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HAEMOGLOBIN TEST CARRIED ON FELLOW CLASSMATES

SUBITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:

MRS. MEENU BEHL (BOTANY) KANCHAN GOLA MRS. DEEPTI

DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL, FARIDABAD (HARYANA)

ROLL NO-

DATE:-

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN
THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT MS. KANCHAN GOLA , D\O DR. RANVEER SINGH, A STUDENT OF ROLL NO. FROM DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL, FARIDABAD HAS COMPLETED HER PROJECT REPORT ON “HEMOGLOBIN TEST CARRIED ON FELLOW CLASSMATES” DURING THE WHOLE SESSION IN OUR COMPANY.

AUTHORISD SIGNATORY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Sometimes words are not appropriate substitute of expressing one’s feelings, they are the only means for expressing oneself; words appear inadequate and hollow, when I thanks my esteemed, revered and erudite Dr. Stalin Malhotra (Director) for the help he provided regarding the project. This report bears at every stage, the impression of his profound knowledge, concrete suggestions and careful, resound criticism. My thanks extend to Mrs. Meenu Behl( Botany teacher) and Mrs. Deepti (Zoology teacher) who took their keen interest in the project and provides their valuable support at times. Lastly I would thank all those who have directly or indirectly assisted me in the

successful completion of this project during the whole session.

KANCHAN GOLA( ) XII-G

A) INTRODUCTION
Haemoglobin is the iron-containing protein attached to red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Haemoglobin bonds with oxygen in the lungs, exchanges it for carbon dioxide at cellular level, and then transports the carbon dioxide back to the lungs to be exhaled. A hemoglobin test reveals how much haemoglobin is in a person’s blood, helping to diagnose and monitor anaemia and polycythemia vera. Actually this

test measures the amount of haemoglobin in the blood and is a good indication of the blood’s ability to carry oxygen throughout the body. If the haemoglobin levels are low, one have anaemia, a condition in which your body is not getting enough oxygen, causing fatigue and weakness.

B) Why the test is required?
Haemoglobin (Hb) may be requested to diagnose or exclude anaemia (low blood count) – which causes tiredness, shortness of breath on exertion and possibly postural light-headedness. An increased Haemoglobin may be present in smokers or those with chronic lung diseases. Haemoglobin measurement is part of the full blood count (FBC) (which is requested for many different

reasons and before operations when a blood transfusion is anticipated). The test is also repeated in patients who have ongoing bleeding problems.

C) How the Test is Performed?
Haemoglobin (Hb) may be performed as a simple bedside test on a fingerprick sample of blood using a hand-held colour-comparison device.It may also be performed as a laboratory blood test, usually as part of a Full Blood Count (FBC), on a few millilitres of blood.

D) BEFORE CARE-

The person should avoid smoking before this test as smoking can Increase the haemoglobin level in the blood.

E) AFTERCAREDiscomfort or bruising may occur at the puncture site or the person may feel dizzy or faint. Pressure to the puncture site until the bleeding stops reduces bruising. Warm packs to the puncture site relieve discomfort.

F) RESULTS
Normal values of Haemoglobin in an adult are approximately 120 to 180 grams per litre (12 to 18 g/L) of blood but are influenced by the age, sex and ethnic origin in the person. Normal values vary with age and sex. Women generally have lower

hemoglobin values than men. Men have 14.0-18.0 g/L, while women have levels of 12.0-16.0 g/L.

Abnormal resultsA low haemoglobin usually indicates the person has anaemia. Further tests are done to discover the cause and type of anaemia. Dangerously, low haemoglobin levels put a person at risk of a heart attack, congestive heart failure, or stroke. A high haemoglobin indicates the body is making too many red cells. Further tests are done to see if this is caused by polycythemia vera , or as a reaction to illness, high altitudes, heart failure, or lung disease. Fluid volume in the blood affects haemoglobin values. Pregnant women and people with cirrhosis have extra fluid, which dilutes the blood, decreasing the haemoglobin. Dehydration concentrates the blood, increasing the haemoglobin.

Also the above-normal haemoglobin levels may be the result of:-

A) dehydration, excess production of red blood cells in the bone marrow, severe lung disease, or B) several other conditions. And the below-normal haemoglobin levels may be the result of:A) iron deficiency ; B) inherited haemoglobin defects ,bone marrow failure , cirrhosis of the liver (during which the liver becomes scarred); C) bleeding, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, kidney disease, other chronic illnesses, or D) cancers that affect the bone marrow.

G) How is it used?

The test is used to: A) detect and measure the severity of anaemia (too few red blood cells) or polycythaemia (too many red blood cells); B) monitor the response to treatment, and C) help make decisions about blood transfusions.

H) Few things to knowA) Haemoglobin decreases slightly during normal pregnancy. B) Haemoglobin levels peak around 8 a.m. and are lowest around 8 p.m. each day. C) Heavy smokers have higher haemoglobin levels than non-smokers. D) Living in high altitudes increases haemoglobin values. This is your body's response to the decreased oxygen available at these heights. E) Haemoglobin levels are slightly lower in older men and women and in children Each red blood cell (RBC) contains about 280 million Hb molecules. F) The average adult contains about 5 billion RBCs/milliliter of blood. G) The average adult has about 5 liters of blood.Thus, the average adult has about 790 grams (or 1.74 pounds) of Hb. H) Assuming the blood re-circulation time at rest is about 1 minute, the net transport of oxygen by Hb is about 0.1 liter/minute (or 0.05 mole/minute).

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