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hnical white
e paper

P Pag
geWide Te
Features and user bene
Based on
o reliable HP Thermaal Inkjet Teechnology aand HP
pigment inks, HP PageWide
gy offers high quality at high printing
speeds. It is scalable to meeet a wide raange of appplication and perform
ments, and
d offers rob
bust operation with eeconomical print prod
In 2006, HP introduced a verrsatile 4.25-inch
h Thermal Inkjet pprinthead platfoorm that has beeen used in wide w
writing systems
in HP’s large
e format Latex Printers and in HP
P Color Inkjet Weeb Presses.1 HP Scalable Printing
g Technology alllows this
printhead to
o be customized to a wide range of applications iincluding different drop weights and inks. In 201
13, HP
introduced HP
H PageWide Technology in a hig
gh-performancee family of desktoop multifunction
n printers: the HP
P Officejet Pro X-Series. Usin
ng an 8.57-inch, 4-color
printhead these MFPs arre capable printinng up to 42 US LLetter A/A4 pagees per minute.2
HP Large Fo
ormat PageWide Technology Prin
nters—a family oof high-producti vity 40-inch (1,0
016 mm) color p
printers for
technical graaphics and repro
oduction servicess—have unique operating and p erformance requ
uirements that aare not optimally
provided by HP’s 4.25- and 8.57-inch
printhead platforms. For example, thee 4.25-inch printthead delivers 1 or 2 colors of
ink, and makking a wide 4-color printer by staacking these prinntheads along annd across the weeb (of printing m
material) requires
a print zone larger than desiirable for a techn
nical graphics pr inter. The four-ccolor 8.57-inch p
printhead module was not
designed to be stackable or user-replaceablle.
Both the strengths and limittations of these earlier
generatioons of wide printtheads provided an opportunity tto develop a new
HP printhead platform: the HP PageWide Prrinthead with a 55.08-inch (127.5 mm) print swath.
de Thermal Inkjet printheads aree shown to scale in Figure 1. Notte that each usess multiple,
Three generrations of HP wid
staggered HP
H Thermal Inkjet chips—called “dies.”

Dies are pprecision-alignedd and placed on a dimensionallyy-stable
substrate prroviding mechan
nical alignment, ink supply channnels, and electric al interconnectio
on. Both the 8.5
57-inch and 5.08inch printheads have a stainless steel shroud surrounding thhe dies. This com
mponent facilitattes capping and servicing the
nd protects the dies
d from media strikes during cuut-sheet loadingg/unloading and printing.
printhead an
Figure 1 - Th
hree generationss of wide HP Theermal Inkjet printtheads

From initial conception, HP’ss 5.08-inch printhead was designned to be an elem
ment of a scalab
ble and versatile writing system
that could power a wide range of high-perfo
ormance HP Pag eWide printing ssolutions. Scalable describes a d
modules are
a repeated alo
ong and across thhe print zone to support a rangee of formats and features such as
philosophy where

For example, this
t is the HP A51 Printhead for HP Color Inkjet Web Presses aand the HP 881 Printhhead in the HP Latex 3000 Printer.
Based on ISO print
speed for the HP Officejet Pro X576d
dw MFP. Maximum pprint speed is up to 70
0 ppm color and blacck.

