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Experiment :C-2
1. Measurement of the phase difference between VR and VC in an
RC circuit from Lissajous figures.
2. Study of the frequency response of
(a) Phase shift between Vin and VC and,
(b) Peak charge value of the capacitor in an RC circuit.

Submitted to
Mr.Golam Dastegir Al-Quaderi
and
Dr. Ratan Chandra Gosh

Submitted by
Muhammed Mehedi Hassan
Group A ;Batch-09
Second Year, RollSH 236
Student of Physics Department,
Uinversity of Dhaka.
Date of experiment April 19, 2011.
Date of submission M ay 10, 2011.

Experiment :C-2
1. Measurement of the phase difference between VR and VC in an RC circuit
from Lissajous figures.
2. Study of the frequency response of
(a) Phase shift between Vin and VC and,
(b) Peak charge value of the capacitor in an RC circuit.

Theory :
if two simultaneous simple harmonic motions are applied at right angles to each
other, a Lissajous figure is obtained. If the signals have the same frequency with
a constsnt phase difference between them, the resulting figure is an ellipse in
general. It is obvious that the ellipse will be confined within a rectangular space
with lengths Ax and Ay , the amplitudes of the waves. However, the shape of
the ellipse and and its orientations depends on the ratio between the amplitudes
as well as phase difference . Patterns for different typical values of are shown
below.

Figure 2.1 Shape of Lissajous figures for various phase differences


Let the two waves be,

Equation (1)

x = Ax cos t

(1)

y = Ay cos(t + )

(2)

cost= Axx

Equation (2) Ayy =cos t cos sin t sin =cos t cos 1 cos2 t sin

Now equation (1) and (2) can be combined like this:


r
y
x
x
=
cos 1 ( )2 sin
Ay
Ax
Ax

(3)

y2
2xy
x2
+ 2
cos
(4)
2
Ax
Ay
Ax Ay
The phase angle can be obtained from the following considerations.In general
the equation (4) represents an inclined ellipse as shown in figure 2.2.
sin2 =

b
Figure 2.2 .

At x = 0 ,
Hence

2
sin = Ay 2
y
2|y|
|y|
Q
= 2A
= PRS
| sin |= A
y
y

=B
A

Considering the absolute value,


B
(5)
A
Thus || can be found by measuring A and B [fig 2.2.a] or, A0 and B 0 [fig 2.2.b]
|| = sin1

For a circle or vertical ellipse B=A, and || =sin1 1 =


When a sinusoidal voltage source applied
Vin = V cos t
In the following circuit:Vin = VR + VC

(6)

Which , in terms of the charge q(t) on the capacitor at time t, becomes


V cos t =

dq(t)
q(t)
R+
dt
C

(7)

It can be shown that


q(t) = Q cos(t + )

(8)

Equation (3) clearly show that VR leads VC by an angle of /2

Apparatus :
An oscilloscope. signal generator, a resistor, a capacitor and a circuit board.

Figure 2.3 Circuit diagram to determine the phase difference between VR & VC

Figure 2.4 Circuit diagram to determine the phase difference between VC & Vin
.

Table-1.Determination of Phase difference between VR & VC :

A
B
(div) (div)

B
A

|| = sin1
Degree

Frequency
(Hz)

Type of Figure

250

Vertical Ellipse

2.1

2.1

90

300

2.1

2.1

90

400

2.1

2.1

90

500

2.3

2.3

90

600

2.3

2.3

90

700

Near Circle

2.3

2.3

90

800

2.5

2.5

90

900

2.7

2.7

90

1000

2.9

2.9

90

1100

Horizontal Ellipse

1.0

1.0

90

1200

1.2

1.2

90

1300

1.3

1.3

90

1400

1.4

1.4

90

1500

Ellipse

3.4

3.4

90

1600

3.5

3.5

90

1700

3.7

3.7

90

1800

3.8

3.8

90

2000

4.0

4.0

90

3000

4.5

4.5

90

4000

4.7

4.7

90

5000

5.0

5.0

90

B
A

Mean||
Degree

90

Table -2. Measurement of between VC and Vin


Frequency
f

ln f

= sin1
Degree
2.94

(ms)
0.10

= t
T
360
(ms)
Degree
19.40 0.005
1.86

0.25
0.40

3.49
4.37

0.08
0.08

9.20
6.40

0.008
0.013

3.13
4.5

0.60
1.00
1.30
1.65
1.90
2.20
2.40
2.55
2.70
2.55
2.65
2.60
2.55
2.15
1.85
1.55
1.35
1.12
4.45
1.00
1.00
0.95
1.20

6.50
10.88
14.34
17.84
21.01
26.04
28.38
30.66
33.83
39.02
44.22
48.91
52.83
61.35
64.48
69.95
74.64
76.88
81.45
90.00
90.00
90.00
90.00

0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.11
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02

4.75
3.15
2.48
1.92
1.80
1.40
1.22
1.08
0.94
0.77
0.65
0.53
0.47
0.31
0.25
0.20
0.16
0.14
0.135
0.130
0.104
0.09
0.09

