This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
LUZ AMPARO NOY SÁNCHEZ
Like Educational Monitors or teachers, our task is to obtain that our students learn, despite the result not always responds to our expectations and to our efforts. And it is that the learning depends on diverse factors: capacity, motivation, previous knowledge, or strategies of learning. The learning strategies, are the set of activities, techniques and means that are planned in agreement with the needs of the students, the objectives who look for and the nature of the knowledge, in order to make cash the process of learning. To define the learning strategies implies to know clearly: objectives of the course, conception of education, conception of learning, in agreement with Weinstein and Mayer (1986), the learning strategies are the actions and thoughts of the students who happen during the learning, which they have great influence in the motivation degree and include aspects like the acquisition, retention and transference. These authors consider to the strategies like techniques that can be taught to be used during the learning. This way, the goal of any particular strategy of learning will be the one to affect the motivational state and affective and the way in which the student selects, acquires, organizes or Integra a new knowledge. In any case the decision making against the escogencia of a learning strategy, will start off to understand this one like means for the construction of the knowledge, from the analysis, the evaluation, the critical thought, the reflection and the debate. Retaking to Newman and Wehlage (1993), the used strategies will be due to orient to the authentic learning that is characterized by five characteristics: thought of high level, depth of the knowledge, connections with the real world, dialogue noun and social support for advantage of the student.
A vitally important element in the development of the learning strategies constitutes the learning atmosphere that in agreement with Honebein (1996) must consider, the inserted elements in the graph.
1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE STRATEGIES OF LEARNING IN THE ACADEMIC SCOPE. Five types of general strategies in the educative scope have been identified. The three first help the student to elaborate and to organize the contents so that is easier the learning (to process the information), fourth is destined to control the mental activity of the student to direct the learning and, finally, the fifth of support to the learning so that this one takes place in the best possible conditions. 1.1Strategies of test They are those that the active repetition of the contents implies (saying, writing), or to concentrate in parts keys of him. They are examples: To repeat terms, mnemotécnicas rules aloud, to copy the material object of learning, to take literal notes, the underlining. 1,2 Strategies of elaboration They imply to make connections between new and the relative. For example: To paraphrase, to summarize, to create analogies, to take notes not literal, to respond questions (including in the text or those that can be formulated the student), to describe as the new information is related to the existing knowledge. 1,3 Strategies of organization They group the information so that it is easier to remember it. They imply to impose structure to learning contents, dividing it in
parts and identifying relations and hierarchies. They include examples like: To summarize a text, scheme, underlining, statistical chart, semantic network, conceptual map, ordered tree. 1,4 Strategies of control of the understanding These are the strategies ligatures to the Metacognición. They imply to remain conscious than one is being to obtain, to follow the track of the strategies that are used and the success achieved with them and to adapt the conduct in agreement. If we used the metaphor to compare the mind with a computer, these strategies would act like a central processor of computer. They are a system supervisor of the action and the thought of the student, and they are characterized by a high level of brings back to consciousness and voluntary control. Between the metacognitivas strategies they are: the planning, the regulation and the evaluation .
Strategies of planning.
They are those by means of which the students direct and control their conduct. They are, therefore, previous to that the students conduct some battle. They take I finish activities like: • To establish the objective and the goal of learning • To select the previous knowledge that are necessary to carry out it • To disturb the task in successive steps • To program an execution calendar • To anticipate the time that is needed to carry out that task, the resources that are needed, the necessary effort. • To select the strategy to follow
Strategies of regulation, direction and supervision They are used during the execution of the task. They indicate the capacity that the student must to follow the plan drawn up and to verify his effectiveness. Activities are realised like: • To formulate questions • To follow the plan drawn up • To fit to the time and the effort required by the task
• To modify and to look for alternative strategies in case the selected ones previously are not effective. • Strategies of evaluation. They are the ones in charge to verify the learning process. They are carried out during and at the end of the process. Activities are realised like: • To review the taken steps. • To value if they have been obtained or not them proposed objectives. • To evaluate the quality of the final results. • To decide when to conclude the undertaken process, when to make pauses, the duration of pauses, etc. 1,5 Strategies of support or affective These strategies, do not go directly to the learning of the contents. The mission fundamental of these strategies it is to improve the effectiveness of the learning improving the conditions in which one takes place. They include: • To establish and to maintain the motivation, to focus the attention, to maintain the concentration, to handle the anxiety, to handle the time of effective way, etc. Finally to indicate, that some authors relate the learning strategy to a determined type of learning. For these authors each type of learning (by association/by reconstruction) would be tie to a series of strategies that are to him own. • The associative learning: TEST STRATEGIES • The learning by reconstruction: ELABORATION STRATEGIES, OR OF ORGANIZATION. The following scheme represents the different types from strategies graphically.
THE PROFESSOR AGAINST THE LEARNING STRATEGIES.
The main difficulty of the Educational one against the learning strategies is in the rejection of all innovation: The education of learning strategies takes with himself the use of certain methods, in many cases different from which the professors came using. For some professionals, this supposes an inference with the accepted practice, they reject and it. Another difficulty is in the ignorance of the own process of learning: To teach these strategies depends, largely, of the capacity that the professor must to discuss the learning with his students. For it, it is necessary that this one is able to make their own process conscious of learning. Finally the election of a learning strategy depends also on the formation in the methods developed for the education of a certain content.
1. THE STUDENT AGAINST THE LEARNING STRATEGIES. The main problem is the resistance of the student to be active in its learning, motivated by the traditional models of education and, mainly, because it does not appreciate the utility of this learning for the yield in the examinations; then normally these award the mechanical or memorístico learning. On the other hand the learning strategies imply but time that the traditional methods, an environmental disposition in terms of furniture, materials and of particular way an independent work but and therefore with self-regulation of the process, new task for the student who owns a natural disposition towards the skillful class that only implies work of the educational one or traditional education.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.