The Structure of a Presentation Speech Preparation

Choose Topic Gather Information

Research

Select

Organize

Write

Practice

Revise

Rehearse

Present

Useful expressions for presentations People often become nervous or fearful when giving presentations. Here are some phrases you can keep in mind when preparing for and giving a presentation.

About Yourself I'm happy to be here. (Smile) (Turn nervousness into enthusiasm.) I'm glad to have this opportunity. I (really) want to tell you about this. I have something interesting to tell you. About Your Audience This is something you should know . . . This is important (to you) because . . . You will be interested to know that . . . You will benefit by knowing this . . . About Your Subject/Material The information is as follows: A. B. C. First, I will tell you about . . . Second, ….. These are the main points/supporting ideas . . . The best way to understand this information is . . . Look at this. It will help you understand my topic . . . This shows (you) . . . Beginning a presentation It is common to greet the audience and introduce yourself when giving presentations:

Good morning,/afternoon/evening I'm _________, the new Finance Manager. My name is ________ and I represent _______ Let me take a minute to introduce myself. Let me start by telling you a little about our company. I've already met some of you, but for those I haven't , I'm ______ Introducing the topic I'm here to talk about . . . Today, I'd like to say a few words about . . . I'm going to give you an overview of . . . The main reason I'm here today is . . . The focus of my remarks is . . . I'd like to introduce . . . I'd like to start by... Let's begin by... First of all, I'll... Starting with... I'll begin by... Time consciousness Thank you for your time Thank you for taking the time to be here I will probably take about . . . minutes This should last only a few minutes I hope to be finished by . . . Showing organization I've divided my topic into three sections/parts. They are This presentation can be divided into the following subtopics: First, First of all The first point is . . . Second Secondly The next point is . . .

Third Finally

Thirdly Last

Next, we come to . . . The final point is . . .

Sequencing Let's move on to . . . Let's move on to . . . That brings us to . . . Now we'll move on to... Let me turn now to... Next... Turning to... I'd like now to discuss... Let's look now at...

at first first of all to begin with in the first place at the same time, for now for the time being the next step in time in turn

later on meanwhile then soon in the meantime later while earlier simultaneously afterward in conclusion with this in mind

Finishing one subject.. Well, I've told you about... That's all I have to say about... We've looked at... So much for... Ordering Firstly...secondly...thirdly...lastly... First of all...then...next...after that...finally...

To start with...later...to finish up... Giving Reasons This is why . . . The main reason is . . . Therefore, Thus, Generalizing Generally, Usually, As a rule, Most of the time, In most cases, as usual for the most part, generally speaking ordinarily Highlighting Actually, In fact, As a matter of fact, In particular Particularly Especially Analyzing a point and giving recommendations Where does that lead us? Let's consider this in more detail... What does this mean for ABC?

Translated into real terms... Giving Examples For example, For instance, Such as A good example of this is... As an illustration,... To give you an example,... To illustrate this point... Chiefly Especially in particular markedly namely, particularly including specifically Summarizing To sum up To summarize In brief after all all in all

all things considered briefly by and large in any case in any event, in conclusion on the whole in short in summary in the final analysis in the long run on balance to sum up to summarize finally

Concluding To conclude, In conclusion, In conclusion,... Right, let's sum up, shall we? I'd like now to recap...

Let's summarize briefly what we've looked at... Finally, let me remind you of some of the issues we've covered... If I can just sum up the main points... Follow-up
• • • • •

Are/Were there any questions? We have just a few minutes for questions We'll be examining this point in more detail later on... I'd like to deal with this question later, if I may... I'll come back to this question later in my talk... Perhaps you'd like to raise this point at the end...

I won't comment on this now...

Transition Phrases

Addition: also, again, as well as, besides, coupled with, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly Consequence: accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, for this purpose, hence, otherwise, so then, subsequently, therefore, thus, thereupon, wherefore Emphasis above all, chiefly, with attention to, especially, particularly, singularly Illustration: for example, for instance, for one thing, as an illustration, illustrated with, as an example, in this case

Similarity: comparatively, coupled with, correspondingly, identically, likewise, similar, moreover, together with Exception: aside from, barring, besides, except, excepting, excluding, exclusive of, other than, outside of, save Restatement: in essence, in other words, namely, that is, that is to say, in short, in brief, to put it differently Contrast and Comparison: contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, in contrast Diversion: by the way, incidentally Direction: here, there, over there, beyond, nearly, opposite, under, above, to the left, to the right, in the distance

The Message The message refers to EVERYTHING a speaker does or says, both verbally and nonverbally. The verbal component may be analyzed in terms of 3 basic elements:
• • •

Content Style Structure

Let's look at each of these elements.

a. Content - is what we say about your topic. The content is the main part of your speech or presentation. Research your topic thoroughly. Decide on how much to say about each subject. Then decide on the catual sequence you will use. It is important that you consider the audience's needs, time factors, and other items as the content of your speech or presentation is prepared and presented. b. Style - The manner in which your present the content of your speech is your style. Styles can vary from very formal to the very informal. Most presentations fall between these two extremes and in EVERY case, the style should be determined by what is appropriate to the speaker, the audience, as well as the occasion and setting. c. Structure - The structure of a message is its organization. There are many organizational variations, but in each case, the structure should include:
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An Introduction A Body A Conclusion

The introduction should include:
• • •

an opening grabber such as a quote or shocking statistic. an agenda the purpose or main message of your presentation.

The body should include:
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your main points or ideas. points which support your main message.

The conclusion should include:
• • •

a summary of your main points. a closing grabber. time for questions & answers, if appropriate.

When speeches and presentations are poorly organized, the impact of the message is reduced and the audience is less likely to accept the speaker or the speaker's ideas.

