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UNIT I
1

GROUP THEORY

LESSON -1 ANOTHER COUNTING PRINCIPLE


CONTENTS :
1.0

Aims and Objectives

1.1

Introduction

1.2

Equivalence Relation

1.3

Conjugacy Relation

1.4

Cauchys Theorem

1.5

Let us sum- up

1.6

Lesson-end Activities

1.7

References

1.0

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

In this lesson we introduce a conjugacy relation in a group in order to derive the class
equation of a finite group. We verify the equation in the case of S 3 , the permutation group on
three symbols. As an application of class equation, we prove an important theorem due to
Cauchy.
After going through this lesson, you will be able to:
(i)
Define conjugacy relation in a group.
(ii)
Prove conjugacy relation is an equivalence relation.
(iii) Obtain the class equation of a finite group.
(iv)
Prove Cauchys theorem.
(v)
Define the partition of a positive integer n.
(vi)
Obtain the conjugate classes of S n .
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Counting principle is a powerful tool for deriving certain theorems in algebra. The
process of counting the elements in two different ways and then comparing the two, yields
the desired conclusions. We define a conjugacy relation in a group to derive the class
equation of a finite group. As an application of this equation, we prove that cauchys
Theorem which asserts the existence of an element of order p in G whenever p
, for a
o(G )
given prime p. The number of distinct conjugate classes of S n is obtained as the number of
partitions of n.

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Group Theory

1.2 EQUIVALENCE RELATION


Definition
The Cartesian product A x B of two sets A and B is the set{(a,b) : a A, and b B}.
Defintion
A subset R of A x A is called a relation on A.
If (a,b) R, we write a b.
Definition

(1)
(2)
(3)

A relation on a set A is said to be an equivalence relation on A if for all a,b,c in A,


a a (reflexivity)
a b implies b a (symmetry)
a b and b c imply a c (transitivity)

Definition
If is an equivalence relation on A and a A, the equivalence class of a is the set
C (a) = { x : x a }
Theorem
Any two equivalence classes on a set are disjoint or identical
Theorem
If is an equivalence relation on a set A, then A is the union of its distinct
equivalence classes
The proofs of the above theorems are left as exercise.
1.3 CONJUGACY RELATION
Definiton
Let G be a group and a, b G. We say a is conjugate of b, if there exists an element
g G such that a = g-1 bg. We write a b.
Lemma
In a group G, the conjugacy relation is an equivalence relation.
Proof : Reflexivity : Since a = e-1 ae, where e is identity element of G, a a.
Symmetry : If a b, then $ x G such that b = x-1 ax.
Then (x-1 )-1 b x -1 = (x -1 ) -1 (x -1 ax) x -1
i.e., x b x -1 = x (x -1 ax) x -1 .

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Algebra
= (x x -1 ) a (xx -1 ) .
=a
\ a = x bx -1

\b

Transitivity : Let a

b and b c.

Then
b = x -1 ax, for some x G and
c = y by, for some y G.
c = y (x ax) y
= (y x ) a (xy)
= (xy) a (xy)
\a c
Therefore conjugacy is an equivalence relation.
Definition
If a belongs to the group G, the equivalence class of a under the conjugacy relation is
C (a) = {x : x a }. It is called the conjucate class of a. If G is a finite group, then the number
of elements in C (a) is donated by c a.
Lemma
If a belongs to aroup G, then N(a) = { x G : xa = ax } is a subgroup of G and is
called normaliser of a.
Proof : Let x,y G Then
xa = ax
ya = ay
Therefore, (xy) a

----- (1)
----- (2)
= x (ya),
= x (ay),
= (xa) y,
= (ax) y,
= a (xy),

Therefore xy N (a).
From (1), x (xa) x
i.e., (x x) (a x )
i.e.,
ax

by associativity
by (2)
by associativity
by (1)
by associativity.

= x (ax) x
= (x a) (x x )
= x a

Therefore x N (a).
Hence N (a) is a subgroup of G.

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Group Theory

Theorem
If G is a finite group, then ca=

o(G )
O( N (a ))

Proof : First we show that if x and y are in the same right coset of N(a) in G, then they give
rise to same conjugate of a.
Let x, y N (a) g, where g G.
Then for some n1 N (a)
x = n1 g

----- (1)

and for some n2 N (a),


y = n1 g
From (1),
g = n1 x
From (2),
g = n1 y
From (3) and (4),
n1 y = n1 x
= n2 n1 x
\ y
= nx
Where n = n2 n1 N (a).
Then na
= an
\ y ay

----- (2)
----- (3)
----- (4)

----- (5)

----- (6)

= (nx) a (nx), by (5)


= x n (an) x
= x n (na) x, by (6)
=x eax
=x ax

\ x and y give the same conjugate of a.

Next we show that if x and y are in different right cosets of N (a) in G, then they give
rise to different conjugates of a, that is x ax y ay.
Suppose
x ax
then y(x a x) x
(i.e).

yx a

\ yx

= y ay
= y (y ay) x
= ayx

N(a). Then yx = n for some n

N(a).

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Algebra
\y

Let y

= nx

N (a) g. Then for some n1

from (7) and (8)


nx
= n' g
-1 '
-1 '
\ x = n n g where n n
\ x N (a) g.

------- (7)
N (a), y

= n' g

------- (8)

N(a)

Hence x and y are in the same right coset of N (a) in G. This is a contradiction.
Therefore x and y are in different right costs of N (a) in G, they yield different
conjugates of a.
Hence there is a one-one correspondence between the conjugates of a and right cosets
of N (a).
The number of right cosets of N (a) is equal to O(G ) . Hence
O( N (a ))

= O(G )
O( N (a ))

Corollary
If G is a finite group,
then O(G) = O(G )
O( N (a ))

Where the sum runs over one element a in each conjugate class
Proof : Since the conjugate classes are disjoint and their union is G,
O (G) = Ca
Where the sum runs over one element a in each conjugate class. But by the above
theorem

O(G )
O( N (a ))

Hence we get,
O (G) =

O (G )
O ( N (a ))

This equation is called class equation of G.


Note : If G is abelian group and a G, then
= { xa x : x G}
= { x x a : x G}
= {a}
\ ca = 1
C (a)

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Group Theory

Example
We know that S n the set of n symbols form a group under composition of maps. This
group is called symmetric group of n symbols.
Now

= { e, (1,2), (1,3), (2,3), (1,2,3), (1,3,2)} where e is the identity element


The conjugate class of e is
C (e) = { x ex : x G}
= { x x : x G}
={ e}

123
= ( 1,2 ) is
The conjugate class of
213
C (1,2) = { e (1,2)e, (1,3) (1,2) (1,3), (2,3) (1,2), (2,3), (1,2,3) (1,2) (1,2,3),
(1,3,2) (1,2) (1,3,2) }.
= { (1,2), (1,3), (2,3)}

Similarly,
C (1,2,3) = {(1,2,3), (1,3,2)}
We note that the conjugate classes C(e), C(1,2), C(1,2,3) are pairwise disjoint and
their union is s3
Also

= 1,

O( s3 ) =

(1, 2 )

(1, 2 )

We can verify that


N(1,2)
N(1,2,3)
N(e)

O ( S 3)
O ( N (e))

O( S 3)
O( N (1,2))
O ( S 3)
O( N (1,2,3))

c
+c

= 3,

(1, 2 , 3)

=2

(1, 2 , 3)

= { e, (1,2) }
= { e, (1,2,3), (1,3,2) }
= s3

6
= 1 = Ce
6
6
= =3=C
2
6
= = 2 = C (1, 2,3)
3

(1, 2 )

Also
O( s3 )

O( S 3)

O( N (e))

O( S 3)
O( N (1,2))

Which is the class equation for S .


3

O( S 3)
O( N (1,2,3))

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Algebra

Note : If G is a group then Z, the set of all elements of G which commute with all the
elements of the group G, is a subgroup and is called center of G.
Lemma
Let Z be the center of the group G. Then a

Z. iff N(a) = G.

Proof : Let a Z. Then a commutes with all the elements of G. Therefore


G N(a)
Also, N(a) G
From (1) and (2) , N(a) = G
Conversely, let N(a) = G
Then, xa
= ax for every x G
Therefore, a Z.

------- (1)
------- (2)

Theorem
If O(G) = p n where p is a prime number, then Z(G) {e }
Proof : Let a G. Then N(a) is a subgroup of G. Then by Lagranges theorem,
O(N(a)) divides O(G) = p n . Therefore,
O(N(a)) = p na
Where na is a positive integer
By previous lemma, a Z.

iff O(N(a)) = O(G), that is, iff na = n.


The number of elements a for which N(a) = G is O(Z).
Therefore the class equation of G is
O(G) =

N ( a ) =G

O(G ) +
O( N (a ))

=O(Z(G)) +

N ( a ) G

N ( a ) G

O(G )
O( N (a ))

O (G )
O ( N (a ))

Therefore,
O(Z(G))

= O(G) -

N ( a ) G

= pn -

N ( a ) G

O(G )
O( N (a ))

pn
p na

------- (1)

pn
p na
\ p divides each term of the sum and hence p is a divisor of the sum.
\ p is a divisor of R.H.S. of (1)

Since na < n, p divides

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Group Theory

\ p is a divisor of L.H.S. of (1)


That is p / o (Z(G))
As e Z(G), o(Z(G)) 0.
Therefore, O(Z(G)) is a positive integer divisible by p.
\ Z(G) { e }

Corollary
If O(G) = p 2 where p is a prime number, then G is abelian.
Proof : First we note that G is abelian iff Z(G) = G.
Since O(G) = p 2 by previous theorem, Z(G) { e } and hence O(Z(G)) must be
either p or p 2 .
If o(Z(G)) = p 2 , then O(G) = O(Z(G)) = p 2 and Z(G) = G
\ G is abelian
Let O(Z(G)) = p
Let a G, a Z(G)
Then N (a) is a subgroup of G, Z(G) N (a)
But a Z(G)
\ Z(G) N(a)
\ N(a) = G a (G), which is a contradiction
Hence O(Z(G)) p and O(Z(G)) = p 2 only
\ G = Z(G)
\ G is abelian
1.4 CAUCHYS THEOREM

Theorem

If p is prime number and p/O(G), then G has an element of order p.

Proof : The proof is by induction on the order of G.


The result is true for groups of order 1.
We assume the theorem is true for all subgroups T such that O(T) < O(G).
Let H be a subgroup of G, H G and p/o (H).
Then by induction hypothesis, there exists an element h H such that h p = e. Then
as H G, h G and h p = e. The theorem is proved in this case.
Let us assume that p does not divide o(H) for any subgroup H of G.
In particular, If a Z (G), then N(a) G and hence p does not divide O(N(a)).
The class equation is
O(G )
O (G) = O(Z(G)) +
N ( a ) G O ( N ( a ))

\ O (Z(G)) = O(G) -

N ( a ) G

O (G )
O ( N (a ))

------- (1)

o(G )
o( N (a ))
\ p divides each term of the sum and hence p divides the sum.

Since p/o (G) and p*o (N(a)), p/

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Algebra

\ p divides R.H.S of (1)


\ p divides o(Z(G))
As p does not divide order of any proper subgroup of G, we should have Z(G) = G.
Then G is abelian. Then by cauchys theorem for abelian groups, there is an element
a G, (a e) such that a n = e

Definition

n2

A finite sequence ( n1 , n2 . nk ) is called a partition of a positive integer n if o


. nk and n1 + n2 + . nk = n.
The number of partitions of n is denoted by p(n).

n1

Example
We have 4 = 4, 4 = 1+3, 4 = 1+1+2, 4 = 1+1+1+1, 4 =2+2
\ p(4) = 5.
Similarly p(1) = 1, p(2) = 2, p(3) = 3, p(5) = 7, p(6) = 11.
Theorem
The number of distinct conjugate classes of S n is p(n).
Proof : Let s

. Then s can be expressed as disjoint cycles.

Let s = s 1 . s 2 . s k Where s 1 , s 2 s k are disjoint cycles of length


respectively n1 , n2 .. nk , n1 n2 n3 nk , n1 + n2 + ..+ nk
= n.
We give an algorithm to obtain q -1 s q if q s
Suppose s sends i to j, q sends i to s and j to t.
Then (s) q -1 s q = (i) s q = (j) q = t.
Let s and t be two partitions giving rise to the same partition ( n1 , n2 . nk ) of n.
Let s = ( a1 , a 2 , .....

n1

)(

b ,b
1

n2

) .

( x1 , x 2 x n )
k

t = (a 1 ,a 2 .a n ) ( b , b .. b ) ...
1

Define q

g ,g
1

..

nk

nk

a1 , a2 .......an1 b1 , b2 .......bn 2 ....... x1....... xn k

=
a1 ,a 2 .......a n1 b1 , b 2 .......b n 2 g 1.......g n k

Then t = q -1 s q so that t and s are conjugate. Therefore corresponding to a


partition on n there is a unique conjugate class. Next we show that any two conjugates define
the same partition.

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Group Theory

10

Let s = c1 c2 . c k where c1 , c2 ,. c k are disjoint cycles of lengths n1 ,


n2 , n3 ,. nk

Let s 1 be the conjugate of s .


Then s 1
= q s q -1
= q c1 c2 c3 . c k q -1
= ( q c1 q -1 ) ( q c2 q -1 ) . ( q c k q -1 )
= c11 c 21 . c k

Where c11 = q c1 q -1 , c 21 = q c2 q -1 , . c'k = q c k q -1 .


Let c1 = ( a1 , a2 , ..... an1 ) Then

q c1 q -1 = ( q ( a1 ), q ( a2 ), ., q ( an1 ).
Therefore if c1 is of length n1 , then q C1 q -1 is also of length n1 .
Also c1 , c2 , ., c k are disjoint, q c1 q -1 , q c2 q -1 ,., q c k q -1 are

also disjoint.
\ s and s -1 define the same partition.
\ Corresponding to a conjugate class, there is a unique partition of n.
\ The number of distinct conjugate classes of s n is p(n).
Example
Number of district conjugate classes of
3 = 1+1+1.

is 3. Also p(3) = 3 Since 3 = 3, 3 = 2+1,

1.5 LET US SUM -UP


In this lesson, we have discussed the following concepts:
(i)

Conjugacy relation is an equivalence relation.

(ii)

The normaliser of an element of a group G is a sub-group of G.

(iii)

The class equation of G.

(iv)

Every group of prime square order is abelian.

(v)

Cauchys Theorem/

(vi)

The number of distinct conjugate classes of S n is p(n).

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1.6

LESSON END ACTIVITIES

(1)

Prove that the conjugacy relation is an equivalence relation.

(2)

Prove that a normaliser N(a) is a sub- group of G.

(3)

Show that ca=

(4)

Derive the class equation for S 3 .

(5)

If O(G) = p n where p is a prime number, then show that Z(G) {e}.

(6)

If O(G) = p 2 where p is a prime number, then show that G is abelian.

(7)

State and prove cauchys theorem.

(8)

Show that the number of distinct conjugate classes of S n is p(n).

o(G )
O( N (a ))

1.7 REFERENCES
1) A First Course in Abstract Algebra by J.B. Fraleigh, Narota Publishing
House, New Delhi, 1988.
2) Topics in Algebra by I.N. Herstein Second Edition.

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UNIT-I
12

LESSON -2

GROUP THEORY

SYLOWS THEOREM

CONTENTS:
2.0

Aims and Objectives

2.1

Introduction

2.2

Sylows Theorem

2.3

Let us sum- up

2.4

Lesson-end activities

2.5

References

2.0

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


In this lesson, we prove three important theorems contributed by sylow.
After going through this lesson, you will be able to:

(i)

Prove Sylows Theorem

(ii)

Define p-sylow subgroup of G.

(iii)

Prove any two p-sylow subgroups of G are conjugate.

(iv)

Determine the number of p-sylow subgroup of G.

2.1

INTRODUCTION

According to Lagranges Theorem, the order of a subgroup always divides the order
of a finite group. However, the converse need not be true sylows Theorem asserts the
existence of sub-groups of prescribed order in arbitrary finite groups. We introduce p-sylow
sub- groups in a finite group and device a method for finding the number of p-sylow
subgroups of a finite group.

2.2 SYLOWS THEOREM


Theorem (First Part of Sylows Theorem)
If G is a finite group, p is a prime number and p a |o (G), then G has a subgroup of
order p a .
Proof : Here p is a prime number and p a |o (G). Let o(G) = p a m. We know

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13

Algebra
n(n - 1)...(n - k + 1)
k (k - 1)...3.2.1
a
Let n = p m where p is a prime number, p r /m and p r +1 m. Let k = p a .
pa m( pa m - 1)( pa m - 2).....( pa m - i ) - ( pa m - pa + 1)
=
pa m c p a
pa ( pa - 1).....( pa - i ).....1.
c

n k

Now we show that the power of p dividing p a m- i in the numerator is same as the
power of p dividing p a -i in the denominator. Let p k |( p a -i). Then p a - i = a p k where k
a . Then.
-i
= a p k - pa
= pa m + a p k - pa
\ p a m- i
= (m-1) p a + a p k
= p k [ (m-1) pa - k + a ]
\ p k | ( p a m- i)
Conversely
p k | ( p a m- i) p k | ( p a -i)
Therefore all the powers of p in the numerator and denominator cancel out except the
power of p which divides m.
\ As p r |m and p r +1 m we get p r | p a m c pa but p r +1 p a m c pa .
~
Let M be the set of all subsets of G which have p a elements.
~
~
Then M has p a m c p a elements Define for M 1 , M 2 M 1 M 1 M 2 if $ g G

such that M 1 = M 2 g. We show that is an equivalence relation.


Reflexivity: Since M 1 = M 1 e, M 1 M 1
Symmetry: If M 1 M 2 , $ g G such that
= M2g
M1
Then M 2
= M 1 g -1
Therefore,
M 2 M1 .
Transitivity : Let M 1 M 2 and M 2 M 3 .
Then there exists g1 G such that M 1 = M 2 g1 and $ g 2 G such that M 2 = M 3 g 2 .
Now, M 1 = M 2 g1 = ( M 3 g 2 ) g1 = M 3 g 2 g1 where g 2 g1 G and hence M 1 M 3 .
~
Therefore is an equivalence relation on M .
~
Then there is atleast one equive ence class in M such that p r +1 does not divide the
number of elements in this class. For if p r +1 divides the number of elements in each class
~
then p r +1 divides the number of elements in M which is impossible since p r +1 p a m c pa
Let { M 1 , M 2 ,.. M 1 } be such an equivalence class in M where p r +1 t.
This class can be taken as { M 1 , M 1 g 2 , M 1 g 3 ,. M 1 g t }. where g 2 , g 3 . g t
belong to G

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Group Theory

14

Let H = {g G : M 1 g = M 1 }, Let g1 , g 2 H. Then M 1 g1 = M 1 and M 1 g 2 = M 1 .


Therefore M 1 g1 g 2 = ( M 1 g1 ) g 2 = M 1 g 2 = M 1 .
\ g1 g 2 H. Therefore H is a finite subset of G satisfying closure property. Hence
H is a subgroup of G.
We now claim that there is a one-one correspondence between { M 1 , M 2 .. M t } and
the set { Hg : g G }.
Let M 1 g1 and M 1 g 2 be two elements in { M 1 , M 2 .. M t }. Then

M 1 g1 = M 2 g 2

M 1 g1 g 2 -1 = M 1

g1 g 2 -1 H
H g1 = H g 2 .
Therefore our claim is proved.
Now,
o(G )
= number of right cosets of H in G
o( H )
= number of elements in { M 1 , M 2 .. M t }
=t
= t o(H)
\ o(G)
= o(G) = p a m.
\ t o(H)

Since, p r +1 t and pa + r
p a m = t o(H), it must follow that p a |o(H). and so
o(H) p a
------ (1)
For all h H, M 1 h = M 1 , by definition of H.
Therefore M 1 has atleast o(H) distinct elements. Therefore,
O( M 1 ) o(H)
But, o( M 1 ) = p a
----- (2)
\ p a o(H)
From (1) and (2),
o(H) = p a .
Corollary
If p m | o(G) and p m +1 o(G), then G has a subgroup of order p m .
This is a special case of the above theorem and is usually known as Sylows theorem.
Definition
A subgroup of order p m where p m | o(G) but p m +1

o(G) is called p-Sylow subgroup

of G.
Lemma
Let n(k) be defined by p n (k ) | ( p k ) ! but p n ( k +1)

( p k )!

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15

Algebra
Then

n(k) = 1 + p + p 2 + .. + p k -1
------ (1)
k
Proof : If k = 1, ( p )! = p! = 1.2.3. . (p-1) p.
Then p divides p! but p 2 p! Therefore n(1) = 1.
Now
p k ! = 1.2 .. p(p+1) .. 2p (2p+1) .. 3p (3p+1) .. p k -1 p.
Therefore the factors in the expansion of p k ! that can contribute to the powers of p
dividing p k ! are p, 2p, 3p, p k -1 p.
Therefore n(k) is a power of p which divides
k
p.(2p) . (3p) ( p k -1 p) = p p -1 . ( p k -1 )!
Therefore
n(k) = p k -1 + n(k-1)
Therefore,
n(k) n(k-1) = p k -1 .
n(k-1) n(k-2) = p k - 2 .
n(2) n(1) = p
n(1) = 1
Adding these up with cross cancellation,
n(k) = 1 + p + p 2 + .. + p k -1
Lemma
S pk has a p Sylow subgroup
Proof : The proof is by induction on k.
If k = 1, then the element (1,2,3,.p) is in S p and is of order p and so generates a
subgroup of order p.
Since n(1) = 1, the result is proved for k = 1.
Suppose that the result is true for k 1. We show that the result is true for k.
Divide the integers 1,2,. p k into p clumps each with p k -1 elements as follows.
{1,2,., p k -1 }, { p k -1 +1, p k -1 +2,..,2 p k -1 } .{(p-1) p k -1 + 1, . p k }
Then the permutation s defined by
s = (1, p k -1 +1, ., (p-1) p k -1 +1)
(2, p k -1 +2, ., (p-1) p k -1 +2)
.,

.,

.,

k -1
(j, p +j,
.,(p-1) p k -1 +j)
.,

.,

.,

k -1
k -1
k
(p ,2p
., p )

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Group Theory

16

has the following properties : (1) s p = e,(2) If t is a permutation that leaves all the
elements of i fixed for i > p k -1 and hence affects only 1,2,. p k -1 then s - j t s j
moves only j p k -1 +1, j p k -1 +2,. (j+1) p k -1 .
Consider A = { t : t S p , t (i) = i if i > p k -1 } Let t 1 , t 2 A.
Then
t 1 (i) = " > p k -1
t 2 (i) = " > p k -1
Then t 1 t 2 (i) = t 1 (i) " > p k -1
= " > p k -1
\ t 1 t 2 A.
Therefore A is a subgroup of S p k and elements in A can carry out any permutation
on 1,2 p k -1 .
\A

s p k -1 .

By induction, A has a subgroup P1 of order p


-1

-2

T = P1 (s P1s ) (s P1s ) . (s
= P1 P2 ..........PP -1
Where Pi +1 = s -1 P1 s 1

p -1

n ( k -1)

Ps
1

p -1

. Let

n ( k -1)

Each Pi is isomorphic to P1 and so has order P


. Also elements in distinct Pi ' s
influence nonoverlapping sets of integers and hence commute
\ T is a subgroup S p k .
Since P Pj = (e) if 0

i j

p-1, we see that O(T) = o( P1 )p = p

pn ( k -1)

. Since s p

= e and s - i P1 s i = pi we have s - i T s = T.
Let P = { s j t : t T, 0 j p - 1}. Since s T and s -1 T s = T,
pn ( k -1)
we have T is a subgroup of S p k and o(P) = po(T) = p. p
p= p

pn ( k -1) p +1

Also n(k-1) = 1 + p + .. + p k - 2 , hence


n (k-1) + 1
= (1+ p+ p 2 + .. + p k - 2 ) p + 1
= p + p 2 + p 3 + .. + p k -1 + 1
= 1 + p + p 2 + .. + p k -1 = n(k)
Therefore o(P) = p nk and so P is a p Sylow subgroup of S p k .
Definition
Let G be a group and A and B be two sub- groups of G. If x, y G, we define x ~ y if
y = a x b for some a A and b B.

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17

Algebra

Lemma
The relation ~ defined above is an equivalence relation and the equivalence class of
x G is the set
A x B = {a x b :a A ,b B}
Proof : (i)
Since x = x e x " x G, x ~ x " x G
(ii)
If x ~ y and y = a x b. Then x = a -1 y b -1 \ Therefore y ~ x.
(iii) If x ~ y and y ~ z then
y = a x b for some a A, b B and
z = a1 y b1 for some a1 A1 , b1 B.
Then
z = a1 (axb) b1
= ( a1 a) x (b b1 )
Where a1 a A and b b1 B.
\ x ~ z.
\ ~ is an equivalence relation on G. The equivalence class of x is {y : y =a x b
for some a A, b B} = A x B.
Lemma
If A and B are finite subgroups of G, then
o( A).o( B )
O(A x B) =
o( A xBx -1 )
Proof Define T : A x B A x B x -1 by
(a x b) T = a x b x -1
First we show T is one-one.
Let
(a x b) T =( a1 x b1 ) T.
-1
Then ax b x = a1 x b1 x -1 .
\ a x b = a1 x b1
\ T is one-one.
Next we show that T is onto.
Let a x b x -1 A x B x -1 .
Then a x b A x B. and (a x b) T = a x b x -1 . Therefore T is onto.
------- (1)
\ o(A x B) = o (A x B x -1 )
-1
But as A and x B x are subgroups of G,
o( A).o( xBx -1 )
o(A x B x -1 ) =
------- (2)
o( A xBx -1 )
The map : B x B x -1 defined by
(b) = x b x -1 " b B
is one-one and onto.
\ o(x B x -1 ) = o (B)
From (1), (2), (3) we get
o( A)o( B )
O(AxB) =
o( A xBx -1 )

------ (3)

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Group Theory

18

Definition
Two subgroups A and B of a group G are said to be conjugate if $ x G such that
A = x B x -1 .
Theorem (Second Part of Sylows Theorem)
If G is a finite group, p a prime and p n | o(G) but p n +1
of G of order p n are conjugates.
Proof : Let A and B be subgroups of G each of order p n .
G is the union of disjoint double cosets of A and B.
G = A x B.

o(G), then any two subgroups

By Lemma

o( A).o( B )
o( A xBx -1 )
If A x B x -1 , for every x G, then
o (A x B x -1 ) = p m where m < n
o( A).o( B )
p 2n
o(A x B) =
=
= p 2 n - m and 2n m n + 1.
m
m
p
p
n +1
Since p | o(A x B) for every x and since o(G) = o(A x B) we get the
contradiction p n +1 | o(G). Therefore
A= g B g -1 for some g G.
The theorem is proved.
o(A x B) =

Lemma
o(G )
where P is any p Sylow
o( N ( P))
subgroup of G. In particular, this number is a divisor of o(G).
Proof: We have the normaliser of a subgroup H of G is defined by
N(H) = {x : x H = H x} = {x : x H x -1 = H}
is a subgroup of G.
Since the number of distinct conjugates x H x -1 of H in G is the index of N(H) in G,
the proof of the lemma follows as p-Sylow subgroups are conjugate.

The number of p-Sylow subgroups in G equals

Theorem (Third part of Sylows Theorem)


The number of p-Sylow subgroups in G, for a given prime is of the form 1 + kp.
Proof : Let P be a p-Sylow subgroups of G. We decompose G into double cosets of P and P
then
G = P x P

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19

Algebra

By Lemma

o( P).o( P)
[o(P)]2
=
o( P xPx -1 )
o(P xPx -1 )
Therefore if P x P x -1 P, p n +1 | o(P x P). Where o(P) = p n .
\ if x N (P) then P x P = P(Px) = P 2 x = Px and so o(P x P) = p n .
Now
o(G) = o(P x P) = o(P x P)
------ (1)
o(P x P) =

xN ( P )

xN ( P )

where each sum runs over one element from each double coset. However, if x
N(P), since P x P = P x ,
------ (2)
o(P x P) = o(P x ) = o(N(P))
xN ( P )

xN ( P )

n +1

If x N(P), p | o (P x P) and hence


o(P x P) = p n+1 u
xN ( P )

Therefore
o(G) = o(N(P)) + p n +1 u
Therefore
p n+1u
o(G )
=1+
o( N ( P))
o( N ( P))

------- (3)

Now as N(P) is a subgroup of G, o(N(P)) | o(G) and hence


Also since p n +1

o(G )
is an ingeter.
o( N ( P))

o(G), p n +1 cannot divide o(N(P)). But then

divisible by p. Therefore we can write

p n +1u
must be
o( N ( P))

p n+1u
as kp where k is an integer. Therefore (3)
o( N ( P))

becomes
o(G )
= 1 + kp
o( N ( P))

2.3

LET US SUM-UP
In this lesson we have discussed the following concepts :

(i)

n
If G is a finite group, p is prime and P

(ii)

s p k has a psylow sub-group.

(iii)

Conjugacy of p-sylow sub-groups.

(iv)

Number of p-sylow sub groups in a given finite groups.

o(G )

, then G has a sub-group of order P n .

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Group Theory

2.4

LESSON-END ACTIVITIES

1.

Prove sylows theorem (three different parts).

2.

Determine the p-sylow subgroups of a given group of finite order. Business

2.5 REFERENCES
1) Topics in Algebra by I.N. Herstein Second Edition Chapter - 2.

20

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UNIT I

GROUP THEORY

21

LESSON -3

DIRECT PRODUCTS

CONTENTS:
3.0

Aims and Objectives

3.1

Introduction

3.2

External and internal direct products.

3.3

Let us sum- up

3.4

Lesson-end activities.

3.5

References

3.0

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

In this lesson we introduce two different products of groups and then we prove that
they are isomorphic.
After going through this lesson, you will be able to :
(i)

Construct a new group based on two given groups

(ii)

Define external and internal products of a group G.

(iii)

Prove the isomorphism between the two products.

3.1

INTRODUCTION

Given two groups A and B, we obtain a new group G = AxB as the external direct
product A and B. We show that G can also be obtained from internal construction. We obtain
G as internal direct product of two normal subgroups A and B of G. Finally we prove the
isomorphism between the two products.

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22
3.2

Algebra
EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL DIRECT PRODUCTS

DIRECT PRODUCTS
Theorem
Let A and B be any two groups. In A x B = {(a,b) : a A, b B} we define a binary
operation by
( a1 , b1 ) ( a2 , b2 ) = ( a1 a2 , b1 b2 ) " ( a1 , b1 ) A x B and ( a2 , b2 ) A x B. Then A x B is
a group under this binary operation.
Proof : Let ( a1 , b1 ) ( a2 , b2 ), ( a3 ,b3 ) A x B
Then ( a1 , b1 )[( a2 , b2 ) ( a3 ,b3 )]
= ( a1 , b1 ) ( a2 a3 , b2 b3 ) = ( a1 ( a2 a3 ), b1 ( b2 b3 )) = (( a1 a2 ) a3 , ( b1 b2 ) b3 )
\ Associativity is satisfied.
Let e and f be the identify elements of A and B respectively. Then (e,f)
A x B. If (a,b) A x B, then
(a,b) (e,f)
= (ae, bf)
= (a,b) by identity in A and B.
Similarly (e,f) (a,b) = (a,b) Therefore (e,f) is the identity element of A x B.
Let (a,b) A x B where a A and b B Let a -1 be the inverse of a in A and b -1 be
the inverse of b in B. They ( a -1 , b -1 ) A x B
and
(a,b) ( a -1 , b -1 ) = (e,f) also ( a -1 , b -1 ) (a,b) = (e,f)
Therefore ( a -1 , b -1 ) is the inverse of (a,b)
\ A x B is a group.
It is called the external direct product of the groups A and B.
Definition
Let G1 , G2 , G3 , ., Gn be any n groups. Let G = G1 x G2 x . x Gn =
{( g1 , g 2 ,.., g n ) : g i Gi }. Define a product in G by ( g1 , g 2 ,.., g n ) ( g11 , g 21 ,
1

. g n ) = ( g1 g11 , g 2 g 12 , ., g n g n ). G is group under this binary operation. It is


called the external direct product of G1 , G2 , . Gn . This is the generalization of external
product of 2 groups seen above.
Definition
If G is a group and N1 , N 2 , ., N n are normal subgroups of a group G such that
(i)
(ii)

G = N1 N 2 N n = { h1 , h2 . hn : hi N i = 1, 2, n}
Given g G then g is expressed as g = m1 , m2 .. mn , mi N i in a unique
way, then we say G is internal direct product of N1 , N 2 , . N n .

