project about groups

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project about groups

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You are on page 1of 40

1 INTRODUCTION

2 GROUP FUNDAMENTALS

2.1 Groups and Subgroups . . .

2.1.1 Definition . . . . . .

2.1.2 Example . . . . . . .

2.1.3 Definition . . . . . .

2.1.4 Definition . . . . . .

2.1.5 Definition . . . . . .

2.1.6 Definition . . . . . .

2.1.7 Definition . . . . . .

2.1.8 Definition . . . . . .

2.1.9 Definition . . . . . .

2.1.10 Definition . . . . . .

2.1.11 Definition . . . . . .

2.2 Permutation Groups . . . .

2.2.1 definition . . . . . .

2.2.2 Definition . . . . . .

2.3 Cayleys Theorem . . . . . .

2.3.1 Theorem (Cayley) . .

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3.1 Group Action . . . . . . . . .

3.1.1 Definition . . . . . . .

3.1.2 Example . . . . . . . .

3.1.3 Theorem . . . . . . . .

3.1.4 Example . . . . . . . .

3.1.5 Example . . . . . . . .

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3.1.6

3.1.7

3.1.8

Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

4 ISOTROPY SUBGROUPS

4.1 Definition . . . . . . . . .

4.1.1 Example . . . . . .

4.1.2 Theorem . . . . . .

4.1.3 Definition . . . . .

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5 ORBITS

5.1 Theorem . . . .

5.2 Definition . . .

5.2.1 Theorem

5.2.2 Example

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COUNTING

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6 APPLICATIONS OF G-SETS TO

6.1 Theorem (Burnsides Formula ) .

6.1.1 Example . . . . . . . . . .

6.1.2 Example . . . . . . . . . .

6.1.3 Example . . . . . . . . . .

6.1.4 Example . . . . . . . . . .

6.1.5 Example . . . . . . . . . .

SET ON COUNTING

7.1 Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.2 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.3 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . 31

. . . . . . . . . . . 34

. . . . . . . . . . . 35

8 CONCLUSION

38

9 REFERENCES

40

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

In algebra and geometry a group action is a way of describing symmetries of objects using groups.The essential elements

of the objects are described by the symmetry group of this set

,which consists of bijective transformation of set.In this case,the

group is also called a permutation group (especially if set is finite or not a vector space) or transformation groups.A group

actions is an extention to the definition of a symmetry group in

which every element of the group acts like a bijective transformation (orsymmetry) of the set ,without being identified

with that transformation.This allows for more comprehensive

description of the symmetries of an object,such as a polyhedron

by allowing the same group to act on several different sets of

features such as the set of vetices ,the set of edges and the set

of faces of the polyhedron.

Historically,the first group action studied was the action of

the Galois group on roots of polynomial.However ,there are

numerous examples and applications of group action in many

branches of mathematics ,including algebra,topology geometry

,number theory and analysis as well as the science including

3

,because allows geometrical idea to the applied to more abstract

object .Many objects in mathematics have natural group action

defined on them .In particular ,group can act on other groups ,or

even on themselves .Despite this generality the theory of group

action contains wide reaching theorems ,which can to prove deep

result in several fields.And the set of group action on a set what

are the changes in the set.

Here the outline of sections .In section 1 we will discuss Fundamentals of Groups and definition of Sub groups ,section 2 discuss the Group Action on Set ,section 3 describes the isotropy

subgroups with some examples,section 4 describes Orbits and

an important theorem,section 5 describes Applications of Group

Action on a Set to Counting including the formula and some examples section 6 describes the application problems of related

Group Action and its application which may help you to see

the real beauty of group action on a set.