Signposting When you give a presentation, how can your audience know where they are? How can they know the structure of your presentation? How can they know what is coming next? They know because you tell them. You need put up signposts for them, at the beginning and all throughout the presentation. This technique is called 'signposting' (or 'signaling'). During your introduction, you should tell your audience what the structure of your presentation will be. You might say something like this: "I'll start by describing the current position in Europe. Then I'll move on to some of the achievements we've made in Asia. After that I'll consider the opportunities we see for further expansion in Africa. Lastly, I'll quickly recap before concluding with some recommendations." A member of the audience can now visualize your presentation like this: Introduction
• •

Welcome Explanation of structure (now) Europe Asia Africa Summing up Recommendations

Body

• • •

Conclusion

• •

He will keep this image in his head during the presentation. He may even write it down. And throughout your presentation, you will put up signposts telling him which point

you have reached and where you are going now. When you finish Europe and want to start Asia, you might say: "That's all I have to say about Europe. Let's turn now to Asia." When you have finished Africa and want to sum up, you might say: "Well, we've looked at the three continents Europe, Asia and Africa. I'd like to sum up now." And when you finish summing up and want to give your recommendations, you might say: "What does all this mean for us? Well, firstly I recommend..." Part 1 This outline provides a guide to giving a business presentation in English. Each section begins with the presentation section concerned, then the language formulas appropriate to giving a presentation. Finally, each section has important points to keep in mind during the presentation. Opening Statements First of all, I'd like to thank you all for coming here today. My name is X and I am the (your position) at (your company). Points to Remember Try to make eye contact with everyone you are speaking to if possible. You can also smile at individual members of the audience to put them at their ease. I'd briefly like to take you through today's presentation. First, we're going to ... After that, we'll be taking a look at ... Once we've identified our challenges we will be able to ... Finally, I'll outline what ... Points to Remember

Make sure to indicate each point on your presentation as you introduce each topic. Asking for Questions Please feel free to interrupt me with any questions you may have during the presentation. I'd like to ask you to keep any questions you may have for the end of the presentation. Points to Remember You can also request the participants to leave questions to the end of the presentation. However, it is important to let participants know that you are willing to answer any questions they may have. Presenting the Current Situation I'd like to begin by outlining our present situation. As you know ... You may not know that ... Points to Remember 'As you know' or 'You may not know that' are polite ways of informing those who don't know without offending those who do know certain facts. Moving Forward Let's take a look at some of the implications of this. Taking into consideration what we have said about X, we can see that Y ... The main reason for these actions is ... We have to keep in mind that ... when we consider ... As a result of X, Y will ... Points to Remember As you continue through the presentation, often remind the listeners of the relationship between the current subject and what has been said before during the presentation.

Mentioning Problems Obviously, this has led to some problems with ... Unfortunately, this means that ... As a direct result of X, we are having problems with Y... This also causes ... Points to Remember Always provide examples of evidence to prove your point. Listing Options Always provide examples of evidence to prove your point. Listing Options There are a number of alternatives in this case. We can ... If we had ... , we would ... Had we ... , we could have ... Do we need to X or Y? I think we can clearly see that we can either ... or ... We have been considering ... What if we ... Points to Remember Use the second conditional form to consider present options and the third conditional for considering different outcomes based on past actions. Use hypothetical questions as a way of introducing considerations into the presentation. Proposing a Solution Proposing a Solution The solution to X is ... I suggest we ... Based on ... the answer is to ... If we keep in mind that ... , Y is the best solution to our problem.

Points to Remember When providing your solutions to various problems, remember to refer to the evidence that you have previously presented. Try to make your solution a clear answer to what has been discussed during the presentation. So, how does this all relate to X? How long will this take to implement? How much is this all going to cost? Points to Remember Use questions to introduce concerns that you know the listeners will have. Answer these questions clearly and efficiently.

Presentations are divided into three main parts – introduction, main body and conclusion. Generally, the introduction should be 10% as should be the conclusion. Thus, the main body should be 80% of the presentation. This is in reference to time. For example, if the presentation is 10 minutes long, the introduction and conclusion would both be 1 minute and the main body would be 8 minutes. Introduction The very first part of the presentation is to introduce yourself and your title. Further, you should add any relevant experience or education that you have. You want to quickly establish credibility with the audience and telling them that you have considerable experience in a particular area.

The second item to provide quickly is to provide an outline. The audience needs to know what will take place. During this time, any requests for the audience can be provided. For example, if the speaker wants questions to be held until the end of the presentation, it should be noted at this time. An example of an introduction for a presentation would be as follows: Thank you for coming! My name is David Poile and I am here today to speak about the stock market. The US dollar has been falling for the last five years and many investors have begun to look overseas. China and India are the major interests today. Thus, I will focus on them. As for me, I am an analyst and have been with Global Securities for 10 years. Our outline today will be as follows. First, an introduction regarding global markets and currencies will be provided. Second, we will move into the main parts of the speech and focus on growing industries, primarily in Asia. China’s currency is undervalued by anyone estimate. That makes it a very attractive spot. Finally, we will have a question period. That part is always a valuable time. Furthermore, if you do have any questions, hold them until the end. Ok? Let’s get started. The speaker gives his name and experience. He also provides a few hints as to why he will focus on Asia. Notice how the speaker uses, first, second and finally in his outline. The introduction is rather short but very clear. Further, he suggests the question period is always valuable, and thus, the audience will be awaiting it.