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Group Theory

23

Theorem
If G is the external direct product of the groups A and B, then G is internal direct
product of A and B where
= { (a,f) : a A }
A
= { (e,b) : b B}
B
~
~
e, f being the identity elements of A and B respectively and A A , B B .
Proof: Define : A A by (a) = (a,f), for all a A.
Then
( a1 ) = ( a2 ) ( a1 ,f) = ( a2 ,f)
a1 = a2
Therefore is one-one.
Let (a,f) A . Then a A and
(a) = (a,f) Therefore is onto. Also
if a1 , a2 A, ( a1 a2 )
= ( a1 a2 , f)
= ( a1 ,f) ( a2 ,f)
= ( a1 ) ( a2 )
Therefore is a homomorphism.
~
A A
\
Similarly B

Let ( a1 ,f), ( a2 ,f)


( a1 ,f) ( a2 ,f) -1

A Then.

= ( a1 ,f) ( a2
= ( a1 a2

-1

-1

,f)

, f) A

Therefore A is a subgroup of G. Also ( a2 ,f) ( a1 ,f) ( a2 ,f) -1 = ( a2 a1 a2

-1

,f) A

Therefore A is a normal subgroup of G.


Similarly B is a normal subgroup of G.
Now we show that G = A B
Let g = (a,b) G. Then a = (a,f) A ,
b = (e,b) B and (a,b) = (a,f) (e,b) = a . b
The representation is unique since if g is also equal to x y where x = (x,f), y = (e,y)
Then g = (x,f) (e,y) = (x,y). But g = (a,b) \ x = a, y = b.
\ The representation is unique. Therefore G is internal direct product of A and B .

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24

Algebra

Lemma
Suppose G is internal direct product of N 1 , N 2 , .. N n .
Then for i j, N i N j = {e} and if a . N i , b N j then ab = ba.
Proof: G is internal direct product of N 1 , N 2 , .. N n Then N 1 , N 2 , .. N n are normal
subgroups of G. Let i j and x N i N j .
Then x N i and x N j .
As x N i , x = e1 e2 . ei -1 x ei +1 . e j .. en

------ (1)

Where et = e and x is viewed as an element of N i


As x N j , x = e1 e2 . ei . e j -1 x e j +1 . en

------ (2)

Where et = e and x is viewed as an element of N j


But every element g G has a unique representation of the form
g = m1 m2 . mn , mi N i .
\ The two decompositions (1) and (2) are equal.
In the first decomposition i th entry is x and in the second decomposition ith entry is
e. Therefore x = e.
\ N i N j = {e}
Let a N i , b N j and i j.
Then ab a -1 N j as N j is normal subgroup
\ ab a -1 b -1 N j

------ (3)

Similarly since a -1 N i ,b a -1 b -1 N i .
\ ab a -1 b -1 N i

------ (4)

From (3) and (4), ab a -1 b -1 N i N j .


\ ab a -1 b -1 = e
\ ab = ba.

Theorem
Let G be a group and G is the internal direct product of N 1 , N 2 , .. N n .
Let T = N 1 x N 2 x . x N n be the external direct product of N 1 , N 2 , .. N n
Then G and T are isomorphic.
Proof:
G = { b1 . b2 . bn : bi N i }
T = {( b1 , b2 . bn ) : bi N i }
Define y : T G by
y (( b1 , b2 . bn )) = b1 b2 . bn where each bi N i .
If y G, then y = b1 b2 . bn , bi N i .
Let x = ( b1 , b2 . bn ). Then x T and
y (x) = Y (( b1 , b2 . bn ))
= b1 . b2 . bn
=y

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Group Theory

25

\ Y is onto.
Let Y (x) = Y (y) where x = ( a1 , a2 ,.., an ) and y = ( b1 , b2 . bn ). Then

Y (( a1 , a2 ,.., an )) = Y (( b1 , b2 . bn ))
\ a1 a2 . an = b1 b2 ,. bn .
\ a1 = b1 , a2 = b2 , . an = bn .
\ x=y
\ Y is one-one.
Also, Y (xy) = Y ( a1 b1 , a2 b2 , ., an bn )

= a1 b1 a2 b2 an bn
= a1 a 2 .. an b1 b2 .. bn (as ai b j = b j ai ).
= Y (x) Y (y)
\ y is a homomorphism i, G N T.
3.3

LET US SUM-UP

1.

Let A and B be any two groups. In AxB we define a linary operation by ( a1 , b1 )


( a2 , b2 ) = ( a1 a2 , b1 b2 ). Then AxB is a group under this linary operation.

2.
If G is a group and N1 , N 2 are normal subgroups of G such that G = N1 N 2 =
{ h1 h2 / h1 N1 , h2 N 2 } and every element of G can be uniquely expressed as a product of
elements of N1 and N 2 then G is the internal direct product of N1 and N 2 .
3.

If G = AxB then A and B are normal subgroups of G

4.

External and internal direct products are isomorphic.

3.4

LESSON END ACTIVITIES

1.

Obtained the external direct product of two groups A and B.

2.

If G is the internal direct product of N1 , N 2 , . N n then prove that for i j,


N i N j = {e} and if a N j then ab = ba.

3.

If G is the internal direct product of N1 , N 2 , . N n and T is the external direct


product of N1 , N 2 , . N n then G and T are isomorphic.

3.5 REFERENCES
1) Topics in Algebra by I.N. Herstein Second Edition.

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Unit II RING THEORY


26

Algebra

LESSON -4

EUCLIDEAN RINGS

CONTENTS
4.0 Aims and Objectives
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Euclidean Rings
4.3 A particular Euclidean Ring
4.4 Let us sum- up
4.5 Lesson end activities.
4.6 References

4.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


In this lesson we introduce a particular class of rings namely euclidean rings and we
discuss some important properties of euclidean rings.
After going through this lesson, you will be able to:

(1) Define euclidean ring.


(2) Derive euclidean ring is a principal ideal ring
(3) Determine the g.c.d of any two elements of a euclidean ring.
(4) Prove Unique Factorization Theorem.
(5) Describe the structure of maximal ideals in a euclidean ring
(6) Prove Gaussian integers is an euclidean ring.
(7) Prove Fermats Theorem.

4.1 INTRODUCTION
The class of rings we propose to study now is motivated by several existing examplesthe ring of integers, the Gaussian integers and polynomial rings. Euclidean rings constitute a
special category of rings, in which there is defined a nonnegative d value (an integer) for each

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Ring Theory

27

and every element of the ring. After introducing some important properties of this particular
Euclidean ring, we shall prove the Unique Factorization Theorem, the structure of maximal
ideals, and Fermats Theorem.
4.2 EUCLIDEAN RINGS
Definition: An integral domain R is said to be a Euclidean ring if for for a 0 in R there
is defined a non-negative integer d (a) such that
1. for all a, b R , both non zero, d (a) d (ab)
2. for any a,b R, both non zero, there exist t, r R such that a = tb + r where either
r = 0 or d (r) < d (b).
Examples :
1.

Any field F, with d(a) = 1 for all a F - {0}. Then is an Enclidean domain
For a.b F {0} then d(a) = 1, d(ab) = 1
So that d (a) d (ab)
Let a, b F with b
\

2.

0. Them bexits and a = qb + r where q = ab , r = 0

F is an Euclidean domain.

The ring of Gaussion integer Z [i] is an Euclidean domain


Z [i] = {a + ib /a, b Z}.
For any a + ib 0 in Z [i], define d(a + ib) = a + b
Clearly d (a + ib) is a non negative integer.
(i)Let x = a + ib, y = m + in be any two non zero elements of Z [i. Then
=d (xy) = d [( a + ib) (m + in ) ] = d [(am bn) + I (bm + an)]
=(am bn) + (bm + an )
= (a + b) (m + n )
a + b (Q m + n
= d (x)

\ d (x)

d (xy)

1).

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28

Algebra
(ii)

Let x,y Z [i] with y 0. To show that there exists t, r z[i] such that x = ty +r
where either r = 0 or d ( r) < d(y)

Let x = a + ib, y = m + in (m, n


Then

P=

0)

a + ib
x
=
= (a + ib )(m - in ) = p + iq, where
m + in
y
m 2 + n2

am + bn
bm - an
q=
m + n
m + n

Choose integers , m , such that


1
1
,|-q|
2
2

| - p|

(1)

Put t = + i and r = x ty
, m Z [i], r Z [i], Also x = ty + r
To prove that either r = 0 or d(r) < d(y)
If r 0 then d(r) = d(x - ty)

x
= d - t y
y
= d {[(p +iq)] ( + i m ] } (m + in)
=

[( p - l ) + (q - m ) (m
2

1 1
m2 + n2 +
4 4

< m2 + n2
= d(y)
d(r) < d(y)
Hence Z[i] is an Euclidean domain.

+ n2

)
from (1)

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Ring Theory

29

Definition: An integral domain R with unit element is a principal ideal ring if every ideal A
in R is of the from A = (a) for some a R. An integral domain R is called a Principal Ideal
Domain, if every ideal of R is a principal ideal.
THEROREM: Let R be a Euclidean ring and let A be an ideal of R. Then there exist an
element a0 A such that A consists exactly of all a0 x as x ranges over R.(Every Euclidean
ring is a Principal ideal Domain)
PROOF:

First we prove that every ideal in R is generated by an element of R.

(ie) If A is an ideal in R, then there exists an element a0 in


R such that A = < a0 >={r a0 /r R}.
If A is the zero ideal in R, then A= < 0 >
Hence we assume A {0}.
Let d 0 = min {d(a)/a A,a 0} and a0 be an element of A with d( a0 ) = d 0 (By well
ordering principle)
To show that A = < a0 >
Now for any chosen element a A there exists q,r R
Such that a = q a0 + r where either r = 0 or d(r) < d ( a0 )
\

r = a | q a0

Now, a A, q a0 A (Q A is an ideal)
a - q a0 A
r A

If r 0 then d(r) < d ( a0 )


Also r A, r

o d (r) < d0

\ d (r) < d ( a0 ) contradicts d ( a0 ) being the least element of d0

Thus r = 0.

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30

Algebra
\

a =q a0 ( a0 )

and hence A

( a0 )

Again b ( a0 ) b = a0 r for some r R,


Also, a0 A a0 r A

(Q A is an ideal)

b A
\ ( a0 )

COROLLARY :
PROOF:

A A = ( a0 )
A Euclidean ring possesses a unit element.

Let R be Euclidean ring.

We know that every ideal of Euclidean domain is principal R itself is an ideal of R.


\

R is a principal ideal.

Hence there exists u0 R such that R = ( u0 )


Thus every elements in R is a multiple of u0
In particular u0 = u0 c for some c R.
We show that c is the unit element of R
If a R then a = x u0 for some x R.
Hence ac = (x u0 ) = x ( u0 c) = x u0 = a \ c is a unit element of R.
Definition: If a 0 and b are in a Commutative ring R then a is said to divide b if there
exists c R such that b = ac.
We write a/b to mean a divides b.
REMARKS:
1.

If a/b and b/c then a/c

2.

If a/b and a/c then a / ( b c )

3.

If a/b then a/bx for all x R

Definition: An integral Domain R is called a Principal ideal Domain ( P.I.D) if every ideal
of R is a principal ideal.

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Ring Theory

31

Examples:
1. Every field is a P.I.D. For, the only ideal of a field F are {0} and F itself.
2. Since every ideal of Z is of the from nZ for some n Z, each ideal is a principal
ideal. \ z is a P.I.D.
Definition: If a, b R then d R is said to be a greatest common divisor of a and b if.
1.

d /a and d /b

2.

whenever c /a and c /b then c /d

Greatest common divisor of a and b is denoted by ( a,b )


Example:

In Z,g.c.d of 18 and 24 is 6; another g.c.d is - 6.

LEMMA: Let R be Euclidean ring. Then any two elements a and b in R have a greatest
common division d. Moreover, d = a + b for some , R.
PROOF:

Let A = {ra + sb /r,s R }.

We claim that A is an ideal of R,For, suppose x,y A.


\

x = r1 a + s1 b, y = r2 a + s2 b and x y = ( r1 r2 ) a + ( s1 s2 )b A.

Similarly, for any u R, ux ( r1 a + s1 b) = (u r1 ) a + (u s1 ) b A


Thus A is an ideal of R.
Now, by theorem there exists an element d A such that A =<d>. As every element of
A is of the form ra + sb, for some r,s R, there exists element , R such that d = a +b.
Now by corollary to theorem R has a unit element 1.
Thus a = 1. a + ob A: b =0.a + 1.b A
As every element of A is a multiple of d, it follows that d/a and d/b.
To show that d is a G.C.D. of a and b, suppose c /a and c /b
Then c / a and c/ b. This means c/ a + b (ie) c/d
Thus (a,b) =d = a

Definition: Let R be a Commutative ring unity. An element a R is a unit in R, if there


exits an element b R such that ab = 1.

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32

Algebra

Note: A unit in a ring is an element whose inverse is also in the ring. Also note that unit is
different from unity.
LEMMA: Let R be integral domain with unit element and suppose that for a, b, R both
a/b and b/a are true. Then a =ub,where u is a unit in R.
PROOF:

Let R be an intergral domain and a,b R

Given that a/b and b/a.


a/b b = xa for some x R
b/a a = yb for some y R
Thus b = xa
= x (yb) = (xy) b
(ie) b = (xy) b b [1 - xy] = 0
Since R is an integral domain 1 xy = 0 xy =1
Thus y is a unit in R.
Definition: Let R be a Commutative ring with unit element. Two elements a and b in R are
said to be associates if b = ua for some unit u in R.
LEMMA : Let R be a Euclidean ring and a,b R If b 0 is not a unit in R then d(a) <d (ab).
PROOF:

Let R be an Euclidean ring.

Let A = (a) = {xa /x R} be an ideal.


By condition (1) of Euclidean ring d (a)

d (xa) for x 0 in R.

Thus the d value of a in the minimum for the d value of any element in A. (ie) d (a) =
min {d (t) /t A - {0}}
Now ab A if d (a) = d (ab)
Q

ab A with its d value is minimal every element in A is the multiple of ab.


In particular, since a A, a must be a multiple of ab.
(ie) a =(ab) x for some x R
= a (bx)
a a (bx) = 0 a [ 1-bx] = 0

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Since R is an integral Domain we obtain.


1 bx = 0 bx = 1.
be is the unit in R which is a Contradiction.
\

Our assumption d (a) = d (ab) is wrong.

\ d (a) < d (ab).


Definitions: In the Euclidean ring R a non- unit is said tobe a prime element of R, if
whenever = ab, where a, b are in R then on e of a or b is a unit in R.
LEMMA : Let R be a Euclidean ring. Then every element in R is either a unit in R or can be
written as the product of a finite number of prime elements of R.
PROOF
Step 1: state and prove the previous lemma.
Step 2: An element a

0 is a unit d (a) = d(1) If part,

Suppose a is a unit. Then there exists b R such that ab = 1.


\

d (a)

d (ab) = d (1)

. (1)

By definition of an Euclidean domain


d (1)

d (1.a) = d (a)

a 0 in R
\ d (a)

d (1)

.. (2)

From (1) & (2), d (1) = d(a)


Converse
Suppose d (a) = d (1)
Consider 1 abd a. Since R is Euclidean there exists q,r R such that 1 = qa + r, where
either r = 0 or d (r) < d(a).
If r 0 then d (r) <d (a)
(ie) d(r) <d (1) which is a contradiction since
d (r) > d (1) (by eq (2))

\ r=0
(ie) 1 = aq and hence a is a unit.

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Algebra
Step 3: Let a be non zero element of R.Proof is by induction on d (a).
If d (a) = d(1), then a is a unit (by step 2). Hence the lemma is true.
Let d (a) d (1)
Assume the lemma to be true for all elements x in R such that d (x) < d (a)

Suppose a is a prime element, there is nothing to prove. Suppose a is a not a prime


element then there exists b R, c R non units such that a = bc.
By lemma, Since b and c are non- units d(b) < d (bc) = d (a) and d (c) < d (bc) = d (a).
Thus b,c R are such that d(b) < d (a) and d (c) < d (a).
\ By induction hypothesis b and c can be written as a product of a finite number of
prime elements of R.
,

b = p 1 p 2 p n , c = p '1 p ' 2 p ' m where p ' s and p ' s are prime elements of R.

\ a = bc = ( p1 p 2 .. pn ) ( p'1 p' m )
A product of a finite number of prime elements
This completes the proof.
Definition: In the Educlidean ring R, a and b in R said to be relatively prime if their
greatest common divisor is a unit in R.
(ie) (a, b) = 1.
LEMMA : Let R be a Euclidean ring Suppose that for a,b,c, R a/bc, but (a,b) = 1. Then
a/c.
PROOF:
By Lemma the greatest common divisor of a and b is d which is of the form
l a + m b i.e, d = l a + m b
Here G.C.D is 1 then l a + m b = 1
Multiplying this relation by c, l ac + m c = c
Since a/bc, we have bc =xa for some x R.
\ c = l ac + m

xa

= ( l c)a +( m x)a (by associativty)


= ( l c + m x) a
(i.e.) c is a multiple of a. \ a/c.

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LEMMA : If is a prime element in the Euclidean ring R and /ab where a, b, R then
divides atleast one of a or b.
PROOF:
Result: Suppose p does not divide a. Sine p is prime and p soes not divide a.
then p and a are relatively prime.
P is a prime element in R and p does not divide a.
\ (p,a) = 1

Proof of Lemma:
divide b.

Assume that does not divide a then (, a) = 1 by lemma 2.7.5, must

Similarly does not divides b then (, b) = 1.


Q

is a prime element, must divides a.

COROLLARY: If is a prime element in the Euclidean ring R and / a1 a2 a n then


divides atleast one a1 a2 a n .
PROOF:

Let us prove the result using induction on n.

When n = 2 then p / a1 a2
p / a1 or p / a2

(proved in the above lemma)

Assume the result for (n-1) products, If p does not divide a1


then ( p , a1 ) = 1
p / a1 a3 an
p divides any one ai (i 1) (by induction)

When ( p , a3 ) = 1
then p / a2 a3 a4 an
p divides any one ai (i 2)

Thus p divides any one of ai .

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Algebra

THEOREM:

UNIQUE FACTORIZATION THEOREM

Let R be a Euclidean ring and a 0 a non unit in R


Suppose that a = p 1 p 2 p n
= p '1 p ' 2 . p ' m
Where p i and p' j' are prime elements of R. Then n =m and each p i 1 i n is an associate of
some p' j' ; 1 j m and conversely each p' k is an associate of some p i
PROOF:

Given that a = p 1 p 2 p n = p '1 p ' 2 . p ' m

Where p1 , p 2 , p n ' , p'1 , p'2 , p' m prime elements of R


First let us prove n = m. To prove this we have to prove n

m and m

n.

Since p1 is a prime element. p1 is a divisor of p1 p 2 . p n .


(i.e.) p1 / p1 p 2 p n . But p1 p 2 . p n = p'1 p'2 .. p' m

\ p1 \

p1

p'1 p'2 . p' m

divides atlest one p'1 p'2 p' m

By lemma p1 must divide p'1 .Since p1 p'1 are both prime elements of R and p1 / p'1
must be associates and p'1 = u 1 p1 where u 1 is a unit in R.

\ p1 p 2 . p n =

p'1 p'2 . p m '

= u 1 p1 p'2 p' m

(Q R is an integral domain canceling p1 on both sides)

p 2 p n = p'2 p'3 p' m

Repeat the argument on this relation with p 2 we get.


p3 pn

= u 1 u 2 p'3 p' m

If m > n then after n steps L.H.S become 1 while the R.H.S. reduces to a product of a
certain number of s.
'

But p 1' p 2 ' p m are prime element of R.


So they are not units in R.
,

\ Product of some units and certain number of p ' s cannot be equal to one.

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\ m cannot be greater than n. and \ m n


',

----- (1)
,

Similarly, interchanging the roles of p j s and p j s.We get n m

----- (2)

Combining (1) and (2) n = m.


,

Also in the above process we have shown that every p j is an associate of some p j are
associates of some p j .
LEMMA : The ideal A = ( a0 ) is a maximal ideal of the Euclidean ring R if a0 is a prime
element of R.
PROOF :

Let R be in an Euclidean ring.

Step 1 :

Suppose A = ( a0 ) is a maximal ideal, our aim is to prove a0 is prime in R.

Suppose a0 is not a prime element then A = ( a0 ) is not a maximal ideal.


Let b, c R such that a0 = bc, neither b is a unit nor c is a unit.
Let B = (b).
Since a0 is a multiple of b from a0 = bc then a0 B and A B.
We claim that A B and R.
If B = R then 1 B
(Q R in the ring with unit element 1 R)
But every B is a multiple of b.
\ 1 = bx for some x R.
B is a unit in R, which is a contradiction.
\ B R.
Now, assume that A = B, b B, b A
\ b = x a0 for some x R.
But ao =bc and hence ao = x ao c xc = 1
c is unit in R. Which is a contradiction.

\ A B.
\ For any other ideal B R such that A B and A
maximal ideal of R.
\

ao

B, B R A cannot be

is a prime element of R

Conversely, suppose ao is a prime element of R and U is an ideal of R such that


A U R.
To prove A is maximal ideal it is enough to prove that

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38

Algebra
A = U or U = R.
Let ao A but A U
ao A U ao U.

But U = ( u o ) (by theorem)


Every element of U is a multiple of u o

\ ao also a multiple of

uo

(i.e.) ao = x u o for some x R


Q ao

..(1)

is a prime element it follows that either x or u o is a unit in R.


-1

Case 1: u o is a unit in R, u0 R.
For u o U and u0

-1

-1

u u0 U
1U

Let r R,1 U then r.1 = 1. r U.


i.e., r R r U R U
Also U R \ R = U.
Case 2: x is a unit in R. Then its inverse x -1 R
The relation (1) becomes u o = x -1 a0 .
a0 A, x -1 R. x -1 a0 A

(i.e) u0 A But u0 U U A.
Also A U A = U
\ A is the maximal ideal of R. Hence the proof.

(Q A isan ideal)

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4.3 A PARTICULAR EUCLIDEAN RING

THEOREM :
J[i] is a Euclidean ring. J[i] = {a + ib/a, b Z} called the set of
Gaussian integers in an Euclidean domain.
PROOF :
Step 1: J[i] is an integral domain under usual addition and multilplication of complex
numbers.
Let a1 + i b1 , a2 + i b2 J[i]
Then

( a1 + i b1 + a2 + i b2 ) = ( a1 + a2 ) + i ( b1 + b2 ) J[i]
( a1 + i b1 ) ( a2 + i b2 ) = a1 a2 - b1 b2 + i( a1 b2 + a2 b1 ) J[i]

\ J[i] is closed under addition and multiplication, since J[i] is a subset of complex
number + and . are associate and commutative and distributive over +.

0 = 0 + i 0 is the zero element


1 = 1 + i 0 is the unit element
(a + ib) + (-a ib) = 0
(i.e) (-a ib) is the additive inverse of (a + ib).
\ J[i] is a commutative ring with unity.
Let a + ib, c + id J[i] and let (a + ib) (c + id) = 0, a + ib 0
a - ib
as a complex number a + ib 0 has its inverse 2
a + b2
(a + ib)(a + ib)
(c + id) = 0
\
a2 + b2
\ c + id = 0
\ J[i] is an integral domain.
Step 2:
J [i] is an Euclidean domain
Define d as d (a + ib) = a + b
Q

a + ib 0 atleast one of a or b is non-zero.

(a + b ) > 0.

In fact (a + b)
(i) d (x)

1 Q a, b are integers.

0 V x J [i]

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40

Algebra

(ii) Let x = a + ib, y= c + id J [i]


xy = (a + ib) (c + id) = (ac - bd) + i (ad + bc)
d (xy) = (ac bd) + (ad + bc)
= (ac + bd + ad + bc) = (a + b) (c + d)
= d (x) d (y)

\ d (x)
(iii)

d (xy) for y

0 ( Q d (y)

1.)

To prove the division algorithm in J [i]


Given x, y J [i], y
< d (y).

Case

1:

0 $ q, r J [i] such that x = qy + r where either r = 0 or d (r)

Let = n (a + ve integer) and x = c+ id

Apply divition algorithm in the ring of integers to c and n there exists u and v such
that c = nu + v where u and v are integer satisfying

|v|

1
2

n.

Similarly d = nu 1 + v 1 where u1 v 1 are integers satisfying | v 1 |

\ x = c + id = n (u + iu 1 ) + (v +i v 1 )
\ x =qn + r where q = u +

iu 1 and r

= v + i v1

2
2
1 2
Here d (r) = d (v + i v 1 ) < n + n =
< d (n)
2 n
4
4

\ If x = c + id and y = n $ q, r J [i] such that x =qn + r with


d (r) < d (n)
---------- (1)
Case 2: Let x =c + id , y 0 are in J [i]
-

Let y = a + ib, then y y = (a + ib) (a - ib) = a +b = n, a + ve integer.


-

Applying case 1 to y x and n we get


-

y x = qn + r with d (r) <d (n)


-

yx

qn = r with d (r) <d (n)

1
2

n.

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41

Algebra
-

yx

- qy y = r with d (r) <d (n)

(x -qy) = r and

d ( y ) d( (x - qy)) = d (r) < d (n) = d (y). d ( y )


(Q d (ab) = d (a) . d (b) for a,b J [i] )
-

Here d( y ) .d (y) = a + b

\ d (( x qy)) < d(y)


Let x qy = r so that x = qy + r where d(r) = d (x - qy)< d(y)

\ J [i] is an Euclidean domain.


LEMMA Let p be a prime integer and suppose that for some integer c relatively prime to
p we can find integers x and y such that x + y = cp. Then p can written as the sum of
squares of two integers, that is, there exist integers a and b such that p = a + b.
PROOF:

Note that 1, -1, i, - i are the only units in J [i] and that Z is a sub ring of J [i] .

We show that p is not a prime element of J [i].


Assume that p is a prime element of J [i].
Now cp = x + y cp = (x +iy) (x -iy)
p/(x + iy) ( x iy)
p/(x + iy ) or p/(x iy) (by def. of prime element)
If p/ (x + iy), then x + iy = p (u + iv) for some u + iv J [i].
On equating the real and imaginary parts, x = pu y = pv.
\ x iy = p (u iv) and hence p/ (x iy) also.
Thus p / (x + iy) (x - iy)
(i.e.) p / (x + y) or p /cp (i.e.) p/c which is a contradiction since (p,c) = 1.
if p/ (x iy) then we get a similar contradiction.
Thus p is not a prime element of J [i].
if p = (a + ib) ( + ig), where a + ib, + ig J [i], then neither (a + ib) nor ( + ig) is
a unit in J [i].
p = (a + ib) ( +ig) p = (a - ib) ( - ig)

\ p = (a + ib) ( + ig) (a - ib) ( - ig)

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= (a + b) ( + g)

\ (a + b) / p and hence a + b = 1,p, p.


Since a + ib is not unit in J [i],d (a + ib )

If a 2 + b 2 = p 2 then f 2 + y 2 = 1 which is not possible since f + ig is not a unit in J[i].

\ a + b = p (i.e.) p = a sum of squares of two integers.


LEMMA : If p is a prime number of the form 4n + 1 then we can solve the congruence x
- 1 (mod p).
Since p = 4n + 1, p-1 is an even intger.

PROOF:

Let x = 1.2.3 p-1 In this product there are n even number of terms.
2

By Wilsons therem, (p -1)! + 1 0 (mod p)


p +1 p + 3
(i.e.)1.2 p-1

. (p 1) - 1 (modp)(1)
2
2 2

Now p+1 = p- p-1 2

p - 1

(modp).

p+ 3 = p- p- 3 - p - 3 (mod p).
2

..
..
P -1 - 1 (mod p)

\ (1) becomes

(p - 1)

x. -

(p - 3)
(-2) (-1)
-
2

(i.e.) x. 1.2 p- 3 . p-1 . (-1)


2

p -1
2

- 1 (mod p)

1(mod p)

p -1

(i.e) x - 1 (mod p) Q (-1) 2 = -1

Thus x - 1 (mod p)

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43

Algebra
Hence the proof.

THEOREM (FERMAT).
for some integers a, b.

If p is a prime number of the from 4n + 1 then p = a + b

PROOF:
By Lemma there exists an integer x such that x = - 1 (mod p). We can choose
x so that 0 x p -1.
If x >

p
2

put y = p x

Then y = ( p x) = p - 2px + x x (mod p)


(i.e.) y = x (mod p) (Q x x -1 (mod p)
p
,|y|
2
p
we can assume that |x|
2

Since y = p

x and x >

p
.
2

and x - 1(mod p)

\ x + 1 is a multiple of p.
x + 1 = mp, m is an integer.
2

Now mp = x +1 < p + 1 < p


4

\ m < p and p c
\ By lemma there exists integers a, b such that p = a + b

4.4 LET US SUM-UP


(1) Definition and examples of Euclidean ring
(2) Proving every Euclidean ring is a principal ideal ring.
(3) Determination of g.c.d of any two elements.
(4) Unique Factorization Theorem for Euclidean rings.
(5) Proving the Gaussian integers is an Euclidean ring.
(6) Fermats theorem in number theory

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4.5 LESSON END ACTIVITIES

(1) Prove that a Euclidean ring possesses a unit element.


(2) Prove that an ideal is a maximal ideal if and only if it is generated by a prime element.
(3) Prove that if an ideal U of a ring R contains a unit of R, then U = R.
(4) Find all the unit in J[i].

1.7 REFERENCES
1) Topics in Algebra by I.N. Herstein Second Edition Chapter 3.

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Algebra

LESSON -5

POLYNOMIAL RINGS

CONTENTS :
5.0 Aims and Objective
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Poly nomial rings
5.3 Poly nomial over the Rational Field
5.4 Let us Sum- up
5.5 Lesson end activities
5.6 References
5.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
In this lesson we introduce another class of rings namely polynomial rings. We prove some
important properties of polynomial rings and we conclude the lesson by providing an
important theorem to determine the irreducibility of polynomials.
After going through this lesson, you will be able to:
(1) Define the structure of polynomial rings
(2) Prove a polynomial ring is an Euclidean ring
(3) Prove the Eisenstein Criterion for irreducibility of polynomials.
5.1 INTRODUCTION
Let F be a field. The ring of Polynomials in the indeterminate, x, we mean the set of all
symbols ao + a1 x +. + am x m , where m can be any nonnegative integer and coefficients
ao , a1 .. a m are all in F. This ring is denoted by F[x]. We introduce the basic algebraic
operations to claim that F[x] is a ring. After proving the Division Algorithm in F[x], we will
show that F[x] is a Euclidean ring. Finally by proving Gauss Lemma, we shall establish a
powerful tool for verifying irreducibility (Factorization) of a polynomial.
5.2 POLYNOMIAL RINGS
Definition: If p (x) = ao + a1 x +. + am x m and

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q(x) = bo + b1 x +. + bn x n are in F[x], then p (x) = q(x) if and only if for every integer i 0,
ai = bi .