Chapter 2

GROUP FUNDAMENTALS

This chapter define some fundamental idea about groups and

subgroups and also giving some examples of them

2.1

2.1.1

Definition

binaray operation on S or equivalently ,an operation (?) on S

is called a binary operation on S (or S is closed under the

operation (?)).if a ? b S ,for all a, b S

2.1.2

Example

and C,where Z is the set of all integers ,Q is the set of all rational numbers,R is the set of all real numbers,and C is set of all

complex numbers

2.1.3

Definition

A non empty set S with one or more than one binary operations

is called a mathematical system or(algebraic system) and if (?)is

a binary operation on S,then we say that (S, ?) is a mathematical system

2.1.4

Definition

2.1.5

Definition

.An element a S is said to have an inverse in S if there exists

b S such that a ? b = e = b ? a(Note that ,b is called inverse of

a and is denoted by a1 and we write a1 = b)

2.1.6

Definition

operation (a, b) ab satisfying the following properties

closure:If a and b belongs to G, then ab is also in G

Associativity : a(bc)=(ab)c ,for all a,b,c G;

Identity :There is an element 1 G such that a1=1a=a for all

a G;

Inverse:if a is in G,then there is an element aa1 = a1 a = 1

A group G is abelian if the binary operation is commutative

i.e, ab=ba for all a,b in G. In this case binary operation is often

written additively ((a, b) a + b),with the identity as 0 rather

6

than 1.

There are some very familiar examples of abelian groups under addition,namely the integers Z,rationals Q,the real numbers

R,the complex numbers C,and the integers Zm modulo m

2.1.7

Definition

A subgroup H is a non empty subset of G that forms a group under the binary operations of G ,Equivalently ,H is a non empty

subset of G such that if a and b belongs to H.so does ab1 .

If A is any subset of group G,the subgroup generated by A is the

smallest subgroup containing A,denoted by hAi.

It is obvious that hei and G are always subgroup of group G

2.1.8

Definition

(x.y) = (x) (y),for all x, y G is called homomorphism

2.1.9

Definition

are said to be isomorphic if

is a homomorphism

is a bijection

2.1.10

Definition

,i.e, there is some element aG such that G = {an : n G}(here

7

by 0 a0 is necessarily abelian

2.1.11

Definition

n such that an = 1;if no such integer exists ,the order of X is

infinite .Thus |a| = n ,then the cyclic subgrouphai generated by

a has exactly n elements ,and ak = 1 if and only if k is a multiple

of n.

The order of the group G ,denoted by |G|, is simply the number

of elements in G

2.2

2.2.1

Permutation Groups

definition

: S S that is one to one and on to.(If S is finite the

is one-to-one iff it is on-to)

2.2.2

Definition

There are several permutation groups that are of major interests.the set Sn of all the permutations of {1, 2, 3, .....n} is called

a symmetric group on n letters.The subgroup An of all even permutations {1, 2, 3, .....n} is called the aleternatimg groups on n letters

2.3

2.3.1

Cayleys Theorem

Theorem (Cayley)

Proof

To each g G ,define the left multiplication function Ig :

G G,where Ig (x) = gx for each x G.Each Ig is a permutation of G as a set with inverse Ig1 .So Ig belongs to Sym(G) .

Since Ig1 Ig2 = Ig1 g2 (i.e, g1 (g2 (x))=(g1 g2 )x for all x G) associating g to Ig give a homomorphism of groups ,G Sym(G).This

homomorphism is one to one since Ig determine g (after all

Ig (e) = g) . Therefore the corresponding g Ig is an embedding of G as a subgroup of Sym(G).

Chapter 3

GROUP ACTION ON A SET

3.1

Group Action

function mapping S S into S.The function gives us a rule

for multiplying an element s1 inS and an element s2 to yield

an element s1 s2 inS.

More generally ,for any sets A,B,and C,we can view a map,

: A B C as defining multiplication ,where any element

aonA times any element b of B has as value some element c of

C .Of course ,we write a b = c,or simply ab = c.In this section,

we will be concerned with the case where X us a set , G is a

group, and we have a map : G X X.we shall write (g, x)

as g x or gx

3.1.1

Definition

: G X X such that

1.

ex = x

f or

all

x X,

2.