Main Body The main body will provide the most important points of the presentation. There should be a flow to the information and a building of the argument. That being said, the most

important information comes first. Again, you have to grab the attention of the audience - and hold it. When possible, use charts and pictures to help illustrate you points. And always provide the source. The charts and pictures should support your presentation, and never be the focus of it. Furthermore, be careful not to be technical or humorous with your supporting materials. Funny pictures can be used only sparingly. Again, a very important point about the main body is that there is flow from one slide to the next. Lets look at an example: When investing, there are three main areas- bonds, real estate and stocks. Bonds have the lowest returns, usually around 3-4%. Many bonds have almost no risk. The other attractive point about bond is that they mature and then instantly become cash. However, 3-4% is a low return. Real estate depends to a large degree on GDP. Countries that are going through rapid growth typically see rises in land values. For example, in Korea, land values increased sharply during the Miracle of the Han. Today, China, India and Vietnam have all recently seen land values increase dramatically. In Canada, over the last 40 years, farm land has increased 7-8% consistently – very consistently – while residential facilities, such as homes and apartments, have increased on average 10% per year over that same period - again, very consistently. The problem with real estate is that you cant liquidate as easily as stocks and bonds. Now stocks. The SnP – the indicator for the stock market has increase about 12% over the past 100 years. There have been some good times and some bad. On average, the market has increased 12% a year. If you do your research, you should be able to do the same. If you don’t do your research, you can easily take a big loss. The speaker begins with a nice comparison by discussing the major investments. There is flow to his speech as he begins with the lowest returns and builds to the highest – his focus. He gives values to support his case but makes the mistake of not providing his source. However, he may consider it common knowledge.

When the speaker mentions real estate, he provides examples – China, India and Canada. He provides the benefits of each options and the negative. He does a nice job in the use of transitional phrases - For example, in Korea, land values increased sharply during the Miracle of the Han. Another example is - while residential facilities, such as homes and apartments, have increased on average 10% per year over that same period - again, very consistently. Another aspect of this is that he does a good job at using variety. He could have repeated for example, but he used a different phrase. More from this speech. The main driver of the share price is the earnings per share six months ahead. With that in mind, the great investors such as Warren Buffett, search for stocks that are going to report an increased in earnings. Buffett looks for companies that are consistently growing and well managed. In order to show an increase in earnings, we also look for increased revenue and gross margins. Here the speaker does a good job by stating the most important factor in the movement of the share price – earnings. With that in mind, the great investors such as Warren Buffett, search for stocks that are going to report an increased in earnings. He uses – with that in mind – a phrase that brings variety to the speech. He then insert a very influential person – Buffett – to add credibility to what he is saying. Finally, he mentions two other related subjects – revenue and gross margins. This is a signaling to what he will discuss next. Next part Typically, as a company develops, revenue will increase but as gross margins grow, earnings will increase faster. That is why it is important to watch all three. That being said, earnings per share are the most important. The general rule is to look for companies that have a 20% increase in both revenue and earnings, and growing gross margins. Therefore, we should see earnings growing faster than revenue. Here the speaker discusses the relationship of three variables. He uses two terms –

typically and generally – to describe development and a rule. He builds the argument and then uses a transitional phrase – therefore - to end the paragraph. Most famous investors look for solid companies that are in good industries and growing. Then, they buy at good valuations, such as price-to-book. There are many important aspects to buying and selling stocks, but Buffett said to do your homework, buy at a good price and be patient. Don’t worry about the ups and downs in the market. You need to buy good companies, like Coca-Cola and Gillette – and then wait. Buffett said that many investors lack the patience needed to see significant gains.

Again, the speaker cites a famous investor and provides clear examples in relation to valuation and companies that Buffett bought. In the final sentence of the paragraph, he gives Buffett main suggestion – patience. Conclusions The best advice I have to do is only follow the advice of the best investors with proven track records. Buffett, Lynch and others have had great success in the market for 30 straight years. There are endless books written by the men and about these men. Read them and then test your strategy for 6 months and watch what happens. On the other hand, ignore the advice of the bulletin boards on the Internet from people you have never heard of. That will get you into trouble. OK, that is all I have to say. Lets have a question period. Always a great time.

Here in the conclusion, the speaker repeats the most important advice – listen to the best investors and educate yourself. Again, the use of the transitional phrase – on the other hand – signals a change in the message. Finally, he ends on a positive note – a great time.

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Style Guidelines for PowerPoint Business Presentations Length

Match the number of content slides to the length of the presentation. (This does not include questions from the audience). For example: 10 minutes, eight to 10 slides; 15 minutes, 12 to 15 slides; and 20 minutes, 15 to 18 slides. Use your time efficiently. Tell the major points of what you have learned about your project in a way that will be interesting for the rest of the class.

Organization
• • • • • •

Use a title slide with the name of the presentation and the team member names. Use this slide to introduce your talk and all of the team members. Next, you should have an outline slide to tell the audience what you will be discussing. The next section is the body or content of your slide presentation. To complete your presentation include the conclusions, recommendations or a summary as appropriate. Your next to last slide should be the numbered List of References (In MLA format). Your last slide should be the Sources for Images.

Graphs and Marketing Tools
• • • •

Use variety in your slides a combination of bullets, illustrations, graphs, tables and Marketing tools is recommended. Bullet only presentations are b-o-r-i-n-g. In Excel Graphs (bar, scatter or line) you do not need a series key or legend if you have plotted only one piece of information. Omit the gray background from graphs. In Pie Charts put the data labels and percent values around the pie chart with the corresponding wedge.

Style and Brand Equity

The style of your slides should reflect the Brand Equity of your product or brand. Use logos, clip art, photos, web links, etc. to enhance the style of your presentation, but not to the extent that it overshadows the content. Keep slide animation to a minimum. A little animation to reveal and emphasize key points is fine. Too much animation is distracting.

Color Scheme

Use a light background and a dark font color for high contrast and visual impact.

Text
• • • • • • • •

You don’t have to say everything on your slides Use one font on all slides for consistency. Select a crisp, familiar font such as Times New Roman. Keep the font on your slides size 20 or greater. Any smaller and it is difficult to read the text when projected in the classroom. Begin all sentences and bullets with a capital letter. Check your slides for careless typos. For example, the Internet is always capitalized, make sure you spell your brand name correctly, etc?/LI> Use a descriptive title for each slide. Indicate the source of the information and/or data in the slide by using the number of the appropriate reference in parenthesis or superscript.

Handouts

If you have a handout that supports your presentation, bring enough copies.