Definition : If p (x) = ao + a1 x +. + am x m and


q (x) = bo + b1 x +. + bn x n are both in F[x] then
p (x) + q (x) = c1 + c1 x + + c1 x t where for each i, ci = ai + bi .
Definition : If p (x) = ao + a1 x +. + am x m and
q (x) = bo + b1 x +. + bn x n then p (x) q (x) = c0 + c1 x + + ck x k where
ct = at bo + at -1 b1 + + ao bt

Example:
Let p(x) = 1 + x - x, q (x) = 2 + x + x
Here ao = 1, a1 = 1, a2 = -1, a3 = a4 = .. = 0
bo

= 2, b1 = 0, b2 = 1, b3 = 1, b 4 = b5 = = 0

Thus c o = ao b o = 1.2 = 2

c5

= a1 b o + ao b1 = 1.2 +1.0 = 2
= a2 b o + a1 b1 + ao b2 = (-1) 2 + 1.0 + 1.1 = - 1
= a3 b o + a2 b1 + a1 b 2 + ao b3 = 0 (2) + (-1)(0) + 1.1 + 1.1 = 2
= a 4 b o + a3 b1 + a2 b 2 + a1 b 3 + ao b 4
= 0 (2) + 0 (0) + (-1) (1) +(1)(1) + (1)(0)= 0
= a5 b o + a 4 b1 + a3 b 2 + a2 b3 + a1 b 4 + ao b5 = 1

c6

= a6 b o + a5 b1 + a4 b2 + a3 b 3 + a2 b 4 + a1 b 5 + ao b 6 = 0

c1
c2
c3
c4

c7 = c8

= . = 0

\ Accroding to our definition,


(1+ x- x)(2+ x+x x) = c o + c1 x +.=2+2x- x + 2x - x 5
Definition: If (x) = ao + a1 x + + a n x n 0 and a n 0 then the degree of (x) written as
deg (x), is n.
LEMMA : If (x), g (x) are two non-zero elements of (x) then deg ( (x) g(x))
=deg (x) + deg g (x)

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47

Algebra
m

PROOF:

Suppose (x) =

ai x i = ao + a1 x am x m and

i =0

g(x) =

b j x i = b o + b1 x++ bn x n with a m 0 and b n 0.

i =0

This mean deg (x) = m and deg g (x) = n


We have (x) g(x) = c o + c1 ++ ck x k where
c i = ao b i

+ a1 bi -1 +. + a i b o .

Now cn + m = ao bn + m + a1 bn +m -1 + . + a n -1 bm +1 + a n b m + a n +1 bn -1 + + an+ mb0


= a n b m since

a=0v
i

i> n and b j = 0 j>m.

If i> n+ m, then c i = sum of term of the from a j bi - j

\ i> n + m i = j + (i-j) > n + m.


j > n or i- j > m
a j = 0 or bi - j = 0
a j bi - j = 0
ci = 0

\ (x) g(x) = c0 + c1 x + .. + cn + m x n + m
deg ((x) g(x)) = m + n = deg (x) +deg g (x).
COROLLARY:
If (x), g(x) are non zero elements in (x) then deg
(x) deg (x)g (x)
PROOF:

From the above lemma,

If deg g(x)

deg [ (x) g (x)] = deg (x) + deg g(x)


0 then deg (x) deg [ (x) g (x)]

Corollary : F[x] is an integral domain.


Proof : We have to show that F[x] is a commutative ring.

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Ring Theory

48
n

If (x)=

ak c k g(x) =

k =0

bk x k are in F [x]

k =0

n+m

define (x) + g(x) =

( ak + b k ) x k

k =0

n+m

(x) g(x) =

k =0

ck x k where ck =

a i b k -i

i =0

Since all but a finite number of a k 's and b k 's are zeros it follows that only a finite number of
a k + b k can be non- zero and only a finite number of ck ' s can be non zero.
Hence (x) + g(x) F [x] and (x) g(x) F[x]
With addition and multiplication defined on F[x].
We show that F [x] is a commutative ring with unity
We can verify that [f(x) g(x)] h(x) = f(x) [g(x) h(x)] and [f(x) + g(x)] = f(x) h(x) + g(x) h(x)
for any f(x), g(x), h(x), F[x].
F[x] inherits commutativity from F and 1 F treated as a constand polynomial is the
unity in F (x). Thus F(x) is a commutative ring with unity.
Now suppose (x) g (x) = 0, (x),g(x) F [x]
If both (x)and g(x) are constant polynomials then from the fact that F is an integral
domain it follows that either (x) = 0 or g(x)= 0.
If one of the polynomials say (x) is non constant, then (x) g(x) = 0 only if g(x) = 0.
Thus F(x) has no zero divisors and hence F [x] is an integral Domain.
LEMMA : (The Division Algorithm) Given two polynomials (x) and g(x) o in F[x] then
there exist two polynomials t(x) and r (x) in F(x) such that (x) = t(x) g(x) + r(x) where r (x)
= 0 or deg r(x) < deg g(x).
PROOF:
1.
2.

By induction on degree of (x)

If deg (x) < deg(x),take t(x) = 0,r(x) = (x) we get the result.
Assume deg (x) deg g (x)

Let (x) = a0 + a1 x +. + am x m , a m

g(x) = b0 + b1 x +.+ bn x n , b n 0 and m n


suppose m = 1,if n = 0,g(x) = b o , b o 0 a unit

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49

Algebra

\ (x) = a

+ a1 x
-1

= b o ( ao b0 + a1 b0 -1 x) and r (x) = 0
(post multiply by b0

-1

& premultiply by b o )

If n = 1, g(x) = b0 + b1 x , b1 0

\ (x) = a0 + a1 x =

a1 b 0 -1 ( b0 + b1

x )+( ao - a1 b o b0 -1 )

(x) = g(x) t(x) + r(x)


and r = ao - a1 b o b0 -1 with degr r (x) = 0 <deg g(x)
Induction hypothesis: Assume the result to be true for all polynomials of degree less than
degree of (x) (i.e.)if 1 (x)is a polynomial such that deg 1 (x)< deg (x) then there exists
t(x), r(x) F (x) such that

1 (x) = t(x) g(x) + r (x) where r (x) = 0 (or) deg r(x) < deg g(x)

Let 1 (x) = (x) ( a m b n -1 ) g(x) x m -n


Here deg 1 (x)

m 1< m

\ By induction hypothesis $ t 1 (x),r (x) F[x] such that


1 (x)

= t 1 (x) g(x) + r(x) where r (x) = 0 deg r(x) < deg g (x)

(x) = 1 (x) + a m b n -1 x m -n g(x)


= ( t 1 g+r) (x) + a m b n -1 x m -n g(x)
(i.e) (x) = ( a m b n -1 x m -n + t 1 (x) g(x) + r(x)
(x) = t(x) g(x) +r(x) where t(x) = a m b n -1 x m -n + t 1 (x)
either r = 0 or deg r(x) <deg g (x)

THEOREM :

F [x] is a Euclidean ring.

PROOF:

We know that F(x), define d [(x)] = deg (x)

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Ring Theory

50

We show that d is an Euclidean function on F [x]


We know that deg (x) is a non- negative integer
(i) Let (x) and g(x) be any two non- zero elements in F[x]
Then
d[(x) g(x)] = deg [(x) g(x)]
= deg (x) + deg g (x)
deg (x) (Q deg g(x) > 0)
= d[ (x) ]

\ d[(x)] d[ (x) g(x) ]


(i) By division algorithm, if (x),g (x), F[x] with g (x)
g(x), r(x), F[x] such that

0 then there exist

(x) = q (x) g(x) + r(x) where either r(x) = 0 or deg r(x)< deg g(x)
(i.e) either r(x) = 0 or d [r(x)] < d [g(x)]
Thus d satisfies all the properties of an Euclidean ring.

\ F[x] is an Euclidean domain.


LEMMA:

F(x) is a principal ideal ring or principal ideal domain.

PROOF:

F(x) is an Euclidean ring, every Euclidean ring is a principal ideal ring.

LEMMA 2.9.4: Given two polynomials (x),g(x) in F(x) they have a greatest common
divisor d(x) which can be realized as d(x) = (x) (x) + (x) g(x)
PROOF:

Let I = { s(x) (x) +t(x) g(x)/ s(x), t(x) F[x] }


Then I f since (x) I
Let d(x) be a polynomial of least degree in I.
Then d(x) = l (x) (x) + (x) g(x) for some l (x) (x) F[x]
We show that d(x) is a g.c.d of (x) and g (x)

Now by division algorithm $ q(x),r(x), F[x] such that (x) = q(x) d(x) + r(x),
Where either r(x) = 0 or deg r(x) <deg d(x)

\ r(x) = (x) q(x) d(x)


= (x) q (x) [ (x). (x) + (x) g(x)]
= [1 (x) q(x)] (x) + [- (x) q(x)] g(x)
This is of the form s(x) (x) + t(x)g(x)
\ r(x) I

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51

Algebra
If r(x)

0 then deg r(x) < deg d(x)

But r(x) I and d(x) is a polynomial of least degree in I.


Hence we get a contradiction.

\ r(x) = 0 \ d(x) / (x)


Similarly d(x)/ g(x)
Again, c(x)/ (x), c(x) /g (x) c(x)/[ l (x) (x) + m (x) g(x)]
c(x)/ d(x)

\ d(x) is a g.c.d of (x) and g (x)


Hence the proof.
Definition: A polynomial p(x) is said to be irreducible over F if whenever p(x) = a(x) b(x)
with a(x),b(x) F[x], then one of a(x) or b(x) has degree 0 (ie a constant).
Remark:
Note that in the above definition we say irreducible over R and not just
irreducible .A polynomial which is irreducible over a domain R may be reducible in another
domain R
For example, x + 1 is irreducible over R, but is reducible over C (x + 1 = (x+i) (x- i))
LEMMA : Any polynomial in F(x) can be written in a unque manner as a product of
irreducible polynomials in F(x).
PROOF:

Let deg (x) = n

Proof is by induction on n.
If n = 1, then (x) is irreducible over F and hence there is nothing to prove.
Assume that the theorem is true for any non-constant polynomial of degree less than n..
Let (x) be a polynomial of degree n
If (x) itself is irreducible over F, then there is nothing to prove Otherwise let (x) = g(x)h(x),
where 1 deg g(x) <deg (x) = n and 1

deg h(x) < deg (x) = n.

\ By induction hypothesis g(x) and h (x) can be expressed as products of irreducible


polynomials over F.
\ (x) can be expressed as a product of irreducible polynomials over F.
Uniqueness: Suppose (x) = p1 (x) p 2 (x). p r (x) = q1 (x) q 2 (x) . q s (x) (r s)

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Ring Theory

52

Where pi (x) and q j (x ) are irreducible polynomials over F.


Now p1 (x) divides p1 (x) . p r (x )
\ p1 (x) divides q1 (x) q s (x)
Hence p1 (x) divides some q j (x )
p1 (x) divides q1 (x)(say)
\ q1 (x) = u 1 p1 (x) where u 1 is a unit

\ p1 (x) p 2 (x). p r (x ) =

u 1 p1 (x) q 2 (x) q s (x )

Canceling, p1 (x) on both sides,


p 2 (x) p r (x ) = u 1 q 2 (x). q s (x )

Repeat the process with p 2 (x).


Proceeding after r steps we arrive at
1 = u 1 u 2 . u r q r +1 (x) . q s (x )
Q q j (x )

are irreducible, we must have r = s so that we get 1 = u 1 u r ur

Hence the proof.


LEMMA : The ideal I = (p(x)) in F[x] is a maximal ideal if p(x) is irreducible over F.
PROOF :

If part: suppose I = (p(x)) is a maximal ideal.

Let p(x) be reducible over F.


Then p(x) = (x) g(x), where 1 deg (x) < deg p(x) and 1
Consider the ideal J = ((x))
We prove that I J F [x]
#

Now, a(x) I a(x) = p(x) h(x)for some h(x) F(x)


a (x) = (x) g(x) h(x)
a (x) = (x)[ g(x) h(x)]
a (x) J
\I J

Clearly, J F [x]
Suppose I = J, then (x) J (x) I

deg g(x) < deg p(x).

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53

Algebra

\ (x) =p(x) r(x)

F[x]

(ie) (x) = (x)[g(x) r(x)] or 1 = g(x) r (x)


\ g(x) is of degree 0 which is a contradiction.
\I J
Suppose J = F[x] Then 1 F[x] 1 J
\ 1 = f(x) s(x) for some s(x) F[x]
\ f(x) is of degree 0 which is a contradiction
\ J F [x]
Thus, I J F[x]. This contradicts I being a maximal ideal in F[x]
#

\ p(x) must be irreducible over F.


Only if: Suppose p(x) is irreducible over F.
To prove I is a maximal ideal in F[x]
Let J be an ideal in F[x] such that I J F[x]
#

We prove J = F[x]
F[x] is a P.I.D and J is an ideal in F[x].
\ J is a principal ideal. J = (f(x)) (say) for some for f(x) F [x] with f(x) I (If f(x) I,
then J = 1)
Now I J p(x) J
#

p(x) = f(x) g(x)

for some g(x) F[x]


But p(x) is irreducible over F.
\ either f(x) or g(x) is of degree 0.
If g(x) is of degree 0, then it is a constant polynomial.
(ie) it is unit.
\ f(x) = p(x) [g(x)] -1 I which is a contradiction.
\ f(x) must be of degree 0 and hence it must be a unit.
Since f(x) J, it follows that J = F[x]. Thus I is a maximal ideal in F[x].

5.3 Polynomials over the Rational field.


Definition: The Polynomial (x) = ao + a1 x ++ a n x n , where ao , a1 a n are integers is
said to be primitive, y the greatest common divisor of ao , a1 a n is 1.
Lemma:
If f(x) and g(x) are primitive polynomials then f(x) g(x) is a primitire
polynomial.
Proof: Let f(x) = ao + a1 x +. + a n x n : g(x) = b o + b1 x +. + b m x m . Suppose the lemma
is false, then all the coefficients of f(x) g(x) is divisible by some integer larger than 1 and

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Ring Theory

54

hence by some prime number p. Since f(x) is primitive, p does not divide some coefficient
ai . Let a j be the first coefficient of f(x) which is not divisible by p. Similarly let bk be the
first co efficient of g(x) which p doesnt divide. In f(x) g(x), the coefficient of x j - k is c j - k
which is given by c j - k = ai bk + ( a j +1 bk -1 + a j + 2 bk - 2 +.+ a j + k b o )
+ ( a j =1 bk -1 + a j - 2 bk - 2 +.+ ao b j + k )______ (1)
By the choice of bk , we have p| bk -1 , p| bk - 2 ,.. p | b o
p| ( a j +1 bk -1 + a j + 2 bk - 2 +..+ a j + k b o )
Similarly by the choice of a j , we have p| a j -1 , p| a j - 2 ,. p| ao
p| ( a j -1 bk +1 + a j - 2 bk + 2 +. + ao b j + k )

By assumption p| c j + k (as p divides all the coefficients of f(x) g(x))


Hence from (1), p| a j bk which is not true since p a j and p bk this proves the lemma.
Definition: The content of the polynomial f(x) = ao + a1 x +.+ a n x n where the as are
integers, is the greatest common divisor of the integers ao a1 . a n .
Note: Given any polynomial p(x) with integer coefficients, if can be written as p(x)= dq(x)
where d is content of p(x) and q(x) is a primitive polynomial.
Theorem (Gauss Lemma) If the primitive polynomial f(x) can be factored as the product
of two polynomial having rational coefficients, it can be factored as the product of two
polynomial having integer coefficients.
Proof: Suppose that f(x) = u(x)v(x) where u(x) and v(x) have rational coefficients. By
clearing of denominatiotors and taking out common factors in u(x) v(x), we can write f(x) =
a l (x) m (x) where a and b are integers, l (x) and m (x) have integer coefficient and are

b

primitive .Thus b f(x) = a l (x) m (x) since f(x) is primitive, the content of the left- hand side is
b. since l (x) and m (x) are primitive the content of the right side is a. Thergere a =b and
hence f(x) = l (x) m (x) where l (x) and m (x) have integer coefficients.
Definition: A polynomial is said to be integer monic if all its coefficients are integer and its
highest coefficient is 1.
Note: An integer monic polynomial is of the form x m + a1 x n-1 +.+ a n where the a1 s
are integer. An integer monic polynomial is always primitive
Theorem (The Eisenstein criterion)

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55

Algebra

Let f(x) = ao + a1x + a2 x 2 +. + a n x n be a polynomial with integer coefficients. Suppose


that p an , p| a1 , p | a2 ......p| ao , p 2
the rationals.

a0 for some prime number p then f(x) is irreducible over

Proof: We may assume that f(x) is primitive (otherwise, f(x) = d. g(x)) where g(x) is
primitive and we can prove the result for g(x)) If f(x) can be factored as a product of two
rational polynomials then by Gauss Lemma, it can be factored as the product of two
polynomials having integer coefficient thus if we assume that f(x) is reducible then
f(x) = ( b o + b1 x + .+ br x r ) ( c0 + c1 x +.+ cs x s )
Where the bs and cs are integer and where r > o and s > o on comparing the coefficients we
get ao = b o c0 , a1 = b o c1 + b1 c0 .
a k = bk c0 + bk c1 +..+ b o ck etc.,
Since p| ao , p must divide one of b o or c0 . Since p 2

ao ,

p cannot divide b o and c0

suppose p| b o but p c0 .since f(x) is primitive, all its coefficient are not divisible by p and
hence all the co-efficient b o , b1 , b2 ,. br are not divisible by p.
Let bk be the first coefficient which is not divisible by p then p| bk -1 , p| bk -2 ,.. p| b o
now a k = bk c0 + bk c1 +..+ b o ck . By the hypothesis of the theorem p| a k and by the
choice of bk , p| bk -1 , bk -2 ,. p | b o so that p|( bk + c1 + bk -2 c2 + b o ck ) p| bk c0 .
But p bk and p c0 , this contradiction proves that f(x) is irreducible.
5.4 LET US SUM-UP
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The structure of F[x]


Division Algorithm for F[x]
F[x] is a Euclidean ring
Gauss Lemma
The Eisenstein Criterion

5. 5 LESSON END ACTIVITIES


1.

If p is a prime number prove that the polynomial x n -p is irreducible over the rationals

2. Prove that the polynomial 1 + x + x 2 + .. + x p -1 , where p is a prime number,


irreducible over the field of rational numbers.
5.6 REFERENCES
1) Topics in Algebra by I.V. Herstein (Second Edition)..

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UNIT III

FIELD THEORY

56

Algebra

LESSON 6

EXTENSION FIELDS

CONTENTS :
6.0

Aims and Objectives

6.1

Introduction

6.2

Extension of Fields

6.3

Let us Sum- up

6.4

Lesson end activities

6.5

References

6.0

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

In this lesson we study about a field containing a given field, which is called the
extension field. This field extension play and important role in the theory of equations and
theory of numbers.
After going through this lesson, you will be able to :
(1)
(2)
(3)

Define extension field, degree of extension, finite extension


Prove finite extension of a finite extension is a finite extension
Define F(a) the smallest field containing a and F.

(4)

Prove the algebraic elements in K form a subfield of K.

6.1

INTRODUCTION

Any field K which contains the given field F is called an extension field of F. The
extension field K can be regarded as a vector space over F. If the dimension of K over F is
finite then we define K as a finite extension over F. We also introduce algebraic extension
over F.
6.2

EXTENSION FIELDS

Definition
Let F be a field. A field K is said to be an extension of F if F K. Equivalently,
a field K is an extension of field F, if F is subfield of K.
Note : Throughout this lesson, F will denote a given field and K, a field extension of F.

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Fields

57

Example
We know that R, the set of reals, Q the set of rationals and C the set of complex
numbers are fields under addition + and multiplication. And Q R C: So R is an extension
of Q and C is an extension o R.
Note: If K is an extension of F, then under the field operations in K, K is vector space
over F.
Definition
The degree of an extension K over F is the dimension of K as a vector space over F
and is denoted by [K : F]
Definition
If [K:F] is finite, then K is said to be a finite extension of F.
Example
Q ( 2 ) = {a+b 2 : a, b Q} where Q is the set of rationals, is an extension of Q. The
set {1, 2 } is a basis of Q( 2) over Q. Therefore [Q ( 2): Q]=2. Hence Q( 2) is a finite
extension of Q.
Theorem:
K is a finite extension of F and L is a finite extension of K, then L is a finite extension
of F and [L : F] =[[L : K] [K : F]
Proof: Let [L : K] = m and [K : F] =n. We have to prove that [L : F] =mn.
Let { v1 v2 ., vm } be a basis of L over K and { w1 , w2 , , wn } be a basis of K
over F.
The theorem will be proved if we show that the mn elements vi w j , i = 1,2 m,
j=1, 2,., n form a basis of L over F.
For this we have to show that these mn elements are linearly independent over F and
every element of L is a linear combination of these mn elements.
Let t L. As { v1 v2 ., vm } is a basis of L over K,
t = k1 v1 + k 2 v2 +. . . .+ k m vm
.. (1)
where k1 , k 2 ,. . . . k m belong to K.
As{ w1 , w2 , , wn } is a basis of K over F , every element in K is a linear
combination of the elements w1 , w2 ,,.. wn Let
k1 ,= f11 w1 + f12 w2 +. . . . .+ f1n wn
k 2 = f 21 w1 + f 22 w2 +. . . . .+ f 2 n wn
.................................
.................................
.................................
.. (2)
ki = f11 w1 + f i 2 w2 + . . . . .+ f in wn

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Algebra

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
..................................
..................................
k m = f m , w1 + f m 2 w2 + . . . . . f mn wn
where f ij are in F.
Substituting for k1 , k 2 , . . . . ., ki , . . . . . k m from (2) in (1) we get
t=
( f11 w1 + f12 w2 + . . . . + f1n w) v1
+
( f 21 w1 + f 22 w2 + .. . . + f 2 n wn ) v2
................................
...............................
.................................
+
( f11 w1 + f i 2 w2 + . . . .+ f in wn ) vi
. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
................................
................................
+
( f m1 w1 + f m 2 w2 + . . .. .+ f mn wn ) vm
=
f11 v1 w1 + f12 v1 w2 + . . . .+ f1n vi wn
+
f 21 v2 w1 + f 22 v2 w2 + . . . .+ f 2 n v2 wn
+
..................................
+
..................................
..................................
f i1 vi w1 + f i 2 vi vi w2 + . . . . .+ f in vi wn
+
+
....................................
.....................................
....................................
+ f m1 vm w1 + f m 2 vm w2 + . . . .+ f mn vm wn
Therefore t L is a linear combination of vi , w j , i = 1, 2, . . . .m, j = 1,2, . . . . n over F.
Next, we prove that the elements vi w j , i = 1, 2. . . . .m, j=1, 2, . . . . ,m are linearly
independent.
Suppose
f11 v1 w1 + f12 v1 w2 + . . . .+ f1n v1 wn
+ f 21 v2 w1 + f 22 v2 w2 + . . . .+ f 2 n v2 wn + . . .
+ f11 vi w1 + f12 vi w2 + . . . . .+ f in vi wn + . . .
+ f m1 vm w1 + f m 2 vm w2 + . . . .+ f mn vm wn = 0
. (3)
where f ij are in F.
Regrouping (3) we get
( f11 w1 + f12 w2 + . . . . .+ f1n wn ) v1 =
( f 21 w1 + f 22 w2 + . . . . .+ f 2 n wn ) v2 + . . .
+
( f i1 w1 + f i 2 w2 + . . . . . .+ f in wn ) vi + . . .
+
( f m1 w1 + f m 2 w2 + . . . . . + f mn wn ) vm = 0
. (4)

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59

Let f i1 w1 + f i 2 w2 + . . . . .+ f in wn = ki
. (5)
for i = 1, 2, . . . . m. Then ki , i =1, 2, . . . ., m are in k and from (4) and (5) we get
k1 v1 + k 2 v2 + . . .+ ki vi + . . .+ k m vi = 0.
But v1 v2 , . . . . vm are linearly independent over K
Therefore ki = 0 for i = 1,2 . . . .m.
That is,
f i1 w1 + f i 2 w2 + . . . . .+ f in wn = 0
.. (5)
for i = 1 , 2 . . . .m
But { w1 , w2 ..... wn } is a basis of K over F and hence are linearly independent
Hence (5) gives
f11 = 0, f12 = 0, . . . . . f in = 0
for i = 1, 2, . . . . , m
That is
f ij = 0 for i = 1, 2 , . . . . .m, j = 1, 2 , . . . . n.
Hence vi w j , i = 1, 2, . . . . .m, j = 1, 2, . . . . ., n are linearly independent and hence
from a basis of L over F.
Therefore [L : F] = mn
That is [L : F] = [L : K] [K : F]
Corollary
If L is a finite extension of F and K is a subfield of L which contains F then [K : F]
divides [L : F].
Proof: Here L, K, F are fields and L K F. Let [L : F] be finite.
Let u1 u2 , . . . . . . . . ur in be L be linearly independent over K. Then we claim that
u1 u2 , . . . . . . . . ur , are linearly independent over F also. For, if possible let them be linearly
dependent over F. Then scalars f 1 , f 2 , . . . . . , f r , not all zero exist in F such that

f1 u1 + f 2 u2 + . . . .+ f r ur = 0.
But as F K, f1 , f 2 , . . . . . f r are in K also . Therefore u1 u2 , . . . . . . . . ur are
linearly dependent over K also . This is a contradiction. Therefore u1 u2 , . ur in L are
linearly independent over F if they are linearly independent over K.
Now, [L : F] is finite. The basis vectors of L (K) are linearly independent in L(F) and
hence are finite. Therefore [L: K] is also finite. Hence [K: F] is finite as K is a subspace L
over F.
By the previous theorem
[L: F] = [L: K] [K: F]
Therefore [L : F] = [L: K] is a finite positive integer
[K : F]

Hence [K: F] divides [L: F]

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60

Algebra

Definition
Let K be an extension field of F. Then an element a K is said to be algebraic over F
if there exist element a 0 , a1 ,...., a n in F, not all zero, such that a 0 a n + a1an -1 + ...a n = 0. That is,
a K is algebraic over F if there exists a nonzero polynomial p(x) F[x] such that p(a) = 0.
Definition
Let K be an extension of F and let a K. Let M be the collection of all subfields of
K each of which contains both F and a. M is nonempty since K itself is an element of M. The
intersection of any number of subfields of K is again a subfield of K. Thus, the intersection of
all those subfield of K which are members of M is a subfield of K. It is donated by F (a).
F (a) contains both F and a. Every subfield of K in M contains F (a). Hence F (a) is the
smallest subfield of K containing both F and a. F (a) is called the subfield of K obtained by
adjoining a to F.
Definition
Let S be a subset of a field K. Then a subfield K1 of K is said to be generated by S if
(i) S K1 (ii) for any subfield L of K, S L implies K1 L.
Notation: The subfield generated by S will be denoted by < S>.
The subfield generated by S is the intersection of all subfields of K which contain S.
Now, let K be a field extension of F and S be any subset of K, then the Subfield K generated
by F U S is said to be the subfield of K generated by S over F and this subfield is denoted by
F(S). However, if S is a finite set { a1 , a2 .....an } we write F(S) = F( a1 , a2 .....an ).
Definition
A field K is said to be finitely generated if there exists a finite number of
elements a1 , a2 .....an in K such that K = F ( a1 , a2 .....an ).

Definition
If K is generated by a single element over F, then K is called a simple extension of F.
Note: We had already seen that if K is an extension of the field F and a K, then F(a) is the
smallest subfield of K containing both F and a . Thus F(a) is a simple extension of F.
Definition
A nonzero polynomial f(x) in F[x] is said to be a monic polynomial over F if the
coefficient of the highest power of x in f(x) is equal to 1, the unity of F.
Example f(x) = x 2 - 2x + 3 is a monic polynomial in Q[x].

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61

Theorem
If an element a K is algebraic over F, then there exists a unique monic polynomial
p(x) of positive degree over F such that (1) p(a) = 0 (2) if for any f(x) F[x], f(a) = o then
p(x) divides f(x) .
Proof: Since a is algebraic over F, a is a root of some nonzero polynomial t(x) =
a0 + a1 x + a1 x 2 + .....an x n with a , F and an 0. Without loss of generality, let us assume
that t(x) is the nonzero polynomial over F of smallest degree such that t(a) = 0. Now degree
of t(x) is n and a n 0 Hence a n -1 F. We write
a n -1 t(x) = p(x) = x n + a n -1a n -1x n -1 + a n -1a n -2x n -2 + ... + a n -1a1x + a n -1a 0 .
As t(a) = 0, p(a) = 0. Therefore p(x) is the required monic nonzero polynomial of
smallest degree n such that p(a) = 0. We have to prove that p(x) divides f(x) if f(a) = 0. By
division algorithm we can find polynomials q(x), r(x), in F[x] such that
f(x) = p(x) q(x) + r(x)
where r(x) = 0 or deg r(x) < deg p(x) then f(a) = p(a) q(a) + r(a). As f(a) = 0, p(a) = 0
we get r(a) = 0.
\ r (x) = 0 for if r(x) 0, we get a contradiction to the fact the p(x) is a polynomial of
minimum degree satisfied by a. Next we prove uniqueness of p(x).
Let, if possible, p(x) and p1 (x) be two nonzero minimal monic polynomials of a K
over F.
Then p(a) = 0, p1 (a) = 0 . Also p(x) and divides p1 (x) and p1 (x) divides p(x) by the
result just proved. As p(x) and p1 (x) are nonzero monic polynomials we conclude that p(x) =
p1 (x).
Definition
Let K be an extension field of the field F. If an element a K is algebraic over F, then
the unique monic polynomial of smallest degree over F satisfied by a is called minimal
polynomial of a over F.
If the degree of the minimal polynomial of a K over F is n then a is said to be algebraic over
F of degree n.
Theorem
The minimal polynomial p(x) of a K over F is irreducible over F.
Proof : Let if possible, the minimal polynomial of a K over F be reducible over F. Then
p(x) can be factored into nontrivial factors. Let p(x) = f(x) g(x) where f(x) , g(x) F[x] and
each of f(x), g(x) is of degree less than that of p(x).
We have p(a) = f (a) g(a)
i.e. 0 = f(a) g(a)
Therefore f(a) = 0 or g(a) = 0 since F is integral domain. Therefore a
satisfies f(x) or g(x) each of which is of degree less than p(x). This is a contradiction
since p(x) is the minimal polynomial of a K over F.
Therefore minimal polynomial p(x) of a K over F is irreducible over F.

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62

Algebra

Theorem
An element a K is algebraic over F if and only if F(a) is a finite extension of F.
Proof : First we prove the if part of the theorem. Let F(a) be a finite extension of F. That is
[F(a) : F] is finite. Let [F(a) : F] = m. Then every set of m+1 elements of F(a) must be
linearly dependent over F. In particular 1,a, a 2 .....a m must be linearly dependent over F. There
exist elements a 0 , a1 ,...., a m in F. not all 0, such that
a 0 a + a1a + a 2a2 + .... + a m am = 0

Then a K satisfies the nonzero polynomial


p(x) = a 0 + a1 . x + . . . . + a m am
in F(x) of degree almost m which is [F(a) : F].
We now give a proof of only if part of the theorem.
Let a be algebraic over F. Consider the mapping y : F[x] F(a) defined by
y (p(x)) = p(a) for all p(x) F[x]. First we show y is homomorphism.
If p(x), q(x) F[x], then y [p(x) + q(x)] = p(a) + q(a) = y (p(x)) + y (q(x))
and y (p(x)q(x)) = p(a) q(a) = y (p(x)) y (q(x)).
Hence y is a homomorphism.
Let V be the kernel of y . Then
V
= {p(x) F[x] : (P(x)) = 0 of F (a) }
= {p(x) F[x] : p (a) = 0 }
Let u (x) be one of the lowest degree polynomials having a as a root. We show that V
is the principal ideal in F[x] generated by u (x)
Since F[x] is a Euclidean ring, we can find polynomials q(x), r(x) in F[x] such that
p(x) = q (x) u(x) + r(x)
Where r(x) = 0 or the degree of r(x) is less than degree of u (x). Now
p(a) = q (a). u(a) + r (a)
Since p (a) = o and u(a) = 0. We get r (a) = 0.
Now r(x) = p(x) q(x). u(x) V that is r(x) V. But deg [r(x)] is less than deg
[u(x)]. This is possible only if r(x) is identically 0. Hence p(x) = q(x) u(x). Hence V is the
principal ideal generated by u (x).
Next we show that u(x) is irreducible over F. If not, let u(x) = l (x) (x) where
l (x), (x) f[x].
Now u (a) = l (a) (a)
But u (a) = 0.
\ at least one of l (a), (a) must be 0.
This means at least one of l (x) and (x) must be a constant polynomial, since
otherwise the degree of both of them will be strictly less then that of u(x). But that is
impossible since if l (a) = 0 then l (x) V and the degree of l (x) cannot be less than that
of u(x). Similarly if (a) = 0, (a) V and the degree of (x) cannot be less than that of
u(x).
Thus one of l (x) and (x) is a constant polynomial. Therefore u(x) is irreducible
over F.
Now F(x) is an Euclidean ring and u(x) is an irreducible polynomial in F[x].