(g1 g2 )(x) = g1 (g2 x) for all x and all g1 , g2 G

10

3.1.2

Example

all permutations of X.Then X is an H-Set, where the action of

H on X is its action as an element of Sx , so thatx = (x)

for all x X. condition 2 is a consequence of definition of permutation multiplication as function composition ,and condition

1 is immediately from the definition of the identity permutation

as an identity function ,Note that ,in particular,{1, 2, 3, .....n} in

an Sn set

Our next theorem will show that for every G-set X and each

g G, the map g : X X defined by g (x) = gx is a permutation of X, that is a homomorphism : G SX such that

the action of G on X is essentially the example above action of

image subgroup H = [G]of SX on X .so actions of subgroups of

SX on X describe all possible group actions on X.when studying

the set X ,actions using subgroups of SX suffice.However ,sometimes a set X is used to study G via a group of G on X.Thus we

need the more general concept given by the definition.

3.1.3

Theorem

defined by g (x) = gx for x X is a permutations of X .Also

,the map : G Sx defined by (g) = g is a homomorphism

with the property that (g)(x) = gx.

11

proof

To show that g is permutation of X ,we must show that it

is a one to one map of X onto itself.

suppose that g (x1 ) = g (x2 )s for x1 , x2 X.

then

gx1 = gx2

consequently,

g 1 (gx1 ) = g 1 (gx2 )

using condition 2 in definition ,we see that

(g 1 g)x1 = (g 1 g)x2 ,

so ex1 = ex2 .

condition 1 of the definition then yields

x1 = x2

so g is a one-to-one.

the two conditions of the definition shows that for x X

we have g (g 1 x) = g(g 1 )x = (gg 1 x)S = ex = x

so g maps X onto X ,thus g is indeed a permutation,

To show that : G SX defined by (g) = g is a homomorphism,we must show that

(g1 g2 ) = (g1 )(g2 ) for all g1 g2 G

we show the equality of these two permutations in SX by showing they both carry an x X into same element.using the two

conditions in definition and rule for function composition,We

obtain

(g1 g2 )(x) = g1 g2 (x)

= (g1 g2 )x

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= g1 (g2 x)

= g1 g2 (x)

= g1 (g2 (x))

= (g1 g2 )(x)

= ((g1 )(g2 ))(x)

Thus is a homomorphism.The stated property follows at

once since by our definitions ,we have (g)(x) = g (x) = gx.

It follows from the preceding theorem that if X Gset, then the

subset of G leaving every element of X fixed is normal subgroup

N of G , and we can regard X as a G/N -set where the action of a

coset gN on X is given by(gN )x = gx for each x X,N = {e},

then the identity element of G is the only element that leaves

every x X fixed ; we say that G acts faithfully on X.A group

G is transitive on a Gset Xif for each x1 , x2 X, there exists

g G such that gx1 = gx2 .Note that G is transitive on X if and

only if the subgroup [G] ofSX is transitive on X , as defined in

coming examples .

we continue with more examples G sets.

3.1.4

Example

byg1 G is given by left multiplication .That is (g1 , g2) = g1 g2 .

If H is a subgroup of G , we can also regard G as an Hset,where

(h, g) = hg.

13

3.1.5

Example

Let H be a subgroup of G .Then G in an H set under an conjugation where (h, g) = hgh1 for g G and h H .condition

1 is obvious , and condition 2 note that

1

(h1 h2 , g) = (h1 h2 )g(h1 h2 )1 = h1 (h2 gh1

2 )h1 = (h1 , (h2 , g))

abbreviation hg described before the definition would cause terrible confusion with group operation of G.

3.1.6

Example

For students who have studied vector spaces with real (or complex) scalars , We mention that the axioms (rs)V = r(sV)

and 1V=V for scalars r and s and a vector V shows

that the set of vectors is an R? set or(C ? set) for multiplicative group of nonzero scalars.

3.1.7

Example

left cosets of H .Then LH is G set ,where the action of g G

on the left coset xH is given by g(xH) = (gx)H.Observe that

this action is well defined :if yH = xH,then y = xh for some

h H, and

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A series of exercises shows that every G set is isomorphic

to one that may be formed using these left coset G set as

building blocks.

