“INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT”

AS220                                      BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONS)  PLANTATION TECHNOLOGY AND  MANAGEMENT 
 

UNIVE ERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY MAR F RA SHAH A ALAM CAM MPUS SE ELANGOR

CHA APTER 6 “TECH HNIQUE FOR ES E STIMATI ING PESTS P P POPULAT TION”

AS220 BAC CHELOR O SCIENC (HONS) OF CE ) PLANTATIO TECHNO ON OLOGY AN MANAG ND GEMENT

GR ROUP 14    NAM ME
HAMMAD IZ ZZAT BIN CHE AB A AZIZ MOH MOH FAHMI BIN KENI HD MOH FARID NAZMI BIN MOHAME HD N N ED

MATR NO RIX
20084 424702 2008410482 20084 411088

PRE EPARED FOR R ASSO PROF. DR. FAUZ OC. . ZIAH ISMA AIL Lecturer L Faculty of Applied Sc F ciences Un niversity o Technolo Mara of ogy

CONTENTS 

Acknowledgement    Introduction    

                       

                         

                         

                           

                                                                                 1    2­3  4­5     6­7  8­9 

Technique for Estimating Pests Population  Crop Inspection    Shaking & Beating  Bait Spray   Mite Sampling     

Knock Down Sampling   

           10­11             12­13             14­16             17­18             19­20             21­22             23­25   

Yellow Sticky Card  Sweep Net Catches  Malaise Traps  Water Traps  Suction Traps  i) ii)       Impaction Traps   

Mobile Traps  Fixed Traps                                                                                                 26­27            28­29            30­31            32­33            34­35      36  37   

Light Traps 

Pheromone Traps  Blue Sticky Traps   Pit‐Fall Traps    Conclusion    References               

Attractant (Methyl Eugenol) 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT       
  Undertaking a Bachelor would be an onerous and solitary journey if it were not for  the interest, support and encouragement of many people. While personal discipline and a  driving  commitment  are  essential  for  the  successful  completion  of  such  a  venture,  so  too  are  dedicated  lecturers  and  a  supportive  family,  and  friends.  We  were  fortunate  to  have  these people in our life during the period of our candidature, and for that we are grateful.    To our lecturer, Prof. Dr. Fauziah Bt Ismail: Your guidance and encouragement have  been greatly appreciated. We have learned much about research and writing from you. You  have given our invaluable experience of expert, attentive supervision that we can only hope  to emulate some day. Thank you.    To our team members, Mohammad Izzat Bin Che Ab Aziz, Mohd Fahmi Bin Keni, and  Mohd  Farid  Nazmi  Bin  Mohamed:  Thank  you  for  the  many  insightful  and  intellectually  stimulating discussions we have shared, and your thoughtful critique of our work.    Finally, we would like to extend our appreciation to all of the classmate participants,  who  welcomed  into  their  homes  to  share  information,  gave  of  their  time  to  complete  the  assignment and for the support they have given.                             

INTRODUCTION
The methods of assessing pest populations given in the following sections have been selected to represent those most widely used in pest management programmes. Walker (1981) also lists methods of measuring insect populations. Other techniques used in ecological studies are given by Southwood (1966) who points out those methods to measure the relative changes in populations are quicker than attempts to determine absolute numbers. The results relative methods will, of course, depend on the actual density or population size, numbers in a particular phase or level of activity, efficiency of sampling method and responsiveness of a particular sex and species to the traps being used, but change in population detected can be used to assess when control measures are needed. Otherwise, this objective assignment is summarizing chapter six: technique for estimating pest population and identify the sixteen insect pests sampling methods. Furthermore, we also indicate about each sampling method description, insect pest sampling using those methods and the advantages and disadvantages of sampling technique. Which the methods of insect pests sampling are: 1. Crop inspection 2. Shaking and beating 3. Knock down sampling 4. Bait spray 5. Mite sampling 6. Yellow sticky card 7. Sweep net catches 8. Malaise trap 9. Impaction traps 10. Water traps 11. Suction traps i) ii) Mobile traps Fixed traps