Presentation Execution
• • • • •

Project your voice Give eye contact Move away from the podium Show enthusiasm Wear business attire

Types of Charts Pie chart Bar chart/graph Line graph

Describing Movement Increase Decrease Recover Recovery Go up Go down Jump Slump Rise Fall Surge Plummet Improve(ment) Declined Reach (a point) Approach

Types of Movement Slight Slightly Gradual Gradually Sharp Sharply Dramatic Dramatically Major Mino r

Movement over Time There was a gradual decline in sales. Sales declined gradually (noun usage) (verb usage)

Enrollment increased by 4% in 1997. There was a 4% increase in enrollment in 1997. Immigration rose to 800,000 in 1999. Immigration rose by 20,000 in 1999. (to a point/number) (by increment)

There was a 20% rise in immigration. (percentage) Taxes remained the same from 2000 to 2001. Taxes continued at 15% for two years.

Static (non-movement) Description

Sales stood at $1,400,000 in 1998. Profits were $27,000 in 1999. There was a loss of $21,000 in 2001.

An analyze of some of the greatest speeches Robert Kennedy’s Eulogy by Edward Kennedy The Introduction

1) On behalf of Mrs. Kennedy, her children, the parents and sisters of Robert Kennedy, I want to express what we feel to those who mourn with us today in this Cathedral and around the world. ….. He gave us strength in time of trouble, wisdom in time of uncertainty, and sharing in time of happiness. He will always be by our side. Love is not an easy feeling to put into words. Nor is loyalty, or trust, or joy. But he was all of these. He loved life completely and he lived it intensely. The speaker gives a very general introduction and does have some words that grab the audience’s attention when he talks about love. The speaker opens with a statement regarding what he intends to do in the speech - to express what we feel to those who mourn with us today in this Cathedral and around the world.

2) A few years back, Robert Kennedy wrote some words…. “There were wrongs which needed attention. There were people who were poor and needed help. And we have a responsibility to them and to this country…. Here the speaker provides a quote to describe the type of person his brother was. 3) These men moved the world, and so can we all. Few will have the greatness to bend history itself, but each of us can work to change a small portion of events, and in the total of all those acts will be written the history of this generation. *It is from numberless diverse acts of courage and belief that human history is shaped.* Each time a man stands up for an ideal, or acts to improve the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope, and crossing each other from a million different centers of energy and daring, those ripples build a current that can sweep down the mightiest walls of oppression and resistance. The speaker appeals to each person without concern for influence. He suggests his brother would all to recognize that any act to help others is always a great act.

4) Few are willing to brave the disapproval of their fellows, the censure of their colleagues, the wrath of their society. Moral courage is a rarer commodity than bravery in battle or great intelligence. Yet it is the one essential, vital quality for those who seek to change a world that yields most painfully to change…. *The future does not belong to those who are content with today, apathetic toward common problems and their fellow man alike, timid and fearful in the face of new ideas and bold projects. Rather it will belong to those who can blend vision, reason and courage in a personal commitment… The speaker challenges the audience to seek their inner strength and values to make a great contribution. All along, he is suggesting his brother was all this. JFK – Cuba Missile Crisis Kennedy - Cuba 1) For many years, both the Soviet Union and the United States, recognizing this fact, have deployed strategic nuclear weapons with great care, never upsetting the precarious status quo which insured that these weapons would not be used in the absence of some vital challenge. Our own strategic missiles have never been transferred to the territory of any other nation under a cloak of secrecy and deception; and our history -- unlike that of the Soviets since the end of World War II -- demonstrates that we have no desire to dominate or conquer any other nation or impose our system upon its people. Nevertheless, American citizens have become adjusted to living daily on the bull's-eye of Soviet missiles located inside the U.S.S.R. or in submarines. “Our own strategic missiles have never been transferred to the territory of any other nation under a cloak of secrecy and deception; and our history -- unlike that of the Soviets since the end of World War II -- demonstrates that we have no desire to dominate or conquer any other nation or impose our system upon its people.” Here, Kennedy uses a symbol – a cloak – to represent hiding the facts. It is simple to use simple words but adding in symbols to spice up your speech is very effective. In the second part, Kennedy uses a clear comparison when he discusses the USA and the Soviet Union. The suggestion is indirect yet clear.

2) In that sense, missiles in Cuba add to an already clear and present danger -- although it should be noted the nations of Latin America have never previously been subjected to a potential nuclear threat... But this secret, swift, extraordinary buildup of Communist missiles -- in an area well known to have a special and historical relationship to the United States and the nations of the Western Hemisphere,.….. cannot be accepted by this country, if our courage and our commitments are ever to be trusted again by either friend or foe. In this case, Kennedy uses adverbs and adjectives such as communist, swift and extraordinary. It makes no difference if the missiles are communist or not. The main concern is that they are a threat. But to get greater support from the people, he uses these terms. He again appeals to the emotions of the people by using terms like courage and commitments and trust.

3) The 1930's taught us a clear lesson: aggressive conduct, if allowed to go unchecked and unchallenged, ultimately leads to war. This nation is opposed to war. We are also true to our word. Our unswerving objective, therefore, must be to prevent the use of these missiles against this or any other country, and to secure their withdrawal or elimination from the Western Hemisphere. In this case, Kennedy mentions war. There is a pause in his speech and then he gives his big line – This nation is opposed to war. He pauses because he wants this line to grab the attention of the people. He then pauses again and then continues with – true to our word. Again, he is appealing to the emotions of his people.

4) Our policy has been one of patience and restraint, as befits a peaceful and powerful nation which leads a worldwide alliance. We have been determined not to be diverted

from our central concerns by mere irritants and fanatics. But now further action is required, and it is under way; and these actions may only be the beginning. Kennedy tries to tell the nation that most other nations support his nation and that they represent peace. He then refers to the enemy as fanatics. In other words, we are good and peaceful people. The other side is the problems. He is appealing to their emotions. Ike’s Farewell Address Ike’s farewell address Our people expect their President and the Congress to find essential agreement on issues of great moment, the wise resolution of which will better shape the future of the nation… In this final relationship, the Congress and the Administration have, on most vital issues, cooperated well, to serve the nation good, rather than mere partisanship, and so have assured that the business of the nation should go forward. So, my official relationship with the Congress ends in a feeling -- on my part -- of gratitude that we have been able to do so much together. The president tells the nation that during his time, all ended well and that future is fine. He claims that he and Congress have done great things.