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Therefore, the ideal V generated by u(x) is maximal. Hence

F(x)
V

is a field.

Then by the homomorphism theorem in ring theory the ring

F[x]
V

is isomorphic

with (F[x]), the image of F[x] under y .


Now if a F, y ( a ) = a . Hence a y (F[x]). Also y (x) = a y [F(x)]. Hence
F[x]
is a field.
y (F[x]) contains both F and a and is also a field since
V
Therefore F(a) y (F[x]). But y (F[x]) contains F (a). Hencey (F[x]) = F (a).
Therefore y is epimorphism.
F[x]
Hence
is isormorphic to F (a).
V
F(x)
Next we show that
is a finite extension of F
V
F[x]
Any element of
is of the form p(x) + V where p(x) F[x]
V
Now p(x) + V =q(x) + V if and only if p(x) q(x) V. That is u(x) - [p(x) - q(x)].
Now for a , b F, a + V = b + V iff a - b V. That is u(x) - ( a - b ) Therefore a - b =
F(x)
0, for u(x) cannot divide a - b otherwise. Therefore
contains a subfield
V
F[x]
isomorphic with F, that is, the set of all elements a +V in
where a F.
V
F[x]
The mapping q : F
defined by q ( a ) = a +V is a homomorphism. Therefore
V
we can consider F to be subfield of F[x] if we identify the elements a + V of
F[x]
with the elements a of E.
V
Now let u(x) = u0 + u1 + u 2 x 2 + ..... + u n x n , where ui F. for i = 0,1,2, . . . .n , u n 0.
n -1
F[x]
We now show that 1 + V, x + V, (x + v) 2 , . . . . .. (x + v) is a basis of
over F.
V
F[x]
Let p(x) + V
where p (x) F [x]
V
Since F[x] is a Euclidean ring, we can find polynomials q(x), r(x) in F[x] such that
p(x) = q (x)u(x) + r(x) where either r(x) = 0 or degree of r(x) is less than n, the degree of u(x).
Therefore p(x) + V= (q(x) + V) (u(x)) + V + (r(x) + V) = r(x) + V.
F[x]
u(x) + V is the zero of
since u(x) V.
V
Hence p(x) + V = r(x) + V.
Now we can take r(x) = r0 + r1 x + r2 x 2 + ... + r n -1x n -1 . Since r(x) = 0 or degree of r(x) is less than
n. When r(x) = 0, we can take all the coefficients r0 , r1 , . . . . rn -1 to be zero. Therefore

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Algebra
P(x) + V
= ( r0 + r1 x + r2 x 2 + ... + r n -1 x n -1 ) + V
= ( r0 + V) + (r1 + V)(x + V) + (r2 + V)(x 2 + V) + ... + (r n -1 + V)(x n -1 + V)
= (r0 + V) + (r1 + V)(x + V) + (r2 + V)(x + V)2 + ... + (r n -1 + V)(x + V)n -1
= r0 (1 + V) + r1(x + V) + (r2 + V)(x + V)2 + ... + rn -1(x + V)n -1
F[x]
Thus any element p(x) +V of
is liner combination of 1+V, x+V, ( x + v) 2
V
. . . . . ( x + v) n -1 with coefficients in F.
Next we show that these elements are linearly independent .
Suppose
r1 (1 + v) + r2 ( x + v) + r3 (1 + v) 2 + . . . . + rn -1 ( x + v) n -1 = V
F[x]
the zero element of
V
2
Then r1 + r2 x + r3 x + ... + r n -1 x n -1 + V =V.
Hence r1 + r2 x + r3 x 2 + ... + r n -1 x n -1 belongs to V.
But V is the ideal generated by the polynomial u(x) whose degree is n.
Therefore u(x) - ( r0 + r1 x + r2 x 2 + ... + r n -1x n -1 )
This is possible only if all the coefficients r0 , r1 , . . . . rn -1 are zero.
Thus (1+V), (x+V), ( x + V) 2 , . . . . . ( x + v) n -1 are all linearly independent over F.
F[x]
Hence 1+V, x+V, ( x + V) 2 , . . . ., ( x + v) n -1 from a basis of
over F.
V
F[x]
Therefore
is of finite dimension n over F.
V

F[x]
is isomorphic with F(a). Therefore F(a) is a finite dimension over F.
V
In the course of the proof of the above theorem we had also proved the following
theorem.

But

Theorem
If a K is algebraic of degree n over F, then [F(a) : F] = n.
Proof: The proof is actually the proof of the only if part of the previous
Theorem
If a, b in K be algebraic over F. then a b, ab and a/b (if b 0) are all algebraic over
F. In other words the elements in K which are algebraic over F form a subfield of K.
Proof : Let a be algebraic of degree m over F and let b be algebraic of degree n over F.
Let T = F(a). Then T contains both F and a. By second theorem [T : F] = m.
Since b is algebraic of degree n over F and since F T, b is algebraic over T also and
b is algebraic of degree atmost n over T [That, is degree of b is n over T]. Let W = T(b).
W is a subfield of K and [W : F] n, by third theorem.

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65

Now [W : F] = [W :T] [T : F] by first theorem Therefore [W : F] mm. \ W is a


finite extension of F.
Now we show that every element in W is algebraic over F.
Let c W, c 0, [W, F] = p. Then the p+1 elements 1, c, c2 , . . . . , cp are linearly
dependent over F. Hence there exist scalars a 0 , a1 , a 2 ,....., a p not all zero such that

a 0 + a 1c + a 2 c 2 ..... + a p c p = 0. Therefore u satisfies a polynomial equation over F. Hence u


is algebraic over F, a, b W and W is a field. Therefore a+b, a.b and a/b (where b 0) are all
in W and hence are algebraic over F.
Example
In the above theorem [W : F] mn. This shows that degree of a+b, a-b, a.b and a/b
are mn. For example consider 2 , 3 R, the field of real numbers which is an extension
of Q the set of rational numbers. ( 2 ) 2 = 2. ( 3 ) 2 = 3. Hence 2 and 3 satisfy x 2 -2 = 0
and x 2 -3 = 0. If 2 satisfies a polynomial p(x) = ax + b over Q then a 2 + b = 0 which
implies 2 is rational. This is a contradiction. \ 2 does not satisfy a polynomial of degree 1
over Q.
\ Degree of 2 over Q is a 2. Similarly 3 is of degree 2 over Q. But 2 3 = 6 is
of degree 2 < 2 x 2 = 4. But 2 + 3 and 2 - 3 are of degree 4.
Definition
The extension K of F is called an algebraic extension of F if every element in K is
algebraic over F.
Theorem
If L is an algebraic extension of K and if K is an algebraic extension of F, then L is
algebraic extension of F.
Proof : Let u be an arbitrary element of L. To prove the theorem we have to show that u
satisfies some non-trivial polynomial with coefficients in F
As L is an algebraic extension of K, u in L must satisfy some non-trivial polynomial
x n + s1x n -1 + ... + s n x n -1 where s1 , s 2..., s n are in K.
But, K is an algebraic extension of F, so each of s1 , s 2..., s n must be algebraic over F.
Therefore by a theorem as s1 is algebraic over F, F( s1 ) is a finite extension of F and
[F( s1 ):F] = degree of s1 over F = r, say.
Next, as s 2 is algebraic over F, s 2 is algebraic over F( s1 ) also as F( s1 ) contains F.
Hence F( s1 ) { s1 } = F ( s1 , s 2 ) is a finite extension of F( s1 ) and hence a finite
extension of F by first theorem.
Proceeding like this, we see that the field M = F ( s1 , s 2..., s n ) is a finite extension of F.
That is [M : F] is finite.
Now, as a satisfies the polynomial x n + s1 x n -1 + ... + s n whose coefficients are in M, u
is algebraic over M. Therefore by theorem M (u) is a finite extension of u. Hence
[M (u): M] is finite.

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Algebra

Now by first theorem [M(u) : F] = [M (u): M] [M : F]. As the R.H.S. is finite, the
L.H.S. is finite. Hence M(u) is a finite extension of F. Hence u M(u) is algebraic over F, by
second theorem. Hence the theorem is proved.
Definition Algebraic Number
A complex number is said to be an algebraic number if it is algebraic over Q, the field
of rational numbers.
for example -2 + 3i is an algebraic number since it satisfies the polynomial x 2 -4x +13
over Q.
Definition Transcendental Number
A complex number which is not an algebraic number is called transcendental number.
e and p are transcendental numbers.
If a is a complex number and is transcendental and if f(a) = 0 where f(x) Q[x], then
f(x) = 0. And F(a) is called simple transcendental extension of F.

6.3

LET US SUM-UP

(1)

The degree of an extension K over F is the dimension of K as a vector space over F.

(2)

Construction of the smallest field F(a).

(3)

The minimal polynomial of an element a K is irreducible over F.

(4)

An element a K is algebraic if and only if F(a) is a finite extension of F.

(5)

If L is algebraic extension of K and K is algebraic extension of F then L is an


algebraic extension of F.

6.4

LESSON END ACTIVITIES

(1)

Prove that if L is a finite extension of K and K is a finite extension of F then L is a


finite extension of F.

(2)

Prove that the set of all algebraic elements of K forms a subfield of K.

(3)

Prove that a K is algebraic if and only if F(a) is a finite extension.

6.5 REFERENCES
1) Topics in Algebra by I.N. Herstein Second Edition Chapter - 5.

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67

LESSON 7

ROOTS OF POLYNOMIALS

CONTENTS :
7.0

Aims and Objectives

7.1

Introduction

7.2

Roots of Polynomials

7.3

Let us Sum- up

7.4

Lesson end activities.

7.5

References

7.0

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

In this lesson we construct an extension field which contains all the roots of the given
polynomial over the base field F.
After going through this lesson, you will be able to:
(1)
Prove that if p(x) F[x] and is an irreducible polynomial over F with degree n 1,
then there is an extension E of F such that [E:F] = n in which p(x) has a root.
(2)

Prove if f(x) F[x], then there exists an extension of F such that its degree is atmost
n! and in which f(x) has all its roots.

(3)

Define the splitting field of a polynomial f(x) F[x].

(4)

Prove that any two splitting fields of the same polynomial over F are isomorphic.

7.1

INTRODUCTION
In the previous lesson we discussed about algebraic elements in an extension field K
of F, i.e., elements which satisfied polynomials in F[x]. Now we wish to find a field K
which is an extension of F in which p(x) has a root. We conclude this lesson by
constructing the splitting field (minimal extension of F) containing all the roots of the
given polynomial in F[x].

7.2

ROOTS OF POLYNOMIALS

Definition
Let p(x) F[x]. Then an element a lying in some extension of F is called a root of
p(x) if p(a) = 0.

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68

Algebra

Lemma (Remainder Theorem).


If p(x) F[x] and if K is an extension of F, then for any element b K,
p(x) = (x-b) q(x) + p(b)
where q(x) K[x] and where deg q(x) = deg p(x) 1.
Proof
Since F K, we have F[x] K[x]. Hence p(x) F[x] implies p(x) K[x].
By division algorithm for polynomials in K[x].
p(x) = (x-b) q(x) + r(x)
------ (1)
where q(x) K[x] and where r(x) = 0 or deg r(x) < deg (x-b) = 1. Hence r(x) = 0 or
deg r(x) = 0. In either case, r(x) must be a constant and also an element of K.
Putting x = b in (1), p(b) = r. Hence p(b) = r(b). (1) becomes
p(x) = (x-b) q(x) + p(b).
If the degree of q(x) is n, then the degree of (x-b) q(x) is n + 1 and hence the degree
p(x) = (x-b) q(x) + p(b) is n + 1.
Hence the degree of q(x) is one less than the degree of p(x).
Corollary
If a K is a root of p(x) F[x]. where F K, then in K[x], x-a divides p(x).
Proof
By lemma, in K[x],
p(x) = (x-a) q(x) + p(a).
But p(a) = 0 as a is a root of p(x).
\ p(x) = (x-a) q(x)
Hence x-a divides p(x) in K[x] and the quotient is q(x).
Definition
An element a K is a root of p(x) F[x] of multiplicity m if (x-a) m divides p(x)
where as (x-a) m +1 does not divide p(x).
Example
3 R

is a root of ( x 2 -3) 5 ( x 2 + 2x + 4) Q[X] with multiplicity 5.

Note
If a K is a root of p(x) F[x] of multiplicity m, we will count a as m roots.
Lemma
A polynomial of degree n over a field has atmost n roots in any extension field.

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Proof
Let F be a field and p(x) F[x]. We prove the theorem by induction on n, the degree
of p(x).
If p(x) is of degree 1, then it must be of the form a x + b Where a , b F. a 0.
If p(a) = 0 for some a, then a a + b = 0. Hence a = - b /a. Hence p(x) has a unique root
- b / a . Therefore the theorem is true when n = 1.
Next we assume that the theorem is true for all polynomials in F[x] of degree less than
n. We also assume that the degree of p(x) is n.
If p(x) has no roots in an extension field K, then the number of roots of p(x) in K is =
0 < n. Hence the theorem is proved. However, if p(x) has a root a K and if a root of
multiplicity m, then (x-a) m divides p(x). Hence m n.
Let p(x) = (x-a) m q(x) where q(x) K[x] and deg q(x) = n- m
Next, if b 0 and b is a root in K of p(x), then p(b) = 0. Hence (b-a) m q(b) = 0. Since
b-a 0 and F has no zero divisors, we have q(b) = 0. That is, every root of p(x) in K, other
than a must be a root of q(x).
As deg q(x) = n-m<n, by our induction hypothesis q(x) has atmost n- m roots in K.
As p(x) = (x-a) m q(x), we see that p(x) has one root a with multiplicity m and all the
roots of q(x) which are atmost n- m in number.
Therefore p(x) has atmost m + n- m roots in K. This proves the lemma.
Theorem
Let F be a field. If p(x) is a polynomial in F[x] of degree n 1 and is irreducible over
F, then there is an extension E of F such that [E:F] = n, in which p(x) has root.
Proof
As F is a field, F[x] is a ring of polynomials in the index x over F.
Let V = <p(x)> be the ideal of F[x] generated by p(x). As p(x) is irreducible over F, V
is maximal ideal of F[x].
So E =

F[ x ]
V

is a field and hence a ring. This E will be shown to satisfy the conclusions of the

present theorem.
Let F = { a +V: a F}. Define a mapping y from F[x] into
E=

F[ x ]
V

by y f(x) = f(x) + V.

First we show that y is a homomorphism. Let f(x) and g(x) belong to F[x]. Then f(x)
+ g(x) F[x] and f(x) g(x) F[x] as F[x] is a ring. Now
= f(x) + g(x) +V
y [f(x) + g(x)]
= [f(x) + V] + [g(x) + V]
= y [f(x)] + y [g(x)]
Next, y [f(x)g(x)]
= f(x)g(x) + V
= [f(x) + V] [g(x) + V]
= y [f(x)] + y [g(x)]

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Algebra

Therefore y is a homomorphism.
Consider the restriction y F of y of F.
That is y F : F F is defined by .
y F ( a ) = a + V for all a F
Then we can easily verify that y F is a homomorphism. Now we show that y F is oneone. Let a Ker ( y ). Then y ( a ) = Zero element of F = V.
\ a+ V = V
\ a V. That is a <p(x)>.
Hence a = p(x) q(x) for some q(x) F(x).
In this equation LHS is a polynomial of degree zero and RHS is a polynomial of degree > n.
This is possible only when q(x) = 0. Hence a = 0. Hence y F is an isomorphism of F onto F .
Hence F is isomorphic to F . In this way E is an extension of F. Then E is a vector space over
E.
We now prove that the n elements 1+V,x+V, (x +V) 2 = x 2 +V, (x +V) 3 = x 3 +V . . .
, (x +V) n-1 = x n -1 +V of E form a basis of E over F.
First we show that they are linearly independent over F. If possible let them be
linearly dependent. Then, scalars a 1 , a 2 ....., a n -1 not all zero exist such that
a 0 (1 + V) + a1 (x + V) + a 2 (x 2 + V) + ..... + a n -1 (x n -1 + V) = V

That is
a 0 + a1x + ... + a n -1x n -1 + V = V.
\ a 0 + a1x + ... + a n -1x n -1 V = <p(x)>.
\ a 0 + a1x + ... + a n -1x n -1 =

p(x) q(x) for some q(x) F[x]. Here degree of LHS is n-1
and degree of RHS n. This is possible only when q(x) = 0. Therefore
a 0 + a1x + ... + a n -1x n -1 = 0 for all values of x. This is possible only where a 0 = a1 = . .
. . a n-1 = 0.
Hence 1 + V, x + V, x 2 + V. . . x n -1 + V of E are linearly independent over F.
Next we show that these n elements generate E.
Let f(x) + V E =

F[ x ]
V

be an arbitrary element form E. Then f(x) F(x). By division

algorithms, there exists q(x), r(x) in F(x) such that


f(x) = q(x) p(x) + r(x)
where r(x) = 0 or deg r(x) < deg p(x).
=
p(x)q(x) + r(x) +V
\ f(x) + V
=
[p(x) q(x) +V] + [r(x) +V]
=
V+ [r(x) +V] since p(x)q(x) V
=
r(x) +V
Now r(x) = o or deg r(x) < n.
Let r(x) = a 0 + a1x + .... + a k x k where k n-1. Then.
f(x) +V
=
( a 0 + a1x + .... + a k x k ) +V.
=
( a 0 +V) + ( a1 x +V) + . . . +( a k x k +V)
=
a 0 (V+ 1) + a1 (x +V) + . . . + a k ( x k +V)
Hence a 0 +V, x +V, . . . x n -1 + V form a basis of E. Hence [E:F] = n

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Now we prove that there is a root of p(x) is E.


For convenience of notation we denote the element y (x) = x +V E as a.
that is, a = x +V
then a2 = (x + V) 2 = x 2 + V
a3 = (x + V) 3 = x 3 + V
------------------------------------------------------ak = (x + V) k = x k + V.
Let f(x) F(x). Then we claim that y [f(x)] = f (a).
For if f(x) = b0 + b1x + b2x 2 + ..... + b k x k
where b s F then
=
y(b 0 ) + y(b1 )y(x ) + y(b 2 )y(x 2 ) + ..... + y(b k )y(x k )
y [f(x)]
=
b 0 + V + (b1 + V)(x + V) + (b 2 + V)(x 2 + V) + ..... + (b k + V)(x k + V)
Now (b1 + V) (x + V )
=
b1x + b1V + Vx + V 2
=
b1x + V + V + V
=
b1x + V
=
b1 (x + V) and so on
Hence y [f(x)]
=
b 0 + b1 (x + V) + b 2 (x 2 + V) + ... + b k (x k + V)
=
b 0 + b1a + b 2a2 + .... + b k ak
In particular y [p(x)] = p(a)
------ (1)
But, as p(x) <p(x)> = V, we see
that y [p(x)] = p(x) + V = p(x) + <p(x)>=<p(x)>=V
------ (2)
Now V is the zero element of E =

F[ x ]
V

as well as F = { a + V : a F } from (1) and

(2),
p(a) = 0 since. V F is identified with o F. Hence a is a root of p(x). Hence E is the required
field. Hence the theorem.
Corollary
If f(x) F[x], then there is a finite extension of E of F in which f(x) has a root.
Moreover, [E: F] deg f(x).
Proof
Let p(x) be an irreducible factor of f(x). Any root of p(x) is a root of f(x). By the
theorem there is an extension E of F with [E:F] = deg p(x) deg f(x) in which p(x) and so f(x)
has a root.
Theorem
Let p(x) F(x) be of degree n 1. Then there is an extension E of F of degree atmost
n! in which p(x) has n roots (and so a full complement of roots).

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Proof
Then proof is by induction on n, the degree of p(x). A root of p(x) of multiplicity m is
counted m times.
When n =1, let p(x) = a 0 + a1x where a 0 ,a1 F. Then
-a 0
a

is the only root of p(x) and

-a 0
F. In this case we take E = F and we get [E:F]=
a

[F: F] = 1. Thus theorem is true for n = 1.


Now assume that the theorem is true for any polynomial of degree less than n and p(x)
is of degree n.
By the above corollary there exists an extension E0 of F which contains a root, say, a
of p(x) where [ E0 : F] n.
We factories p(x) over E0 as p(x) = (x-a) q(x) where the degree of q(x) is n-1 and q(x)
may or may not be irreducible over E.
By our induction hypothesis there exists an extension E of E0 which contains all the
roots of q(x) such that [E: E0 ] (n-1) !.Then the roots of p(x) are a and all the roots of q(x).
Therefore E contains all the roots of p(x), since a E0 E. Also [E:F] = [E: E0 ] [ E0 :F]
(n-1) ! n=n ! Hence the theorem.
Definition
If f(x) F[x], a finite extension E of F is said to be a splitting field over F for f(x),if
over E, but not over any proper subfields of E, f(x) can be factored as a product of liner
factors.
Equivalent to this definition is the following definition.
Definition
E is a splitting field of f(x) over F if E is a minimal extension of F in which f(x) has
n roots, where n =deg f(x).
Lemma
Let F and F1 be two fields and t be an isomorphison of F onto F1 . Let at = a1 .
Define t* from F[x] into F ' [t] by, for f(x) F[x], f(x) = a 0 x n + a1x n -1 + . . . +a n , f(x) t* =
( a 0 x n + a1x n -1 + . . . + a n ) t* = a10 t n + a11t n -1 + . . . . + a n1 . Then t* is an isomorphism such
that t* (F) + F1
Proof: The fact that t is an isomorphison of F[x] onto F1 [x] can easily be checked.

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The proof follows from the fact that the polynomials in F ' [t] are added or multiplied in the
same way as the corresponding polynomials in F1 (t) are added or multiplied. Since t is onto,
t * is onto. Any element a of F considered as zero degree polynomial in F[x] is mapped into
a1 = t (x) under t *.Hence the lemma.
Lemma
1

There is an isomorphism t ** of
a F . at ** = a1

F [t ]
F[ x ]
onto 1
with the property that for every
(f (x ))
( f (t ))

and (x +(f(x)) t ** = t +( f 1 (t))

Proof
As in first theorem we can identify F as a subfield of the ring
subfield of the ring
Define t ** :

F[ x ]
and F1 as a
(f (x ))

F1[ t ]
(f 1 (t ))

F1[ t ]
F[ x ]
1
(f (x ))
(f (t ))

by.

t ** (p(x) + (f(x)) = p1 (t) + ( f 1 (t)), where p(x) F[x] and p1 (t) F1 (t), p1 (t) = t* (p(x))

We first prove t ** is well defined


Let p1 (x) + (f(x)) = p2 (x) + (f(x))
p1 (x) - p2 (x) (f(x))
f(x) divides p1 (x) - p2 (x).
t * f(x) divides t * ( p1 (x) - p2 (x)).
f 1 (t) divides t * ( p1 (x)- t * ( p2 (x)).
f 1 (t) divides p11 (t) p12 (t).
1

p1 (t) + ( f 1 (t)) = p12 (t) + ( f 1 (t)).


**

**

t ( p1 (x) + (f(x)) = t ( p2 (x) + (f(x))

Hence t** is well defined and one-one. Also.


t** ( p1 (x) + (f(x)) + ( p2 (x) + (f(x))
= t** ( p1 (x) + p2 (x)) + (f(x))
= ( p11 (t) + p12 (t)) + ( f 1 (t))
= (( p11 (t) + f 1 (t)) + ( p12 + ( f 1 (t))
= t** ( p1 (x) + f(x)) + t** ( p2 (x) + (f(x))
Similarly we can prove
t** (( p1 (x) + (f(x)))( p2 (x) + (f(x))
= t** ( p1 (x) + (f(x)) t** ( p2 (x) + (f(x))
Also since t* is onto, t** is onto
Hence t** is an isomorphison of

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Algebra
F[ x ]
(f (x ))

F1[ t ]

onto

(f 1 (t ))

Next
t** ( a ) = t* ( a +(f(x)) = a1 +( f 1 (t))
Hence the lemma is proved.
Theorem
If p(x) is irreducible in F[x] and if u is a root of p(x) then F(v) is isomorphic to F1 (w)
where (w) is a root of p1 (t). Moreover, this isomorphism s can so be chosen that
1)
us = w
2)
as = a1 for every a F
Proof
Let u be a root of the irreducible polynomial p(x) in some extension K of F.
Then as we saw in the proof of theorem in lesson 13.
F[ x ] ~
F (v) K.
(f (x ))

Let us denote this isomorphism by q* . Then as p(x) is an irreducible polynomial having v as


a root, p(x) is the lowest degree polynomial having v as a root. Hence we know
q* (f(x) + (p(x)) = f(v).
Since p(x) is irreducible over F, the corresponding polynomial p1 (t) in some extension K1 of
F1 and hence, as above, there exists an isomorphism
y* :

F1[ t ]
1

(p (t ))

F1 (w) .

where y ( f (t) + ( p1 (t)) = f 1 (w)


we know by the previous lemma that there exists an isomorphism
*

f 1[ t ]
F[ x ]

(f (x ))
(p1 (t ))

q**

q**

(f(x) + (p(x)) = f(t) + ( p1 (t)).

where
*-1
Since q* is an isomoriphism q exists and is an isomorphism

F(v)

F[ x ]
(p(x ))

consider the mapping y *


F(v) q* -1

F1[ t ]
F[ x ]
q**
y * F1 (w) .
(p(x )) (p1 (t ))

Since q*-1 , j** , y *


are all isomorphisoms, the mapping
s = y * j** q*-1 is also on isomorphism
Now

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75
s (v)

=
=
=
=
=

( y * f** q*-1 ) (v)


y * f** j*-1 (v)
y * f** (x +(p(x))
y * ( a1 + ( p1 (t))), by definition of j**
w, by definition of y *

Further
) =
( y * f** j*-1 ) ( a )
=
y * f** j*-1 ( a )
=
y * f** ( a + (p(x))
=
y * ( a1 + ( p1 (t)), by definition of j**
a1
=
Hence s is the required isomorphism mentioned in the theorem
Hence the proof.
s (a

Corollary
If p(x) F[x] is irreducible and if a and b are two roots of p(x) then F(a) is
isomorphic to F(b) by an isomorphism which takes a into b and keeps every element of F
fixed.
Proof
In the above theorem, we take the two fields F and F as identical and j as the
identity automorphism of F and a 1 = a for all a F and the polynomial p(x) = F[x] and the
corresponding polynomial f 1 (t) F 1 (t) are identical. Hence p(x) and p ' (t) are identical and
we can take a and b as roots of both p(x) and p ' (t). Hence by the above theorem there is an
isomorphism s : F(a) F(b) such s (a) = b and s ( a ) = a " a F
Theorem
Any two splitting fields E and E ' of the polynomials f(x) F[x] and f 1 (t) F 1 (t)
are isomorphic by an isomorphism j with the property that
a j = a 1 for every a F.
In particular, any two splitting- fields of the same polynomials over a given field F are
isomorphic by an isomorphism leaving every element of F fixed.
Proof
The proof is by induction on the degree of the splitting field over the initial field.
Let f 1 (t) be the polynomial if F 1 [t] corresponding to the polynomial f(x) in F[x] and

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76

Algebra

E be the splitting field of f 1 (t) over F and E 1 be the splitting field f 1 (t) over F 1 .
Let [E: F] = 1. Then we know that E = F. And f(x) splits completely into linear factors
over F. Therefore f 1 (t) splits completely into linear factors over F 1 .
Hence E 1 = F 1 therefore [ E 1 = F 1 ] = 1 But then j = t provides us with an
isomorphism of E onto E ' coinciding with t on F. Hence the theorem is true when degree of
the splitting field E over the initial field F is
Let us assume that the theorem is true for any field Fo and for any polynomial g(x)
over Fo whenever the degree of the splitting field Eo of g(x) over Fo is less than n, the
degree of E over F.
Now n > 1, Hence E F. Therefore when f(x) is factorised over F, there exists at least
one non- linear irreducible factor, say p(x). Let degree of p(x) be n Then 1 < r n. Let p1 (t)
be the corresponding irreducible factor of f 1 (t) when it is factored over F 1 . Then the degree
p1 (t) is also r.
Now f(x) splits completely into linear factors over E. Therefore p(x) which is a factor
of f(x) must also split into linear factors over F. Hence there is a root v E of p[x] and
[F (v): F] = r. Similarly there exists a root w E ' of p ' (t) and [ F 1 (w): F] = r
Now by the last theorem there exists an isomorphism.

s : F(v) F 1 (w)
such that s (v) = w and s ( a ) = a 1 " a F.
Now [E:F(v)] [F(v):F] = [E:F]
[E:F(v)] r = n. Therefore, [E:F(v)] = n/r. Since n/r < n. We claim that E is the where
field for f(x) considered as polynomial over Fo = F(v), for no subfield of E. Containing Fo
and hence F, can split f(x) since E is assumed to be a splitting field of f(x) over F. Similarly
E ' is a splitting field f 1 (t) over F 10 = F 1 (w) where j = f(v).
By induction hypothesis there exists an isomorphism j of E into E ' such a j = a a for
all a F Fo , a j = a a = a1 . This completes the induction and the theorem is proved.
Now we give the proof of the particular case. Take the two fields F and F ' as
identical and the isomorphism j as identity automorphism under these assumptions the two
polynomials f(x) f 1 (t) are one and the same and E and E ' are the splitting fields of the same
polynomial over F. Hence any two splitting fields of any given polynomial over any given

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field F are isomorphic by an isomorphism leaving every element of F fixed.


7.3

LET US SUM-UP

(1)

A polynomial of degree n over a field has atmost n roots in any extension field.

(2)

If F is field and p(x) is a polynomial in F[x] of degree n 1 and is irreducible over F,


then there is an extension E of F such that [E:F] = n, in which p(x) has a root.

(3)

Let p(x) F[x] be of degree n 1. Then there is an extension E of F of degree atmost


n! in which p(x) has all its n roots.

(4)

Any two splitting fields E and E' of the polynomials f(x) F[x] and f(t) F' (t) are
isomorphic.

7.4

LESSON END ACTIVITIES

(1)

Let F be a field. If p(x) is a polynomial in F[x] of degree n 1 and its irreducible over
F, show that there is an extension E of F such that [E:F] = n, in which p(x) has a root.

(2)

If p(x) is irreducible in F[x] and if v is a root of p(x) the show that F(v) is isomorphic
to F' (w) where w is a root of p' (t).

(3)

Prove that any two splitting fields are isomorphic.

7.5 REFERENCES
1) Topics in Algebra by I.N. Herstein Second Edition.

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LESSON 8

MORE ABOUT ROOTS

CONTENTS :
8.0

Aims and Objectives

8.1

Introduction

8.2

More about roots

8.3

Let us Sum- up

8.4

Lesson end activities

8.5

References

8.0

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

In the previous lesson we saw the answers to several questions relating to the roots of
polynomials. This lesson is devoted to multiple roots of polynomials.