3.1.8

Example

Let G be the group D4 ={0 , 1 , 3 , 3 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 } of symmetries of squares .In figure show the square with vertices 1,2,3,4

as in a square .we label the sides s1 , s2 , s3 , s4 , the diagonals

d1 and d2 , vertical and horizontal axes m1 , m2 ,the center

C,and mid point Pi of sides si .Recall that i corresponds to

rotating the square counterclockwise through i/2 radians ,i

corresponds to flipping on the axis mi , and i to flipping on the

diagonal di .we let

X = {1, 2, 3, 4, s1 , s2 , s3 , s4 , m1 , m2 , d1 , d2 , C, P1 , P2 , P3 , P4 }

Then X can be regarded as a D4 set in a natural way .Table describes completely the complete action of D4 on X and is

given to provide geometric illustrations of ideas to be introduced

.

We should be sure that we understand how this table is formed

before continuing.

15

16

Chapter 4

ISOTROPY SUBGROUPS

4.1

Definition

to know when gx = x

We let

Xg = {x X|gx = x}

and

GX = {g G|gx = x}

4.1.1

Example

we have,

X1

X0 = X

X1 = {C}

= {s1 , s3 , m1 , m2 , C, P1 , P3 }

Also , with G = D4 ,

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G1 = {0 , 2 }

Gs3 = {0 , 1 }

Gd1 = {0 , 2 , 1 , 2 }

We have the computation of the other X

lem section.

GX to in the prob-

each case , subgroups of G.This is true in general.

4.1.2

Theorem

proof

Let x X and let g1 , g2 GX .

Then g1 x = x

and

g2 x = x.

consequently, (g1 g2 )x = g1 (g2 x) = g1 x = x, so g1 g2 GX , GX is

closed umder the induced operation of G .Ofcourse ex = x, so

e GX .

If g GX ,then gx = x,so x = ex = (g 1 g)x = g 1 (gx) =

g 1 x,and consequently g 1 GX is a subgroup of G.

Thus GX is subgroup of G

4.1.3

Definition

isotropy subgroup of x

18

Chapter 5

ORBITS

For the D4 set X in the example of group action on a set

with the action table ,the elements in the subset {1, 2, 3, 4} are

carried into elements of this same subset under action by D4

.Further more ,each element 1,2,3 and 4 is carried in to all the

other elements of the subset by the various elements of D4 .We

proceed to show that every G set X can be partitioned into

subsets of this types

5.1

Theorem

x1 x2 X if and only if there exists g G such that gx1 = x2

.Then is an equivalence relation on X.

proof

For each x X ,we have ex = x, so x x and is reflexive.

suppose x1 x2 , so gx1 = x2 for some g G.

Then g 1 x2 = g 1 (gx1 ) = (g 1 g)x1 = ex1 = x1 ,so x1 x2 and

is symmetric.

Finally ,if x1 x2 and x2 x3 , then g1 x1 = x2 and g2 x2 = x3

19

for some g1 g2 G .

Then (g2 g1 )x1 = g2 (g1 x1 ) = g2 x2 = x3 ,so x1 x3 and is transitive

5.2

Definition

Let X be a Gset .Each cell in the partition of equivalence relation described in the above theorem is an orbit in X under G

if x X ,the cell containing x is the orbit of x .we let this cell

be GX .

The relationship between the orbits in X and the group structure of G lies at the heart applications that appear in coming

chapter .The following theorem gives this relationship .Recall

that for a set X,we use |X| for the number of elements , and

(G : H) is the index of a subgroup H in group G.

5.2.1

Theorem

|G| is finite then |GX | is a divisor of |G|

proof

We define a one-to-one map from GX onto the collection of

left cosets of GX in G .let x1 GX .Then there exists a g1 G

such that g1 x = x1 .

We define (x1 ) to be the left coset g1 GX .We must show that

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that g1 x = x1 .

Suppose also that g10 x = x1 .

then g1 x = g10 x,so g11 (g1 x) = g11 (g10 x),from which we deduce

x = (g11 g10 )x.

therefore g11 g10 GX ,so g10 g1 GX ,and g1 GX = g10 GX .Thus we

map is well defined.

and (x1 ) = (x2 ).Then there exists g1 , g2 G.