Click h
here to verify the
e latest version off this document

. seervice station funnctions. HP P PageWide Pigm ment Inks  1.25-inch an nd 8. one-passs printing for higgh black/color saaturation at high h productivity. A new printhead p platform for f HP Pag geWide printing Performance objectives and features for HP PageWide Printtheads were drivven both by the n needs of HP PageeWide Technology Printers and exttensibility to futu ure HP PageWidee printing solutioons: • High sustained drop ratess for reliable prin nt quality in high productivity appplications. • High printt density in high--speed. lin near printbar sho own in Figure 3. shown in Figurre 2. eight HP PageW Wide Printheads are stacked toggether to make a 40-inch printbaar. • Improved • Stackabiliity for a more co ompact 4-color print p zone with thhe versatility to ssupport a range of print widths. • Compact print zone for beetter media conttrol. • Extended d time between service s station cyycles for sustain ed productivity. 3 2 HP PageWide Pigment Inks are desscribed in the compan nion White Paper: Inkks for HP PageWide Te Technology. Figure 2 – HP PageWide Prin nthead Module ng are key speciffications and features of the HP P PageWide Printhhead: The followin   5. ink technologies. Printhead de esigns. but scalabilityy supports narrower or wider formats. • Reliable drop d ejection to reduce r print quality defects from m “nozzle outs”. d dot placement accuracy to meeet the requiremeents of technical graphics. Mod dularity includes the printhead. • Long life to reduce interveention rates and d provide lower t otal cost of operration in high duty-cycle applicattions. TThis shape allow ws them to fit tog gether in a compact.Techniccal white paper | HP PageWide Technolog gy nks and higher prrint speeds.344 nozzles perr printhead  6.57-inch prin ntheads were levveraged into the HP PageWide P rinthead Modulee. stackable design for scalable printing g solutions  Userr replaceable witthout tools or m mechanical adjustments  Built-in ink filtration n and pressure regulation  Desiigned for sustain ned. printhead drrive electronics. Printing configu rations of differeent widths are avvailable in 5-inch h increments. and to red duce printer size. i nk delivery systeem.08 8-inch (129mm) print swath HP Thermal Inkjet technology t 3  4-ccolors (CMYK). additional in and the image-processing pipeline. and a inks as well as the ability to use a range of w water-based HP pigment inks.20 00 nozzles per in nch native resolu ution  25.33 36 nozzles per co olor  Modular. June 2014. p Versatillity comes from the capability too customize drop p generators to d deliver the drop weights required by the application. media. ink deliveery systems. For instance e. and matterials proven in service by HP’s 4. precise coloor-to-color alignm ment. high-speed printing Improved stackability is obtaained by the “S-sshape” design off the modules.

this is implemented with two tandem m printbars. co olor-to-color alig gnment is easier to maintain beccause dot placem ment errors from m media deformaation and skew are reduced. Tab ble 1 outlines som me of the differeences between sscanning and pag gewide printhead d configuratio ons. Table 1 – Co omparison of scaanning and pagewide writing sysstems Scanniing printheads HP PageWide Tech hnology Printhead mo otion Bi-direectional scanning acrosss the print zone Fixed. When W the nozzle arrays for each iink are placed cloose together. direction in a 4-color printing Unlike HP PaageWide Printheeads. A compact print zone HP PageWid gives better control of the media m during prin nting.25-inch printheads w were not designeed to directly staack together and d so they must be staggered and offset as sho own in Figure 4. maintaining precise spacing between the printheads and the e m importan nt both to dot plaacement accuraccy and to prevent the media from m striking (and media—on the order of 1 mm—is t printhead. twoo printheads are required along tthe paper feed g system. it faces manny challenges coompared to the sscanning printhead designs used in HP’s large e-format Designjjet printers.Techniccal white paper | HP PageWide Technolog gy Figure 3 . precision position advan ce Continuous. One-pass printing While one-p pass printing offeers high throughput. de Printheads staack together on a single printbarr to provide a moore compact prin nt zone. Thee arrangement o of printheads is sshown to relative e scale.25-inch printheaads are configured to print two ccolors of ink. In HP’’s Color Inkjet Weeb Presses. ompact print zon ne Figure 4 . precision velocity control 3 . Fourr HP 4. an nd especially wheen all are on the damaging) the same die. HP’s 4.. For exampple.Sttackability and sccalability es for 4-color printing are shown n schematically i n Figure 4.25-inch prrintheads produce an 8-inch Two scheme print swath and two HP PageWide Printhead ds produce a 10--inch swath.Co When the 4. This is importaant when using water-based w inkss on plain paperss. because thesee papers can sweell—“wet cockle”—an nd stretch when water w is applied. spans the p print zone Media motion n Interm mittent.

