.

160

The amount (50, 100, 200 mg/m2) as well as the degradation of the oil will be
studied. The oil, which can distillate during heating, will be condensed at the exit of
the furnace. Moreover, the evolution of the gas composition (H2, CO2, CO, H2O,
CH4, and C2H4) in the chamber will be monitored continuously.
2.2.2. Industrial trials on localized overthicknesses
2.2.2.1. Correlation between size of the over-thicknesses
after hot rolling and sticking
On industrial line, localised over-thickness observed and measured at the
exit of the hot rolled mill will be classified in function of their shape and their
influence on sticking will be established. That study should determine the critical
size of the defect, which leads to sticking problems.
2.2.2.2. Sampling of typical defects for characterization (size,
composition, texture,)
Depending on these results, some typical over-thicknesses on the hot rolled
strip will be more precisely studied. Indeed, some coils will be put on an inspection
line at different production step (after hot rolling, pickling, cold rolling and annealing)
for sampling and better characterising the defect (size, composition, texture,) and
its origin.

2.3. Working tasks of BFI


2.3.1. Theoretical studies (modelling)
The theoretical studies will investigate the stress conditions in the wound coil
using existing mathematical models. The studies will also focus on the stresses
during batch annealing, again using existing models. The aim is to combine the two
model types and to describe the compression stresses in the coil after cold rolling,
during annealing and during cooling in the annealing furnace.
2.3.2. Industrial tests
2.3.2.1. Development of a stress measuring device on tandem coiler
The stressometer will be developed for stress control on tandem coiler of
EKOStahl. Its picture is described at 3.3.
2.3.2.2. Trial plan
The trial plan will investigate the interrelationships between the following
variables and measured stresses on tandem coiler in order to determine the stickslip characteristics of the strip after batch annealing :
-

strip thickness,

161

overall strip tension,


strip thickness profile
distribution of longitudinal stresses across the strip width (strip unflatness)

2.3.3. Validation of the model


The stresses calculated with the mathematical model will be compared with
the measured stresses and the model adapted as necessary.
2.3.4. Derivation of a technological window for optimum coiling
The main process parameters will be varied during both the calculations and
the field measurements and assessed in terms of the resulting compression
stresses. The objective is to determine a "technological window" from all the results
obtained during the theoretical and practical studies in order to minimize or prevent
stick-slip phenomena between coil layers.

2.4. Working tasks of EKO Stahl


2.4.1. Statistical analysis of sticking and scratching defects
(before project effects)
2.4.1.1. Tuning of the acoustical set to defect detection
EKO will use an acoustical test set which is installed at the skin pass mill
stand.
The connection between acoustic signals and the occurrence of sticking and
scratching defects will be investigated, particularly as regards geometric features of
the strip (width, thickness), steelgrade, roughness, speed of strip.
2.4.1.2.

Data gathering and analysis

Additionnally to acoustical defect detection, the following data will be


gathered for statistical analysis.
at hot rolling mill (steel grade, thickness profile)
at tandem mill (thickness, width, flatness, roughness, pollution of
surface, reduction proportion between mill stands, coiling tension)
at batch-annealing (heating-, holding- and cooling regime, local
position of coils in annealing stacks, mass of coils)
at skin-pass (uncoiling tension, speed, local position of defects sticking
and scratching with regard to strip length)
2.4.2. Support to other partners
EKO Stahl will help his partners BFI and IRSID, that is :

162

providing narrow coils for the planned experimental studies at IRSID


technological support of industrial trials of BFI at EKO Stahl production
facilities.
support in modelling of compression stresses in strip coiling and coil
processing (annealing).
analysis and definition of coiling and coil models conditions

evaluation of the theoretical model by special experimental trials


related to the production conditions

2.4.3. Derivation of a technological window for optimum coiling


EKO will participate at defining practicable technological windows in order to
avoid scratching and sticking (adaptation of technology) as a result of statistical
examinations carried out by EKO/FQZ as well as a result of the experimental
studies or industrial tests conducted by IRSID, C.R.M. and BFI.
2.4.4. Statistical analysis of sticking and scratching defects (after
project effects)
A statistical analysis which helps to determine the occurrence of scratching
and sticking will be carried out after the technology has been adapted.