(1)
(2)

After going through this lesson, you will be able to :


Define the derivative of a polynomial
Prove the polynomial f(x) F[x] has a multiple root if and only if f(x) and its
derivative f ' (x) have non trivial common factor

(3)

Prove if a and b are algebraic over F, then there is element c such that F(a,b) = F(c).

(4)

Prove that any finite extension is a simple extension

8.1

INTRODUCTION

We introduce the derivative of a polynomial in F[x] and derive certain fundamental


properties when the base field F is of characteristic 0 or p. We also discuss about the
necessary and sufficient condition for a polynomial to have a multiple roots. We conclude
this lesson by proving that finite extensions are simple.
8.2

MORE ABOUT ROOTS

Definition
If f(x) = a 0 x n + a1x n -1 + . . . . + a i x n -i + . . . + a n -1x + a n is in F[x], then the
derivative of f(x) is denoted by f ' (x) and is defined as f (x) = a 0 nx n -1 + a1(-1)x n -2 +. . . .
+ a i (n - i )x n -i -1 + . . . . + a n+1 .

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Lemma
If F is any field and f(x), g(x) are in F[x] and a F then
(1)
[f(x) + g(x)] ' = f ' (x) + g ' (x).
(2)
[ a f(x)] ' = a f ' (x)
(3)
[f(x) g(x)] ' = f ' (x) g(x) + f(x) g ' (x).
Proof
(i)

Let
f(x) = a 0 + a1x + a 2x 2 + . . . . + a n x n
g(x) = b0 + b1x + b2x 2 + . . . . . + b m x m
where a s and b s are in F. We assume m n without loss of generality.
Then
f(x) + g(x) = a 0 + b0 + ( a 1 + b1 )x + ( a 2 + b 2 ) x 2 + . . . . . + ( a m + b m )
x m + a m +1 x m +1 + . . . . . + a n x n
Then
[f(x) + g(x)] ' = a1 + b1 + 2(a 2 + b2 )x + ..... + m (a m + b m )x m -1 +
a m +1(m +1)x m + ...... + a n nx n -1.

(ii)

(iii)

= [ a1 + 2a 2x + ..... + ma m x m -1 + a m +1(m +1)x m + ..... + na n x n -1 ]+[ b1 + 2b2x + ..... + mb m x m -1 ]


= f ' (x) + g ' (x).
Let f(x) = a 0 + a1x + a 2x 2 + ..+ a n nx n -1 and a F. Then a g(x) a a 0 +
2
a a1 + aa 2 x + ..+ aa n x n
Therefore,
[ a f(x)] '
=
a a1 + a a 2 2x ++ a a n n x n -1
=
a [ a1 + a 2 2x ++ a n n x n -1 ]
=
a f 1 (x)
First let f i (x) = a i x i and g j (x) = b j x j
Then f i (x) g j (x) = a i b j x i + j
\ [ f i (x) g j (x)]

'

= a i b j (i+j) x i + j -1

and f i 1 (x) g j (x) + f i (x) g j1 (x) = a i i x i -1 b j x j + a i x i b j j x j -1 = a i b j (i+j) x i + j -1


Therefore,
'
[ f i (x) g j (x)] ' = f i (x) g j (x) + f i (x) g ' j (x)
Let f(x) = a 0 + a1x + a 2x 2 + . . . . + a n x n and
g(x) = b0 + b1x + b2x 2 + . . . . . + b m x m
m

Then f(x) =

i =o

f i (x) and g(x) =

j =1

g j (x).

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n
'

[f(x)g(x)] = [

i =o

i =o

j =0

[ f i 1 (x) g j (x)] ' by (1)


n

i =o

'

f i (x) g j (x) +

j =0

i =o

f i (x) g j (x)]

j =0

'

f i (x)

i =o

j =1

'

'

f i (x) g

i =o

(x)

j =0

g j (x)

'

f i (x)

g ' j (x)

j =1

= f (x) g(x) + g (x) f(x)


Lemma
Let F be any field. Then the polynomial f(x) F[x] has a multiple root in some
extension of F if and only if f(x) and its derivative f 1 (x) have a non-trivial common factor.
Proof
Only if part. First we show that if a (x) and b(x) in F[x] are relatively prime and K, is
an extension of F, then a(x) and b(x) are relatively prime in K[x] also.
Such a(x) and b(x) are relatively prime in F(x) there exists l (x) and m (x) in f[x] such
that
a(x) l (x) + b(x) m (x) = 1
----------- (1)
Now all the polynomials a(x), b(x), and l (x) can be considered as polynomials inK[x]
and the relation (1) holds good over K also.
Therefore a(x) and b(x) are relatively prime over K also.
Therefore without loss of generality we assume that all the roots of f(x) to be in F, for
otherwise we can extend F to a suitable extension K of F such that all roots of f(x) lie in K.
We may if necessary take K to be the splitting field of f(x) over F.
Let f(x) have a multiple root in F. Then f(x) = (x- a ) m g(x) where m>1, g ( a ) 0,
g(x) F[x]. By the above lemma f ' (x) = (x- a ) g ' (x) + m(x- a ) m -1 g(x). Hence x- a is a
factor of f(x) and f 1 (x), since m>1.
If part:
Let f(x) and f 1 (x) have a non-trivial common factor. We can assume that f(x) is a
monic polynomial.
Suppose all the roots of f(x) are distinct, a1 , a 2.....a n . Then
f(x) = (x- a1 ) (x- a 2 ) .. (x- a n )
Then by the lemma
f ' (x) =

(x- a1 ) (x- a 2 ) .. (x - a1 ) . (x- a n )

i =o

where the symbols ^ indicates that the term under it is omitted.

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Then f ' ( a k ) = ( a k - a1 ) ( a k - a 2 ) .. ( a k - a k-1 ) ( a k - a k+1 ) .. ( a k - a n ) 0


a k is not a root of f 1 (x) for k = 1,2,3,4 .. n
Then f(x) and f 1 (x) have no common factor. This is a contradiction. Hence f(x) has
multiple roots.
Corollary
If f(x) F[x] is irreducible, then
1)
2)

If the characteristics of F is 0, f(x) has no multiple roots.


If the characteristics of F is p 0 f(x) has a multiple root if f(x) is of the form f(x)
= g( x p )

Proof
Since f(x) is irreduciable, its only factors in F[x] are and f(x).
If f(x) has a multiple root then by the lemma, f(x) and f ' (x) have a non-trivial
common factor. Hence f(x) divides f 1 (x). Since the degree of f 1 (x) is less than the degree of
f(x) this is possible only when f 1 (x) = 0. In Characteristics 0, this implies f(x) is constant
which has no root. Therefore f(x) has no multiple roots.
In characteristic p this forces f(x) = g( x p )
Corollary
n
If F is a field of characteristics p 0, then the polynomial x p - x F[x], for n
has distinct roots

1,

Proof
n

The derivatime of x p - x = p n is p n x p

n -1

-1

= -1 since F is of characteristics p.

Therefore x p - x and its derivative -1 are relatively prime. Therefore by the above lemma
n -1
n -1
x p - x has no multiple roots, that is, all the roots of the polynomial x p - x are distinct

Simple Extension
Definition
The extension K of a field F is called a simple extension if K = F( a ) for some a F.
Theorem
If F is of characteristics 0 and a,b are algebraic over F, then there exists an element
c F such that F(a,b) = F(c).

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Proof
Let f(x) and g(x) be irreducible polynomials over F satisfied by a and b. Let their
degrees be m and n.
Let K be a field extension of F in which both f(x) and g(x) split completely.
Since characteristic of F is zero, all the roots of f(x) are distinct ny corollary 1 of
lemma. Likewise the roots of g(x) are all distinct.
Let the roots of f(x) be a1, a2......am and the roots of g(x) be b1 , b2......b m
where a1 = a and b1 = b.
If j 1, then b j b1 = b. Then the equation
a i + lb j = a1 + lb1 = a + lb has only one solution namely
l ij

ai - a
b -b j

i = 1, 2, .. m,

j= 2, 3, .. n

Then l ij are finite in number. In fact they are (m-1) (n-1) + 1 in number.
F is of characteristics 0. So it has infinite number of elements.
Therefore apart from the above element l ij , we can find an element r F such that
r

ai - a
"i
b -b j

= 1, 2, .. m and for all j = 2, 3, . n.

Then a i + rb j a + rb for all i and for all j 1.


Let c = a + rb , we prove F(a,b) = F(c).
Since c F(a,b), we have F(c) F(a,b).
As b satisfies the polynomial g(x) over F, b satisfies the polynomial g(x) considered
as a polynomial over K = F(c). Moreover, if h(x) = f(c-rx) then h (x) K[x] and h(p) =
f(c-rb) = f(a) = 0, since a = c-rb.
\ g(b) = 0 and h(b) = 0.
\ x-b is a factor of g(x) and h(x). Thus in some extension of K, h(x) and g(x) have
x-b as a common factor.
We show that x-b is infact their greatest common divisor.
For if b j b is another root of g(x) then h( b j ) = f(c-r b j ) = 0 then c-r b j = ai for some
i and then c= ai + r b j contrary to our choice of c. Also since g(x) has no multiple roots. (x-b) 2
does not divide g(x). (x-b) 2 cannot divide the g.c.d of h(x) and g(x) over some extension of
K. But then they have a non-trivial g.c.d. over K, which must be a divisor of x-b. Since the
degree of x-b is 1, we see that the greatest common divisor of g(x) and h(x) in K[x] is exactly
x-b. Thus x-b K[x]. Therefore b K. But K = F(c). Therefore b F(c).
Since a = c-rb and since b, c F(c), r F F(c), we get a F(c).
\ F (a, b) F(c).
\ F (a, b) = F(c).
Corollary
Any finite extension of a field is a simple extension.
This result can easily be derived from the above theorem by induction. That is if a1 , a 2.....a n
are algebraic over F, then there is an element c F ( a1 , a 2.....a n ) such that F ( a1 , a 2.....a n ) =
F(c)

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Example
Let F be the field of rational numbers. Then f(x) x 2 -2 belongs to F[x]. f(x) = x 3 ( 21 / 3 ) 3 = (x- 21 / 3 ) ( x 2 + 21 / 3 x+ 22 / 3 ). The roots of ( x 2 + 21 / 3 x+ 22 / 3 ) = 0 are given by
- 21 / 3 22 / 3 - 4.1.22 / 3
2
roots of f(x) = x 3 -2 are 21 / 3 , 21 / 3 w

x=
Hence the

where w is a cube root of unity, that is,

-1+ i 3
2
Now F ( 3 3 ) is a subfield of the field of reals and hence does not contain w and w2 .
Hence f(x) does not factorise in F ( 21 / 3 ). Let E be the splitting field of f(x) over F.
Then [E: F] 3! = 6. But [E : F] = [E: F ( 21 / 3 )] [F ( 21 / 3 ): F] and [F ( 21 / 3 ): F] = 3.
Hence [E: F ( 21 / 3 )].3 6. [E : F ( 21 / 3 )] \ [E: F ( 21 / 3 )] 2.
But [E: F ( 21 / 3 )] >1. \ [E: F ( 21 / 3 )] = 2.
w

Hence [E: F] = 6.
We could, of course, get this result by making two extensions F1 = F ( 21 / 3 ) and
E = F1 (w) and showing that w satisfies an irreducible quadratic equation over F1 .
Example
Let F be the field of rational numbers and let
f(x) = x 4 + x 2 +1 F[x].
Now x 4 + x 2 +1 = ( x 2 + x +1) ( x 2 - x +1)
In some extension E of F, if a is a root of x 2 + x +1, then - a is a root of x 2 + x +1 in that
extension. Consequently that extension E splits x 4 + x 2 +1. Therefore the splitting field of
x 4 + x 2 +1 is same as the splitting field of x 2 + x +1.
In the field of complex numbers the roots of x 2 + x +1 are w and w2 .
Since f(x) is irreducible over F, and deg f(x) = 2, in any extension of F of degree less
than 2, f(x) cannot have a root. So if E is the splitting field of f(x) then [E:F]>1. But [E:F] 2 .
So we must have [E:F] = 2.
F (w) contains a root w of f(x) since w F (w) , w2 F (w) . Hence F (w) contains both the
roots w , w2 of F(x). \ F (w) splits x 2 + x +1, f(x) is irreducible over F and degree of f(x) is 2.
Also w is a root of f(x). \ w is algebraic over F of degree 2.
So, [F (w) : F] = 2. Therefore, F (w) is the splitting field of f(x) over F.

8.3

LET US SUM-UP

(1)

A Polynomial f(x) F[x] has a multiple root in some extension of F if and only if f(x)
and its derivative f ' (x) have a non-trivial common factor.

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(2)

If F is of characteristic 0, and a, b algebraic over F, then there is an element c F such


that F(a, b) = F(c).

8.4

LESSON END ACTIVITIES

(1)

If F is a field and f(x) and g(x) are in F[x] then show that

(2)

(a)

[f(x) + g(x)] = f (x) + g(x)

(b)

[ a f(x)] = a f (x).

(c)

[f(x) g(x)] = f (x) g(x) + g(x) f(x)

If F is of characteristic 0, and a, b algebraic over F, then there is an element c F such


that F(a, b) = F(c).

8.5 REFERENCES
1) Topics in Algebra by I.N. Herstein Second Edition Chapter 5.

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UNIT IV
85

Algebra

LESSON 9

ELEMENTS OF GALOIS THEORY

CONTENTS :
9.0

Aims and Objectives

9.1

Introduction

9.2

Automorphism

9.3

Galois Group

9.4

Let us Sum- up

9.5

Lesson end activities

9.6

References

9.0

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

In this lesson we prove the fundamental theorem of Galois theory which is useful for
the solvability by radicals of the roots of a polynomial.
After going through this lesson, you will be able to :
(1)

(3)

Define the fixed field of G where G is a subgroup of automorphisms of a field K, and


show that it is a subfield of K.
Define the group of automorphism of K relative to a subfield F of K, written as
G(K,F) and show that it is a subgroup of the group of automorphisms of K.
Prove that O(G(K,F)) [K:F], where K is a finite extension of F.

(4)

Define normal extension, to find the size of the fixed field of any subgroup of G(K,F).

(5)

Prove the fundamental theorem of Galois Theory.

9.1

INTRODUCTION

(2)

Galois theory is concerned with finding the conditions under which is given
polynomial p(x) over a field of characteristic o can be solved by means of radicals only. We
associate with each polynomial p(x), a group called galois group of p(x), The galois group of
p(x) is a group of the permutations of the roots of p(x) which is introduced using the splitting
field of p(x). We define the normal extension of a field. If K is a normal extension of F, We
show that [K:F] = O(G(K,F)), sharpening the result. Finally the fundamental theorem galois
theory sets up of one to one correspondence between subfields of the splitting field of f(x)
and the subgroups of galois group. Finally it gives a criterion that a subfield of a normal

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extension itself to be normal extension of F. This fundamental theorem will be used to derive
the conditions for the solvability by radicals of the roots of polynomial.
9.2

AUTOMORPHISMS

Definition
If K is a field, then a map s : K K which is onto and satisfies s (a+b) =
s (a)+ s (b) and s (ab) = s (a) s (b) for all a,b K is called an automorphism of K.
Definition
Two automorphisms s and t of K are said to be distinct if s (a) t (a) for some a
in K.
Theorem
If K is a field and if s 1 , s 2 ,. . . . . s n , are distinct automorphisms of K, then it is
impossible to find elements a1 , a2 ,. . . . . , an not all 0, in K such that a1 s 1 (u) + a2 s 2 (u)+ . .
. . . + an s n (u) = 0 for all u K.
Proof
Let s 1 , s 2 ,. . . . . s n be distinct automorphisms of K. Suppose it is possible to find
elements a1 , a2 ,. . . . . , an not all 0, in K such that
----- (1)
a1 s 1 (u) + a2 s 2 (u)+ . . . . . + an s n (u) = 0
for all u K.
Then we can find a relation of the form (1) having as few non zero terms as possible.
On renumbering we can assume that one such minimal relation is
----- (2)
a1 s 1 (u) + a2 s 2 (u)+ . . . . . + ams m (u) = 0
Where a1 , a2 ,. . . . . , am are all different from 0.
In that case m=1, a1 s 1 (u) = 0 for all u K. Then a1 = 0. This contracticts our
assumption. Therefore m>1.
Since cu K for all u K, (2) hold for cu. Hence we have
a1 s 1 (cu) + a2 s 2 (cu)+ . . . . . + ams m (cu) = 0.
Since s 1 , s 2 , . . . . . s m are automorphism this relation gives us
----- (3)
a1 s 1 (u) s 1 (u) + a2 s 2 (u) s 2 (u) + . . . . . + ams m (c) s m (u) = 0
Multiplying (2) by s 1 (c)
a1 s 1 (u) s 1 (u) + a2 s 1 (u) s 2 (u) + . . . . . + am s 1 (c) s m (u) = 0 ----- (4)
(3) (4) gives
a2 [ s 2 (c)- s 1 (c)] s 2 (u) + . . . . . + am [ s m (c) - s 1 (c)] s m (u) = 0 ----- (5)
Let a1 [ s 1 (c)- s 1 (c)] = b j , j=1,2,3, . . . . m
(5) gives
----- (6)
b2 s 2 (u) + b3 s 3 (u) + . . . . . + bm s m (u) = 0
The number of terms in (6) is less than the number of terms in (2). Hence we get a
contracdiction to the fact that (2) has the minimum no of terms among the relations of the

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87

Algebra

Type (1). Hence the theorem,


Definition
Let G be a group of automorphisms of K, then the fixed field of G is the set of all
elements a K such that
s (a) = a for all s G i.e., G = {a K: s (a) = a " s G}
Lemma
The fixed field of G is a subfield of K.
Proof : Let G be a group of automorphisms of K.
Let a,b belong to the fixed field of G. Then s (a) = a and s (b) = b " s G.
Hence s (a b) = s (a) s (b) = a b. Therefore a b the fixed field of G.
Also s (ab) = s (a) s (b) = ab. Therefore ab the fixed field of G.
Let b belong to the fixed field of G and b 0 then s (b -1 ) =[ s (b) ] -1 = b -1
therefore b -1 is also in the field of G.
Therefore the fixed field of G is a subfield of K.
Definition
Let F be a subfield of the field K. Then the group of automorphisms of K relative to F,
written G(K,F) is the set of all automorphisms of K leaving every element of F fixed, that is ,
the automorphism s of K is in G (K,F) if and only if s ( a ) = a for all a F.
Lemma
If K is an extension of a field F, the set G(K,F) of all automorphisms of K leaving
every element of F fixed is a group.
Proof: The identity map of K is an automorphism of K leaving every element of F fixed.
Therefore G(K,F) is not empty.
Let f, g G(K,F) and a F. Then, f( a ) = a and g( a ) = a then g -1 ( a )= a . Hence
fg -1 ( a ) = f [g -1 ( a )] = f( a ) = a . Therefore f g -1 is an automorphism of K which leaves
every element of F fixed. Therefore G (K,F) is a group.
Theorem
If K is a finite extension of a field F, then G(K,F) is a finite group and O(G(K,F))
[K:F].
Proof : Let [K:F] = n. Let { u1 , u2 , u3 , . . . . u n } be a basis of K over F. To prove :
o(G(K,F)) n.

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Suppose the theorem is false. Then 0(G(K,F)) > n. Therefore there exist n+1 distinct auto
orphisms s 1 , s 2 , . . . . . , s n +1 in G(K,F). Consider the following n homogeneous equations in
the n+1 unknowns x1 , x2 , . . . . . xn +1 .
----- (1)
s 1 ( u1 ) x1 + s 2 ( u1 ) x2 + . . . . + s n +1 ( u1 ) xn +1 = 0.
----- (2)
s 1 ( u2 ) x1 + s 2 ( u2 ) x2 + . . . . + s n +1 ( u2 ) xn +1 = 0.
.
.
.
.
----- (i)
s 1 ( ui ) x1 + s 2 ( ui ) x2 + . . . . + s n +1 ( ui ) xn +1 = 0.
.
.
.
.
----- (n)
s 1 ( u n ) x1 + s 2 ( u n ) x2 + . . . . + s n +1 ( u n ) xn +1 = 0.
Because the number of equations here is less than the number of unknowns, we know
that these equations have a non-trivial solution, say, x1 = a1 , x2 = a2 . . . . xn = an . Then
----- (1)
a1 a1 ( ui ) + a2 a 2 ( ui ) + . . . . + an +1 a n +1 ( ui ) = 0
for i = 1,2,3, . . . . n.
Let t K. Then as u1 , u2 , . . . . u n is a basis of K over F.
t = a1 u1 + . . . . + an u n with a1 , a 2 , . . . . a n F.
Then a1 s 1 (t) + a2 a 2 (t) + . . . . + an +1 a n +1 (t)
= a1 a1 s 1 ( a1 u1 +. . . . .+ a n u n ) + a2 s 2 ( a1 u1 +. . . .+ an u n )+. . . . .+ an -1 a n -1
( a1 u1 + . . . . . + a n u n )
= a1 [ a1 s 1 ( u1 ) + a2 s 2 ( u1 ) + . . . . + an +1 s n +1 ( u1 )]
+ a 2 [ a1 s 1 ( u2 ) + a2 s ( u2 ) + . . . . + an +1 s n +1 ( u2 )] + . . . .
+ a n [ a1 s 1 ( u n ) + a2 s 2 ( u2 ) + . . . . + an +1 s n +1 ( u n )]
= 0, using (1)
This contradicts the results of previous theorem. Hence the theorem is proved.
Note : If p( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) and q( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) are two polynomials in n variable
x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn over F, then
p ( x1 , x2 ....xn )
r( x1 , . . . . xn ) =
is a rational function
q ( x1 , x2 ....xn )
where the denominator polynomial is non zero polynomial.
Let s S n . We can make s act on r( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) and obtain another rational
function s ( r( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ))
= r ( xs (1) , xs ( 2 ) , . . . . xs (n ) )

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89

Algebra
=

p ( xs (1) , xs ( 2 ) , xs ( n ) , )
q ( xs (1) , xs ( 2 ) , xs ( n ) , )

We say a rational function r( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) is a symmetric rational function.


if s ( r( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn )) = r( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) for all s S n
For example when n = 3,
x1 + x2 + x3 + x1 x2 + x2 x3 + x3 x1 + x1 x2 x3 is a symmetric function.
The following simple functions in the n variables x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn are called
elementary symmetric functions in x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn
n

a1 = x1 + x2

+ . . . . + xn =

i =1

a2 =

xi x j

i< j

a3 =

xi x j x k

i< j <k

an = x1 x2 . . . . xn

Theorem
Let F be a field and let F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) be the field of rational functions in
x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn over F. Let S be the field of symmetric rational functions. Then
(1)
[F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ): S] = n!
(2)
G(F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ),S) = S n , the symmetric group of degree n.
(3)
If a1 , a2 , . . . an are the elementary symmetric functions in x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn then
S=F( a1 , a2 , . . . an )
(4)
F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) is the splitting field over F( a1 , a2 , . . . an ) = S of the polynomial
t n - a1 t n - 2 + . . . . . +(-1) n an .
(5)
Proof: Every permulation in the group S n is an automorphism of F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn )

leaving S fixed. As G (F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ),S) is the group of all those automorphisms of


F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) each of which leaves S fixed, we have
S n G (F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ),S)
----- (1)
\ By first theorem,
[F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) : S] 0 (G( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ), S) 0( S n )
----- (2)
Next we note that the polynomial
p(t) = t n - a1 t n -1 + a 2 t n - 2 + . . . . . +(-1) n an .

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factors over f ( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) as p(t) = (t- x1 ) (t- x2 ) . . . . (t- xn ). Therefore p(t) is of


degree n over F( a1 , a2 , . . . an ) and splits as a product of linear factors over F( x1 , x2 , . . . xn )
which contains F( a1 , a2 , . . . an ) because this subfield then have to contain both F and each
of the roots of p(t) namely x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ; but then this subfield would be all of
F( x1 , x2 , . . . . xn ). Hence F( x1 , x2 , . . . . xn ) is the splitting field of the polynomial p(t) over
F( a1 , a2 , . . . an ) . Since p(t) is of degree n, by theorem
[F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) : F( a1 , a2 , . . . an )] n!
But F( a1 , a2 , . . . an ) is a subfield of S.
Therefore [F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) : F( a1 , a2 , . . . an )] =
[F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) : S] [S:F( a1 , a2 , . . . an )]
From (3) and (4)
[F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) : S] [S:F( a1 , a2 , . . . an )]
From (2) and (6) we get that
[F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ) : S] = n! and
[S:F( a1 , a2 , . . . an )] = 1.
Hence F( a1 , a2 , . . . an )] = S and
S n = G (F( x1 , x2 , . . . . , xn ):S)
Hence the theorem is proved.

----- (3)

----- (4)
n!

----- (6)

Example
Let K be the field of complex numbers and F be the field of real numbers. Let us
determine G(K,F).
Let s be an automerphism in G(K,F). Then
[ s (i)] 2 = s (i) 2 = s (-1) = -1
\ s (i) = i
If a+bi K where a and b are real, s (a+bi) = s (a) + s (bi) = a+ s (b) s (i) = a ib
Let s 1 (a+bi) = a+bi and s 2 (a+bi) = a-bi. Then s 1 is identity map on K and s 2 is
conjugation map. Therefore G(K,F) is a group of order 2.
Now let us compute the fixed field of G(K,F).
The fixed field of G(K,F) certainly contains F.
Let a + bi the fixed field of G(K,F).
Let s 2 (a+ib) = a + ib. But s 2 (a+ib) = a-ib. Therefore a+ib =a- ib b=0 a+ ib is
real F.
Therefore the fixed field of G(K,F) is F.

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91
Example
Let F0 be the field of rational numbers and let K = F0 ( 3 2 ). Where
cube root of 2. Then every element of K is of the form a 0 + a1
a 2 , are rational numbers.

2 +a2 (

Algebra
3

2)

2 is the real
2

where a 0 , a1 ,

Let s G (K,F) Then [ s ( 3 2 )] 3 = s ( 21/ 3 ) 3 = s (2) = 2.


Therefore s ( 3 2 ) is also a cube root of 2 lying in K. There is only one real cube
root of 2. K is a subfield of the field of real numbers. Hence we have s ( 3 2 ) = 3 2 .
Any element of K is of the form x0 + a1

2 + a 2 ( 3 2 ) 2 where a 0 , a1 , a 2 F0 and

s ( a 0 + a1 3 2 + a 2 ( 3 2 ) 2 ) = a 0 + a1 3 2 + a 2 ( 3 2 ) 2 . Therefore s is the identify


automorphism of K. Hence G (K, F0 ) consists of only the identity auto orphisms of K.
Since s ( 3 2 ) =

2 , the fixed field of G(K, F0 ) is larger than F0 being all of K.

Definition (Normal extension of a field)


We say a field K is normal extension of a field F if K is a finite extension of F such
that F is the fixed field of G(K,F).
Note : If K is a normal extension of F, then every element in K which is in the
complement of F is moved by some auto orphism in G(K,F).
Theorem
Let K be a normal extension of a field F of characteristics 0. Let H be a subgroup of
G(K,F). Let K H be the fixed field of H. Then
(1)
[K : K H ] = O(H).
(2)
H = G(K, K H )
In particular, when H = G(K,F), [K : F] = O(G(K,F))
Proof: Let A(K) be the group of all auto orphisms of the field K where K is a finite extention
of the field F. It is given that K H is a fixed field of H. Then
K H = {x K : s (x) = x " s H} and K H is a subgroup of G(K,F). Since K is a
normal extension of F,K is a finite extension of F. Since H is a subgroup of G(K,F), the auto
morphisms in H leave the elements of F fixed the hence K H the fixed field of H, is a subfield
of K containing F. Therefore K is a finite extension of K H , that is, [K : K H ] is finite. Hence
by known theorem, G(K, K H ) is a finite group and
O(G(K, K H )) [(K : K H )]
----- (1)
Further, G(K, K H ) is a subgroup of A(K) and H is a subgroup of A(K). We have
s H s (y) = y " y K H , by definition of K H .
s G(K, K H )
Therefore H G(K, K H ) . Hence H is a subgroup of G(K, K H ) . Therefore
O(H) O (G(K, K H ))
----- (2)

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From (1) and (2)


O(H) O (G(K, K H )) [K : K H ]
----- (3)
Therefore, O(H) [K : K H ]
----- (4)
Now to prove that O(H) = [K : K H ] we have to prove
[K : K H ] O(H)
Let O(H) = h and [K : K H ] = m.
Let H = { s 1 , s 2 , . . . . , s n }. Where s 1 is the identity auto orphism of K.
Since K is a finite extension of K H which is of characteristics O, K is a simple
extension of K H . Therefore there exists an element a K H such that K = K H (a). This a
must therefore satisfy an irreducible polynomial over K H of degree m = [K : K H ] and no
non-trivial polynomial of lower degree (by Theorem)
Let a1 , a 2 , . . . . , a n be the elementary symmetric functions of the elements s 1 (a),
s 2 (a), . . . . , s n (a) K.
Then
h

a1 = s 1 (a) + s 2 (a) + . . . . + s n (a) =

s 1 (a)

=1

a2 =

s (a) s j (a)

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a n = s 1 (a) + s 2 (a) + . . . . + s n (a).
We prove that each s is invariant under every s H.
Let s be any element of H. Consider the h products s s 1 , s s 2 , . . . . s s n , since H
is a group of all these are elements of H by closure. Also these are distinct since if s s =

s s j then by left cancellation law s = s j . Therefore s s 1 , s s 2 , . . . . , s s n are all the h


elements of H. We have
s ( a1 ) = s [ s 1 (a) + s 2 (a) + . . . . + s n (a)].
= s s 1 (a) + s s 2 (a) + . . . . + s s n (a), since s is an auto orphism
h

s (a) since s s 1 , s s 2 , . . . . , s s n are nothing but

<1

the h elements s 1 , s 2 , . . . . , s n possibly in a different order.


Hence s ( a1 ) = a1 .
Further s ( a 2 ) = s [ s (a) s j (a)]
< j

< j

s [ s (a) s j (a)] Q s is an auto Orphism

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=

s [ s (a)] s [ s j (a)]

s s (a) s s j (a)

< j

< j

= a2
Similarly we can show that
s 3 , s 4 , . . . . . , s n are invariants under s . Hence s 1 , s 2 , . . . . , s n belong to the
fixed field K H of H.
Now consider the polynomial
p(x) = [x- s 1 (a)] [x- s 2 (a)] . . . . [x- s n (a)]
------ (5)
= x n - a1 x n -1 + a 2 x n -3 + . . . . + (-1) n a n .
We see that p(x) is a non- zero polynomial of degree h over K H .
Also from (5) we see that a = s 1 (a) is root of p(x).
Hence we see that a satisfies a non-trivial polynomial over K H of degree
lower than m. We must have
h m
O(H) [K : K H ]
----- (6)
From (4) and (6), we get
O(H) = [K : K H ]
Putting O(H) =[K : K H ] in (3), O(H) O(G(K, K H )) O(H).
\ O(H) = G(K : K H ).
Now H is a subgroup of G(K, K H )
\ O(H) = O(G(K : K H )) implies that H = G(K, K H )

Now in the proof of the theorem take H = G(K,F) itself. Then K H = the fixed field of
H = the fixed field of G(K,F) = F. Hence we get the result
O(G(K,F)) = [K : F]
Lemma
Let K be the splitting field of f(x) in F[x] and let p(x) be an irreducible factor of f(x)
in F[x]. If the roots of p(x) are a1 , a 2 , . . . a r , then for each i there exists an automorphism
s i in G(K,F) such that s i ( a1 ) = a i .
Proof : It is given that K is the splitting field of f(x) F[x] and p(x) is an irreducible factor
of f(x) in F[x] .
Since p(x) is a factor of f(x), every root of p(x) is also root of f(x) and so every root of
p(x) must be in K.