12. Light traps 13. Pheromone traps 14. Blue sticky trap 15. Attractant (methyl eugenol) 16. Pit-fall trap

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TECHNIQUE FOR ESTIMATING PESTS POPULATION

 
1. CROP INSPECTION

Description: • Crop inspection is a regular inspection by walking through crops to examine the status of insect pest it also to assess plant development and monitoring pest level. • • • The experiment will be done during the second and third on growing season at the station and for two seasons at farmer’s field. Commonly, the crops were selected and monitored daily for emergence of parasitoids or larvae. For example, if the cabbage plant were infected by aphid and the population score is not exceeding score number 3 (several colonies), we must decided what control method should be used to control this pest. • Estimated based on the following population score: Score 1 2 3 4 5 Descriptions No Aphids A few Several colonies Half of leaf infest with Aphids Whole leaf covered by powdery or sooty mould

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Insect Pests Sampling: • Aphids

Advantages: • • • The population of Aphids can be measured and the control method will be determined. The status of Aphids population and the infection on cabbage will be examined. Types of damage will be determined.

Disadvantages: • • • This method takes a long of time to get a result. Experimental error. Need a lot of money

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2. SHAKING AND BEATING

Description: • • This method is much like sweeping. A sampling tray is held horizontally beneath plant foliage and the foliage above is struck sharply a standard number of times (2 to 5) with a short stick or the other hand. • • • • • The tray may be one square foot in surface area or as small as 5 inch or 6 inch circle (pad of paper or plastic disposable pie plates have often been used). Arthropods falling to the tray are immediately collected before them escapes, so a pooter (a small device for sucking insects into a tube) is useful. This process repeated several times around the periphery or the plant. An attempt is made to standardize the density of foliage beaten. The tray surface is usually white to contrast with the insect being counted.

Insect Pests Sampling: • • • • Aphids Bugs Thrips Spider mites

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Advantages: • • • Cost required is very less There are no any side effect Skilled labours are not required.

Disadvantages: • • • This method is applicable only on small scale This method requires repeated application Time and labour requirements is high.

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3. KNOCK DOWN SAMPLING

Description: • • • • • An irritant spray is useful alternative to shaking especially when large trees have to be sampled. Use natural pyrethrin or non-residual synthetic pyrethroids, combined with piperonyl butoxide. Applied with knapsack mist-blower to spray as high as possible into the tree canopy. A large area under the tree should be cover with white big cloth. Sufficient time should be allowed for the entire insect to fall.

Insect Pests Sampling: • • • Fruit fly Gold dust weevil Chafer beetle

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Advantages: • • • • Easy to identify the insects Suitable for the large trees Easy to get the sample of insects. Saving of time.

Disadvantages: • • • Collected of insect should be quickly after its fall down Expensive equipment Need many labors.

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4. BAIT SPRAY

Protein bait mixture in a gel that sticks to leaves and resists heavy rain.

Description: • • • • The bait or attractant then was usually a molasses or sugar solution and the toxicant was usually a stomach poison such as lead arsenate or Paris green. Subsequent developments tended to focus on the insecticide component of bait sprays and the bait component was nearly always sugar and molasses. The protein bait acts as a food attractant and its effectiveness relies on the fact that immature females need a protein meal for developing mature eggs. The bait spray residue on the foliage is ingested by the flies and kills them. Because the bait spray relies on its attractant properties for its mode of action, overall coverage of the tree canopy is unnecessary and a 'spot spraying technique' is adequate. • Experiments and experience indicate that bait spraying is most effective in 'area' treatment programs. It is ideal for medium to large orchards or where adjacent properties use the technique. • The method has been used to control fruit fly in the major citrus growing areas.