In HP PageWide Technology. high-productivity printing. ink is forced through tubes to the printbar and into an ink distribution system along the printbar. Without properly managing the effects of decap. a pagewide printhead must operate reliably for several minutes without a visiting the printhead service station.7 billion (40-inch printbar) These characteristics of pagewide writing systems will be discussed in more detail in the following sections. This scalable design allows printbars of different widths to be built by stacking together printhead and ink supply modules. HP PageWide Pigment Inks were designed to provide high line. These media include bond paper. decap up to 10 minutes Error hiding Multiple passes. Scanning printhead printers typically spit a few drops from each nozzle into a service station spittoon every few seconds. low-cost photo papers. A sheathed needle on the printhead module engages a septum on the ink supply module as the printhead is pushed and latched into place. “Decap” performance—where the printhead is uncapped and does not have access to a service station for a clean and wipe cycle—is critical to pagewide printhead reliability and image quality. In particular. The operator can replace used cartridges while the printer is running. technical graphics printing. New HP PageWide Pigment Inks were formulated to meet these requirements. Media A technical graphics printer must support a range of media commonly found in practical applications. The four (4) ink ports on the printhead module are shown in Figure 2. natural tracing papers. Flexible supply tubes allow the printbar to move vertically during servicing and capping. and K cartridges. When an ink cartridge is pressurized with air. thick bond paper. A companion Technical White Paper. discusses ink performance requirements and innovations in design of inks for HP Large Format PageWide Printers. feathering. the printer detects when a cartridge is out-of-ink and this triggers an automatic ink cartridge switchover.2 billion (HP T7200) 3. For unattended. nozzle substitution Good nozzles substitute for out-of-spec nozzles Maximum drops/sec 0. Y. or misdirected drops may quickly become visible. vellum. Multi-pass print modes in scanning printhead systems limit wet dot-to-dot interactions by allowing ink to penetrate and spread between printhead passes. different media feed rates Printhead servicing and decap management May spit in spittoon after each scan (~2 sec) Spit-on-page. Manual handling of ink tubes is eliminated. and this is a challenge for ink design to control color bleed. and polypropylene. In dualcartridge systems. Ink supply modules are stackable and interconnect with each other to make a pagewide ink manifold. it takes about 100 milliseconds for a drop of water-based ink to wet and begin to spread and absorb on the media surface. some models of HP Large Format PageWide Technology Printers feature two sets of C. Ink delivery system HP PageWide Pigment Inks will be supplied in 400ml and 775ml cartridges. all ink interactions are wet-on-wet. print quality defects from slow. and graphics quality on these materials. all the drops from each die are printed in a single-pass and within about 5 milliseconds at typical media feed rates. high black and color densities must be produced in a single pass with lower ink loadings compared to scanning printhead printers. 4 . This can allow higher ink loading than possible in a single pass because the ink is partially-absorbed between passes.Technical white paper | HP PageWide Technology Print modes Typically 1-16 passes 1-pass. Typically. M. In high-productivity applications. and mottling in area-fills and images. poster papers. text. Inks for HP PageWide printing HP developed a new generation of water-based pigment inks to meet the unique requirements of pagewide. Each printhead is connected to its ink supply module with a needle and septum for each color. weak. Ink design plays an important role in this capability. So. Each printhead interfaces with an ink supply module. Inks for HP PageWide Technology. Several seconds can elapse between scans before a dot is printed next to its neighbor.