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Let a1 , a 2 be any two roots of p(x). Let F1 = F( a1 ) and F11 = F( a1 ).


Since p(x) F[x] is irreducible by corollary of Theorem there is an isomorphism
Y of F1 onto F'1 such that Y ( a 1 ) = a 1 and Y ( a ) = a " a F.
Since F1 is a subfield of F1 f(x) in F[x] can be considered as polynomial over F1 , K
is a splitting field for f(x) considered as a polynomial over F1 . Similarly, K is the splitting
field of f(x) considered as a polynomial over F11 . Therefore by theorem there is an
isomorphism a i of K onto K coinciding with Y on F1 . Then s i ( a1 ) = Y ( a1 ) = a i and s
leaves every element of F fixed. Hence the lemma is proved.
Theorem
K is normal extension of F if and only if K is the splitting field of some polynomial
over F.
Proof : Let K be a normal extension of F. Then by Theorem K = F(a), for some a K.

Consider the polynomial p(x) = [x- s 1 (a)] [x- s 2 (a)] . . . . [x- s n (a)] where s 1 , s 2 , . . . . . ,
s n are all the elements of G(K,F). Expanding p(x),
p(x) = x n - a1 x n -1 + a 2 x n - 2 + . . . . + (-1) n a n where a1 , a 2 , . . . a n are the
elementary symmetric function in a = s 1 (a), s 2 (a), . . . . s n (a). But they are each invariant
with respect to every s G(K,F) and hence by the normality of K over F, they must all be in
F. Therefore K splits the polynomial p(x) F[x] into a product of linear factors. Since a is a
root of p(x) and since a generates K over F, a can be in proper subfield of K which contains
F. Thus K is the splitting field of p(x) over F. This proves the if part of the theorem.
Now, we shall prove the only if part of the theorem.
Let K be the splitting field of the polynomial f(x) F[x]. Then we have to prove that
K is a normal extension of F. Since every splitting field is a finite extension, K is a finite
extension of F.
Let [K: F] = n. The proof is by induction on n.
If n = 1, [K: F] = 1. Then K = F, therefore K is a normal extension of F as F is a
Normal extension of F.
Now we assume that if K1 is the splitting field over F1 of a polynomial in F1 [x] and
[ K1 : F1 ] = n1 < n then K1 is a normal extension of F1 (Induction hypothesis)
Let [K: F] = n < 1. K is the splitting field over F of f(x) F[x] if f(x) splits into linear
factors over F, then K=F and consequently [K:F] = 1, contrary to our assumption that [K:F] =
n>1. So we assume that f(x) has an irreducible factor p(x) F[x] of degree r>1. Since
characteristics of F is O, and p(x) is irreducible, p(x) cannot have multiple roots. Further p(x)
is a factor of f(x) and K is the splitting field of f(x). Therefore p(x) has a full complement of
roots in K. Let a1 , a 2 , . . . a r K be the r distinct roots of p(x).
Since p(x) is irreducible over F and degree of p(x) = r, [F( a1 ) :F] = r.

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We have [K: F] = [K: F ( a1 )] [F ( a1 ): F].


Therefore,
[K : F ]
n
[K: F ( a1 )] =
= <n
[F(a1 ) : F]
r
Now, K is also the splitting field of f(x) considered as a polynomial over F( a1 ).
Since [F ( a1 ): F] < n, by our induction hypothesis, K is normal extension of F( a1 ).
Let q K be left fixed by every auto orphism in G(K,F).
If we prove that q is in F, then F will be the fixed of G(K,F) and K will be a normal
extension of F.
Now,
s leaves every element of F( a1 ) fixed.
s G (K, F ( a1 ))
s leaves every element of F fixed
(\ F F( a1 ))
s G(K,F)
s ( q ) = 0 by our assumption that q is left fixed by
every element in G(K,F)
Therefore q belongs to the fixed field of G(K,F( a1 )).

But as K is a normal extension of F( a1 ),F( a1 ) is the fixed field of G(K, F( a1 )). Therefore q
is in F( a1 )
So we can write
q = l0 + l1 a1 + l2 a12 + . . . . . + lr -1 a1r -1
----- (1)
Where l0 , l1 , . . . . . , lr -1 F
Now, by the above lemma for each i = 1, 2, . . . . . , r, there is an auto orphism
s i G(K,F) such that s i ( a1 ) = a i . Since q is left fixed by every auto orphism in G(K,F),
a i (q ) = q .
Also if l0 , l1 , . . . . . , lr -1 F, then s i ( l0 ) = l0 , s i ( l1 ) = l1 , . . . . . s i ( lr -1 ) = lr -1 ,
Operating s i on both sides of (1), we get,

s i ( q ) = s i ( l0 + l1 a1 + l2 a12 + . . . . . + lr -1 a1r -1 )
This gives,
q = s i ( l0 ) + s i ( l1 a1 ) + s i ( l2 a12 ) + . . . . . + s i ( lr -1 a1r -1 )
= s i ( l0 ) + s i ( l1 ) s i ( a1 ) + s i ( l2 ) s i ( a12 ) + . . . . . + s i ( lr -1 ) s i ( a i

r -1

= s i ( l0 ) + s i ( l1 ) s i ( a1 ) + s i ( l2 ) [ s i ( a1 )] + . . . . . + s i ( lr -1 )
[ s i ( a i )] r -1
2

i.e., q = l0 + l1 a i + l2 a i + . . . . . + lr -1 a i
r -1

r -2

r -1

----- (2)
\ lr -1 a i + lr - 2 a i + . . . . . + l1 a i + l0 - q = 0
For i = 1, 2, 3 . . . r
Since a 1 , a 2 a r are all distinct, from (2) we see that the polynomial

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q(x) = lr -1 x r -1 + lr - 2 x r - 2 + . . . . . + l1 c + l0 - q in K[x] of degree atmost (r-1) has


r distinct roots a1 , a 2 , . . . . . , a r This is possible only if all the coefficients of q(x) are 0. In
particular, l0 - q = 0. That is q = l0 F. Hence k is a normal extension of F. Hence the
theorem.
9.3

GALOIS GROUP

Definition (Galois Group)


Let f(x) be a polynomial in F(x) and let K be its splitting field. The galois group of f(x) is
the group G(K,F) of the automorphisms of K, leaving every element of F fixed.
Note:
The Galvois group of f(x) can be considered as a group of permutations of its
roots, for if q is a root of f(x) and I s G(K,F), then s ( a ) is also a root of f(x).
Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Goals Theory)
Let f(x) be a polynomial in F(x), K,its splitting field over F, and G(K,F), its Galois
group.
For every subfield T of K which contains F,let
G (K, T) = { s G (K, F),: s ( t ) = t " t T}
And for every subgroup H of G (K, F) let

K H = {x K : s (x) = x " s H}
Then the association of T with G ( K,T) sets up a one-one correspondence of the set of
subfields of K which contain F onto the set subgroups of G (K,F) such that
(1)

T = K G ( K ,T )

(2)
(3)
(4)

H = G (K, K H )
[K,T] = 0 (G (K,T)), [T:F] = index of G( K,T) in G (K,F)
T is a normal extension of F if and only if G (K,T) is a normal subgroup of G
(K,F)
G[K : F ]
When T is a normal extension of F, G(T,F) is somorphic to
G[K : T]

(5)

Proof: Since K is the splitting field of f(x) over =, it is also the splitting field of f(x) over any
subfield T which contains F.Therefore by K is normal extention of T.Then by the definition
of normal extention, T is fix field of G(K,T). That is T = K G ( K ,T ) we have
H=G(K, K H ). Hence (2) is proved.

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Further, this shows that any subgroup of G(K,F) arises in the from G(K,T). the
association of T with G(K,T) maps the set of all subfields of K Containing F onto the set of
all subgroups of G(K,F).This mapping is one to one, for if G(K,T) = G(K, T2 ) then by
part(1), T1 = K G ( K ,T1 ) = K G ( K ,T2 ) = T2 .
Next, since K is normal over T, [K:T] = 0 (G(K,T)).
Then 0(G(K,F)) = [K:F]
= [K: T] [T: F]
= 0 (G (K, T)). [T: F]
Therefore
0(G(K : F ))
= index of G(K.T) in G(K,F).
0(G(K : T))
This proves part (3).

[T:F] =

This part (4) and (5) pertain to normality. We need the following result to prove
normality.
T is normal extension of F if and only it for every s in G( K,F), s (T) T,where K is a
normal extension of F and T a subfield of K.
We prove this result first. Since K is a normal extension of F, K is a finite extension of F.
Let be a subfield of K containing F. Then T is also Finite extension of F which is of
characteristic 0.Therefore T is a simple extension of F. So there is an element a in T such that
T = F(a).
Proof of Only if part of the Result Let s (T)
is a normal extension of F.

T " s G(K,F). Then let us prove that

Since K is a normal extension of F,G(K,F) is a finite group say of order n. Let a 1 ,


a 2 a n be the n element of G(K,F) and let s be the identity element of G( K,F). As
a T and s (T) T " G(K,F) we see that a 1 (a), a 2 (a).. a n (a) are all in T. Consider
the polynomial p(x) = [x - s 1 (a)] [x-- s 2 (a)] . [x- s n (a)] over T Expanding we have
P(x) = x n - a

1x

n -1

+a

2x

n-2

..(-1) na n

Where a 1 , a 2 , a n are symmetric functions of the elements s 1 (a), s 2 (a), s n (a) of


T. It can easily be seen that a 1 , a 2 , a n are each invariant with respect to every
s G(K,F).

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Also s 1 (a) = a is a root p(x) in T = F (a). Since a generates T over T1 , a can be ina no
proper subfield of T which contains F. Thus T is the splitting field of p(x) F(x). Therefore
T is a normal extension of F.
Now we prove that if part of the result.
Let T be a normal extension of F. Then we have to prove that s (T) T " s
G) K ,F).
Since T is normal extension of F, G(T,F) is a finite group say of order m. Let
y 1 ,y 2 ,..,y m be the element of G(T,F) and let y 1 be the identity element of G (T,F). Since
a T = F(a), c(a), y 2 (a). y m (a) are all in T.
Consider the polynomial.
q(x) = [x - y 1 (a)] [x - y 2 (a)].[x - y m (a)] over T. Expanding we get
q(x) = x m - b

1X

m-1

+ b

Where b , b ,. b
1

2X

m-2

+ .+ (- 1)mbm

are elementary symmetric functions in y 1 (a), y 2 (a),.

y m (a) of T. It can easily be seen that b

is invariant with respect to each y in G (T,F).

Since T is a normal extension of F, each b must be in F. Consequently q(x) F[x]. From


1

the form of q(x) we see that q(x) has all its roots in T. Also y 1 (a) = a is a root of q(x)in T
and hence in K.
Now let s be any element of G(K,F). s is an auto orphism of K leaving every
element of F fixed, a is a root of q(x) F[x] in K.
Since all roots of q(x) are in T, s (a) must be an element of T. Now T= F(a). If [T:F]
= r, then t T can be written as
T = l0 + l1a + l

2a

+.+ l

r -1a

r -1

Where l0 , l1 ,..+ lr -1F


We have
s (t) = s ( l0 + l1a + l

2a

+.+ l

r -1a

r -1

= s ( l0 ) + s ( l1 ) s (a) + s ( l2 ) s (a) +.+ s ( l


= l0 + l1 s (a) + l2 [ s (a)] ++ l
element of F fixed.

r -1

r -1

[ s (a)]

) s (a
r -1

r -1

\ s leaves every

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\ s (t) is an element of T since s (a) T and l0 l1 ,..+ l

r -1

T F.

Thus for every s G(K,F) and t T, we have s (t) T. Consequently s (T)


T " G(K,F).
Thus T is a normal extension of F if and only if for any s G(K,F) and t T, s (t)
T and so if t ( s (t)) = s (t) for all t G(K,T) i.e., iff s -1 t s (t) = t. But this says that T is
normal over F iff s -1 G(K,T) s G(K,T) " s G(K,F), this last condition being precisely
that which defines the group G(K,T) as a normal subgroup of G(K,F) Hence part (4) is
proved.
Now we prove (5).If T is normal over F, given s G(K,F),since s (T) T, s
induces an automorphism s * of T defined by s * (t) = s (t) " t T. Because s * leaves every
element of F fixed, s * must be in G(T,F).Also for any s y G(K,F) ( s y ) * = s * y * and
hence the mapping of G(K,F) into G(T,F) defined by s s * is a homomorphism of G(K,F)
into G(T,F). The kernel of this homomorphism consists of elements s in G(K,F) such that s *
is the identity map on T, That is ,the kernel is the set of all s G(K,F) such that image of s
i.e., s * is identity automorphism of G(T.F). Then s * (t) " t T. Then s is the identity
element o fG(K,F). We get that kernel is G(K,T).
The image of G(K,F) in G(T,F) is all of G(T,F), by first isomorphism theorem on
group, is isomorphic
To

G(K : F )
0 (G (K : F )
whose order is
= [T:F] (By part (3)) = 0
G(K : T)
0 (G(K : T)

Thus the image of G(K,F) in G(T,F) is all of G(T,F) and so we have G(T,F) is
isomorphic to
G(K : F )
. Hence part (5) is proved.
G(K : T)

Then theorem is proved completely.


Example:
In example 1,K is a normal extension of F.
In example 2, K is not a normal extension of F.

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Example:
Let K be field and S a set of automorphisms of K, if S denotes the subgroup of A(K),
the group of all auromorphisms generated by S, prove that the fixed field of S and that of S
are identical
Solution:
Let S be the set of all automorphisms of K. Let S be the subgroup of
A(K) the group of all automorphisms of K generated by S.
Let F be the fixed of S and F2 be the fixed field of S .
Let a F2 then s (a) = a for all s in S .Hence s (a) = a " s S since S S
Therefore a F1 . Hence F2 F1 .
To prove F1 F2
Let x F1 , Then s (x) " s S
Let j S then
p
p
j = s 1 1 . s 2 2 s n
integers. Then for x K.

j (x) = s 1

p1

, s 2 p2 .. s n

= x since s i

\x

pi ( x )

pn

pn

where s 1 , s 2 . s n S and p1 , p 2 . pn are

(x)

= x for all I = 1.2..n.

F2 . F2 F1 \ F1 = F2 .

Example
Prove that the Galois group 01 x 3 - 2 over F0 ,the field of rational number is
isomorphic to S3, the symmetric group of permulations of degree 3.
Solution:

The zeros of the polynomial x 3 - 2 in the field of complex numbers

are 21/ 3 , 2 1 / 3 w , 2 1 / 3 w 2 where w is an imaginary cube root of unity.

x 3 - 2 =(x- 21/ 3 ) (x - 2 1 / 3 w ) (x- 2 1 / 3 w 2 )


Since 21/ 3 , 21/ 3 , 2 1 / 3 w 2 are all in F0 ( 2 1 / 3 w 2 ), [ F0 ( 2 1 / 3 w 2 ): F0 ] > 3.

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Since x 3 -2 F0 [x] has a full complement of roots in

F0 ( 21/ 3 , w ) we have [F( 21/ 3 , w ): F0 ] 3! = 6. Since

[ F0 ( 21/ 3 , w )] = [ F0 ( 21/ 3 , w ) : F0 21/ 3 ] [ F0 ( 21/ 3 ): F0 ], we have


[ F0 ( 21/ 3 ): F0 ] is a divisor of [ F0 ( 21/ 3 , w ): F0 ]
Therefore 3 is a divisor of [ F0 ( 21/ 3 , w ): F0 ]
Hence [ F0 ( 21/ 3 , w ): F0 ] = 6.
\ F0 ( 21/ 3 , w ) is the splitting field x 3 -2 over F0

Then O G ( F0 ( 21/ 3 , w ), F0 ) =[ F0 ( 21/ 3 , w ): F0 ] = 6.


G( F0 ( 21/ 3 , w ) , F0 ) is isomorphic to a group of permutation on the set
21/ 3 , 21/ 3 , 2 1 / 3 w 2 Then the order of this group of permutation is also s = .
Hence G(G( F0 ( 21/ 3 , w ), F0 ) is isomorphic to S 3 .

9.4

LET US SUM-UP

(1)

The fixed field of G is a subfield of K.

(2)

G(K,F) is a subgroup of all automorphisms of K.

(3)
If K is a finite extension of F,then G(K,F) is a finite group and its order O(G(K,F))
satisfies O(G(K,F)) [K:F].
(4)

K is a normal extension of F if and only if K is the splitting field of some polynomial


over F.

9.5

LESSON END ACTIVITIES

(1)

Let K be a normal extension of a field F of characteristic 0. Let H be a subgroup of


G(K,F). Let K H be the fixed field of H. Then show that
(a)
[K: K H ] = O(H)
(b)
H = G(K, K H )
K is a normal extension of F if and only if K is the splitting field of some polynomial
over F.
The fundamental theorem of galois theory.

(2)
(3)

9.6 REFERENCES
1) Topics in Algebra by I.N. Herstein (Second Edition) Chapter 5.0

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LESSON 10

SOLVABILITY BY RADICALS

CONTENTS :
10.0

Aims and Objectives

10.1

Introduction

10.2

Solvability Groups

10.3

Let us Sum- up

10.5

Lesson end activities

10.6

References

10.0

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

In this lesson we introduce the concept of solvability by radicals of a polynomial after


going through some group theoretic properties.
After going through this lesson, you will be able to :
(1)
(2)
(3)

Define solvability of group


Give a criterion for solvability of a group in terms of commutator subgroups
Prove Sn is not solvable for n 5.

(4)

Define solvability by radicals over F of a polynomial p(x) F[x].

(5)

Prove that if p(x) is solvable by radicals, then the galois group over F of p(x) is a
solvable group.

(6)

Prove the general polynomial of degree n 5 is not solvable by radicals.

10.1

INTRODUCTION

Let F be any field and p(x) = x 2 + a1x + a2 where a1 , a2 F. Let F( a1 , a2 ) be the field of
rational functions in two variables a1 , a2 over F. Let w2 = a12 - 4a2 . Then the roots of p(x) are
in the extension obtained by adjoining w to F( a1 , a2 ). The formula for the roots of p(x) is in
terms of a1 , a2 and square roots of rational functions of a1 and a2 .
The roots of the cubic polynomial over F0 are given by Cardans formula. Let
p(x) = x 3 + a1x 2 + a2x + a3 and p = a2 -

a12
2a2 a a
, q = 1 - 1 2 + a3
3
27
3

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Algebra

q p3 q 2
p = - +

1/ 2

q p3 q 2
and Q = - +

1/ 2

1/ 3

a
a
a
Then the roots of p(x) are P + Q - 1 , wp + w2Q - 1 and w 2 p + wQ - 1
3
3
3
Where w 1 is a cube root of unity. This formula shows that by adjoining a certain square
root and then a cube root of F( a1 , a 2 , a 3 ). We obtain a field in which p(x) has its roots.
2

27 4

1/ 3

27 4

Next given a fourth degree polynomial x 4 + a1x 3 + a2x 2 + a3x + a4 , we can use Feraris
method to solve this polynomial. We reduce this problem to the problem of solving certain
cubic polynomial. Here too a formula can be given expressing the roots in terms of rational
functions of the coefficients. In this lesson we prove that the general polynomial of degree
n 5 is not solvable by radicals.
10.2

SOLVABLE GROUPS

Definition
A group G is said to be solvable if we can find chain of subgroups
G = N 0 N1 N 2 N k = {e}, where N i is a normal subgroup of N i -1 and such that
every factor group
N i -1
is abelian
Ni
Example
Every abelian group G is solvable for we can take N 0 = G and N1 = {e}. Then G =
N 0 N1 = {e}. If g G, g e g -1 = e N1
\ N1 is normal subgroup of N 0 = G.

N1 a N1 b = N1 ab = {e} ab = {ab} = {ba} = N1 b N1 a and hence

N0
is abelian
N1

Example
The symmetric group S 3 of degree 3 is solvable if we take N 0 = G, N1 = {e, (1,2,3),
S
(1,3,2)}. Here N1 is a normal subgroup of S 3 and 3 and
N1
N1
are both abelian of orders 2 and 3 respectively.
{e}
Example 3
Consider S 4 the symmetric group of degree 4. Let A4 be the subgroup of even
permutations of S 4 and

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Fields

104
V=

1234
,

1234

1234

,
2143

Then V is abelian group

1234

,
3412

1234

4321

S 4 A4
, are groups of order 2 and 3 respectively.
A4 V

and hence abelian


S 4 A4 V {e} .
\ S 4 is solvable
Definition
Let G be a group and S be a subset of G. A subgroup H of G is said to be generated by
S if it satisfies the following conditions
(1)
(2)

SH
If K is any subgroup of G such that S H, then H K.

We denote the subgroup generated by S as <S>.


Note: That H is the intersection of all those subgroups of G each of which contains S.
Lemma
Let G be a group. Let
S = {ab a -1b -1 : a, b G}
G1 = { s1 s2 .....sm : s1 S, m is aribtrary}
Then G1 is a subgroup of G.
Proof : Let s S. Then s = ab a -1b -1 for some a, b S. Then
= (a b a -1 b -1 ) -1
s -1
= ( b - 1 ) - 1 ( a -1 ) - 1 b - 1 a -1
= b a b - 1 a -1 S
That is if s S, then s -1 S.
Let x, y G1 Then
x
= s1 . s2 . sm where s i S
y

= s11 . s21 sm where s i S

Then
1

(xy) -1 = ( s11 . s21 sm ) ( s11 . s21 sm ) -1


1

-1

1-1

= ( s . s sm ) ( s m s n -1 .. s 2
which is again a product of finite number of elements of S.
\ (xy) -1 G 1
\ G1 is a subgroup of G.
1
1

1
2

-1

s11

-1

) -1

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105

Algebra
It is called commutator subgroup of G.
Note : G1 is the smallest subgroup containing S.

Lemma
The commutator subgroup G1 of a subgroup G is normal subgroup of G.
Proof: Let x G and a G 1 . Then
xa x -1 = (xa x -1 a -1 ) a
As xa x -1 a -1 G 1 and a G 1 and G1 a subgroup (xa x -1 a -1 ) a G 1 .
i.e. xa x -1 G 1 .
Therefore, G1 is a normal subgroup of G.
Lemma
Let G be a group G1 the commutator sub-group of G. Then
(1)

G
is abelian
G1

(2)

If H is any normal subgroup of G such

G
is abelian then G1 H
H

Proof
G1 is commutator subgroup of G. Then G1 is a normal subgroup of G. Then
a G1 b G1
= ab G1
(1)
1
1
1
bG aG
= ba G
(2)
-1 -1
-1
(ab) ba
= b a ba G1 .
\ b -1a -1 ba G1 = G1 .
(ab) -1 (ba) G1 = G1 .
\ ba G1 = ab G1 .
\ a G1 b G1 = b G1 a G1
G
\ 1 is abelian
G
G
(ii)
Let
be abelian. Then for a, b G
H
\a H b H = b H a H
\ ab H = ba H
-1
(ba) ab H \ a -1b -1 a b H.
\ H contains all the elements of the form ab a -1b -1 .
\ G1 H

Note
We write
(G1 )1 = G ( 2 ) , (G ( 2 ) )1 = G (3) . In general (G (i ) )1 = G ( i +1)

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Fields

106

Lemma
A group G is solvable if and only if G (k ) = {e} for some integer k.
Proof
Let G (k ) = {e}
Then G G (1) G ( 2 ) .. G (k ) = {e}
Then by lemma G ( i -1) is a normal subgroup of G (i ) .
G (i )
Be lemma, (i +1) is abelian. Take N 0 = G.
G
(1)
N1 = G , N 2 = G ( 2 ) .. N k = G (k ) = {e}. Then N i is a normal subgroup of
N i -1 .
Ni
is abelian
N i +1
\ G is solvable.
Conversely let G be solvable. Then there exists a chain:
G = N 0 N1 N 2 .. N k = {e}
where
(1)
Each N i is normal in N i -1
N i-1
(2)
is abelian
N1
Then be lemma, the commutator subgroup N 1i -1 of N i must be contained in
N i . i.e., N i N 1i -1 .
1

N1 N 0 = G 1 .

Thus

N 2 N11 ( G1 ) 1 = G ( 2 )
N 3 N 21 ( G ( 2 ) ) 1 = G (3) .

{e} = N k G (k )
\ G (k ) = {e}

Corollary
If G is a solvable group and if G is a homomorphic image of G, then G is solvable.

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107

Algebra

Proof
Let j : G G be an onto homomorphism. Let
S
= { a -1b -1 ab : a, b G}
= { s1 , s2 , sn : si S} m aribitrary
G1
Let
-1

-1

={ a b a b : a, b G }
= { s1 . s2 . .. sn : s i S, n arbitrary}

S
G

Let s S. Then s = a -1b -1 ab and


j (s) = j ( a -1b -1 ab)
= j ( a -1 ) j ( b -1 ) j (a) j (b)
= [ j (a)] -1 [ j (b)] -1 j (a) j (b) S
\ j (S) S .
-1

-1

Let a b a b S . Where a , b G . Since f is onto, there exist a, b G such


that f (a) = a , f(b) = b
a

-1

-1

a b

= [f(a)] -1 [f(b)] -1 f(a) f(a)


-1

-1

= f ( a b a b) f (s)
\ S f (S)
\ f (S) = S
Let s1 , s2 sm G1 . Then
= j ( s1 ) j ( s2 ) . . . . j ( sm )
j ( s1 , s2 sm )
G 1 Since j ( si ) S
\ j ( G1 ) G 1 .

Let x = s1 . s2 .. sm G 1 . Where s i S . Then $ s i S such that j ( si ) = s i .


Then x = s1 , s2 sm G1 .
= j ( s1 ) j ( s2 ) . . . . j ( sm )
j ( s1 . s2 .. sm )
= s1 . s2 .. sm
= x
1
\ x j (G )
\ G 1 j ( G1 )
\ j ( G1 ) = G 1
G 1 is a homomorphic image of G1 , ( G 1 ) 1 that is, G 2 is that of G 2 and so on. Hence
we get G (k ) is homomorphic image of G k = {e}. Hence
G (k ) = {e} where e is identity element of G . Hence G is solvable.

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Fields

108

Lemma
Let G = S n , where n 5. Then G (k ) for k = 1,2,3,.. contains every 3 cycle of S n .
Proof
Let G be a group and let N be a normal subgroup of G. Then N 1 the commutator
subgroup of N by lemma, is a normal subgroup of N.
Next we clain that if N is a normal subgroup of G = S n , where n 5 which contains
every 3-cycle, then N 1 must contain every 3 cycle. For suppose a = (1,2,3) and b = (1,4,5)
are in N.
123

As
a
= (1, 2, 3) =
231
a -1

As

123
= (1, 3, 2)
=
321
145

= (1, 4, 5) =
451

145
= (1, 5, 4)
=
514
\ a -1b -1 a b N 1 .
\ (1, 4, 2) N 1 . Let s = (1, 4, 2).
Since N 1 is a normal subgroup of G, for any p S n , p -1 s p must also be in
b -1

N1 .

Choose a p in S n such that p (1) = 1 , p (4) = 2 , p (2) = 3 . Where 1 , 2 , 3


are any 3 distinct integers in the range 1 to n. Then
1 p -1 s p = 1 s p = 4 p = 2
2 p -1 s p = 4 s p = 2 p = 3
3 p -1 s p = 2 s p = 1 p = 1

If j 1 , 2 , 3 then j p -1 s p = j
\ p -1 s p = ( 1 , 2 , 3 )
\ ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) N 1 .
\ N 1 Contains all 3 cycles.
Letting N = G = S n , which contains all 3 cycles and is normal in G; G1 = N 1
contains all 3 cycles.
Since G1 contains all 3 cycles and G ( 2 ) is normal in G, ( G1 ) 1 = G ( 2 ) contains all 3
cycles.
Continuing this argument, we get G (k ) contains all 3-cycles for any positive integer k.

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109

Algebra

Theorem
S n is not solvable for n 5 .

Proof
If G = S n , by lemma G (k ) contains all 3-cycles in S n for every positive integer k.
Therefore G (k ) = {e} for any positive integer k.
Therefore by lemma G is not solvable.
10.3

SOLVABILITY BY RADICALS

Lemma
Suppose that the field F has the nth roots of unity for some particularly n and suppose
that a F. a 0. Let x n -a F[x] and let K be its splitting field over F. Then
(1)
(2)

K = F (u) where u is any root of x n -a


the Galois group of x n -a over F is abelian.

Proof: Since F contains all the nth roots of unity, it contains w = e 2p /n . Then w n = 1 but
w n 1 for 0 < m < n.
Let u be a root of x n -a. Then u n -a = 0
----- (1)
i
n i
n
i
Then ( w u) -a
= ( w ) u -a
= u n -a
= 0 by (1)
i
Therefore w u is a root of x n -a for i = 0, 1, 2, . . . . . , n-1. That is u, w u, w 2 u, . . . . ,
w n -1 u are roots of x n -a. Also they are distinct since if
w i u = w j u for 0 i < j < n,
then
( w i - w j )u = 0 and as u 0.
wi -w j = 0
\ w i = w j \ w j -i = 1 which impossible since i- j<n.
Since w F, all of u, w u, . . . . . , w n -1 u are in F(u).
Thus F(u) splits x n -a.
Since no proper subfield of F(u) which contains F also contains u, no proper subfield
of F(u) can split x n -a.
Thus F(u) is the splitting field of x n -a, and we have proved K = F(u).
If s , p are any two elements in the galosis group of x n -a, Then s , p are
automorphisms of K = F (u) leaving every element of F fixed.
As u is a root of x n -a, u n -a = 0. Therefore s ( u n -a) = 0
\ s ( u n ) - s (a) = 0.
i.e., { s (u)} n - a = 0

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Fields

110
Therefore, s (u) is a root of x n -a.
Similarly, t (u) is a root of x n -a.
Therefore, s (u) = w i u and t (u) - w i u for some i and j. Then
s t (u) = s ( w i u) = w j s (u) = w j w i u = w i+ j u,
t s (u) = t ( w i u) = w j s (u) = w i w j u = w i+ j u
\ s t (u) = t s (u).
Let x F(u). Then x = a 0 + a1 u + a 2 u 2 + . . . . + a m u m where a 0 , a1 , . . . . a m F.

s t (x)= s t ( a 0 + a1 u + a 2 u 2 + . . . . + a m u m )
= a 0 + a1 s t (u) + a 2 s t ( u 2 ) + . . . . . + a m s t ( u m )
= a 0 + a1 s t (u) + a 2 { s t (u)} 2 + . . . . . + a m { s t (u)} m
= a 0 + a1 s t (u) + a 2 { t s (u)} 2 + . . . . . + a m { t s (u)} m
= a 0 + a1 t s (u) + a 2 t s ( u 2 ) + . . . . . + a m t s ( u m )
= s t ( a 0 + a1 u + a 2 u 2 + . . . . + a m u m )
= s t (x)
st =t s
Therefore the Galois group is abelian.
Theorem
If p(x) F[x] is solvable by radicals over F, then the galois group over F of p(x) is a
solvable group.
Proof: Let K be the splitting field of p(x) over F. The galois group of p(x) over F is G(K,F).
Since p(x) is solvable by radicals, there exists a sequence of fields
F F1 = F( w1 ) F2 = F1 ( w2 ) . . . Fk = Fk -1 ( wk )
r

where w1r1 F, w2 r2 F1 , . . . . . , wk k Fk -1 and K Fk .