0.021
0.032
0.040
0.052
0.061
0.064
0.073
0.083
0.085
0.091
0.108
0.113
0.128
0.161
0.160
0.200
0.188
0.214
0.222
0.232
0.218
0.222
0.222

7.58
11.43
14.51
18.75
22.00
23.14
26.55
30.00
30.63
32.73
38.77
40.75
45.96
58.06
57.60
72.00
67.50
77.14
80.00
82.80
78.48
80.00
80.00

(Hz)
50

(div) (div)
3.91 7.80 0.40

100
150

4.61
5.01

4.10
5.25

200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1300
1500
1800
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
7500
8000
9000
10000
15000

5.29
5.70
5.99
6.22
6.40
6.55
6.69
6.80
6.91
7.17
7.31
7.50
7.60
8.01
8.29
8.52
8.70
8.85
8.92
8.99
9.11
9.21
9.62

5.30
5.30
5.25
5.30
5.30
5.01
5.05
5.00
4.85
4.05
3.80
3.45
3.20
2.45
2.05
1.65
1.40
1.15
4.50
1.00
1.00
0.95
1.20

B
A

t
T

Table -3. Frequency Response of Peak Charge


Frequency

ln f

Voltage

Voltage

Voltage

Voltage

in

out

gain

gain

| VVout
|
in
Hz

Peak
Charge

20 log10 | VVout
| Q = |Vout | C
in
dB
Coulomb

30

3.40

5.40

5.40

5.40 108

40

3.69

5.30

5.30

5.30 108

50

3.91

5.25

5.25

5.25 108

60

4.09

5.25

5.25

5.25 108

70

4.25

5.20

5.20

5.20 108

100

4.61

5.20

5.20

5.20 108

200

5.30

5.25

5.20

0.99

-0.080

5.20 108

300

5.70

5.25

5.20

0.99

-0.080

5.20 108

500

6.22

5.40

5.30

0.98

-0.160

5.30 108

1000

6.91

5.20

4.20

0.81

-01.85

4.20 108

2000

7.60

5.60

3.18

0.57

-4.88

3.18 108

3000

8.01

5.80

2.40

0.41

-7.74

2.40 108

4000

8.29

5.80

2.00

0.35

-9.12

2.00 108

5000

8.52

6.00

1.70

0.28

-11.06

1.70 108

6000

8.70

6.00

1.40

0.23

-12.77

1.40 108

7000

8.85

6.20

1.20

0.19

-14.43

1.20 108

8000

8.99

6.30

1.10

0.17

-15.39

1.10 108

9000

9.11

5.78

0.81

0.14

-17.11

0.80 108

10000

9.21

5.81

0.50

0.086

-21.30

0.50 108

Calculation :
The resistor we used has a resistance of 10 k :
R=10 k=10103
The capacitance C=0.01 F=0.01106 F
From the Graph of vs lnf frequency f ,
f =elnf = e7.45 = 1.7 103 Hz
The Cut-Off frequency or the half power frequency ; from the second
graph ln f vs Voltage gain at voltage gain=0.717V
fg0 = elnf = e7.3 = 1.4 103 Hz
From the third graphlnf vs 20 log Voltage gain the Cut-Off frequency at -3dB
fg00 = elnf = e7.2 = 1.3 103 Hz
Average gain frequency,
fg =

fg0 +fg00
2

1.4103 Hz+1.3103 Hz
2

= 1.35 103 Hz

Average frequency of f and fg is,


f=

f +fg
2

1.7103 Hz+1.35103 Hz
2

= 1.53 103 Hz

Percentage of error in comparison between them


= | 1.71.35
| 100%
1.53
=22.80%
Experimentally exp =
Theoretical value of

1
2f

1
s
23.14161.531000

= 9.6ms

theoretical = RC = 10 103 0.01 106 s=10ms


Percentage of error in comparison between them;
exp
= | theoretical
| 100%
theoretical

= | 109.6
| 100%
10
=4.0%
8

Result :
1. The phase difference between VR and VC is 90 .
2. The frequency response
(a) From second graph the frequency is 1.4 103 Hz and from
third graph 1.3 103 Hz and,
(b) Peak charge value of the capacitor is 5.4108 C.

Discussion :
Our experiment showed that the capacitor current is 90 out of
phase with the resistor (and source) current.Therefore the first experiment was solved successfully. Performing RC oscillator experiment we got the feeling for the actual phase of the RC oscillator
and its relation betweeen them. Doing the experiment we were able
to identify the cut-off frequency in two different methods. Our result have some deviation which is not very significant. It was due to
some experimental limitations. Firstly, the time period taken from
the gridline of the oscilloscope monitor was not accurate. When the
frequency was high(above 1200 Hz) it was hard to find the actual division of the gridline during one complete cycle. Secondly, the signal
generator has no calibration between 1000Hz to 1100Hz ; we have
to assume this unmarked frequency as well as the height of A and
length of B, so there may be some error. Due to all these reason
and other experimental limitations our resulting cut-off frequency
has 22.80% error.