3. WAYS AND MEANS


3.1. Laboratory work on sheet samples
CRM has a pilot furnace which can batch anneal a stack of samples 50 mm
in diameter under mechanical pressure. The atmosphere can be controlled (HNx,
H2, CO2,H2O).
CRM has also surface characterization means: XPS, Auger, SIMS and
GDOS will be used for the measurement of selective oxidation, steel decarburation
and surface pollution.
3.2. Investigation at pilot plant on narrow coils
IRSID has a pilot rolling mill which can be used to simulate both tandem and
skin-pass conditions on narrow coils (60 to 150 mm wide, up to 1300 mm diameter).
IRSID has also a large furnace where the narrow coils can be batch
annealed under N2 atmosphere .
BFI will require the help of IRSID facilities for an experiment on narrow coils
with trapezodal profile.

163

3.3. Investigation at production mills


BFI can model and make theoretical analysis of the stresses appearing
inside an industrial coil after coiling and during batch annealing, particularly related
to thickness profile and flatness of the coil.
A special stressometer sleeve will be developed and implemented on
EKOStahl tandem coiler to make large scale industrial measurements. It is pictured
as following :
Piezo sensors are installed across the width of a longitudinally slit sleeve in
order to detect the stresses across the width of the coiler core during strip coiling.
This sleeve is slipped over the coiler core and tensioned with it through spreading of
the coiler chucks. The changes in signals measured during coiling of the strip
around the sleeve provide information on the pressure distribution during strip
coiling. Once the coiler chucks have been retracted and the coil removed from the
coiler, the sleeve contracts elastically and can then be extracted from the coil.
CRM has an affiliated plant which has width localized sticking problems
related to localized overthicknesses. A thickness profilemeter is available at the end
of the hot rolling mill.
EKOStahl is experiencing sticking and scratching problems.
Its tandem mill is equipped with a BFI flatness gauge whereas thickness
profile can be controlled after pickling. EKOStahl has also installed an acoustical
measurement set at the skin pass mill stand.
EKOStahl will be the reference plant for statistical studies on sticking and
scratching defects in relation with acoustical measurements, experiments driven by
BFI, industrial trials for validation of the interesting results from laboratory
experiments above mentioned (IRSID and CRM) and co-operating with BFI to
define the practical technological windows for avoiding surface defects

164

5. Time Schedule
sem
1

IRSID
Material preparation

Simulating sticking / scratching on coils (2121 and


2132)

Measuring sticking / scratching on coils(2122 and


2133)

sem
2

sem
1

Material preparation

Developing a mechanical test for sheet sticking


(2212)

sem
4

sem
5

sem
6

sem
3

sem
4

sem
5

sem
6

Parametric studies on coils (2123 and 2134)

CRM

sem
3

sem
2

Laboratory experimental plan (2213)

Correlation between size of over-thicknesses and


sticking (2221)

sem
3

sem
4

sem
5

sem
6

Sampling of typical over-thickness defects for


characterization (2222)

BFI
Theoretical studies (Modelling) (232)
Developing an stressometer for coiler (2331)
Trial plan at EKO

sem
1

sem
2

X
X

X
X

Validation of the model (2333)

X
X

Derivation of technological window to avoid


scratching and sticking (2334)

165

X
X

sem
1

EKO

sem
2

Tuning of the acoustical set to defect detection


(2411)

Statistical analysis of sticking and scratching


(2412)

Material provision to IRSID (242)

Technological support of industrial trails of BFI at


EKO Stahl production facilities (242)
Support in modelling of compression stresses in
strip coiling and coil processing (annealing).(242)

sem
3

sem
4

sem
5

Defining practicable technological windows


(adaptation of technology)(243)
Statistical analyses after adaptation of technology
(244)

sem
6

X
X

X
X

9. Results
The results of the project will be the subject of a publication in the Technical
Research series .
The research described above will be placed in the area covered by the Executive Committe
(or the Expert Group) : D2 Rolling - flat product

166