used in HP Designjet. 5 . This wipes thee printheads andd absorbs ink ejected from spittin ng and drop deteection. Th he optical drop d detector is mounted ab bove the web wip pe cassette. Features on the prote ective shroud allo ow the cap to seelf-align and sea l around the diess. Printhhead nozzles and d the protective shroud are wiped by scaanning across th he printbar during g a service cycle . Printer and a printhea ad calibratio on A three-channel densitometter developed byy HP is mounted on the bottom oof the scanning sservice station. t issues presentted by extendedd decap time andd infrequent acceess to the servicee station involves An element of the solution to spitting ink onto o the media while w printing. The time req quired for serviciing may reduce productivity p und er high use condditions.752—caan be tested in a minute. So-called “spit-onn-page” (SoP) seervicing refreshees the ink in the n nozzles. Capping the nozzless A cap on the e printbar rotatess into place to caap the printhead s when the printtbar is retracted from the print zone. It pperforms three important functio ons. The web is pulled p over a spring-loaded wipee roller that pressses the web agaainst the printheaads. and d not too many aare required. HP PageWid de Technology acchieves robust operation by com mbining a low rate of SoP with thee properties of H HP PageWide Pigment Inkks designed for sustained printing g and longer deccap times. The service staation has a user--replaceable casssette containing g a web of abssorbent material. On-boaard signal processing electronicss digitize and pro ocess the measureme ent data to determine the health of each nozzle aas the service staation scans acro oss the printbar. then SoP effects aree practically invissible to the user. All prrinthead nozzless—202. hundreds off wipe cycles. The cap provides a humid envvironment to keep nozzle es healthy and reeady to print. The web ad dvances from a supply roll to a take-up roll providing p fresh material m while inn contact with thee nozzles. and Figure 5 – Scanning service station s with web b wipe cassette aand optical drop detector Testing the t nozzles The nozzless fire drops onto the absorbent web w through an ooptical drop deteector module. Thee module containns twelve (12) paairs of LEDs and photodetectors allowing measureme ent of multiple no ozzles at the sam me time. nozzzles are subjectted to extended decap time and can be fully-serrviced only by intterrupting printing. HP PageWide Printheeads and HP PageWide Pigment Inks are designed for con ntinuous printingg for up to 10 minutes. and so it should be perfo ormed as infrequentlyy as possible. The printheeads are also cap pped in this retracted po osition. servicing can be performeed while the prinnter is idle. The error rate for failing to o detect a missing drop is 1 part per p billion.3 Wiping the nozzles The service station componeents are shown schematically s in Figure 5. If dropss from every nozzle n are placed randomly.Techniccal white paper | HP PageWide Technolog gy Printhe ead serviciing In a pagewid de printhead. T This sensor is D Officejet. and Photosm mart printers. Nonfunctioning nozzles are flagged in a “nozzle-out” lookup tabble used by the im mage processing g pipeline for acttive nozzle substitution. Wh hen servicing is required. Ussually. r the prin ntbar is automattically retracted ffrom its printing position so thatt the service station mod dule can operate in the space bettween the printhhead and the media. The ccartridge is desig gned for d the printer’s usser interface nottifies the operatoor when the web b has been consu umed.