Such that x1 = g1 x, x2 = g2 x, and g2 g1 GX .Theng2 = g1 g for

some g GX ,

so x2 = g2 x = g1 (gx) = g1 x = x1 .

Thus is one -to-one

form (x1 ),for some x1 GX .Let g1 GX be a left coset .Then if

g1 x = x1 ,we gave g1 GX = (x1 ).Thus maps GX one to one

onto collection of right cosets so |GX | = (G : GX ).

that |GX | = (G : GX ) is a divisor of |G|.

21

5.2.2

Example

action on a set with action table given bye Tables.With G = D4

,we have G1 = {1, 2, 3, 4} and G1 = {0 , 2 }. Since |G| =8, we

have

|G1| = (G : G1 )=4

above theorem but also that the elements of G carrying x into

g1 x are precisely the elements of the left coset g1 GX .Namely,if

g GX ,then (g1 g)x = g1 (gx) = g1 x.On the other hand ,if g2 x =

g1 x, then g11 (g2 x) = x so (g11 g2 ) GX so g2 g1 GX .

22

Chapter 6

APPLICATIONS OF G-SETS

TO COUNTING

This section present an application of our work with G set

to counting.suppose for example, ,we wish to count how many

distinguishable ways the six faces of a cube can be marked with

from one to six dots to form a die .The standard die is marked

so that when placed on a table with 1 on the bottom and the

2 toward front ,the 6 is on top ,the 3 on the left,4 on the right

,and the 5 on the back . of course , other ways of marking the

cube to give a distinguishably different die are possible.

for the moment and call them the bottom,top,left ,right,front

and back.Then the bottom can have any one of six marks from

one dot to six dots ,the top any one six marks from one dots to

six dots ,the top any one of the five remaining marks , and so

on .there are 6!=720 ways the cube faces can be marked in all

.Some markings yield the same die as others ,in some sense that

one marking can be carried into another by a rotation of the

23

is90 counterclockwise as we look down on it, then 3 will be on

the front face rather than 2,but it is the same die.

of six faces can be placed down , and then any one of four to

the front,giving 6.4=24 possible positions .any positions can be

achieved from any other by rotation of the die .these rotation

form a group G ,which is isomorphic to a subgroup of S8 .We

let X be the 720 possible ways of marking the cubes and let

G acts on X by rotation of the cube.We consider two marking

to give the same die if one can be carried into the other under

action by an element of G ,that is ,by rotating the cube .In the

other words , we consider each orbit in X under G to correspond

to single die and ,different orbits to give different dice .The determination of the number of distinguishable dice thus leads to

the question of determining the number of orbits under G in a

G set X

The following theorem gives a tool for determining the number of orbits in a G set X under G.Recall that for each

g G we let Xg be the set of elements of X left fixed by g ,so

thatXg = {x X|gx = x}.Recall also that for each x X,we

let GX = {g G|gx = x} , and GX is the orbit of x under G.s

24

6.1

of orbits in X under G ,then

r.|G| =

|Xg |

(6.1)

gG

proof

We consider all pairs (g, x) where gx = x , and let N be the

number of such pairs.For each g G, there are |Xg | pairs having g as first member .Thus,

N=

|Xg |

(6.2)

gG

On the other hand ,for each x X there are |Gx | pairs having

x as second member .thus also we have

N=

X

xX

25

|Gx |

(6.3)

that(G : Gx ) = |G|/|Gx |, So we obtain |Gx | = |G/|Gx |.Then

N=

X

xX

X

|G|

1

= |G|(

)

|Gx |

xX |Gx |

(6.4)

Now 1/|Gx has the same value for all x in the same orbit ,and

if we let % be any orbit, then

X 1

1

=

=1

x% |%|

x% |Gx |

X

(6.5)

N = |G|(number

of

orbits in X

under

G) = |G|.r

(6.6)

corollary

1 X

(number of orbits in X under G =

.

|Xg |

|G| gG

(6.7)

proof

26

The proof of this corollary follows immediately from the preceding theorem

Let us continue our computation of the number of distinguishable dice as our first example