Throughout America's adventure in free government, our basic purposes have been to keep the peace, to foster progress in human achievement, and to enhance liberty, dignity, and integrity among peoples and among nations. To strive for less would be unworthy of a free and religious people. Any failure traceable to arrogance, or our lack of comprehension, or readiness to sacrifice would inflict upon us grievous hurt, both at home and abroad. The president tells his nation that they are committed to freedom and they must be prepared for future conflict. It is said with uncommon terms yet understandable. Crises there will continue to be. In meeting them, whether foreign or domestic, great or small, there is a recurring temptation to feel that some spectacular and costly action could become the miraculous solution to all current difficulties.

But threats, new in kind or degree, constantly arise. He reminds the nation that new threats are always arising. And they must realize that many have no easy solution.

What is most important - Simplicity and Clarity If you want your audience to understand your message, your language must be simple and clear. 1. Use short words and short sentences.

2. Do not use jargon, unless you are certain that your audience understands it. 3. In general, talk about concrete facts rather than abstract ideas. Use active verbs instead of passive verbs. Active verbs are much easier to understand. They are much more powerful. Consider these two sentences, which say the same thing: 1. Toyota sold two million cars last year. 2. Two million cars were sold by Toyota last year. Which is easier to understand? Which is more immediate? Which is more powerful? N°1 is active and N°2 is passive.

Body Language - Walk, smile and care. Mastering presentation body language can be tough. It takes time learn effective body language and eliminate “wrong” messages. Body language “tricks” can ruin your speech. Here are three simple ways to dramatically improve your body language. Walk… Practice relaxing your walk. Head up, shoulders back and relaxed, breathing deeply and walking with confidence and purpose. Try to lead chest and shoulders. Practice by simply going for walks. Occasionally “scan” your body for relaxation, paying attention to how you feel and where you hold tension. Smile… Even if you’re not feeling it, put a genuine smile on your face. You will relax and engage your audience better. With a real smile – not a forced one – a lot of other better body language will follow. Care… You’re talking to someone, a lot like you would if you were simply sitting together.

They matter to you. A lot. Show them you care about the experience they are having. Look at them, talk to them. Using the right gestures and posture can be effective, but avoid “tricks.” If you wouldn’t do it in conversation, you probably shouldn’t while presenting. 21 Tips For Spellbinding Speeches 1. Find out as much as you can about your audience before you prepare your speech. 2. Focus on what your audience wants and needs to hear -- not what you want to tell them. 3. As you prepare, give yourself an opportunity to think creatively about your topic by tapping into creative times ... walking the dog, taking a shower, other non-stressful times. When you get a new idea, jot it down and put it in a folder for later use. 4. As you prepare, be very conscious of the length of time you are expected to speak . 5. Develop an overall theme for the presentation, and make sure you keep to that theme throughout the speech. 6. Don't overload a short speech -- make just a few points, and make them well. 7. Use conversational language. Remember the spoken word is different from the written word. 8. Avoid jargon or acronyms. If you must use them, define them clearly. 9. Get the audience's attention with a strong opening. The more you can customize your opening for that particular audience, the better. 10. Mention something unique about your knowledge or approach to the issue to establish credibility. 11. Good transitions between points keep your audience focused on your theme.

12. Use the closing to emphasize key points in a commanding way. 13. A dramatic quotation from a well-known source can add punch to a speech? but only if it reinforces the points you want to make. 14. Humor is also a welcome addition to a speech. Keep a file of stories or jokes that you like. The essential point is, again, to make sure that the story or joke clearly relates to your message. 15. Before you go before any group, PRACTICE. Time yourself to make sure you will stay within the limits. 16. Don't read your speech! Practice your presentation until you are so familiar with it that the words flow comfortably. Don't worry if you say it slightly differently every time you practice; the important thing is to get your message across in clear, direct language. 17. Feel free to use a few notecards. Write down a few key words or phrases that keep you on track. Don't write out your entire speech unless you need it for a formal record. 18. Overhead transparencies or a few simple Power-Point slides are a good way to emphasize key points or illustrate themes. But don't let the technology take over! 19. A few slides can illustrate a point, but use them sparingly because they require lowered lights (that reduce attention). 20. Make sure the information on each transparency or slide is limited, and is easily read in the back of the room. 21. As you give your speech, make eye contact with audience members as much as possible. Speak to each person "individually." The Basic Rules of Good Presentations KISS - Keep It Simple Stupid

There are numerous ways to apply this ancient adage. The bottom line is that the more complicated you let things get, the more trouble you can expect: New technology is wonderful, but don't break in new equipment 15 minutes before the presentation starts. Keep your presentation focused on the message, don't get carried away with special effects and razzle-dazzle. Whatever you do, don't have rented equipment scheduled to arrive 10 minutes before you speak. Check out everything in advance. Then check it again. Rehearsing the Presentation There's something to be said for winging it: " Forget It!" To present the most professional image, you need to know your presentation. It's OK to occasionally leave the main "script" but, wandering presentations that lack focus, or those too dependent on working from notes, or long pauses to compose your thoughts are never acceptable. Rehearsing the presentation includes more than just going over what you will be saying. Rehearsing includes the entire presentation. Use the same tools too. If you are using slides, or a projector, and have access to the room you will be presenting in, rehearse there. Using a remote mouse and laser pointer for the presentation, a microphone? Rehearse the presentation with these devices. Don't memorize Rehearsing is one thing, committing the presentation to memory and performing it by heart, is not the way to go. You need to present, not to recite. But use your notes very sparingly. Too much time spent reading notes may convince your audience that you are unprepared. Dress for success. Some say you can never overdress for a presentation. Others will disagree. Our own belief is that other factors come in to play, particularly how you handle