Passive nozzle n substitutioon suppresses pprint defects betw ween service staation cycles. a blue LED is used to illuminate yelllow patches). A dot interference patttern is printed annd scanned.200th of an inch (21 um) frrom the center of the missin ng dot row. im mage grain. eject drops at Media drive d More than 20 years of HP Deesignjet product development prrovided assets foor building a high-precision med dia transport for ormat PageWide Technology Prin nters. thee surrounding nozzles com mpensate for thee missing dot row w. the sensor locates the edges oof the media as i t is loaded into tthe print zone. active nozzle substituttion is employed d. Figure 6 –Me edia drive system m 6 . This provides precise media hold-down and co ontrol of printhead-to-media spaacing. and bbanding). Under each pllaten is a plenum m that is partiallyy-evacuated by a vacuum fan. Two neighborr nozzles are onlly 1/1. Fo or example.g.) Printhead alignment a along g and across the e sheet Adjacent die es overlap by 48 nozzles. HP PageWide Printheads and a HP PageWide Pigment Inks were w designed toogether for reliable drop ejection n.2200 nozzles per inch provide botth active and passsive nozzle substitution to suppress thee effects of failed d nozzles. The lookup ttable is processeed to select neighbor nozzles to a appropriate lo ocations to comp pensate for a misssing nozzle. A faileed nozzle could leave an unprintted dot row alon ng the media feed direction.Techniccal white paper | HP PageWide Technolog gy Edge detecttion during media loading For proper im mage placement. th he reflection den sity is measuredd. Compensation n is applied in thee image processing pipeline p to each die to produce th he most uniform m color across th e printbar. Thee lightest patch ccorresponding to o a particular selection of nozzles indicates the best alignmennt of nozzles in thhe overlap zone. In the latter case. this could be seen as a white streak in a black area ffill. Active nozzlle substitution usses a “nozzle-ou ut” lookup table compiled from ddrop detection m measurements. HP Thermal In nkjet’s capability to produce high h drop rates and a its high nozzzle density of 1. The vacuuum in each plenuum is controlled by a pressure seensor.. p Using illlumination that gives the highesst signal-to-noisse ratio for each color (e. p color calibration Closed-loop This is a die--to-die color den nsity calibration relating r input levvels to output prrint densities. Passive nozzle substitution makes direct use of HP Thermall Inkjet’s high nozzle density: if a nozzle fails. Error hiiding in on ne-pass prrinting Essential to achieving high quality q in one-pass printing is rel iable drop ejecti on and nozzle su ubstitution. The choice of o where to placee ink drops to produce smooth teext and lines andd area-fills of a sspecified densityy—as well as the e selection of nozzles to substitute for a failed d nozzle—involvves sophisticatedd algorithms to ccontrol ink load aand to minimize image artifaacts (such as edg ge roughness in text t and lines. The media drive d system is sh hown schematiccally in Figure 6. The mediaa drive consists oof six (6) perforaated belts backed d up by three (3) HP Large Fo print platenss. ((A separate topof-form sen nsor measures th he position of thee leading edge. S Some nozzles may remain out while otherss recover after printhead p servicinng. where bad nozzles n can eitheer be recovered or o a persistent faailure identified aand flagged by tthe drop detecto or. Eaach die prints mu ultiple levels of each primary color in a test pattern. The dot size from HP PageWide Prinntheads allows innk to spread from m adjacent dot rrows to make a nozzle failurre practically invisible.

only about 80 0 operations are performed on eeach pixel compaared to 1.5-times as m many pixels per second as a pagewide mono o LED printer and d 19-times as m any pixels per seecond as the HP Designjet T7200 0 printer. This T ensures tha t the rendered ooutput to the prin nt engine contro oller is completely compliant with PDF P specification ns. The digital front end (DFE) of o HP PageWide Technology T Printters employs thee latest version o of the Adobe® reendering engine—the e raster image processor (RIP). and th his information iss used to synchroonize drop eject ion from the prin ntheads. and ejject the printed sheet into th he proper outputt device (i.Techniccal white paper | HP PageWide Technolog gy The belts are driven by a fixeed drive pulley on o the output sid e of the print zoone using a DC seervo motor with a digital encoder put side is encodded by an analogg encoder. or ffolder). stacker. e signal-processing electtronics. nts for a 40-inch technical color graphics g printer— —such as low haardware cost. While mediaa is being fed into o the print zone. and exxtensibility to wid der (and more) pprintbars—drovee key advances in electronics hardware..100 operations on each h pixel in a collor inkjet printer. As witth the printhead and ink supp ply modules. multiple printbars can be suppoorted in future pproduct platform ms.Co omparison of image processing performance p The modular architecture off the image proceessing pipeline ffor HP Large For mat Pagewide P Printers is shown n schematically in n Figure 8. The media bubble also allow ws the trailing ed ge of the media to halt momenttarily as it is cut eexiting the media a drawer. hig gh integrated fun nctionality. Processing P PDF files f in the printeer—compared too using an extern nal RIP—significaantly reduces the amount of data to be sent to the printer and ensures thaat the printer do es not “run out o of data” while prrinting under high h network loading conditions. This isolation iss important to suuppress banding from media velo ocity variations in the print zon ne. The analog encoder. r PDF filees along with layo out and impositiion instructions ffrom the HP Dessignjet SmartStreeam job preview The printer receives and submitttal application. cut the media to length. To give a seense of the amouunt of data proceessing required tto print an Image data processing is illu P Techno ology in an HP Laarge Format PaggeWide Technoloogy Printer is com mpared to a mon nochrome image. feed the mediaa through an opttional dryer after printing. a slack loop—ccalled a “media bbubble”—is creatted to decouple forces in the media supplly system from the t media drive. high Requiremen sustained drrop rates. thee image processing pipeline is moodular and scalaable along the prrintbar.. for example the HP T T7200 Designjett printer. and iss pushed away frrom the drive and transmission. Wiider (or narrower) printbars can be b built by addinng (or removing) print module co ontrollers. 7 . imaging algorithms. s The pullleys have guidinng grooves for thhe belts to supprress lateral motion. and data processsing architecturees. The media path p outside the print zone includ des mechanics too transport meddia from rolls in tthe media draweers. HP Large Form mat PageWide Teechnology Printers process about 7. In a monoch hrome LED printeer. fe eed the media intto the print zonee. The Linux-baased DFE uses Inntel® CoreTM i3 or i7 processors. bassket. HP PageWide pagewide LE ED printer and a scanning TIJ—H HP Thermal Inkjeet—printer.e. These 4-color presses print on webs as widee as 42 inches (1 .067 mm) at speeds up to 600 ffeet (244 m) perr minute. The idler pulley on the inp pulley by fou ur (4) tensioner springs. Image processing p g pipeline HP leverage ed assets originally developed for high-bandwidtth image processsing in HP’s famiily of Color Inkjett Web Presses. By addin ng hub controllers for f each printbarr. ustrated in Figuree 7. and sophhisticated algoritthms predict when the belt (and media) will be at the next dott position. Figure 7 . The result iss a new generatioon of scalable an nd extendable im mage processing solutions with capabilities to o support a wide range of HP PaggeWide Technoloogy Printers.