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Insect Pest Sampling: • • • Fruit fly (Bactrocera facialis) Bactrocera trilineola Bactrocera oblique

Disadvantages: • The major disadvantage of protein bait sprays is that control may not be totally adequate at times of extreme pest pressure, especially if re-invasion of the treated areas is continuous, and where the treated area is small in relation to untreated, surrounding areas. • • • Control may also be less effective as the season progresses and populations with females at all stages of sexual maturity develop. Studies have shown that gravid female Queensland fruit flies are less interested in food than in finding suitable egg-laying sites. Additionally, in areas or during periods of high rainfall, significant amounts of bait solution may be washed off tree leaves. Advantages: • • The advantages of protein bait sprays far outweigh the disadvantages. Protein bait sprays are less harmful to beneficial insects, making them suitable for use in IPM programs. Because of the spot spraying technique, there is less insecticide applied to the crop or tree and non-target species have more refuges. • Costs are considerably lower as less material is used per tree or per hectare. In addition, spot spraying is less time consuming than for cover spraying and therefore less demanding of labour. • Farmers may also be able to use simple, inexpensive spraying equipment. Bait sprays are more environmentally sound because of reduced pesticide usage and less risk of spray drift. • Spray applications can be directed on to foliage and away from fruit to minimise fruit residue problems. Reduced pesticide usage and use of coarse sprays at low pressure result in fewer hazards to the spray operator.

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5. MITE SAMPLING

Description: • • • • • • • • • • • • • A subjective assessment of time populations is usually using the means of coping with a large number of samples. The popular host plants of mites are chilly, orchard plants, avocado, and cotton. This method using 5x–10x visor or hand lens, optional (mite brush) and sample vials and label. Apply this method 1 to 3 times per year. Choose 20 trees randomly and pick up 5 leaves each. Rotate leaf sample from north, south, east and west. Use pick Scaffold such as glass plate for gather the mites after brush the mites from the leaf. Leaves are dipped between contra-rotating spiral brushes which dislodge the mites. These then fall on the rotating glass plate coated with a very thin layer of adhesive. It is important that the brushes be set carefully so as to remove the mites without crushing them. Another alternative sampling method is to place on a clean piece of absorbent paper and to squash the mites with a roller. The stains on the paper are then counted and the paper can be kept for checking Use index to calculate disturbance

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Insect Pests Sampling: • Mites

Advantages: • Low of cost

Disadvantages: • The samples not cover the whole population because the high trees leaves on the top might be not in sample.

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6. YELLOW STICKY CARD

Description: • • This trap is for Aphid and Whitefly. Bright yellow, to attract these insects away from your flowers and perennials. Aphid adults are attracted to this colour, and often can be caught before laying their thousands of eggs on the rose or flower bud. Again this trap should be used to lessen the population of insects. • White fly adults are also attracted to this colour. If you suspect white fly, gently shake the plant such as a pelargonium and see if you get a cloud of white insects that fly around the plant. • Tiny white insects, will take flight. Used with Sun spray Ultra Fine oil, or other horticultural oil spray such as Neem oil, will eradicate the white fly, which is one of the toughest insects to eradicate from home gardens. Using the cards will triple the effectiveness of eradication. • Cards come in packages of 5 cards each. Use either card at a distance of 7 square feet or one per bush. Shake plant gently if the insect population is heavy to encourage the attraction to the cards. Lasts all season, even in rain, or until completely coated with insects or dust.

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Insect Pests Sampling: • • • • • Aphids Cabbage root maggots Carrot rust flies Thrips Whitefly

Advantages: • • • Non toxic Withstand from water Monitoring fling insects

Disadvantages: • • • Trap beneficial insect Cost of implement Cost of labour

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7. SWEEP NET CATCHES

Description: • Sweep net are used in many agronomic groups to dislodge arthropod species for collection. Sweep nets are used in alfalfa to sample Egyptian alfalfa weevil larvae, alfalfa caterpillars, and armyworms. • A standard sweep net consist of a cone shaped cloth bag 2 feet(0.6 m) deep fitted into a wire loop15 inches (38 cm) in diameter and attached to a handle 26 inches (65 cm) long. • Using these measurements for all sweep nets help to assure that the area sampled will be consistent. In alfalfa a single sweep consist of 180° are taken when stepping forward. • Sweep may be taken singular visual insects species a series of sweeps count based on an average of insects.