yourself in the situation. Humor and how formal your presentation is will impact whether you are "over" presented. But everyone agrees you should never underdress. How to determine what is appropriate? Worst case: Ask people. It's all part of doing it right. Pace yourself - don't go too fast, or too slow. A general rule, every "slide" deserves at least 10 seconds, and none rate more than 100. If you find yourself spending several minutes on one slide, consider breaking it up! (We're not suggesting this as a firm rule, but a good guideline. Obviously, some charts or graphics may take several minutes to properly present.) Then again, perhaps they could be better as multiple "slides." If you are done with a "slide" - lose it. Don't leave an image up for your audience once you move on to other points. The Presentation Tools Slides, LCD and DLP Projectors, Laptops, LCD panels, Video, Multimedia, Sound. Laser Pointers, Lapel Microphones, Overheads, Photo-quality printers, Posterprinters... There are a great many presentation tools available to you as a presenter. Determine your communication needs, the presentation environment, and select the right group of tools to get your message across. Creating Support Materials Great, you have put together the killer presentation of all time. You looked good, your audience reacted positively. It couldn't have gone better, so what's wrong? Several attendees return to their organizations. They go to brief their superior, after two questions, it becomes apparent that they have the concept. Unfortunately, it also becomes apparent that they don't have any specifics. Why? No or poor documentation/handouts. When all the other pieces of the puzzle are in place, don't limit the staying power of your message, by providing it without the right support materials.

The Audience It's been said that most people, including a great many executives, fear presenting to large groups even more than they fear death. If you are that nervous going into a presentation, one old technique we've heard before: Get out there, look around, close your eyes for a moment, and picture the people one by one. Either way, it is said to have a relaxing, almost humorous effect. The person who said "there is nothing to fear, but fear itself" has never had his computer crash in mid presentation, his overheads all fall on the floor, her slide tray still be in the overhead compartment.... Pick one (or two) people easily visible to you, and "speak" to them. Oh, be sure to also observe others, but concentrate on just a few. This may or may not solve your "audiencophobia" but it will keep you in touch with your audience, and provide you with some feedback. Your place as a Presenter Controlling your Audience, not your computer
• • •

Face your audience Observe them Make eye contact - don't wander around the room, don't look down. Wandering can be a sign of nervousness, while looking down, may be taken as "trying to figure out what's next". (Remember -- you're the speaker -- you're supposed to know. Lose the computer -- that is -- don't hide behind it. Get a remote mouse and get back up in front of the group, where you belong, as presenter, leader, moderator, and communicator.

Deferring questions, following up Depending on the nature of the meeting you are presenting at, it may be appropriate to field questions during the presentation. In some cases it will be proper to answer the question on the spot, in other cases, you may be addressing that point later, or want to cover it later on or after the meeting. You are the best judge of how to handle it. Retain control of the flow of the presentation. Where appropriate defer questions to later in the presentation or afterwards. It is perfectly acceptable to reply with: "I would like to address your question later on when I cover..." or "You and I can discuss that after the

conclusion of the presentation..." or "Regretfully, I do not have that information readily available. Please meet me after the meeting, I will get your name... and get back to you next week." If you do defer any questions: Follow through as promised. Nothing will damage your credibility in the long run, more than not keeping your word. Measuring your audience Hint: Snoring is a really bad sign! We have suggested you focus on only a few people in your audience. Are they attentive? What about body language -- are they fidgeting or checking their watches? Taking notes? Taking naps? Seriously, it is for you to take note as to which parts of your presentation are having an impact, and which are lost on your listeners. Technology soothes the beast It's the Nineties, do you have a laptop and projector. In the last couple of years presentation products have made tremendous strides. For example, today's projectors have evolved at least as much in the past two years, as computers have done in the last five. With the big improvements in capabilities, everyone expects more of you and your presentation.

It is Time to Speak Out -- Giving an Effective Presentation On Fear and Death Nervous Mannerisms What do you do when you are nervous? Everyone has different reactions to nervousness. By being aware of your particular nervous mannerism, you can work to overcome them. Here are some common mannerisms exhibited when giving a speech. Do you do any of them? Bite your fingernails Tap your feet

Wave your hands/arms Play with your hair Move around a lot Speak too fast Speak too slowly Stiffen up Shake/Shudder Play with objects in pockets, etc. Make strange facial expressions Say "uh," "uhm" Tap on the table/podium Repeat yourself Breathe heavily Sweat Giggle Pause inappropriately Clam up/Become speechless Shift your eyes Move your head around Gesture inappropriately

More on fear FEAR Virtually all speakers get nervous before an important presentation...butterflies, trembling, voice quavers (like Mr. Haney on Green Acres), shortness of breath, sweaty palms, pacing/rocking, pocket-change-jingling, and so forth. At a recent presentation to 300 strangers in San Diego, I started off by reading from a sheet of paper and immediately discovered that my hands were trembling. Solution? Calmly lay the paper on the speaker's table and keep going...nobody will know!