and image p processing dvanced. inks. June 20 014 . Nothing hereein should be constru ued as HP prod constitu uting an additional wa arranty. © Copy right 2014 Hewlett-P Packard Developmen nt Company. HP PageWid The reliable operation of mo ore than 200. prrinthead servicin g. Summa ary HP’s vertical integration in th he R&D and man nufacture of inkjeet printheads. the printhead ds. FP PGAs run HP algoorithms at speed ds up to 190 billio on perform imaage processing and operations/ssec. and in ntegration of prin ntheads.Sccalable image prrocessing architeecture Throughout the image proceessing pipeline. integratted printing soluutions. microcontrollers m s and custom FP GAs—Field-Prog grammable Gatee Arrays— a data manageement tasks. The information containeed herein is subject too change without nottice. nozzle testing g. high-quality pproductivity. This information iss produced by the drop detecto or. L. To control th he printheads an nd other function ns. p HP PageWid de Pigment Inks are a a new generation of HP pigm ment inks design ed for single-pass. underlies the design and devvelopment of ad de Technology acchieves productivity significantlyy higher than cann be obtained witth scanning printthead systems. Up U to 2 Gb/sec caan be returned too the print enginne controller.000 0 nozzles arrangged over a 40-in ch printbar invollves many challeenges in the design. The only warran nties for ducts and services are e set forth in the express warranty statem ments accompanying such products and sservices. writing systeems. inks. and economiccal printing on a w wide range of m media. writing system ms. and other writing system sen sors including thhe analog and digital encoders on the media drive. HP PageW Wide Technology solutions are scalable and versatile in design n and performannce to meet the nneeds of a broad d range of appliccations in office.Figure 8 . deve elopment. They produce high black optical density and high color saturation and allow HP PaageWide Printheeads to operate rreliably with s cycles to deliver sustained. and the image processing pipeline. p commercial. and industrial printing.P. HP shall not be liable for technicaal or editorial errors or o omissions containeed herein. the print engiine controller deelivers up to 8 gig gabits/sec of datta to the hub controller on n the printbar. infrequent service HP PageWid de Technology in the new family of HP Large Form mplementation of o mat PageWide TTechnology Printters is the first im a third-gene eration HP Therm mal Inkjet printing platform that w will form the fouundation for HP ssolutions—now and in the future—offe ering high-speed d. pagewide priinting. robusst. reliable.