6.1.1

Example

using from one to six dots.Let G be the group of 24 rotation

of the cube as discussed above.We saw that the number of distinguishable dice is the number of orbits in X under G . now

|G|=24 . For g G where g 6= e,we have |Xg |=0.because any

rotation other than the identity element charges anyone of the

720 markings into a one.However |Xe | =720 ,since the identity

element leaves all 720 marking fixed .Then by corollary

1

(number of orbits )= 24

.720 = 30

Of course the number of dice could be counted without using

the machinery of the preceding corollary ,but by using elementary combinatorics as often taught in a freshman finite math

course.In marking a cube to make a die,we can, by rotation

if necessary, assume the face marked as 1 is down .There are

five choices for the top (opposite) face.By rotating the die as

we look on it , any one of the remaining four faces could be

brought to the front position ,so there are no different choices

involved for the front face.But with respect to the number on

27

the front face there are 3.2.1 possibilities for the remaining three

side faces.Thus there are 5.3.2.1=30 possibilities in all.

6.1.2

Example

at a round table where there is no distinguishable head to the

table?

by asking each person to move one place to right results in the

same arrangement.Such a rotation generates a cyclic group G of

order 7,which consider to act on X in the obvious way .Again

,only the identity e leaves any arrangement fixed and it leaves

all 7!.arrangement fixed

.

s(number of orbits)= 71 .7!

= 71 .7.6!

=6!

=720

6.1.3

Example

using seven differtent colored beads of the same size ?Unlike

the above example the necklace can be turned over as well as

rotated.Thus we consider the full dihedral group D7 of order

2.7=14 as acting on the set X of 7! as acting on the set X of 7!

possibilities .Then the number of distinguishable necklace is

28

1

(number of orbits)= 14

.7! = 360

will pose no real problem .Let us give an example where |Xg | is

not as a trivial to compute as in the preceding example,We will

continue to assume knowledge of very elementary combinatorics

6.1.4

Example

equilateral triangle can be painted if four different colors of paint

are available ,assuming only one color is used on each edge ,and

the same color ,may be used on different edges.

each of the three edges may be any one of four colors .We can

consider X to be the set of these 64 possible painted triangle the

group G acting on X is the group of symmertries of the triangle

which is isomorphic to S3 we use the notation for elements in S3

Which we consider to be S3 .we use the notation fo the elements

inS3 .We need to compute |Xg |for each of the six elements g in S3

|X0 | = 64 Every painted triangle is left fixed 0

|X1 | = 4 To be invariant under 1 , all edges must be same

color and there 4 possible colors

|X2 | = 4 same reason for 1

|X1 | = 16 the edges that are interchanges must be the same

color (4 possibilities )and other edges also be any of the color

29

(time 4 possibilities)

|X2 | = |X1 | = 16 same reason as for 1

Then

|Xg | = 64 + 4 + 4 + 16 + 16 + 16 = 120

(6.8)

gS3

and there are 20 distinguishable painted triangle

6.1.5

Example

different color is used on each edge.The number of each possible

ways of painting the edges is then 4.3.2=24 and let X be the

set of 24 possible painted triangles again the group acting on X

can be consider to be S3 .Since all edges are different color we

see |X0 |=24 while |Xg |=0 forg 6= 0 thus

30

Chapter 7

APPLICATION PROBLEMS

RELATED G-SET AND

G-SET ON COUNTING

7.1

Computation

1. In this let

X = {1, 2, 3, 4, s1 , S2 , S3 , S4 , m1 , m2 d1 , d2 , C, P1 , P2 , P3 , P4 }

be the D4 set of example inthe sectiongroup action on set

with the action table .find the following were G = D4

X0 , X1 , X2 , ........X2

b) The isotropy subgroupGx for each X X that is

G1 , G2 , G3 .......GP3 , GP4

a)the orbits in X under D4

Answer

31

a)

X0 = X

X1 = {C}

X2 = {1 , 2 , d1 , d2 , C}

X3 = {C}

X1 = {1 , 2 , m1 , m2 , C, P1 , P3 }

X2 = {2 , 4 , m1 , m2 , C, P2 , P4 }

X1 = {2, 4, d1 , d2 , C}

X2 = {1, 3d1 , d2 , C}

b)

