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of Achievements in Materials

and Manufacturing Engineering

VOLUME 17
ISSUE 1-2
July-August
2006

Modification of PVC compounds with


butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers
M. Rojek, J. Stabik*
Division of Metal and Polymer Materials Processing, Institute of Engineering Materials and
Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Konarskiego 18a, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
* Corresponding author: E-mail address: jozef.stabik@polsl.pl
Received 15.03.2006; accepted in revised form 30.04.2006

Materials
Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the research programme on influence of acrylonitrile-butadiene
copolymers on properties of plasticized polyvinylchloride as window gaskets material.
Design/methodology/approach: Short literature review concerning application of modified PVC as gasket
material was presented. In experimental part two types of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers were used as
elastomeric plasticizers. Compounds with fifteen different levels of modifiers content (up to 25% by weight)
were prepared and tested. Additionally three commercial compounds were tested as reference formulations.
The following test were performed: Shore hardness, short-term and long-term elastic recovery, tensile strength,
elongation at break and migration of plasticizers from gasket material to unplasticized PVC.
Findings: Application of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers as PVC modifier enhanced many properties essential
for window gasket materials such as long-term and short term elastic recovery, tensile strength and elongation
at break. At the same time addition of these elastomers did not change migration of other plasticizers contained
in gasket material. Obtained results indicated that among tested compounds best properties as gasket material
exhibited plasticized PVC with 23% of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer Chemigum P83. Reference commercial
compounds exhibited worse performance properties than compounds with this acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer.
Practical implications: Research programme allowed to elaborate plasticized PVC compounds modified with
acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer that can be industrially applied for PVC window gaskets.
Originality/value: Obtained results are of scientific and practical value. Research programme allowed to
investigate the influence of elastomeric modifiers on plasticized PVC properties. Research results are also of
practical importance.
Keywords: Engineering polymers; Mechanical properties; Window sealing; PVC

1. 
Introduction
1. Introduction
Windows play important role as a barrier shielding buildings
from harmful influences. To assure good barrier properties
windows designers apply sophisticated window profiles and panes
and apply advanced materials [1,2]. But equally important are
gaskets which prevent penetration of cold or hot air, dust, water
and sounds. Widow gaskets are produced from different types of
high performance elastomers such as EPDM, SBS, SEBS and
silicones [3] These elastomers are expensive and new materials
are extensively searched. Plasticized PVC is more and more

frequently applied for gaskets. To achieve better sealing


properties PVC is modified with elastomers and special
plasticizers [4,5,6,7,8,9]. These modifiers cause decrease of glass
transition temperature, increase deformability, elasticity, abrasion
resistance, elastic recovery, resistance to oils, fuels and many
cleaning chemicals [6,10,11,12]. Among polymeric plasticizers
butadiene-acrylonitrile
and
butadiene-acrylonitrile-styrene
copolymers are applied. Also thermo-oxidative resistance of PVC
gaskets can be improved by some polymeric modifiers [13].
In the following paper we present results of research on
modification of plasticized PVC with butadiene-acrylonitrile
copolymers.

Copyright by International OCSCO World Press. All rights reserved. 2006

Short paper

141

Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering

Plasticized PVC prepared by AIB S.j. (Poland), (assigned


PVC-AIB), was used as matrix. Two elastomers were used as
PVC modifiers: pre-crosslinked copolymer of butadiene and
acrylonitrile Chemigum P83 (Eliokem) and copolymer of
acrylonitrile and butadiene Nipol 1312 DL72 (Lehmann&Voss).
Modifiers were added to PVC up to 25% by weight [14]. Three
commercial compounds produced by TCT Polska Sp. z o.o. were
used as reference materials: Tefanyl VEEP 115 (A1), Marwylex
MXE 100 (A2), and Tefanyl VECP 116 (A3). Before testing
samples were conditioned 24 hours at 293K r3K (20r3qC).

2.2. Testing
procedures
2.2. Testing procedures
Shore hardness , tensile properties, short-term and long-term
elastic recovery and plasticizer migration from gasket to
unplasticized PVC were measured.
Shore hardness was measured according to PN-EN ISO
868:2005 standard using Zwick 7206.H04 tester. Six
measurements were done for every compound.
Tensile test was performed according to PN-EN ISO
527:1998 using Zwick 112025 tensile machine. Tensile velocity
was 500 mm/min. 10 samples were tested for each compound.
Elastic recovery after compression was measured according to
BS 7412:1991. Short-term test was performed at temperature
296K2K (23qC2qC). Samples were deformed during 24hours,
elastic recovery was measured 5 minutes and 60 minutes after the
end of deformation. The long-term test was performed at
temperature 328K2K (55qC2qC). Samples were deformed 336
hours, elastic recovery was measured 60 minutes after the end of
deformation. Ten test pieces were applied for each measurement.
Migration test was performed according to BS 7412:1991 at
348K2K (75qC2qC), during 24 hours upon 5N compression
loading. Six measurements were done for each compound.

