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Exercise 18.2

Solve the given Cauchy problem, verify that the results obtained is a solution, and comment on

any restrictions that need to be placed on it.

8. + = + 2, (0, ) = 3

=1

=+2

= .

= .

1

= 2

2

1

= 2

2

=+2

= ( + 2)

ln( + 2) = + ln ()

= (). 2

1

(, ) = ( 2 ) . 2

2

(0, ) = 3 = () 2

() = 3 + 2

Darren F. G. Meka

23613003

1

(, ) = [3 ( 2 ) + 2] . 2

2

Darren F. G. Meka

23613003

9. + 4 = 3 + 2 sec 2 2 , (, 0) = 3

=1

= 4

= 3 + 2 sec 2 2

= 4

= 4

= 2 2 +

= 2 2

= 3 + 2 sec 2 2

= 3 + tan 2 + ()

= 3 + tan 2 + ( 2 2 )

(, 0) = 3 = 3 + tan 2 + (2 2 )

(2 2 ) = tan 2

1

() = tan

2

1

(, ) = 3 + tan ( 2 2 ) + tan 2

2

1

Darren F. G. Meka

23613003

Exercise 18.3

10. (1 + 2 ) + = (1 + 2 )( 1), given that (, 0) = sinh()

1

=

1 + 2

=

1 + 2

= tan1 +

=1

=

1

ln( 1) = + ln ()

1 = ()

(, ) = ( tan1 ) + 1

(, 0) = sinh() = () + 1

() = sinh 1

(, ) = (sinh( tan1 ) 1) + 1

Darren F. G. Meka

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= 3

ln = 3 + ln

= 3

= 3

6

=

3

3 6)

=

3

Solving linear first order ODE above

3

+ 2 =

3

() = 2

() =

3

3

() = exp { () }.

() = 2

(. )

= ()

2

3

2

[ . ] = .

2 =

= () 2 . 2

3

1

(, ) = ( 3 ) 2 ( 3 ) 3

3

1

(, 0) = = ()

3

4

() =

3

4

1

(, ) = 3 . 2

3

3

Darren F. G. Meka

23613003

(, ) =

1

(4 1)

3

Darren F. G. Meka

23613003

Exercise 18.4

2. Given that the differential equation

+ () = 0

Has a discontinuous solution and that () is a continuous function of , find the jump

condition that must be satisfied by its shock solution.

+ (()) = 0.

To allow discontinuity, integral representation is used over an interval 1 < < 2 .

Integrating equation above over the interval gives

+ (()) = 0

Provided is differentiable with respect to , the time derivative can be taken outside the

first integral, which then becomes

2

+

(()) = 0

1

1

2

(, ) + ((2 , )) ((1 , )) = 0

1

To develop this result further by allowing discontinuity in (, ) across = (),

()

2

(, ) + (, ) = ((1 , )) ((2 , ))

1

()

This result is a conservation law in integral form for the quantity represented by (, ).

Applying Leibniz theorem we find that

()

(, ) +

()

(, ) +

( ) = ((1 , )) ((2 , ))

result to

( ) = ( ) ( )

The equation above is the jump condition experienced by a discontinuous solution of this

PDE across the discontinuity at = ().

Darren F. G. Meka

23613003

+ = 0

0, < 2

(, 0) = {

1, > 2

with

Has a centered simple wave solution. Generalize the approach suggested in Exercise 4 to

find the analytical solution for the centered simple wave, stating the region in the (, )plane occupied by the centered simple wave solution.

Given that the differential equation

+ () = 0

() =

(())

() =

1 2

From the above equation we can find the jump condition experienced by a discontinuous

solution of this PDE across the discontinuity at = () becomes

1

( ) = (2 2 )

2

So the speed propagation of the discontinuity

1

= ( )

2

From the speed propagation of the discontinuity initiated by the discontinuity in the initial

1

Finding a solution in the region S of the form (, ) = (), where = ( 2)/. Then,

as =

()

= (

() = (, ) = ( 2)/

The solution (, ) in the region > 0 bounded by characteristic = 2 and = + 2.

This solution in S resolves the initial discontinuity immediately and joins the constant

solution to the left and right in a continuous manner, which is called a centered simple

wave with its center located at the origin 2.

Darren F. G. Meka

23613003

Exercise 18.6

14. 22 2 41 3 + 3 + 1 = 0

0 0 2

=[ 0 2 0 ]

2 0 0

The eigenvalues of A are 1 = -2, 2 = 2, and 3 = 2, so from the classification of the PDE,

the above equation is seen to be hyperbolic type.

An orthogonal matrix Q can always be associated with A in such a way that Q TAQ = D,

where D is a diagonal matrix with the eigenvalues of A as the elements along its leading

diagonal.

2 0 0

= [ 0 2 0]

0 0 2

0 0 2

2 0 0

[ 0 2 0 ] = [ 0 2 0]

2 0 0

0 0 2

So from the above equation, we find Q equal to

=[

1/2

0

1/2

1/2 0

0

1]

1/2 0

1 =

1

2

1

2

2 ,

2 = 3 ,

2 =

1

2

1 +

1

2

21 1 + 22 2 + 23 3

Darren F. G. Meka

23613003

3 0

0

= [0 2 1]

0 1 2

The eigenvalues of A are 1 = 3, 2 = 3, and 3 = 1, so from the classification of the PDE,

the above equation is seen to be elliptic type.

An orthogonal matrix Q can always be associated with A in such a way that Q TAQ = D,

where D is a diagonal matrix with the eigenvalues of A as the elements along its leading

diagonal.

3

[0

0

3 0 0

= [0 3 0 ]

0 0 1

0

0

3

2 1] = [0

1 2

0

0 0

3 0]

0 1

1

= [0

0

0

0

1/ 2 1/2 ]

1/2

1/2

1 = 1 ,

1

1

2 = ( ) 2 + ( ) 3 ,

2

2

3 = (

1

) 2 + ( ) 3

2

2

31 1 + 32 2 + 3 3 + 4 7 = 0

The PDE can be further simplified by scaling the variables 1 , 2 , 3 to arrive at new

variables 1 , 2 , 3

1 =

1

3

1 ,

2 =

1

3

2 ,

3 = 3

1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 + 4 7 = 0

Darren F. G. Meka

23613003

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