Without loss of generality, we can assume that Fk is a normal extension of F. As a
normal extension of F, Fk is also a normal extension of any intermediate field and hence Fk
is a normal extension of each Fi .
By lemma, each Fi is a normal extension of Fi -1 and since Fk is normal over Fi -1 ,
G( Fk , Fk -1 ) is a normal subgroup of G( Fk , Fi -1 ). Consider the chain G( Fk ,F) G( Fk , F1 )
G( Fk , F2 ) . . . . G ( Fk , Fk -1 ) {e}.
----- (1)
Each subgroup in this chain is a normal subgroup of the previous one. Since Fi is a
normal extension of Fi -1 , by the fundamental theorem of galois theorey the group Fi over
Fi -1 , that is, G( Fi , Fi -1 ) is isomorphics to
G ( Fk , Fk -1 )
G ( Fk , Fi )
G( Fi , Fi -1 ) is an abelian group. Thus each quotient group
G ( Fk , Fk -1 )
G ( Fk , Fi )
of chain (1) is abelian.

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111

Algebra

Therefore the group G( Fk ,F) is solvable.


Now K Fk and K is a normal extension of F as it is a splitting field.
So G( Fk ,F) is a normal subgroup of G( Fk ,F) and G(K,F) is isomorphic to
G ( Fk , F )
G ( Fk , K )
Thus G(K,F) is a homomorphic image of G( Fk ,F) which is a solvable group. Then
G(K,F) must itself be a solvable group. Since G(K,F) is the galois group of p(x) over F, the
theorem is proved.
Note
The following two important facts which are not proved here are worth knowing.
1.

The converse of the theorem is also true, that is, if the galois group of p(x) over F is
solvable then p(x) is solvable by redicals over F.

2.

This theorem and its converse are true even if F does not contain the roots of unity.

Theorem Abels Theorem.


The general polynomial of degree n 5 is not solvable by radicals.
Proof: The general polynomial of degree n over F is given by
P(x) = x n + a1 x n -1 + . . . . . + an .
p(x) is solvable by radicals over F if we can find a finite sequence of fields F1 =
r

F( w1 ), F2 = F1 ( w2 ), . . . . . , Fk = Fk -1 ( wk ) such that w1r1 , w2 r2 F1 , . . . . . , wk k Fk -1 and


such that the roots of p(x) all lie in Fk .
We saw that if F( a1 , a2 ,....., an ) is the field of rational functions in n variables
a1 , a2 ,....., an then the galois group of the polynomial p(t) = t n + a1t n -1 + ..... + an over
F( a1 , a2 ,....., an ) was S n , the symmetric group of degree n. By Theorem. S n is not solvable
for n 5. Therefore the galois group of p(x) is not solvable.
By theorem from previous lesson, If p(x) is solvable by radicals over F, then the
galois group over F of p(x) is solvable. Hence p(x) is not solvable by radicals over
F( a1 , a2 ,....., an ) where n 5 .

10.4

LET US SUM-UP

(1)

If p(x) F[x] is solvable by radicals, then the galois group of p(x) is a solvable group.

(2)

The general polynomial of degree n 5 is not solvable by radicals.

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Fields

112

10.5

LESSON END ACTIVITIES

(1)

Prove that a group G is solvable if and only if G(k ) = {e} for some integer k.

(2)

Show that Sn is not solvable for n 5 .

(3)

Show that the general polynomial of degree n 5 is not solvable by radicals.

10.6 REFERENCES
1) Topics in Algebra by I.N. Herstein (Second Edition) Chapter 5.

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113

Algebra

LESSON 11 FINITE FIELDS


CONTENTS:
11.0

Aims and Objectives

11.1

Introduction

11.2

Finite Fields

11.3

Let us Sum- up

11.4

Lesson end activities

11.5

References

11.0

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

In this lesson we study above finite fields and their structure. We conclude discussion
by proving that any two finite fields are isomorphic.
After going through this lesson, You will be able to :
(1)

If F is a finite field with q elements and F K where K is also finite field, then K has
q n elements where q = [K:F]

(2)

If F is finite field with characteristic p, a prime number, then F has pm elements for
some integer m.

(3)

Any two fields having same number of elements are isomorphic.

(4)

For every prime p and every integer m there is a unique field having pm elements.

(5)

The multiplicative group of non- zero elements of a finite field is cyclic.

11.1

INTRODUCTION

For a given prime p, we know that Jp the set of integers modulo p is a field having p
elements. We now determine such a finite field and discuss some of their properties.

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Fields
11.2

114
FINITE FIELDS

Definition
A field having finite number of elements is called a finite field.
Lemma
Let F be a finite field having q elements. Let F K where K is also a finite field and
[K:F] = n. Then K has q n elements.
Proof: Since [K:F] = n, the dimension of the vector space K over F is n.
Then K has a basis of n elements over F. Let v1 , v2 ,....., vn be a basis of K over F.
Then every element v K can be uniquely written as
v = a1 v1 + a 2 v2 + . . . . . + a n vn where a , a 2 , . . . . , a n F.
Therefore the number of elements in K is the number of a1 v1 + a 2 v2 + . . . . . + a n
vn as the scalars a , a 2 , . . . . , a n range over F.
Since each coefficient can have q values, K must have q n elements.
Corollary
Let F be a finite field. Then F has p m elements where the prime number p is the
characteristics of F.
Proof: F is a field. Therefore under the addition operation in F, it is an abelian group.
Therefore by corollary to Lagranges theorem if 1 is the multiplicative identity of F, 10 ( F ) = 0.
That is 1 + 1 + . . . . 0 (F) terms = 0. Let 0(F) = f. Then f.1 = 0. \ F is of finite characteristics.
Therefore F has a characteristic p, a prime number.
Hence F contains a field F0 isomorphic to J p . Since F0 has p elements by the above
lemma, we have F0 has p m elements where m = [F : F0 ].
Corollary
m
If the field F has p m element every a F satisfies a p = a.
m

Proof: If a = 0, then a p = 0 and hence a p = a = 0. As F is a field, the nonzero elements of


F form an ablian group under multiplication. The order of this group is p m -1. Therefore by
m

corollary to Lagranges Theorem, a p -1 = 1, the multiplicative identity of F. Multiplying this


m
relation by a, a p = a.
Lemma
m
If the finite field F has p m elements then the polynomial x p - x in F[x] factors in
m

F[x] as x p - x =

lF

(x- l )

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115

Algebra
m

Proof: By Lemma, the polynomial x p - x has atmost p m roots in F.


m

By corollary 2 for every a F, a p - a = 0. Therefore every a F is a root of x p - x.


m
m
Therefore x p - x has all the p m elements of F as its roots. By the corollary we have x p - x =

(x- l )

lF

Corollary
m

If the field F has p m elements then F is the splitting field of the polynomial x p - x.
m

Proof: By previous lemma, x p - x certainly splits in F. However it cannot split in any


smaller field for that field would have to have all the roots of this polynomial and so would
m
have to have p m elements. Therefore F is the splitting field of x p - x.
Lemma
Any two finite fields having same number of elements are isomorphic.
Proof: If the two fields F1 and F2 have p m elements, by the above corollary they are both
m

splitting fields of the polynomial x p - x over J p . The splitting fields of a polynomial are
isomorphic. Therefore F1 and F2 are isomorphic.
Lemma
For every prime number p and every positive integer m there exists a field having p m
elements.
Proof: J p = {0, 1, 2, . . . , p-1} is a field under addition madulo p and multiplication modulo
p when p is a prime number.
m
Consider x p - x in J p [x]. Let K be the splitting field of this polynomial.
m

xp

Let F = {a K : a p = a}. The elements of F are the elements of K which satisfy


= x.
m
The roots of x p - x are distinct and they are p m in number.
Therefore F has p m elements. Now we show that F is a field. Let a, b F. Then a p
m

= a and b p = b. Then (ab) p = a p b p = ab. Therefore ab F. Also (a+b) p = a p + p mC1


ap

m-1

. b + . . . . . + b p = a p + b p since p m Cr a p
pm

Therefore (a + b) = a + b. Similarly (a-b)


field and has p m elements.

m-r r

= 0 as the characteristic is p.

= a-b. Therefore F is a subfield of K. \ F is a

Theorem
For every prime number p and for every positive integer m there is a unique field
having p m elements.

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Fields

116
Proof follows from above two lemmas.

Lemma
Let G be a finite abelian group with the property that the relation x n = e is satisfied by
at most n elements of G, for every integer n. Then G is a cyclic group.
Proof: First consider the case when the order of G is a power of some prime number q.
Let a be an element of G whose order is as large as possible. By Lagranges theorem
0(a) divides of 0(G). Since 0(G) is a power of the prime q, 0(a) must also be a power of q.
r

The elements e, a, a 2 , . . . . a q -1 give q r distinct solutions of the equation x p = e.


Let b be any element of G. Then 0(b) = q s where s r .
r

Then b q = ( b q ) ( r - s ) = e ( r - s ) = e.
r
\ b is a solution of x q = e.
\ G is cyclic.
Next consider the case where 0(G) is not power of some prime number. Then we
know that, G can be written as
G = S q1 S q2 . . . . S qk
Where q i are distinct prime divisors of 0(G) and S qi are the sylow subgroups of G.
Here every g G can be uniquely written as
g = s1 s2 . . . . sk
where si S q j .
Any solution of x n = e in S q j is a solution of x n = e in G. Therefore the relation x n =
e is satisfied by atmost n elements of S qi for every integer n. Then by then remarks of first
case S qi

is a cyclic group. Let ai be a generator of S qi .

Let c = a1 , a2 .....ak .
We show c is a generator o G.
m
m
m
Let 0(c) = m. Then c m = e. That is, a1 , a2 .....ak = e. Also e. e. e . . . = e. Therefore
by uniqueness of the representation of elements of S as a product of elements of sqi , we have
m

ai = e for i = 1, 2, . . . . . , k. As ai is a generator of sqi , m is a multiple of 0( sqi ) divides m


for all i = 1, 2, . . . . . , k.
Let 0(G) = 0( sq1 ) 0( sq2 ) . . . . . 0( sqk ) divides m. Also m divides 0(G). Therefore
0(G) = m. G is a cyclic group generated by c.
Lemma
Let K be a field and G be a finite subgroup of the multiplicative group of nonzero
elements of K. Then G is a cyclic group.
Proof: K is a field and G is a finite subgroup of the multiplicative group of nonzero elements
of G. The identity element of G is 1. Hence the polynomial x n - 1 K[x] has

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117

Algebra

atmost n roots in K and so at most n roots in G. Therefore by the previous lemma G is cyclic.
Theorem
The multiplicative group of nonzero elements of a finite field is cyclic.
Proof : Let F be a field. Then the nonzero elements of F is a finite group under
multiplication. Take this group as the group G in the previous lemma and K = F. Then G is
cyclic. Hence the theorem.
Lemma
If F a finite field, and a 0, b 0 are two elements of F then we can find elements
a and b in F such that 1 + a a 2 + b b 2 = 0.
Proof : Let the characteristics of F be 2. Then F has 2 n elements. Moreover every
n

element x in F satisfies x 2 = x. Therefore every element in F is a square. In particular a -1 =


a 2 for some a F. Take this a and b = 0. Then 1 + a a 2 + b b 2 = 1 + a a -1 + 0 = 1 + 1 = 0
since the characteristic of F is 2.
Let the characteristic of F be an odd prime p.
Then F has p n elements. Let
Wa = { 1 + a x 2 : x F}
Suppose two elements 1 + a x 2 and 1 + a y 2 are identical. That is,
1 + a x 2 and 1 + a y 2
Then x = y.
Therefore for each x 0, x F we get from each pair x and x one element in Wa
pn -1
pn +1
+1=
elements. Since each of
2
2
Wa and Wb have more than half the elements of F, they must have nonempty intersection.

and for n = 0 we get 1 Wa . Therefore Wa has

Let c Wa Wb . Then since c Wa , c = 1 + a a 2 for some a F and since c Wb ,


c = - b b 2 for some b F.
Therefore 1 + a a 2 = - b b 2 and hence 1 + a a 2 = + b b 2 = 0.
11.3

LET US SUM-UP

(1)

If F is a finite field having q elements, F K, where K is a finite and [K:F] = n then


show that K has q n elements.

(2)

If the field F has pm elements show that F is the splitting field of x p - x

(3)

Show that any two finite field having same number of elements are isomorphic

(4)

Show that for every prime number p and every positive integer m there exists a field

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118
having pm elements

(5)

Show that the multiplicative group of nonzero elements of a finite field is cyclic.

11.3

LESSON END ACTIVITIES

(1)

If F is a finite field having q elements, F K, where K is a finite and [K:F] = n then


show that K has q n elements.

(2)

If the field F has pm elements show that F is the splitting field of x p - x

(3)

Show that any two finite field having same number of elements are isomorphic

(4)

Show that for every prime number p and every positive integer m there exists a field
having pm elements

(5)

Show that the multiplicative group of nonzero elements of a finite field is cyclic.

11.6 REFERENCES
1) Topics in Algebra by I.N. Herstain (Second Edition).

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LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS

UNIT V
119

Algebra

LESSON 12

CANONICAL FORMS.

CONTENTS:
12.0 Aims and Objectives
12.1

Introduction

12.2

Triangular Form

12.3

Nilpotent Transformations

12.4

Let us Sum up

12.5

Lesson end Activities

12.6

References

12.0

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

In this lesson be study about Triangular Form, which is one of the canonical forms of
matrices. We also introduce Nilpotent Transformation and their related properties.
After going through this lesson, You will be able to:
1. Define Similarity of matrices.
2. Define an invariant subspace.
3. Prove that T A(V) has all its characteristic roots in F, then there is a basis of V in
which the matrix of T is triangular.
4. State and prove some properties about nilpotent linear transformations.

12.1 INTRODUCTION
One class of linear transformation which have all their characteristic roots in F is the class of
nilpotent ones. However a nilpotent linear transformation can always be brought to triangular
form over F.

12.2 TRIANGULAR FORM


Definition:
The linear transformations S, T A (V) are said to be similar if there exists an
invertible element C A (V) such that T= CSC -1
Since every transformation T can be identified with a matrix m (T) Fn , we
can apply the above definition to matrices as : A, B Fn are similar if there is an invertible
C Fn such that B = CAC -1 . One can check that the reation similarity is an equivalence
relation.

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120

Definition :
The subspace W of V is invarant under T A (V) if WT W.
Lemma:
If W V is invariant under T, then T induces a linear transformation T on V/W
defined by (v + W) T = vT + W. If T satisfies the polynomial q(x) F(x), then so does T. If
p1 (x) is minimal polynomial of T over F and if p(x) is that of T. then p1 (x) / [P(x).
Proof:
Let W be invariant subspace of V under T. Let V = V /W = {v +W/ v V}, Define
T : V V by (v + W) T = vT + W. Let us establish that T is well defined on V.
Let v1 + W, v2 + W V and v1 +W= v2 + W. Then v1 - v2 W. Since W is invariant
under T, we have ( v1 - v2 ) T W. e., v1 T - v2 T W I. e., v1 T + W = v2 T + W.
i.e,.( v1 +W) T = ( v1 + v2 ) T.
Thus T is well defined.
To prove that T is a linear transformation on V.
Let a , F, v1 + W, v2 + W V
Than

( a ( v1 + W) + ( v2 + W)) T
=( ( a v1 + v2 ) + W) T
= ( a v1 + v2 ) T + W
= a ( v1 T) + ( v2 T) + W
= ( a ( v1 T) +W + ( ( v2 T) + W)
= a ( v1 T+W) + ( v2 T + W)
= a ( v1 +W) T + ( v2 +W) T

Therefore T is a linear transformation on V .


Suppose that v = v + w V then v (T 2 ) = vT 2 + W = (vT )T + W = (vT + W)T = ((v + w )T )T = v (T )2
Thus T 2 = (T )2 similarly T k = (T )k for any k 0.
For any polynomial q(x) F[x], q(T) = q( T )
If q (T) = 0 then q(T) = q ( T ) = 0, the zero transformation on V.
Let p(x) and p1 (x) are minimal polynomials of T and T respectively over F then
p1 (T) = 0. This implies that p1 ( T ) = 0. and p ( T ) = 0. We claim that p1 (x) - p(x).Suppose
this is not true, by division algorithm there exists a polynomial s(x) and p(x) . F[x] such that
p(x) = s(x) p1 (x) + r(x) and deg (r(x)) < deg ( p1 (x)). Also p( T ) = s( T ) p1 ( T ) + r( T )

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121
Algebra
implies that r ( T ) = 0, since p ( T ) = 0 and p1 ( T ) = 0. This is a Contradiction. Thus r(x) = 0.
So p1 (x) - p(x), the lemma is proved.

Triangular From
Definition
A matrix A is called triangular if all the entries above the main diagonal are Zero. In
particular this matrix A is called as lower triangular. Equivalently, if T is linear
transformation on V over F the matrix of T in the basis v1, v 2 .....v n in triangular if

v1 T = a11 v1
v 2 T = a 21 v1 + a 22 v 2
.
.
v i T = a i 1 v1 + a i 2 v 2 + . . . . . + a i 1 v i
.
.
v n T = a n1 v1 + a n 2 v 2 + . . . . . . . + a nn v n
i.e., if v i T is a linear combination only of v i and its predecessors in the basis.
Theorem
If T A (V) has all its characteristic roots in F, then there is a basis of V in
which the matrix of T is triangular.
Assume that the theorem is true for all vector spaces over F of dimension n-1 and let
V be a vector space of dimension n over F. Let T be a linear transformation On V having its
entire characteristic roots in F. Let l1 F be a characteristic root of T.There exists a nonzero
vector v1 in V such that v1 T = l1v1 . Let W = { a v1 - a F}. W isA one dimensional
subspace of V generated by v1 , and is invariant under T, for if x
= a v1 W, we have xT = ( a v1 ) T = a ( v1 T) = a ( l1v1 ) = ( a l1 ) v1 W. Let v = V/W.
We know that dim V = dim V- dim W = n-1.
By lemma T induces a linear transformation T on V whose minimal polynomial
over F divides the minimal polynomial of T over F. Thus all the roots of the minimal
polynomial of T must be roots of the minimal polynomial of T since the roots of a minimal
polynomial of T are characteristic roots of T, we get that the roots of minimal polynomial of
T must lie in F. Thus the linear transformation T has its entire root in F and satisfies the
hypothesis of the theorem. Since dim V = n-1, by our induction hypothesis there is a basis
{ v 2 , v 3 .....v n } of V in which matrix of T is triangular i,e.

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Linear Transformations

122

v 2 T = a 22 v 2
v 3 T = a 32 v 2 + a 33 v 3
.
.
v i T = a i 2 v 2 + a i 3 v 3 + . . . . .+ a i 1 v i
.
.
v n T = a n 2 v 2 + a n 3 v 3 + . . . .+ a nn v n
We know that v i = v i + W, i = 2 . . . . n with element v i V. we claim that
{ v1 , v 2 , . . . . . . v n } is a basis of V.
Let v V then v = v + W V =V/W
n

=
=
i.e., v =
Thus v =

ai v i

i =2
n
i =2
n

a i (v i + W )
n

( a i v i + W )= i =2 a i v i + W

i =2

i =1

Hence v -

i = 2

for some a i F.

ai v i W

i =2

= { a i v i / a F}

a i v i = a1v1 for some a1 F.,i.e v =

i =1

a i vi

i.e.., every element of V is linear combination of v1 , v 2 ....v n . Also v1 , v 2 ....v n are


Linearly independent for
let a1 .v + a 2 v 2 + . . . . + a n v n = 0
a 2 v 2 + . . . . + a n v n = - a1 v1 W so that

a 2 v2 + . . . . +a n vn + W = W
a 2 ( v 2 +W) + . . . . . + a n ( v n +W) = W

a 2 v2 + . . . . + a n vn

W = 0.

As W is the zero element of V/W.


Since v 2 . . . . . v n are linearly independent, we have a 2 = . . . . = a n = 0.
Then a1 v1 + a 2 v 2 + . . . . . . + a n v n = 0 a1 v1 = 0.
Since v1 0, a1 = 0. Hence a i = 0 for i = 1, 2 . . . . . n.
Therefore { v1 v 2 . . . . . . v n } is a basis of V.
Since
v 2 T = a 22 v 2 we get v 2 T - a 22 v 2 = o.
(i.e.)
v 2 T - a 22 ( v 2 +W) = W
(i.e.)
v 2 T - a 22 v 2 W
(i.e.)
v 2 T - a 22 v 2 is a multiple of v1 say a 21 v1 .
Thus v 2 T- a 22 v 2 = a 21 v1

v 2 T- a 21 v1 + a 22 v 2
Similarly v i T = a i1 v1 + a12 v 2 + .... + a ii v i .

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123

Algebra

(I .e.) The basis v 1 , v 2.... v n of V over E provide us with a basis, where every v1 T
are a linear combination of v i and its processors in the basis. Therefore the matrix of T in this
basis is triangular. This completes the induction and proves the theorem.

Alternative from of the theorem


If the matrix a Fn has all its characteristic roots in F, then there is a matrix C
F Such that CAC -1 is a triangular matrix.
n

Proof: suppose that the matrix A Fn has all its characteristic roots in F.
Clearly A defines a linear transformation. T on F(n) whose matrix in the basis v1 =
(1,0,.. 0), v 2 = (0,1,0,.,0), v n = (0,0.,0,1) is precisely A, the characteristic
roots of T, being equal to those of A, are all in F and so by the theorem, there is a
basis of F(n) in which the matrix of T is tr angular.
But by a known result, this change of basis merely changes the matrix of T,
namely A, in the first basis, into CAC-1 for a suitable C F(n) . Thus CAC -1 is triangular.
Theorem
If V is n dimensional over F and if T A(V) has all its characteristic roots in
F. then T satisfies a polynomial of degree n over F.
Proof : Since T A(V) has all its characteristic roots in F. by theorem we can find basis
v 1 , v 2 .... v n of V over F such that T is triangular.
v1 T = l1 v1

v 2 T = a 21 v1 + l2 v 2
.
v i T = a i1 v1 + + a ii -1 v i + li v i
for i = 1,2 . . . . .n
The above set of equations can be rewritten in the form
v1 (T- l1 ) = 0
v 2 (T l2 ) = a 21 v1
.
.
v i (T- li ) = a i1 v1 + a i 2 v 2 + ..+ l ii -1 v i-1
for i = 1,2.n
Now v 2 (T- l2 ) (T- l1 ) = ( v 2 (T- l2 )) ( T- l1 )
= ( a 2 v1 ) ( T- l1 )
= ( a 21 ( v1 (T- l1 ))

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Linear Transformations

124

= a2 0
Since (T- l2 ) (T- l1 )

=0
= (T- l1 ) (T- l2 )

v1 (T- l2 ) (T- l1 ) = (T- l1 ) (T- l2 ) = 0


Continuing this type of computation yields
v 1- (T- l i ) (T- l i -1 ).(T- l1 ) = 0

v 2 (T - l i ) (T- l i -1 ).(T- l1 )= 0

.
.
.
v1 (T- l1 ) (T- l 1-1 ).. (T- l1 ) = 0
for i = n, the matrix S = (T - l n ) (T - l n -1 )..(T - l1 )
Satisfies v1 S = v 2 S = . v n S = 0 ( i.e.., S annihilates a basis of V.S must annihtate
all of V. Therefore S = 0. Consequently T satisfies the polynomials (x - l1 )(x- l2 ).(x- l n ) in
F[x] of degree n. This completes the proof of the theorem.

12.3 NILPOTENT TRANSFORMATIONS


Before concentrating our efforts on nilpotent liner transformation we prove a result of
interest which holds for arbitrary ones.
Lemma
If V = V1 v 2 .. Vk , where each subspace v i is of dimension n i and is invariant
under T, an element of A(V). Then he basis of V can be found that the matrix of T in this
basis of the form.

A1
O
.
.
.
O

O
A2
.
.
.
O

..O
..O

.. A k

where each A i is an n i n i matrix and is the matrix of the linear transformation


induced by T on Vi.
Proof: Let v1(1) , v 2 (1) , . . . , v n1(1) is a basis of V1
v1

( 2)

, v 2 ( 2 ) , . . . , v n2 ( 2 ) is a basis of V2 and so on,

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125

Algebra
Since, V = V1 V2 . Vr ,
{ V1(1) , V2 (1) , . . . . . , Vn1(1) , Vn1( 2 ) , Vn1( 2 ) , . . . . . Vn2 ( 2 ) . . . . .}is basis of V.
Since, each V1 is in invariant 0 under T.

Vi (i) Vi and so is a linear combination of v i ( i ) v 2 ( i ) , . . . . v ni ( i ) , and


only these.
Thus the matrix of T in the basis so chosen is of the desired from. Define Ti :
Vi Vi by Ti = T Vi the restriction of T to Vi by considering Vi as a subspace of V. Thus
each A i is the matrix of Ti The linear transformation induced on Vi by T is clear from the
very definition of the matrix of a linear transformation.
Lemma
If T A(V) is nilpotent. Then a 0 + a1 T + . . .+ a m T m , where a i F is invertible if
a 0 o.
Proof : Let T A(V) be nilpotent and a 0 o. Then, T m = 0, for some m 1.
If S is nilpotent and a 0 o A(V), a simple computation shows that
( a 0 +S )

= 1-

1
S
S2
Sr -1
- 2 + 3 - .... + (-1)r -1 r

ao
a o
a o a o

S
S2
+ 2 + . . . .+(-1)
ao ao

= 1 + (-1)

r -1

r -1

Sr
Sr -1 S
S2
r -1
+
+
.
.
.
.+
(
)
1
r
r
2
ao ao ao
ao

Sr
a

(i.e) if Sr = 0, then
( a o +S)
Now, if
Then

r -1
1

S
S2
r -1 S
=1
- 2 + 3 - ... + (-1)
r
ao
a o a o a o
T r = O,
S = a 0 + a1 T + . . .+ a m T m also must

satisfy Sr = O. For in Sm every term is a power of T have power r and so


Sm = O.
Thus for a 0 0,
a 0 + S = a 0 + a1T + . . .+ a m T m is invertible in A(V)
Notation :
M t will denote the txt matrix

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Linear Transformations

126

0
.

0
.

All of whose entries are o except on the super diagonal, where they are all
1s
Definition
If T A(V) is nilpotent, then k is called the index of nilpotence of T if T k = 0
but T k -1 0.
Theorem
If T A(V) is nilpotent, of index of nilpotence n, then a basis of V can be
found such that the matrix of T in this basis has the form,
M n1

O
.
.
.
O

M n2

M nr

Where n 1 > n 2 . . . n r = dim F V.


Proof :Given that n1 , is the index of nilpotence of T. Thus T n1 = o and T n1 -1 O.and so there
exists a vector v V such that v T n1 -1 O.
we claim that the vectors
v , vT, vT 2 ,..., vT n1 -1 are linearly indepent over F.

For Let, a 1v + a 2 (vT) + a 3 (vT 2 ) + ... + a n1 (vT n1 -1 ) = 0


for some a1 F, i = 1 ,2, . . . ., n1 ,
Let a s be the first non zero element in { a1 , a 2 ,....a n }
i.e.
a K = 0, "k , 1 k s -1
Thus a s ( vT S-1 ) + . . . .+ a n1 (v T n1 -s ) = 0.
Since a s O by lemma
a s + a s+1 T + . . .+ a n1 T n1 -s is invertible and, therefore vT s-1 = O.

However s < n1

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127

Algebra
This contradicts that T n1 -1 O.
Thus no such a s exists and
a1 = a 2 = . . .= a n1 = O.
(i.e,) { v, vT, . . ., vT n1 -1 } is linearly independent over F.
Let V1 is invariant under T.

v1 = v1 , v2 = vT, . . . , v 11 = vT n1 -1 .
Now , V1 is invariant under T.
For Let x V1 ,Then
x
= a1 v1 + . . . .+ a n1 vn and so
xT
= ( a1 v1 + . . . .+ a n1 vn1 )T
= a1 (vT) + a 2 ( vT 2 ) + . . . .+ a n1 -1 an1 (vT n -1 )
= a1 (vT) + a 2 ( vT 2 ) + . . . .+ a n1 -1 (vT n1 -1 ) V1
Q T n1 = O
Then V1 is invariant under T and in the above basis, the linear transformation
Induced by T on V1 has as matrix M n1 .

Now to continue the proof we are in need of the following two lemmas.
Lemma
If u V, is such that u T n1 - k = O.
Where O < k n.. then u = u o T for some u o V1
Proof : Since u V1 and V1 is the subspace generated by v, vT, vT 2 ,...vT n1-1
We have,
u = a1v + a1(vT) + . . . + a k (vT k -1 ) + a k +1(vT k ) + .. + a n1-1 (vT n1 -1 )T n1 -k = 0.
(i.e) a 1 vT n1 -k + .... + a k vT n -1 = 0
Since vT n1 = 0
n -1

However v T n1 - k . . . . .. . vT
are linearly independent over F.
Where a1 = 0 = a 2 = . . .= a k and so.
u

= a k -1 vT k + . . . .+ a n vT n1 -1
= ( a k -1 v+ . . .+ a n1vT n1-k -1 )T k
= u 0 T k , where u 0 V1 and the proof of lemma is complete.

Lemma
There exists a subspace W of V, invariant under T such that V= V1 W.
Proof : Let W be suspace of V of largest possible dimension such that
(i) V1 W = (0)
(ii) W is invariant under T.
existence of such a subspace is always gurented by the subspace (0).

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128

We claim that V = V1 + W.
Assume that this is not true , then there exist an element z V such that z
V1 + W.
Since T n1 = 0, there exists an integer k, o < k n1 such that zT k V1 + Wand
Such that zT1 V1 + W, for such that zT k V1 + W for 1< k,
Thus zT k = u +w for some u V1 and w W
Then O

= zT n1 = ( zT k ) T n1 - k = (u + w) T n1 - k
= uT n1 - k + wT n1 - k . Since V1 and W are invariant under T. uT n1 - k V1

and wT n1 - k W.
Also uT n1 - k V1 and V1 ,W = (o)
implies that uT n1 - k = wT n1 - k V1 W = (o).
Thus uT n1 - k = 0
By lemma, u = u o T k . for some u 0 Vi ,
Therefore zT k = u + w = u o T k +w.
Let z1 = z- u o . Then z1T k = zT k - u o T k = w W
Since W is invariant under T. we have
Z1 T m W for all m k
on the other hand, if i < k, zT i = zT i - u o T i V1 + W. For otherwise zT i V1 + W.
Which is a contradiction to the choice of k.
Let w 1 be the subspace of V spanned by W and z1 , z1T, . . . .z1T k -1 . Since z1
W, and Since W W1 , the dimension of W1 must be larger than that of W.
Moreover, since z1T k W and W is invariant under T. W1 is invariant under T by
the maximal nature of W, W1 must violate one of properties of W. But the condition W1 is
Invariant under T W1 V1 (o) .
(i.e) there exists an element of the form
Wo + a1 z1 + a 2 ( z1T ) + . . .+ a k ( z1T k -1 ) 0. in W1 V1 . Where w o W.
The scalars a1 , a 2 , . . . , a k are all not zero, for otherwise o w W V1 =(0). a
contradiction.
Let a s be the first now zero a then w o + z1T s-1 ( a s + a s +1 T + . . .+ a k T k -s ) V.
Since a s o
a s + a s +1 T + . . .+ a k T k -s is invertible and its inverse R, is a polynomial in T.

Thus W and V1 are invariant under R and So w o R + z1 T s-1 V1 R V1 .


This implies that z1 T s-1 V1 + WR V1 + W
Since s-1 < k this is impossible. This contradiction gives that V1 + W = V.
Since V1 W = (o), V = V1 W and the lemma is proved.
Now Let us complete the proof of the theorem. By lemma V = V1 W where
W is invariant under T. using the basis v1 , v 2 . . .v n , of V1 and any basis of W as a
Basis of V, by lemma the matrix of T in this basis has the form

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129

Algebra
M n1 O

where
O A 2

A 2 is the matrix of T2 ,

the linear transformation induced on W by T. Since T n1 = 0, T2 n 2 = 0 for some n 2 n1


Repeating the argument used for T on V for T2 on W we can decompose W into
subspace as we did V. continuing this way, we get a basis of V in which the
matrix of T is the form.
M n1

O
.
.
.
O

M n2

O
O

M nr

Also n 1 + n 2 + ..... + n r = n = dim V is true, since the size of the matrix is


nxn where n = dim V.
Definition
The integers n 1 , n 2 .....n r are called the invariant of T.
Definition
If T A(V) is nilpotent, the subspace M of V, of dimension m, which is invariant
Under T, is called cyclic with respect to T if
1.
2.