3. Results
analysis
3. Results andand
theirtheir
analysis
Results are presented in graphic form which enables easier
their analysis. Results for reference compounds are presented as
horizontal lines assigned A1, A2 and A3.
Fig 1. shows influence of acrylonitrile- butadiene modifiers
addition on Shore qA hardness. Both copolymers caused hardness
decrease. This result is typical for all types of plasticizers. The
influence of Nipol 1312 DL72 on hardness was stronger than
Chemigum P83.
Influence of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers on elastic
recovery after 24 hours of deformation show Fig 2 (after 60
minutes of recovery).
Addition of modifiers enhanced elastic recovery of PVC
compounds. It can be explained by polymeric and elastomeric
nature of applied plasticizers [15]. Increase of elastic recovery
was more pronounced after Chemigum P83 incorporation. It is the

142

Short paper

68

A1, A2
64

Hardness ShOA

2.1. 
Materials
2.1. Materials

result of partial crosslinking of this copolymer. According to BS


7412:1991 standard minimum elastic recovery of window gaskets
after 5 minutes of recovery is 60% and after 60 minutes of
recovery is 75%. All tested compounds fulfil these requirements.
Compounds with acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers exhibited
higher elastic recovery than reference compounds. It should be
underlined that elastic recovery is one of most important
properties for window gaskets.

A3
60

PVC+Chemigum

56

PVC+Nipol

52

10

15

Weight fracture, %

20

25

Fig. 1. Dependences of Shore A hardness on weight fracture of


modifiers in PVC
100

90

Elastic recovery (24h/60min), %

2. 
Experimental
2. Experimental

Volume 17 Issue 1-2 July-August 2006

A2
A3
A1

80

70

PVC+Chemigum
60

PVC+Nipol

50
0

10

15

Weight fracture, %

20

25

Fig. 2. Dependence of elastic recovery after 24 hours of


deformation and 60 minutes of recovery on weight fracture of
acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers in PVC

M. Rojek, J. Stabik

Materials

gaskets than short-term elastic recovery. According to BS


7412:1991 standard minimum long-term elastic recovery of
window gaskets between PVC profile and panes is 25% and of
gaskets between two PVC profiles is 40%. Compounds with 25%
of Chemigum P83 exhibited 46% of elastic recovery and with the
same content of Nipol 1312 DL72 exhibited 36% of long-term
elastic recovery. Compounds with Chemigum P83 content higher
than 12% and with Nipol 1312 DL72 content higher than 21%
obtained higher long-term elastic recovery than reference
compounds.
Results of tensile test are presented in Fig. 4 and 5.
Chemigum P83 influenced weakly tensile strength. Addition of
more than 10% by weight of Nipol 1312 DL72 decreased this
property. Compounds modified with both types of copolymers
shown essential increase of elongation at break. Formulation with
Chemigum P83 had much better deformation properties than
reference formulations.

Elastic recovery (336h/60min), %

50

40

A2
A3
30

A1

20

PVC+Chemigum
PVC+Nipol

500
10

PVC+Chemigum
5

10

15

Weight fracture, %

20

25

Fig. 3. Dependence of elastic recovery after 336 hours of


deformation and 60 minutes of recovery on weight fracture of
acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers in PVC
14

PVC+Chemigum
PVC+Nipol

Tensile strength, MPa

12

PVC+Nipol

400

Elongation at break, %

300

A1
A2

200

A3

10

A1

A2
8

6
5

10

15

Weight fracture, %

20

10

15

Weight fracture, %

20

25

Fig. 5. Relation between elongation at break and weight fracture


of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers in PVC

A3

25

Fig. 4. Relation between tensile strength and weight fracture of


acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers in PVC
Results of recovery test for 336 hours of deformation in
temperature 328K (55qC) and after 60 minutes of recovery are
presented in Fig. 3. This property is even more important for

Relation between migration of plasticizers and nitrile


butadiene copolymer content is shown in Fig. 6.
According to BS 7412:1991 maximum amount of plasticizers
migrating from gasket to hard PVC is 5mg. All researched
formulations fulfil this requirement. Reference formulation A1
exhibited higher migration than tested compounds.
Comparing compounds modified by two acrylonitrilebutadiene copolymers it can be seen that almost all properties
essential for window gaskets (elastic recovery, tensile strength
and elongation at break) were higher for compounds with
Chemigum P83. Plasticizers migration was on the same level.

Modification of PVC compounds with butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers

143

Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering

Volume 17 Issue 1-2 July-August 2006

References
References

0.6

PVC+Chemigum
PVC+Nipol

[1]

A1

Plasticizer migration, mg

[2]
0.4

[3]
[4]
0.2

[5]
[6]
[7]

A3
A2
0
0

10

15

Weight fracture, %

20

25

Fig. 6. Migration of plasticizer from modified PVC to


unplasticized PVC in relation to weight fracture of acrylonitrilebutadiene copolymers

4. Conclusions
4. Conclusions
Application of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers as PVC
modifier improved many properties essential for window gaskets
such as short-term and long-term elastic recovery after
compression, tensile strength elongation at break. At the same time
elastomers did not change migration of other plasticizers contained
in gasket material.
Obtained results indicate that among tested compounds best
properties as gasket material exhibited plasticized PVC with 23%
by weight of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer Chemigum P83.
Performance properties of reference compounds Marwylex
MXE 100, Tefanyl VEEP 115 and Tefanyl VECP 116 exhibited
worse performance properties than compounds with Chemigum
P83 addition.

[8]

[9]
[10]
[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
Research was supported by P.P.P. AIB Sp.j. Knurw, Poland.

144

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