Nervousness usually arises from one of four sources, as discussed in The Speaker article elsewhere on this site. There are a number of techniques you can use to control your nervousness, though the best one is just getting more and more experience until the speaking situation becomes more natural. Even so, you will most likely continue to experience some nervousness throughout your career. Here are four things you can do, following an F.E.A.R. acronym: Failure...believe in your message and be enthused about the opportunity to present it. Don't anticipate the worst and go into it with the attitude that you just want to get it over with. Try things like breathing exercises, having a Hershey bar (one speaker swears by the soothing effect of chocolate!), expending nervous energy by taking a quick walk, etc. Also, NEVER apologize for being nervous or inexperienced...unless you tell your audience, they will probably not know you're nervous. Environment...arrive early, walk around and view the room for the audience's perspective and from where you will be standing. Make sure the set-up is to your satisfaction. Take control of the temperature, lights, noise, and other environmental factors...it's YOUR show! Audience...know what they expect of you. Do you know? Do you know what every audience expects? The answer is simple: something-anything-of value! It's amazing how often most speakers fail to deliver on that simple demand. Also, keep this in mind: the audience is on YOUR side. Have you ever gone to a presentation hoping the speaker would be terrible? Of course not. Rehearsal...I'll have to admit, I'm bad about this. Some speakers swear by videotaping their practice sessions or speaking before a mirror. That's never worked for me, but I wouldn't discourage you from trying it since I may be an exception to the rule. The most important thing, though, is to know your material...preparation, preparation, preparation. You can probably reduce your nervousness by 75% just by being confident in your knowledge of the subject matter and the general outline of your presentation. And, while you're rehearsing, visualize success...imagine an attentive audience, rousing applause, and throngs of people coming to you with questions after you're through. It really works.

There are 7 aspects people must deal with when preparing and delivering presentations. An effective speaker learns to deal with all 7 aspects at the same time. Failure to pay attention to all of these aspects can result in an ineffective presentation. Failure to pay attention to too many of these can result in disaster. 1. Speaker 2. Message 3. Audience 4. Channel 5. Feedback 6. Noise 7. Setting

The Rule of Tell 'em Start with an introduction; including an "agenda" or set of goals for the presentation, provide the content; information and summarize the presentation. Last is First -- The Summary/Conclusion Slide One researched "fact" of presenting that has been around for a while is that most people attending a presentation will "remember" no more than five key points. What has not been confirmed is ‘what are the key points?’ Ideally, the presenter should have a list of the five most important points/concepts/facts that should be remembered. The attendees should list the five they remember. Now, what is the correlation? Is your message getting across? Or are they remembering minor points and missing your key ideas? It's bad enough that they will only remember 5 points, my own theory say's you and they will not consider the same things important -- what if they remember only one point that you think is important. How to get your audience to remember what you want them to? If we take this as a truth, what impact should it have on creating an effective presentation. Start with the Last Slide! That's right, when you are ready to create your presentation, forget the details for a minute, forget the presentation's organization, instead: Write out your conclusion or summary slide first! It should emphasize the

most important points you plan to make. Once you have visualized those points, it's relatively easy to build your presentation around them. Curious, it comes back to the Rule of Tell 'em. Even the brilliant people in your audience may need your help in deciding what you believe most important. Help them out! Becoming aware of what you do is the first step to overcoming nervous mannerisms.  Ask a friend to watch (or videotape) you when you give a speech.  Have him/her tell you candidly about your mannerisms and presentation skills (both positive and negative).  Practice your speech in front of a mirror, or ask your friend to observe you rehearse.  Think positively about what you do well and focus on that rather than the negative.  Be enthusiastic about what you have to say and share with others.

Presentations: The State of Confusion or "the presentation isn't till tomorrow" "I have trouble sleeping on the plane, with a PC on my lap." Simply put: DON'T WAIT TILL THE VERY LAST MINUTE TO WORK ON YOUR PRESENTATION. We all know that few presentations are really finished and "in the can" even a couple of days before the presentation must go on. That's even with best intentions. Get an early start on your presentation. You will still be changing it at the last minute regardless. It's the knowledge, not the graphics This is probably a corollary of KISS: The purpose of your presentation is to communicate ideas and information, not to dazzle people with fancy graphics. When the session is over, you want your audience marching out discussing the ideas you set forth, not talking about the neat graphics, the special effects, etc.

ASPECT #1 - The Speaker One of the major components of any speech or presentation is the speaker themselves (the source of the message). Many people forget that THEY are the presentation and NOT the visual aids. Many presenters today put so much effort into the visual aids and they forget that those are just aids to the speaker. There are three factors we need to consider about any speaker: a. His / Her motivation in giving the presentation b. His / Her credibility as a speaker c. His / Her deliver or speaking style

a. A Speaker's motivation can be approached in terms of two considerations: ==> Whether direct personal reward (e.g. $$$) or indirect rewards (feeling good about helping others) are involved. ==> Whether immediate rewards ($$ today) r delayed rewards (getting a college degree after 4 years of college play a part. In essence, a speaker may be motivated by one or BOTH of these factors. Before speaking you should consider what YOUR motivations are. b. Speaker's credibility A speaker's ideas are accepted as believable only to the degree that the speaker is perceived to be credible. The speaker's credibility depends on their trustworthiness, competence, and good will. The speaker who is well organized will usually be considered competent. The speaker who is attractive and dynamic will be seen as more credible than one who is not. The most fundamental factor a speaker projects is the attitude they have toward themselves.

c. Speaker's delivery The delivery, the way the message is presented, should compliment the speech's objective. A well written speech delivered poorly can quickly lose effectiveness.

ASPECT #3 - The Audience As a speaker you should analyze your listeners and then decide how to present your ideas. This analysis might include considerations related to: - Age - Sex - Marital Status - Race - Geographic location - Group membership - Education - Career

For example, if you are making a presentation on "Future Careers", knowing your audience's average age is vital. A well prepared speech that is ill-suited to the audience can have the same effect as a poorly prepared speech delivered to the correct audience. Both speeches will fail terribly. Proper audience analysis will assure that you give the right speech to the right audience. To properly customize the speech, most professional speakers send their clients a multipage questionnaire in order to gather information about them and their speaking event. I will usually call some of the members can find out what the current trends are in their industry and ask what people are looking for.

Using the word "A-U-D-I-E-N-C-E" as an acronym, I have defined some general audience analysis categories that your surveys should include: A_udience - Who are the members? How many will be at the event? U_nderstanding - What is their knowledge about the topic you will be addressing? D_emographics - What is their age, sex, educational background, etc.? I_nterest - Why will they be at this event? Who asked them to be there? E_nvironment - Where will I stand when I speak? Will everyone be able to see me? N_eeds - What are the listener's needs? What are your needs as a speaker? What are the needs of the person who hired you? C_ustomized - How can I custom fit my message to this audience? E_xpectations - What do the listeners expect to learn from me?