MT m = (o), MT m-1 (o)


There is an element z M such that z, zT,.. , zT m-1 from a basis of M.

Lemma
Let dim M= m, if M is cyclic with respect to T then dim MT k = m-k, for all k m.
Proof : Since M is of dimension m and cyclic with respect to T, z, zT , zT 2 , . . . , zT m-1
from a basis of M. consider the elements { zT k , zT k -1 , . . . . zTm + k - 1 }
Since MT m =O the above set becomes { zT k , . . . , zT m-1 }. We claim that this is basis for MT k . Clearly they are linearly independent, since they are elements of a
basis M. Also if x MT k ,then x= yT k for some y M. Now y = a1z + a 2 (zT) + . . .+
a m ( zT m-1 ) and so x = YT k = a1 zT k + a 2 ZT kH + . . . a m ( zT m-1 ) i. e., { zT k , . . ., zT m-1 )
is a basis for MT k and so MT k is of dimension m-k.
Theorem
Tow nilpotent linear transformations are similar if and only if they have the
same invariants.
Proof : By theorem for every nilpotent transformation T A(V), we can find
integers n 1 n 2 ... n r and subspace V1 , V2 . . .Vr of V cyclic with respect to T

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130

and of dimension n1 , n 2 .....n r respectively such that


V= V 1 V2 . . . Vr
Let T and S be two similar nilpotent linear transformations in A(V). By the fact
mentioned above , three exists invariants n 1 , n 2 .....n r of T and m1 , m 2 ...m r of S. i.e. there
exists subspace V1 , V2 . . .Vr o f d i m e n s i o n n 1 , n 2 .....n r respectively such that V =
V1 V2 Vr , and there exists subspaces U1 , U2 . . U s of V cyclic with respect to S
and of dimension m 1 , m 2.....m s respectively such that V = U1 , U2 ..... Us we claim that
r = s and n1 = m 1 , n 2 = m 2 , . . . n r = m r .Suppose it is not true, then there exists an integer k
that m k n k . Let i be the first integer such that mi ni and without loss of general ty we
can assume mi < ni consider T mi . Since V = V1 V2 . . . . Vr , VT mi = V1T mi . . . . .
Vr T mi Since V1T mi ( n1 -mi) + ( n 2 - mi) + . . . .+( n i - m i )
On the other hand since V= U1 + U2 +. .+ U s and since U i T mi = (o) for j I,
Vr T mi = U i T mi + U 2 T mi + . . .+ U s T mi thus dim VT mi = ( m1 - m i )+ ( m 2 - m i ) + . . .+( m i-1 -

m i ). By our choise of i, n1 = m 1 , n 2 = m 2 , . . . n i-1 = m i-1 and so dim V1T mi = ( n1 - m i ) +


( n 2 - m i ) + . . .+ ( n1 - m i ).
Thus ( n1 - m i ) + ( n 2 - m i ) + . . .+ ( n1 - m i ) = dim V1T mi ( n1 - mi ) + ( n 2 - m i ) + . .
.+ ( n1 - m i )
This is a contradiction since ni- mi 0. Thus there is a unique set of integers
n1 n 2 . . . n r such that V is the direct sum of subspace, cyclic with respect to
T of dimension n 1 , n 2 .....n r , if two nilpotent transformation are similar than r =
s and m1 = n1 , n 2 = m 2 , . . . , n r = m r . i.e., they have the same inviarints.
Conversely assume the two nilpotent transformation T and S have the same
Invariants. To prove that T and S are similar. Let the inviarants be n1 n 2 . . . n r .
By previous theorem there are bases v1 , v2 ...vr and w1 , w2 ...wr of V such that the
Matrix of S in v1 , v2 ...vr and that T in w1 , w2 ...wr are equal to.

M n1

O
M n1

.
.

O
O

O
.
.
.
O

M nr

Let A be the linear transformation definied on V by v i A = wi then S= ATA -1 i.e


SA =AT. For, here the matrices crroesponding to S and T are equal . thus if m =

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131

Algebra
( m ij ) is the matrix of T are well as S, then

m ij v ij and
Wi T =
m ij w j for i = 1,2.n
Thus ( v i A ) T = m ij ( v ij A)
vi S

j =1

j =1

j =1

v i (AT) =

( m ij v ij )A
n

j =1

= [ j =1 j =1 m ij v ij ] A

= ( v i S) A
= v i (SA)
i.e. AT = SA
Hence S and T are similar and so the proof of the theorem is complete.

12.4 LET US SUM UP


(1)

The linear transformations S,T A(V) are said to be similar if there exists an
invertible element C A(V) such that T = CSC-1

(2)

The subspace W of V is invariant under T A(V) if WT W.

(3)

If T A(V) has all its characteristic roots in F, then there is a basis of V in which
the matrix of T is triangular.

(4)

If V is n dimensional over F and if T A(V) has all its characteristic roots in F,


then T satisfies a polynomial of degree n over F.

(5)

If T A(V) is nilpotent, then a 0 + a 1T + .... + a m T m is invertible if a 0 0.

(6)

Two nilpotent linear transformation are similar if and only if they have the same
invariants.

12.5 LESSON END ACTIVITES


(1)
(2)
(3)

If T A(V) has all its characteristic roots in F, then there is a basis of V in which
the matrix of T is triangular.
Prove that there exists a subspace W of V invariant under nilpotent transformation
T of index n such that V = V1 + W where V1 is the subspace of V.
Two nilpotent linear transformation are similar if and only if they have the same
invariants.

12.6 REFERENCES
(1)

Topics Algebra by I.N. Herstein (Second Edition) Chapter 6.

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Linear Transformations

LESSON 13

132

TRACE AND TRANSPOSE

CONTENTS:
13.0

Aims of Objectives

13.1

Introduction

13.2

Trace of a Matrix

13.3

Transpose of a Matrix

13.4

Let us Sum up

13.5

Lesson end Activates

13.6

References

13.0

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

In these Lessons we study about trace and transpose of a matrix and the properties.
After going through this lesson, You will be able to:
(1)
(2)

Define trace and prove its fundamental properties.


Define transpose and prove its basic formal properties.

13.1

INTRODUCTION

We introduce the trace of a matrix (sum of the main diagonal elements) and prove some
important properties

13.2 TRACE OF A MATRIX


Definition
Let F be field and A be the matrix in Fn
The trace of A is the sum of the elements on the main diagonal of A. we shall
Write the trace of A as tr A; if A = ( a ij ), then
n

tr A =

ii

i =1

Lemma
For A, B Fn and l F,
(1)
tr ( l A)
= l tr A
(2)
tr (A + B)
= trA = trB
(3)
tr (AB)
= tr (BA)

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133

Algebra

proof
1.
Let A = ( a ij )

l A = ( l a ij )

tr A =

l a ii

=l

i =1

2.

ii

i =1

= l tr A.
Let A = ( a ij ) and B = ( ij )
n

tr (A+B)

( a ii + ij )

i =1

a ii

i =1

3.

b ii

i =1

= tr A + tr B
Let A = ( a ij ) and B = ( ij )
AB

= ( ij )
n

b kj

= a ik
K = 1

and BA

= ( d ij )
n

= b ik a kj
k = 1

a ik ki
K =1

i =1
i =1
if we interchange the order of summation in this last sum, we get
n

tr (AB)

tr (AB)

( g ii ) =


k =1

a ki ik =

i =1


i =1

ik a ki

k =1

d kk = tr(BA)

k =1

Corallary
If A is invertible then tr ( ACA -1 ) = tr(C)
Proof
Let B = CA -1 , then tr ( ACA -1 )
= tr (AB)= tr(BA)
We have the alternate definition for trace of A.

= tr C( A -1A ) = tr (C).

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Linear Transformations

134

Definition
If T A(V) then the trace of T, is trace of m1 (T) where m1 (T) is the Matrix of T in
some basis of V.
Lemma
If T A(V) then tr T is the sum of the characteristic roots of T (using each
Characteristic roots as often as its multiplicity)
Proof : Assume that T is a matrix in Fn If K is the splitting field for the minimal polynomial
of T over F then in K n ,T can be brought to its Jordan form J. Now J is a matrix on whose
diagonal appear the characteristic roots of T, each root appearing as often as its multiplicity.
Then tr J = sum of the characteristic roots of T;since J is of the form ATA -1 ,
tr J = trT and hence the lemma.
Note : If T is nilpotent then all its characteristic roots are o, so that by the
above lemma tr = 0.But if T is nilpotent. Then so is T 2 , T 3 , . . . ,Thus tr T i = 0 for
all i 1.
Lemma
If F is filed of characteristic 0, and if T A F (v) is that tr T i = 0 for all i 1.
Then T is nilpotent.
Proof : since T A F (V), T satisfies some minimal polynomial P(x) = x m +
1x m -1 + . . .+ a m . i.e. T m + 1T m -1 + ... + m -1T + m = 0 .
Taking trace on both sides
tr T m + 1trT m -1 + ... + m-1trT + tr m = 0 .
However, by assumption, tr T i = 0 for i 1, thus we get tr m = 0 i.e., m tr 1= 0
i.e., n m = 0. where dim V = n.
\ m = 0 since the constant term of the minimal polynomial of T is 0, T is
Singular and so O is a characteristic root of T.
Let us consider T as a martix in Fn and therefore also as a martix in K n ,where
K is an extension of F which in turn contain all the characteristic roots of T. In K n ,
we can bring T to triangular from, and since o is a characteristic root of T,we can
actually bring it to the from.
0 ..... 0
0
b
0
2 a 2 .....
.
....

.
....

.
....

b n .... ..... a n

Where

0
T2

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135

Algebra

0
a 2 0 .....
.
.............. is an (n-1)x (n-1)
T2 =

* ....................a n
matrix (the*s indicate parts in which we are not interested in the explict
entries)
Now
0

Tk =

K
T2

Hence tr T k = tr T2 .but tr T k = 0
K

\ tr T2 = 0 for all k 1.

We get a 2 = . . . .= a k = 0.Thus T is brought to triangular from with all its


entries on the main diagonal are o forcing T to be nilpotent. We use the above
Lemma to prove the following:

Jacobsons lemma
If F is of characteristic O and if S and T. in A F (V) , are such that ST TS
commutes with S, then ST- TS is nilpotent.
Proof : For any k 1 we compute (ST- TS ) k .
(ST- TS ) k

= (ST - TS) K -1 (ST TS)

= (ST - TS) K -1 ST (ST - TS) K -1 TS


Since ST- TS commutes with S
(ST TS) S = S (ST TS)
(ST - TS) 2 S = (ST TS) (ST TS) S
= (ST TS)S (ST TS)
= S (ST TS) (ST TS)
= S (ST - TS) 2
In general
(ST- TS ) k S = S (ST- TS ) k
Now
(ST- TS ) k
= ( (ST - TS) K -1 S) T- ( (ST - TS) K -1 T) S
= SB BS, taking B = (ST - TS) K -1 T.
Hence
tr ((ST- TS ) k ) =tr (SB BS)
= TR SB tr BS
=0
Hence by this lemma, ST TS is nilpotent.

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136

13.3 TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX


Definition
If A =( a ij ) Fn . Then the transpose of A, written as A ' , is the martix A ' = ( ij )
where ij = a ji for each i and j.
The transpose of A is the martix obtained by interchanging the rows and
columns of A.

Lemma
For all A, B Fn
(1)
( A ' )' = A
(2)
(A + B )' = A ' B'
(AB)' = B' A ' .
(3)
Proof
1.

Let A

= ( a ji )

Then A '
2.

= ( ij ) and ij = a ji

i.e., ( A ' )'

= ( d ij ) with d ij = g ji = a ij ,\ ( A ' )' = A

Let A

= ( a ij ) and B = ( b ij )

A +B

= ( lij ) where lij = a ij + b ij

(A + B)'

= ( mij ) where mij = l ji = a ji + b ji


Now A ' + B' = ( a ji ) + ( b ji )
( a ji + b ji )
= ( mij )
4.

= (A + B)'
Let A = ( a ij ) and B = ( b ij ) then
n

AB = ( lij ) where lij =

ik kj

k =1

By definition (AB)1 = ( mij )


Where mij

= l ji
n

a jk b ki

k =1

On the other hand, A ' = ( g ij ) where g ij = a ji and B' = ( x ij ) = b ji .


n

Hence the (i.j) element of B' A ' is

k =1

(i.e) (AB) ' = B' A ' .

x ik g kj =

k =1

a jk b ki = mij

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137

Algebra

13.4 LET UP SUM UP


Define trace and transpose and prove their properties

13.5 LESSON END ACTIVITIES


(1)
(2)

Prove that if F is filed of characteristic 0, and if T A F (v) is that tr T i = 0 for all


i 1. Then T is nilpotent.
Prove that if F is of characteristic O and if S and T. in A F (V) , are such that
ST TS commutes with S, then ST- TS is nilpotent

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Linear Transformations

138

LESSON 14
HERMITIAN, UNITARY AND NORMAL TRANSFORMATIONS
CONTENTS:
14.0

Aims and objectives

14.1

Introductions

14.2

Hermitian and Unitary transformations

14.3

Normal Transformations

14.4

Let us sum up

14.5

Lesson end Activates

14.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


In this Lesson we study about three special type of transformations which are hermitian,
unitary and normal. We conclude this section by proving there basic properties.
After going through this lesson, You will be able to:
(1)
(2)
(3)

Understand Hermitian and unitary transformations using the inner product space
notions and results.
Define normal transformations.
Prove the related properties of normal Transformations

14.1 INTRODUCTION
We introduce a special type of transformations over the inner product space.
We derive some properties which are useful for further studies.

14.2 HERMITIAN AND UNITARY TRANSFORMATIONS


Let V be a finite dimensional inner product space over F. The inner product of the
elements u and v of V will be written (u,v)
Definition
The linear transformation T A(V) is said to be unitary if (uT, vT) = (u,v), " v V.
Note : A unitary transformation preserves all the structures of V, its addition its
multiplication by scalars and its inner products. Suppose T is unitary, then for any v V,
We have
||v|| = (v , v ) = (vT , vT ) =||vT|| ( Q T is unitary)

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139

Algebra

The following lemma answers the converse of the note, namely, if T A(V)
preserves the length whether T will be unitary. The answer is yes.
Lemma
If (vT, vT) = (v,v) " v V, then T is unitary.
Proof : The proof is in the spirit of the following result.
If T A(V) is such that (vT, v) = 0 " w V then T = 0
Proof of result : Since (vT, v) = 0 " v V, Let u, v V,( (u+w)T, (u+w)) = 0.
Expanding the inner product, we get (uT, u+w) + (wT, u+w) = 0
(uT,u) + (uT,w) + (wT,u) + (wT,w) = 0
(uT,w) + (wT,u) = 0 ..
(1)
(Since (uT,u) = 0 = (wT,w))
Equation (1) holds for arbitrary u, w V.
It still holds if we replace w by iw.
(uT,iw) + ((iw) T,u) = 0
-i(uT,w) + i(wT,u) = 0
-(uT,w) + (wT, u) = 0 ..
(2)
Adding (1) and (2) we get
(wT,u) = 0 " w, u V.
In particular let us take u = wT
\ (wT, wT) = 0
wT = 0 " w V
hence, T = 0.
Proof of the Lemma
Since (vT, vT) = (v,v)
Let u, v V
((u+v)T, (u+v)T) = (u+v, u+v)
(uT+vT, uT + vT) = (u+v, u+v)
(Since T A(V))
(uT, uT) + (uT, vT) + (vT,uT) + (vT,vT)
= (u,u) + (u,v) + (v,u) + (v,v)
(uT, vT) + (vT, uT)
= (u,v) + (v,u) .(1)
(Since (uT, uT) = (u,u))
Since (1) is true for all u,v V replacing v by iv in (1) we get
(uT, (iv)T) + ((iv)T, uT)
= (u, iv) + (iv, u)
-i (uT,vT) +i (vT,uT)
= -i (u,v) +i (v,u)
Cancelling i, we get,
-(uT,vT) + (vT,uT)
= -(u,v) + (v,u) .. (2)
Adding (1) and (2)
(vT, uT) = (v,u) " u, v V
Thus T is unitary.

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Linear Transformations

140

Theorem
The linear transformation T on V is unitary if and only if it takes an orthonormal basis
of V into an orthonormal basis.
Proof : Suppose that { v1 , v2 , . . . vn } is an orthonormal basis of V. Then
0 for i j
1 for i j

( vi , v j ) =

Necessary Part Suppose T is unitary


Claim : { v1 T, v2 T, . . . vn T} is also orthonormal basis
Now, ( vi T, v j T)
= ( vi , v j ) (Since T is unitary)
=

0 if i j
1 if i = j

\ { v1 T, v2 T, . . . vn T} is an orthonormal basis of V.

Sufficient part Suppose T A(V) such that both { v1 , v2 , . . . vn }{ v1 T, v2 T, . . .


vn T} are orthonormal basis of V.
Claim : T is unitary,
Let u, w V, then
n

u=

a i vi = a1 v1 + . . . + a n vn

i =1

w=

b i vi = b1 v1 + . . . + b n vn

i =1

By orthonormality
n

(u,w) =

a i bi

i =1

Now

uT =

a i vi T

i =1

wT =

b i vi T

i =1

(uT, wT ) = a i bi
i =1

i.e. T is unitary.
Hence the proof.

= (u, w )

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141

Algebra

The above theorem states that a change of basis from one orthonormal basis to
another orthonormal basis is accomplished by a unitary linear transformation.
Lemma
If T A(V), then given any v V there exist an element w V depending on V and
T such that (uT,v) = (u,w) for all u V. This element w is uniquely determined by v and T.
Proof : Let { u1 ,u2 , . . . , u n } be an orthonormal basis of V. Let v V.
n

We define w =

(uiT , v) ui

i =1

An easy computation shows that


( ui ,w) = ( ui T,w)
hence the element w has the desired property.
Now to prove, w is unique
Suppose (uT,v) = (u, w1 )
and (uT,v) = (u, w2 ) w1 , w2 V
(u, w1 ) = (u, w2 )
\
(u, w1 ) - (u, w2 ) = 0
(u, w1 - w2 ) = 0
In general for u = w1 - w2
( w1 - w2 , w1 - w2 ) = 0
w1 - w2 = 0
w1 = w2
i.e., w is unique. Hence the lemma,
Definition
If T A(V) then the Hermitian adjoint of T, written as T*, is defined by (uT,v) =
(u,vT*) or all u,v V.
Lemma
If T A(V), then T* A(V).
Moreover
(1)
(T*) = T
(2)
(S+T)* = S* + T*.
(3)
( l S)* = l S*
(4)
(ST)* = T*S*.
for all S, T A(V) and all l F.
Proof : We must first prove that T* is a linear transformation on V.
If u,v,w are in V, then
(u, (v+w)T*)

= (uT, v+w)

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Linear Transformations

142
= (uT,v) + (uT,w)
= (u,vT*) + (u,wT*)
= (u,vT* + wT*)

Now, for some l F


(u,( l v)T*
= (uT, l v)
= l (uT, v)
= l (u,vT*)
= (u, l (vT*))
Whence ( l v)T*
= l (vT*)
Thus we have proved that T* is a linear transformation on V. i.e., T* A(V).
1.

To prove (T*)* = T.
(u, v(T*)*)
= (uT*,v)
= (v, uT *)
= (vT , u )
= (u,vT) " u, v V
v(T*)*
=
vT
which implies that
\
(T*)* = T.

2.

To prove (S + T)*
(u,v(S+T)*)

So, (S+T)*
3.

4.

= S* + T*.
= (u(S +T),u)
= (uS+uT,v)
= (uS,v) + (uT,v)
= (u,vS*) + (u,vT*)
= (u,vS* + vT*)
= (u,v(S*+T*)
= S* + T*.

To prove that ( l S)* = l S*.


(u,v( l S)*)
= (u ( l S), v)
= ( l (uS), v)
= l (uS,v)
= l (u,vS*)
= l S*.
\ ( l S)*

Finally to prove that (ST)* = T*S*.


(u, v(ST)*) = (u(ST),v)
= (uS,vT*)
= (u,vT*S*)
Since u,v are arbitrary, as earlier, we have
(ST)* = T*S*.
The following lemma gives another characterization for unitary transformation in
terms of Hermitian adjoint.

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Lemma
T A(V) is unitary is and only if TT* = 1.
Proof : Let us assume T is unitary
" u,v V, (u,vTT*)
= (uT,vT)
= (u,v)
So that
TT* = 1
Conservely let us assume that TT* = 1.
(u,v) = (u,vTT*)
= (uT,vT) T is unitary.
Theorem
If { v1 , v2 , . . . vn } is an orthonormal basis of V and if the matrix of T A(V) in this
basis is ( a ij ) then the matrix of T* in the basis is ( b ij ) where b ij = a ji .
Proof : Since the matrix of T in the basis { v1 , . . . . . vn } is ( a ij) we have,
n

vi T =

a ij v j

j =1

Since the matrix of T* is ( b ij ), we have


n

vi T* =

b ij v j

j =1

( vi T*, v j )

= ( b i1 v1 + b i 2 v2 + b in vn , v j )
= ( b i1 v1 , v j ) + b i 2 v2 , v j ) + . . . . + ( b in vn , v j )
= b ij ( v j , v j )

(Since ( v j , v j ) = 0 if i j)

= b ij
Thus b ij

= (v,T*, v j )
= ( vi , v j T)
n

= ( vi , a jk vk )
k =1

= a ji (by the orthonormality)


Hence the theorem is proved.
Definition
The transformation T A(V) is called self adjoint or Hermitian if T* = T
T A(V) is called skew Hermitian if T* = -T.
Now, let us prove an important property of Hermitian transformation.

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Linear Transformations

144

Theorem
If T A(V) is Hermitian then all the characteristics roots are real.
Proof : Since T is Hermitian, T = T*.
Let l be the characteristic root of T.
\ v 0 s.t vT = l v.
(vT,v)
= ( l v,v)
= l (v,v) .. (1)
Since T = T*, (vT,v) = (vT*,v)
= (v, vT)
= (v, l v)
= l (v,v) .(2)
From (1) and (2)

l (v,v)
= l (v,v)
l =l
l
is real. Hence the proof
\
Lemma
If S A (V) and if vSS* = 0.
then vS = 0
Proof ; (vSS*,v) = 0 since vSS* = 0.
Thus 0

= (vSS*,v)
= (vS. v(S*)*) (\ (S*)* =S)
= (vS, vS)
Which implies vS = 0.
Corollary : If T is Hermitian and vT k = 0 for k 1 then vT = 0.
First let us show that if vT
2 m-1
Then vT = 0. Let S = T
Then S*
SS*

=0

2 m-1

=S= T
2 m-1
2 m-1
= T .T
=T
=T
=0

(vSS*,v)

2 m-1

2.2 m-1

2.m

2 m-1

0 = vS = v T
Continuing this way we get vT = 0.

If v T k = 0 then v T

2.m

= 0 for 2m > k hence vT = 0.

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14.3 NORMAL TRANSFORMATIONS


We introduce a class of linear transformation known as normal transformation.
Definition
T A(V) is said to be normal of TT* = T*T.
Lemma
If N is normal linear transformation and if vN = 0 for v V. then vN* = 0.
Proof : consider (vN*, vN*)
By definition, (vN*, vN*)

= (vN*N,v)
= (vNN*,v)
= (vN,vN) = 0

\ vN* = 0

Corollary 1 : It l is a characteristic root of the normal transformation N and if vN =


l v then vN* = l v.
Proof:

Let us prove that N - l is normal


(N - l ) (N - l )* = (N - l ) (N* - l )
= NN* - l N* - l N - l l
= N*N - l N* - l (N - l )

(Since NN* = N*N)

= N* (N - l ) - l (N - l )
= (N* - l ) (N - l )
= (N - l )* (N - l )
Hence (N - l ) is normal. Moreover v(N - l ) = 0 for all v V.

Hence by Lemma v ( N - l )* = 0
i.e
v (N* - l ) = 0
Hence vN* = l v.
Corollary 2 : If T is unitary and if l is a characteristic root of T, then - l - = 1.

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Linear Transformations

146

Proof : Since T is unitary, it is normal. Let l be a characteristic root of T and let vT = l v


with v o in V.
By corollary 1, vT* = l v
Thus vTT* = l vT* = l l v
Thus l l = 1 i.e., - l - = 1.
Leema
If N is normal and if vN* = 0, then vN = 0.
Proof : Let S = NN*. Then S*= (NN*)* = (N*)* N* = NN* = S. Thus S is Hermitian.
(vS)* = (vNN*)* = vN* (N*)* = 0
By corollary to Lemma, vS = 0. i.e. vNN* = 0. By Lemma, vN = 0
Corollary : If N is normal and if l F,v(N - l )* = 0, then vN = l v.
Proof : Since N is normal N - l is normal.
By the above lemma, v(N- l ) = 0
i.e. vN = l v.
Lemma
Let N be a normal transformation and suppose that l and m are two district characteristic
roots of N. IF v,w are in V and are such that vN = l v, wN = m w then (v,w) = 0
Proof : Let us compute (vN,w) in two different ways.
(vN,w) = ( l v,w) = l (v,w)...(1)
By corollary 1 of Lemma we get
wN* = m w. Now
(vN, w) = (v,wN*) = (v, m w) = m (v,w)
i.e., (vN,w) = m (v,w)..(2)
From (1) and (2)

l (v,w) = m (v,w) Since l m , we have (v,w) = 0

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147

Algebra

Theorem
If N is normal linear transformation on V, then there exists an orthonormal basis
consisting of characteristic vectors of N, in which the matrix of N is diagonal. Equivalently, if
N is a normal matrix then there exists a unitary matrix U such that
UNU -1 (= UNU * ) is diagonal.

Proof : Let N be normal and let l1 ,.. lk be the distance characteristic roots of N. By the
corollary of theorem from previous lesson . We can decompose V = V1 V2 Vk
where every v i v i is annihilated by (N - l i )n i , by the corollary of lemma we have v i N =
l i v i Thus v i consists only of characteristic vectors of N corresponding to the characteristic
root l i . The inner product of V induces inner product on v i . We can find an orthonormal
basis for v i relative to this product.
By Lemma, elements lying in distinct v i s are orthogonal. Thus the orthonormal basis
of Vi s provide us with the orthonormal basis of V. This basis consists of characteristic vector
of N, the matrix of N is diagonal.
Since every unitary and Hermitaion transformation are normal we have the following
corollaries.
Corollary 1: If T is a unitary transformation there is an orthonormal basis in which
the matrix of T is diagonal.
Corollary 2 : If T is Hermitian liner transformation, then there exists an orthonormal
basis in which the matrix of T is diagonal.
The following lemma find the condition under which the normal transformation may
be unitary or Hermiltion.
Lemma
The normal transformation N is
(1)
(2)

Hermition if and only if is characteristic roots are real.


Unitary if and only if its characterstic roots are all of absolute value 1.

Proof
(1)

If N is Hermitian, then it is normal and all its characteristic roots are real.

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Linear Transformations

148

Suppose N is normal and all its characteristic roots are real, we show that N is
-1

hermiltian. There is a unitary matrix U such that UNU = UNU * = D where D is a


diagonal matrix with entries in the diagonal as characteristic roots and hence D is a
real diagonal matrix.
Thus D* = D ; since D* = (UNU*)* = UN*U*, the relation D* = D implies UN*U* =
UNU*, and since U is invertible we obtain
N* = N
Thus N is Hermitian.
(2)

If N is unitary by corollary 2 of lemma its characterstic roots all of absolute value 1.


So let us assume N is normal and its characteristic roots are all of absolute value 1.
We can find a unitary matrix U such that
UNU -1 = UNU * = D

Where D is diagonal matrix with entries whose absolute value is 1.


Now D* = ( UNU* )* = UN*U*
Since DD* = 1, we have
(UNU*) (UN*U*) = 1
UNN*UU* = 1
NN* = 1
Thus N is unitary
Note : We can show that tr (AA*) = 0 if any only if A = 0.
Let A = ( a ij ). Then A* = ( b ij ) where b ij = a ji .
tr (AA*) =

- a ij -

and this is zero if and only if each a ij = 0.

i. j

i.e., if and only if A = 0.


Lemma
If N is normal and AN = NA, then AN* = N*A.
Proof : Let X = AN* - N*A. Let us show that X = 0 By the above note it is enough to prove
that tr (XX*) = 0.
XX* = (AN* - N*A) (AN* - N*A)*
= (AN* - N*A) (NA* - A*N)
(Since (A+B)*
= A* + B*, (AB)* = B*A* and (A*)* = (A)
= N {(AN* - N*A) NA* - (AN* - N*A)A*N
= NB BN where B = (AN* - N*A)A*.
Thus tr (XX*)
= tr (NB - BN)
= tr (NB) tr(BN)
= 0 [Since tr (AB) = tr (BA)]
Thus by the above note
X = 0 and hence AN* = N*A

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149

Algebra

Lemma
The Hermitian linear transformations T is nonnegative if and only if all its
characteristic roots are nonnegative.
Proof : Suppose T 0; if l is a characteristic root of T, the vT = l v for some v 0. We
have to prove, l is non-negative.
0 (vT,v) = ( l v,v) = l (v,v); Since (v,v) > 0, we deduce that l 0.
Conversely, if T is Hermitian with nonnegative characteristic roots then it has an
orthonormal basis { v1 , . . . vn } consisting of characteristic vectors of T.
For each vi , vi T = li vi , where li 0
\ v = a i vi
Hence vT
= a i vi T
= a i li vi
But (vT,v)
= ( li a i vi , a i vi )
= li a i a i ( vi , vi )
since li 0 and a i a i 0, we get,
(vT,v) 0. Hence T 0.
Lemma
T 0 if and only if T = AA* for some A.
Proof : We first show that AA* 0. Given v V, (vAA*,v) = (vA, vA) 0
Hence AA* 0 i.e. T 0
Conversely suppose that T 0
Claim
T = AA* for some A. Since T is Hermitian such that an orthonormal basis in which
the matrix of T is diagonal. i.e., there exists a unitary matrix U such that UTU* is diagonal.

l1
i.e., UTC* =

l2
.
ln

Where l1 , l2 , . . . ln are the characteristic roots for T.


Hence each l i 0.

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150

Algebra

l1
l2
.

Let S =

ln

Each li is real, and S in Hermitian.


Let A = U*SU, A* = (U*SU)*
= U*S*U = A.
Therefore U*SU is Hermitian.
(U*SU) 2
= (U*SU( (U*SU)
= U*S (UU*) SU
= U*S 2 U (Since UU* = 1)
AA* = (U*SU) (U*SU)
= U*S 2 U
l1

l2
= U*

U
.
ln

= U*UTU*U
= T.

14.4 LET US SUM UP


(1) The linear transformations T A(V) is said to be unitary if (uT, vT) for all u,v V.
(2) The linear transformation T on V is unitary if and only if it takes an orthonormal basis
of V into an orthonormal basis.
(3) If T A(V) then the Hermitian adjoint of T,written as T*,is defined by (uT,v)=
(u,vT*) for all u,v V.
(4) T A(v) is said to be normal if TT* =T*T.

14.5 LESSON END ACTIVITIES


(1)
(2)

(3)

If N is normal and l , m are two distinct characteristic roots of N, such that vN


= l v,and wN= m w, then prove that (v,w) = 0.
If N is a normal transformation, Prove that
(a) N is Hermitian if and only if its characteristic roots are real
(b) N is unitary if and only if its characteristic roots are all of absolute value 1.
IF N is normal and AN = NA, prove that AN* = N*A