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CHAPTER 6: NUTRITION

6.1 TYPE OF NUTRITION


Nutrition = process by which organisms obtain nutrients and energy from food.

Type of nutrition
Autotrophic
Nutrition

Photosynthesis

Chemosynthesis

Definition
Examples
Living organisms that are capable of producing Plants
its own food from simple inorganic compounds Bacteria
Organisms that synthesis food from inorganic Green plants
compounds such as water and carbon dioxide Algae
using sunlight as source of energy
Organisms that synthesize food from simple Sulphur bacteria
inorganic compounds using energy released
from oxidizing minerals like nitrates, carbon
dioxide and sulphides
Living organisms that feed on other living things

Heterotrophic
Nutrition

Holozoic Nutrition

Saprophytism

Parasitism

6.2 BALANCED DIET


1. A balanced diet contains the main nutrients which include carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
vitamins, minerals, water and roughage in the correct proportions to meet the bodys daily
requirements.
2.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

The importance of a balanced diet:


to allow the organism to function efficiently by providing daily energy requirement
for metabolism and maintain a healthy life
for growth and repair damage tissues
to supply essential nutrients

Daily energy requirement


1. Energy can be obtained from carbohydrates and fats. Proteins are only used if there is a
shortage of carbohydrates and fats.
2.

Energy requirement vary according to:

(a) Age

- Children and teenagers require more energy because they


have a higher metabolic rate
(b) Sex
- A male adult need more energy because they usually have
relatively less fatty tissues as heat insulator and a higher rate
(c) Body size and weight
- People with bigger body size and weight will require more
energy for their basal metabolism
(d)
Occupation
and - A person who does heavy work will need more energy than a
lifestyle
person who only moderately active, and thus requires more
energy than a sedentary worker.
(e)
Pregnancy
and - Pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers require more
lactation
energy.
(f) Climate

- A person who lives in a cold country needs more energy to


maintain his body temperature than a person living in the
tropics.

Determination of energy value in food samples


Energy value of food = Defined as the energy produced when 1 gram of food is completely
burned. The unit for energy value of food is joule per gram (J/g) or
kilojoules per gram (kj/g)

Energy value if food can be measured through the use of either simple calorimeter or
bomb calorimeter.

Simple calorimeter

Bomb calorimeter

Balanced Diet

Diet refers to the kind of food that we eat and drink regularly.
A balanced diet contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibers and
water in the right proportions.

Class of food

Importance

Carbohydrate

Protein

Fat

.
4. Water

Water makes up 70% of total body mass.


Each day about 2.5/3.0 litre of water is lost in the body through sweating, excretion,
defecation and respiration.
Functions of water includes:
a) Solvent for various biochemical reactions
b) To transport hormones, ingested food, heat and gases.
c) Coolant that carries away heat to be eliminated.
d) Providing structure and support
e) Essential component of the blood, digestive juices and lubricant in joints.

5.

Vitamins and Minerals


Name of the
Sources
vitamin
Vitamin A
Green leafy
vegetables, carrot,
milk, milk products,
fish, fish liver oil.

Vitamin D

Fish liver oil, milk,


butter, eggs,
manufactured by the
body in sunlight. It is
caused sunshine
vitamin.

Vitamin E

Milk, egg yolk, wheat


germ, green
vegetables,
vegetables oils,
Green vegetables
legumes, milk
products, meat, pigs
livers, egg yolk,
produced by bacteria
in the gut.
Whole cereals,
wheat germ, green
vegetables, soya
bean, yeast, milk,
meat, seafood.
Unpolished rice.

Vitamin K

Vitamin B1

Functions
Increases resistance
power against
diseases, protects
the eyes from
infections, helps in
seeing in dim light,
required for making
rhodopsin.
Helps the body
absorb calcium from
food.

Anti-oxidant, protects
vitamins A,C,D and K
and poly unsaturated
fatty acids.
Helps in clotting of
blood

Helps the body to


oxidize food to
release energy

Deficiency diseases
Retarded growth,
health of the skin is
affected, night
blindness leading to
Xerophthalmia.

Brittle bone,
Osteomalacia in
adults. Rickets in
children. Smptoms poor growth,
deformation of bones
resulting in bow legs
and defective ribs.
Poorly understood in
humans. Causes
sterility in rats.
Spontaneous
bleeding, blood takes
long time to clot.

Beri-beri affects
nervous system,
muscles become
weak causing
cramps, pain,
numbness, may lead

Vitamin B2

Peas, beans, oil


seeds, green
vegetables, yeast,
milk, liver, meat,
eggs, fish

Necessary for
healthy skin, eyes
and nerves

Vitamin Niacin B3.


Nicotinic acid

Cereals, yeast, meat,


liver

Necessary for
enzyme activities

Vitamin B***

Whole grains, green


vegetables, fish,
meat, groundnuts,
potato, tomato

Necessary for amino


acid and fatty acid
metabolism

Vitamin Folic acid

Green vegetables,
sprouted seeds,
cereals, egg and
liver
Milk, milk products,
eggs, fish, meat and
liver
Citrus fruits like
lemon and orange,
gooseberry(amia),
guava, green leafy
vegetables, papaya,
tomato, sprouted
grams

Necessary for the


production of RBC
and nucleoprotein
synthesis.
Helps in formation of
blood.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin C

Helps to bind the


cells together and in
the use of calcium by
bones and teeth.
Necessary for
production of strong
skin and collagen
fibre synthesis.