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How to Use This Trap: • Choose the locations for your sweep net experiment. Look for places that have different types of ground cover. It may be that some areas have taller grass than others. • Some places may be drier or wetter than others. Some places may have different plants, or a variety of different plants. Some places might always be in the shade while others are in the bright sunlight. • Measure an area that is one square meter in size for each site that you intend to sweep. Make certain that your sweep net is assembled and ready to go. Bend your coat hanger circle so that there is a flat side to your sweep net. • A good shape is a triangle with the handle extending from one of the points. Practice making a back and forth swing in such a way that the opening of the net is always first to sweep the area. • Pick an area as a control site and practice your sweep net swing. Go back and forth over the area using the motion until you have swept the entire square meter site. At the end, quickly swing the sweep net through the open air to force the captured animals to the bottom of the net. • Immediately grasp the bag about half way up to make sure your captured animals do not escape. The person doing this should be wearing gloves to prevent the rare chance of being stung. • • While another student holds the resealable plastic bag open, place the net over it, loosen your grasp and turn it inside out into the bag. Carefully shake and remove the net from the bag, making certain to seal it so the animals do not escape. You can now repeat steps 5-8 at all of your actual test sites. • Be sure to record the information that is needed to identify each of your test sites on the submittal form. Once you have captured the organisms, you can observe them through the resealable bag and try to identify their species, family and/or class, take a count of each type or group, and determine the stage of their life cycle (pupa, larvae, immature adult, mature adult). • Once you have gathered all of the necessary information, release your animals back into the area where you originally captured them. After group and classroom discussions have occurred, login to enter your data.

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Insect Pests Sampling in Classification Order: • • • • • Hymenoptera Coleoptera Hemiptera Phasmida Lepidoptera

Advantages: • • • • Inexpensive Simple Easy to obtain Effective

Disadvantages: • • Difficult to catches the flying insect Need to long period to catches the insect

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8. MALAISE TRAP

Description: • A Malaise trap is a large, tent-like structure used for trapping flying insects particularly Hymenoptera and Diptera. The trap is made of a material such as terylene netting and can be various colours. • • Insects fly into the tent wall and are funnelled into a collecting vessel attached to highest point. They also catch a great many other flying insects. Malaise traps are generally set out for long periods of time and checked at least weekly, or occasionally every other week. Basically, a malaise trap has two short end walls, one central wall, and a roof, which is only peaked on one end, or in some styles, both ends. • • The walls are generally black and the roof is usually white. Poles, wooden or otherwise, are used to support the trap at each corner and at the peak in front. It is helpful if the front pole is adjustable so that the sample jar may be raised and lowered. The poles are in turn tied to stakes placed in the ground several feet away. • If necessary, the ropes (or strings) may be tied to something. The traps we use are about 5 ft high at the front peak, 4 ft high in the back, about 6 ft long, and 3 feet wide. • They are many variations on this basic design, but you get the picture. Insects hit the middle mesh wall and either fly upward or downward. Those insects that fly upward are funnel to the peak of the trap and eventually find their way into a jar with some sort of killing agent.

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We have found that alcohol works best for us because it preserves the insects over the course of a week well and also aids in keeping the inevitable lepidoptera scales from sticking to all of the other insects in the sample.

• •

Alternatively a dry killing agent such as no-pest strip (vapona) can be used. If using a dry killing agent, one should check the sample more often, even daily. One of the hardest parts of setting a malaise trap up is finding the ideal location and position to maximum the collecting. Typically, they are set up at right angles to an insect flight line.

In some cases this is easy, because there is a natural or artificial open that funnel insects through an area, but in other cases it is very difficult. If a hedge line, or thick forest edge is present, the trap may be placed next to it, especially on the north side of an edge running east to west.

It is recommended that the bottle end be placed nearest the edge, but we have had luck either way. When searching for suitable spots, try to envision what the area will look like at different times of day.

Insect Pests Sampling: • • Hymenoptera Diptera

Advantages: • • Set out for long periods of time Easy to adjustable so that the samples jar may be raised and lowered.