G1 = G3 = {0 , 2 }

G2 = G4 = {0 , 1 }

Gs1 = Gs3 = {0 , 1 }

Gs2 = Gs4 = {0 , 2 }

Gm1 = Gm2 = {0 , 2 , 1 , 2 }

Gd1 = Gd2 = {0 , 2 , 1 , 2 }

GC = G, GP1 = GP3 = {0 , 1 }, GP2 = GP4 = {0 , 2 }

G1 = G2 = G3 = G4 = {1, 2, 3, 4}, Gs1 = Gs2 = Gs3 =

Gs4 1 = {s1 , s2 , s3 , s3 }, G1 = G2 = {m1 , m2 }, Gd1 = Gd2 =

{d1 , d2 }, GC = {C}, GP1 = GP2 =, GP3 = GP4 =

{P1 , P2 , P3 , P4 }

2. Find the number of orbits in {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} under the

cyclic subgroup < (1, 3, 5, 6) > of S8 .

Answer

Let X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

We have | X1 |= 8

| X(1,3,5,6) |=| {2, 4, 7, 8} |= 4 | X(1,6,5,3) |=| {2, 4, 7, 8} |= 4

32

Therefore we have

X

| Xg |= 8 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 20

(7.1)

gG

3. Find the number of orbits in {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} under the

subgroup of S8 generated by (1,3)and (2,4,7)

Answer

The group G generated by (1,3) and (2,4,7) has order 6.

Let X = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

| X1 |= 8

| X1,3 |= 6

| X2,4,7 |= 5

| X2,7,4 |= 5

| X(1,3)(2,4,7) |= 3

| X1,3)(2,4,7) |= 3

T hen

| Xg |= 8 + 6 + 5 + 5 + 3 + 3 = 30

(7.2)

gG

4. Find the number of distinguishable tetrahedral dice that

can be made using one,two,three,and four dots on the face

of regular tetrahedron ,rather than a cube?

Answer

The group of rigid motion of the tetrahedron has 12 elements because anyone of four triangle can be on the bottom

and tetrahedron can be then be rotated through 3 positions

33

unless g is the identity i of this group G,and | X4 |=4!=24

Thus there are

1

12 (24)

5. A wooden cubes of the same size are to be painted on different color on each face to make childrens blocks .How many

distinguishable blocks can be made eight colors of paint are

available?

Answer

the total number of ways such a block can be painted with

different colors on each face is 8.7.6.5.4.3 the group of rigid

motions of the cube has 24 elements .The only rigid motion leaving unchanged a block with different colors on all

faces the identity which leaves all such blocks fixed .Thus

1

the number of distinguishable block is 24

.(8.7.6.5.4.3) =

8.7.5.3 = 40.2! = 840

7.2

Concepts

1. Let X and Y be G set with the same group G .An isomorphism between G set X and Y is a map

: X Y ,that is one -one Y satisfies g((x))=(gx) for

all x X and g G The two Gset are isomorphic.If such

an isomorphism between them exists,Let x be D4 set

(a) Find two distinct orbits of X that are isomorphic

subset D4 -sets.

(b) Show that the orbits {1, 2, 3, 4} and {S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 }

are not isomorphic subD4 sets

34

different fashion on the two orbits]

(c) Are the orbits gave your answer to part (a) the only

two different isomorphic sub-D4 set of X?

Answer

(a) {P1 , P2 , P3 , P4 } and {S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 } are isomprphic SubD4 -sets.Note that if you change each P to an S in action

table.We get a duplication of four columns for S1 , S2 , S3 , S4

(b) 1 leaves two elements 2 and 4 of {1, 2, 3, 4} fixed but

1 leaves no elements of S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 fixed

(c) Yes for the part(b) the only other conveciable choice for

an isomorphism is {m1 , m2 } with {d1 , d2 }.However 1 leaves

the element of {m1 , m2 } fixed and moves both elements of

{d1 , d2 }.So they are not isomorphic.