FUNCTIONS AND SOURCES OF MINERALS


Mineral
Source
Functions
Calcium
Milk, cheese,
Form strong & healthy
anchovies,
teeth & bones
cereals
Assists in blood clotting
Necessary for muscle
contraction &
transmission of nerve
impulses
Magnesium
Cereals, green
Necessary for muscle
vegetables,
contraction
milk, meat
Necessary for
transmission of nerve
impulses
As a cofactors for
various enzymes
5

to paralysis.
Ratarded growth in
children.
Photophobia eyes
become sensitive to
sunlight. Dry skin,
sores on corners of
mouth, tongue and
lips.
Pellagra Skin
legions, rashes,
diarrhoea
Dermatitis,
Diarrhoea, Dementia
(mental sickness)
characterized by 3D
symptoms.
Haemoglobin content
of the blood will drop.
The number of RBC
is reduced.
Acute anaemia

Scurvy Symptoms
general weakness,
bleeding gums and
internal organs,
anaemia and swollen
legs.

Effects of deficiency
Rickets
Osteoporosis
Prolonged bleeding

Weak muscles
Convulsion
(Sawan)

Phosphorus

Milk, meat,
cereals, eggs

Forms strong bones


and teeth
Form ATP in cell
respiration
Maintains the balance
of water in the body
Maintains the osmotic
pressure in the body
Needed for
transmission of nerve
impulses
For transmission of
nerve impulses
For muscle contraction
Produces thyroxine
hormone

Brittleness of bones
Tooth decay

Forms haemoglobin

Anaemia

Harden enamel of teeth,


bones

Dental caries

Sodium

Table salt, meat,


eggs, milk

Potassium

Iodine

Iron
Fluorine

6.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Milk, meat,
banana, green
vegetables
Prawns,
cockles,
seafood,
seaweed
Liver, spinach,
nuts, egg yolk
Drinking water,
tea, vegetables

Muscular cramps

Disorder in the nervous


system
Goitre
Cretinism in children

Dietary Fibre (Roughage)


stimulates peristalsis and assists the movement of food in the intestine
helps to prevent constipation
may protect colon cancer
contains less fat and cholesterol which may decreases the risk of cardiovascular
diseases

Selection of an appropriate balanced diet:


Target group
Pregnant women

Infants

Children

Appropriate balanced diet


Adequate nutrients are needed for her own self & the foetus in
the womb
More calcium and phosphorus are needed to form strong
bones and teeth for the baby.
More iron-to build red blood cells to prevent anemia
Avoid nicotine, caffeine and alcohol
Rapid growth need more protein
More calcium and phosphorus
Mothers milk contains all the nutrients and antibodies.
Have slower growth rate compared to babies
Need more protein for growth, should be more than their body
mass
Need more carbohydrates and fats to supply energy because
they are very active.
Need extra vitamin D
6

Teenagers

Athletes

The aged

Vegetarians

People with
specific diseases

Minerals such as iodine is needed to produce thyroxine for


physical and mental development
More calcium and phosphorus.
Between the ages 12-19
Grow very fast
For girls, puberty begins at 12 years; rapid growth
For boys, puberty begins at 14 years; rapid growth
Need a lot of protein to build new protoplasm as well as
calcium and phosphorus.
Very active, hence need more energy through carbohydrates.
Female teenagers need more iron as they lose blood during
menstruation.
Include more carbohydrates to supply energy to carry out the
vigorous activities in sports.
More protein to build and replace damaged tissue.
Calcium, sodium and potassium are needed to strengthen
bones and to prevent muscular cramps.
55 years and above undergo the process of aging and slow
growth.
Lose their appetite and are less active
Diet should be rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals to
maintain good health and repair tissues.
Have weaker and more brittles bones, need more calcium
and phosphorus.
Less active; need less carbohydrates and fats.
Avoid food that contains high amount of fats, sugar and salt.
Vegetables and fruits to replenish water in their body.
Has to rely on alternative source of proteins since diet lacks
animal source of protein.
Should consume more nuts and grains.
Depends on the disease
Ex: osteoporosis: need more phosphorus, calcium and
vitamin D.

Food Test
Test For

Food test

Starch

Iodine test

Reducing
sugar

Benedicts test

Protein

Millons test

Observation

Biurets test

Lipid

Ethanol-emulsion test
Grease spot test
Sudan III test

Vitamin C

DCPIP test

Percentage of Vitamin C in fruit juice


=
Concentration of Vitamin C in fruit juice
=

6.3 MALNUTRITION
1. Malnutrition is failing health that results from not eating a balanced diet over a long
period of time.
2. Malnutrition refers to:
(a) undernutrition: resulting from inadequate consumption or excessive loss of nutrients
(b) overnutrition: resulting form overeating or excessive intake of specific nutrients
3.

Effects on malnutrition

(a) Kwashiorkor
caused by protein deficiency
symptoms:
(i) swelling legs
(ii) underweight
(iii) moon face
(iv) swollen abdomen
(v) thin muscles but fat present
(vi) dry, sparse, thin hair
(vii) apathetic, little interest in his surrounding
(viii) stunted growth
(b) Marasmus
caused by deficiency of energy and protein foods in children
symptoms:
(i) underweight
(ii) old man face
(iii) thin muscles, thin fat
(iv) stunted growth

Effects of Excessive Intake and Deficiency in Nutrients on Health


Nutrient
Carbohydrate

Effects of excessive intake

Lipid

Protein

Vitamins

Minerals

Effects of deficiency