Disadvantages: • Malaise trap have a biggest size and difficult to get the ideal location and position to maximum the collecting of insect.

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9. IMPACTION TRAPS

Description: • • • • • • • Impaction trap also called as cylindrical sticky trap. This trap use to trapped insects on the ground surface This trap is coated with substances that remain sticky over a long period. The catch of certain species may be increased if an attractant is added to the sticky material or the surface is of a particular colour. Banding is smeared on the plastic cover and the cylinder supported on a wooden stake at height of about 1-2 meters. This trap more efficiency which it constants with wind speed. Flat sticky boards also have been used to sample rice crop.

Insect Pests Sampling: • • • • • • Coleopteran: Scolytidae (e.g: bark beetles) Grasshopper nymphs Aphids Bemisia argentifolii Fruitfly Lady beetle

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Advantages: • • • Inexpensive Simple to use More effective if raise above ground level

Disadvantages: • • • They not prevent trapped animals from killing each other. They are fairly non selective Catch size influenced by population sizes, activity levels, weather, size and nature trap.

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10. WATER TRAPS

Description: • • • • • • • • • • • Water trap were used to trap small and flying insect. Water trap was placed in central of row of plant where 1 meter from Pit-fall traps. The trap should be made of shallow containers or plastic buckets. It usually uses an attractive color, preferably white and yellow. The most common modification to water traps is color. Insects, particularly flying insects are differently attracted to a variety color, but most are attracted to bright yellow. As a result water traps are usually colored bright yellow to attract a broad spectrum of low flying insect. Water traps are most effective if suck into the ground flush with top rim of the trap. Water is placed in the trap and liquid detergent is added as a surfactant to break the surface tension of the water causing the insects to drown. The water in the bucket must be changed every week. Salt is added as a preservative.

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Materials: • • • • • • Water traps: plastic bowl or bucket. Dimensions: 273mm diameter x 79mm depth. Color: bright yellow, yellow or white. Pure detergent: unscented liquid dishwashing detergent. Salt Water

Insect Pests Sampling: • • • • • • • • Aphids (e.g : Myzus persicae,Aphis gossypii) Thrips (e.g: Thrips palmi) White fly (e.g: Aleurodicus disperses) Diptera: Housefly (e.g: Musca domestica) Hemiptera: Mealy bug (e.g: Dysmicoccus brevipens) Melon flies (e.g: Bactrocera cucurbitae) Coleoptera: Leaf bettle (e.g: Ephilachna indica) Most Plant Hopper

Advantages: • • • • • Not damage the insects specimen Easy to remove insects specimen Easy to used by farmer More effective if raise above ground level Efficient in the sampling of hymenopteran parasitoids

Disadvantages: • • • • • Easy to overflow if heavy rain occur and dry out in the sun Attracts and kill the beneficial insects. Captures are unreliable as quantities indicators of potential infestation Need more quality water pan trap depend on wide of the area. Only certain insect attract with the color.

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11. SUCTION TRAPS

Description: • This suction trap is based on the original design of Johnson and Taylor (1955). This type of trap is currently used in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in Europe to catch live aphids which may then used for virus transmission tests or in electro-immunophoresis studies. • • • • The insect catch is related to the volume of air sampled to give the aerial density the insects independent of weather condition or time of day. The construction of the suction traps depends on the wind speed and insect size. The catch is segregated at pre-set time intervals (minutes-hours) to show flight periodicity. The suction traps have 2 types of traps:

i)

MOBILE TRAPS

• • • •

Machines have been developed with engine-driven fans to suck insects into a fine mesh net. The knapsack version with a 2-stroke 98cc engine and a centrifugal fan has a large opening up to 35cm diameter which can be placed over plants. The collecting bag is positioned at the opening of the long hose- damp foliage can be sampled without insect being trapped in a water film in the hose. A smaller collecting hose can be used to probe and sample particular sections of a crop canopy of the ground demarcated by a frame. An air velocity at the nozzle needed to high extraction rates.