2. Let X be the D4 set

(a) Does D4 act faithfully on X

(b) Find all orbits in X on which D4 act faithfully as a

sub-D4 -set

Answer

(a) Yes ,because identity is the only element that leaves all

elements fixed .Hence for 0 is the only element of G that

leaves every element of X fixed .

(b) {1, 2, 3, 4},{S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 },{P1 , P2 , P3 , P4

7.3

Theory

Let Gy : {g G|gy = y f or all y Y }

show that Gy is a subgroup of G

35

Answer

Given that X is a G-set ,i.e G has an action on x x X

.G has the same actionon Y.

Therefore YX

Let y Y and g1 , g2 Gy

g1 y = y

g2 y = y

(g1 g2 )y = g1 (g2 y) =g1 y =y , y Y

Therefore g1 g2 Gy

Therefore Gy is closed under the operation we have e Y

since ey = y , y Y

Let g Gy ,then

gy = y

g (gy) = g 1 y

(g 1 g)y = g 1 y

ey = g 1 y

y = g 1 y y Y

y 1 Gy

1

Therefore Gy G

2. Let G be the additive group of real numbers .Let the action

G on the real plane R2 be given by rotating the plane

counter clockwise about the origin through radians .Let

P be a point other than the origin in the plane

(a) Show that R2 is G-s

(b) Describe geometrically the orbit containing p

(c) Find the group GP

Answer

36

of the plane fixed.The first requirement of the definition

satisfied ,the second requirement (1 + 2 )P = 1 (2 )P is

also valid ,because a rotation counterclockwise through 2

radians and then 1 radians .

(b) The orbit P is circle with center at the origin (0,0) and

the radius the distance from P to the origin .

(c) The group GP is the cyclic subgroup < 2 > of of G

3. Let {Xi |i I} be a disjoint collection of sets ,so Xi Xj =

for i 6= j .Let each Xi be a G-set for the same group G

(a) Show that iI Xi can be viewed in a natural way as a

G-set ,in the union of the G-set X

(b) Show that every G-set X is the union of the orbits

Answer

(a)

Let X = iI Xi and let x X

Then x Xi foe precisely one index .i I because the are

disjoint and we define gx for each g G to be value given by

the action of G of Xi ,conditions (1)and(2) in the definition

3.1.1 are satisfied because Xi is a G-set by assumption .

(b) We have see that each orbit in X is a sub-G-set .Then

G-set X can be regarded as the union of these sub-G-set

because the action gx of g G on x X coincides with

the sub-G-Set action gx of g G on the same element x

viewed as an element of its orbit

37

Chapter 8

CONCLUSION

In this project we have done a deep study of group-action on

a set with many examples and its application in G-set counting

and also some problem relating .

From the study of group-action onset we reach the following conclusions :one way of thinking of G acting on X is that

elements of group .G may be applied to elements of X to give

a new elements of X .And the goal to build automorphism of

sets(permutation) by using groups.Additionally we have studied the influences of G-set on counting.Group action on a set

is an advanced topic in abstract algebra. Group action on a

set and its application give another mode of finding solution ti

problems,mainly in coloring problems,it is more understandable

than the other methods.And in daily life we use group action on

a set without knowing ourselves.

Through this project we have understand what do we mean by

group action on a set , isotropy of group and orbits with some

examples, and also we have understood the application of G-set

on counting with examples and some problems.Over all through

38

this project we get an idea about group action on a set with its

application on counting.

39

Chapter 9

REFERENCES

John B.Fraleigh -A First Course In Abstract Algebra(7th

Edition)-Pearson Education India (2008)

I.N Herstein - Topics in Algebra (2th Edition)-John Wiley and

sons (2006)

M.R Adhikari - Groups,Rings and Modules With

Applications-Universities press (India)Private Limited (2003)

P.B.Bhattacharaya,S.K.Jain,S.R.Nagapaul - Basic Abstract

Algebra(2th Edition)-Cambridge university press (1995)

en.Wikipedia.org/wiki/group

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/groupaction

www.Groupaction.com

40

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