ASPECT #4 - The Channel When we communicate with our audiences, we use many channels of communication. This includes non-verbal, pictorial and aural channels. It is very important that you use as many channels as you can to communicate with your audience. The more channels of communication you can use at the same time, the better. I have provided a brief list of examples for each of these types: A. Nonverbal 1. gestures 2. facial expressions 3. body movement 4. posture B. Pictorial 1. diagrams 2. charts 3. graphs

4. pictures 5. objects C. Aural 1. tone of your voice 2. variations in pitch and volume 3. other vocal variety

ASPECT #5 - The Feedback By "feedback" I mean the process through which the speaker receives information about how his or her message has been received by the listeners and, in turn, responds to those cues. The feedback process is not complete until the speaker has responded to the listener. This process includes the listener's reactions to the speaker's response and so forth. You can ask your audience questions and even ask them what their understanding is of the point you have just made. Watch for non-verbal clues from your audience and be prepared to respond to the ractions of your audience throughout your presentation. It is your responsibility to provide the information your audience needs to hear. Many times, you many be asked my management to provide a specific message to their employees that they may not want to hear. Remember, it is the management that is paying your fee and you are responsible to deliver the message they hired you to deliver. At the same time, it is important that you are sensitive to the audience and try to establish a relationship with them through the use of your surveys, conversations during the social hour, and even discussions following your presentation. ASPECT #6 - The Noise There are two types of noise a speaker must contend with:

a. External Noise b. Internal Noise

Let's look at each of these. External Noise - consists of sounds, people talking, coughing, shifting patterns, poor acoustics, temperature (too warm, too cold), poor ventilation, and visual interference such as poor lighting, or an obstructed view.

Internal Noise - if a speaker is confused or unclear about what he or she want to express, this is do to internal noise. Internal noise can also arise if the speaker does not know or misanalyses the audience.

The role of the audience and the speaker is to simultaneously communicate with each other. It is this transactional nature of speech that makes feedback, and attempts to eliminate noise, so important. The most specific way a speaker can use to combat noise are: a. Use more than one channel of communication at the same time (verbal & non-verbal) b. Use repetition and restatement. The speaker can help combat this noise by making an extra effort to use as many channels of communications at the same time. It is important to include both verbal and non-verbal means of communication. ASPECT #7 - The Setting The place in which you deliver your presentation may be one that enhances or interferes with the effectiveness of your presentation. Determine ahead of time what the facilities are like before you speak. This way you can properly plan your delivery or make adjustments, if necessary.

I recommend, when practical, that you make a trip to the location where your speech will take place. I even go so far as to ask the exact room I will be presenting in and ask the hotel conference coordinator to let me visit the room and check things out. On one particular occasion, several years ago, I had visited a room about 1 month before I was to speak at a large association meeting and noticed the room WAS NOT equipped for a microphone. This was a problem since the attendance was expected to be about 800 to 1000 people. I checked with the hotel if there were any other rooms available that same day of the event and I contacted the client and informed them about the situation. The client contacted the hotel and was able to change the room for their event. It was my planning that saved both myself and my client some embarrassment had we not changed the room. I have since spoken for this same client every year for the past 4 years because of the attention to detail I provided as part of my planning when I first spoke for them. This little "extra" effort on my part made me memorable to the client. Look at speaking engagement as opportunities to practice your speaking skills. To be truly prepared and effective as a presenter, you must pay attention to all 7 of these aspects discussed above. This will take practice. The time you spend remembering these aspects will be worth the effort.

The Examples Presentation #1 is an excellent example of a presentation. The slides are very clear. The first one defines the title and has a mild combination of colors. The words are easy to follow. The second slide states how you need to use a title page and give your name. The slides are consistent in tone and colors. The design is consistent. Slide #5 states that you should use no more than seven words per line, no more than seven total lines, and no more than 7x7=49 words per slide. This is an excellent rule to

follow. Slide #7 says one dominant image per page. Again, follow this rule always. Slide #10 states that you need to use the transition from slide to slide. There are various terms and phrases to allow you to move through your presentation. Presentation #2 does an excellent job of combining all aspects of a presentation. The graphs are clearly labeled and do not contain too much information. The pictures are singular and not too small. The presentation moves from pictures to notes to graphs constantly. This keeps the attention of the audience. There two slides that are somewhat poor. Slides 38 and 39 contain too much information and, specifically, #39 could have larger print. The space is there so why not use it. Presentation #3 is a sample from the United Nations. It does a nice job in terms of appearance and is well organized. However, the slides in the second half of the presentation become crowded and overloaded. The speaker should have increased the number of slides and reduced the amount of info per page. Presentation #4 is a template for a marketing plan. It does a nice job of using graphs that are well labeled and of different colors. Further, there is a logical progression to the presentation. Presentations #5. The blue might not be the best choice to use in the background but it is ok. The X axis may not need the “20” or “19” put in constantly. The “’” could easily replace it. The terms “million” and “billion” would be better replaced with Mil and Bil, respectively. Presentation #6. Very poorly done. The combination of colors is terrible and worst of all, the slides so overloaded with information. The diagrams are impossible to follow. The diagrams are very tough to follow if you are sitting close. The fonts change constantly and use of full sentences is never encouraged. The only way to follow it is to sit close.

Presentation #7. At least double the number of slides!!!! Presentation #8. At least triple the number of slides!!! And don’t use sentences. Presentation #9. The color combination is not great as the red stands out and the gold lettering is weak. Some slides are overloded. Presentation #10. A n actual presentation by the richest man in the world, Bill Gates. Very simple and straight forward. Nice graphics but not too complex. Consistent and professional. Presentation #11. A great presentation by Steve Jobs of Apple. He doesn’t use any wording on the presentation except for the end. Presentation #12. Again, way too much information on many slides. No audience could follow it.

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