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• • •

A motorized knapsack mist-blower can be adapted by fitting a hose top the suction side of the fan. May have an electric engine powered by a portable generator. The smallest has batteries as the power source.

ii)

FIXED TRAPS

Small suction traps for catching insects exposed cone type usually has a 30cm fan through which air and insect pass into the cooper gauge cone at the end of which is the connecting tubes.

Smaller fans can be used only in very sheltered sites, as cross-winds significantly reduce the air intake of the fan. The catch can be separated at predetermines time intervals by a disc mechanism.

• • • • •

Other traps with an enclosed cone have been designed so those insects do not pass through the fan. Large suction traps were developed to obtain a sufficiently large sample of air and estimate the aerial density of insects. The number of insect caught id divided by the volume is needed. The 12.2m high Rothamsted suction trap has a centrifugal fan inside a box of 76cm x 3m at the base of a 9m plastic chimney, 25cm diameter. A large wide-mounted cone and the expansion chamber slow down the air speed, which can reach 56km/h with large volumes of air (>2500m3) being sampled.

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Insect Pests Sampling: • • • • Foxglove Aphid (Aulocauthum solani) Green Peach Aphid (myzus percae) Melon or Cotton Aphid (Aphis gossypii) Potato Aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae)

Advantages: • • • • Simple Inexpensive Constantly in most weather and light condition Best current approach for measuring absolute population density

Disadvantages: • • • • Needs an electric power source Less efficient than Malaise trap Less versatile than yellow pan trap Apparatus is usually heavy.

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12. LIGHT TRAPS

R Rothamsted Robinson

Description: •

Light traps make use of a light source to attract night-flying insects. They are especially useful to monitor certain species of moths. Catching moths in the light trap will tell the farmer that is time to start searching for eggs or caterpillars in the field.

Different light sources can be used, ranging from simple oil lamps to different types of electric bulbs. Special light sources called black-light have been developed and are particularly efficient because of the type of light they emit.

They should be considered in situations when other light sources (houses, street lights) are competing with the traps. While the light source attracts the insects, the traps need another device to kill or capture them.

Often this is a container with water that is placed under the light source. The moths that circle around the light will drop in the water and can be counted the next morning. It is recommended to add a bit of soap to the water.

Instead of water, it is also possible to use sticky plates. Light traps are generally used a monitoring tools and will not have much impact as a control measure.

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Daily observation of traps will show that not only pest insects but also some natural enemies may be caught. If the traps appear to kill large numbers of beneficial insects it is better to take out the traps.

Types of Light Traps: i) • • ROTHAMSTED TRAP Originally fitted with a 200 W tungsten lamp. Has a 60cm square roof cover the lamp confining the illumination to a beam, which diverges about 22.5° above the horizontal in all direction.

ii) • •

ROBINSON The first to use ultra violet light. Exposed to a complete hemisphere.

Advantages: • • • • Taken of the attraction of many insect to a light source. Can used with or without a cover but if they are to be operated for several night, covers should be installed to keep out rain. Insects fall directly into a killing jar. Light trap are generally used a monitoring tools and will not have much impacts as control measure. Disadvantages: • That moth within the egg-trays of the metal bin remain the darkness and will be attempting to escape should the lamp be switched off before down.

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13. PHEROMONE TRAPS

Description: • Pheromones can be used as a bait to attract certain insects (especially moths) and catch them in a trap. Usually these traps use a sticky surface to catch the insects, but others use containers filled with water or other liquids to catch them. • Most pheromones are "sex pheromones". These are chemicals released by female moths to attract a male partner. As a consequence the traps will only catch male moths and usually of only one species. To catch other species, different pheromones will have to be used. • Pheromone traps are very useful for monitoring a specific pest species and will often detect low population densities. However, the traps are not very efficient for controlling pests. • A disadvantage of the pheromone traps is that the chemicals are often expensive and not easily available. On the other hand, they have the advantage that they only attract the pest and will not kill beneficial insects. • A type of trap, often used with pheromone baits, is the delta trap. It is a triangular trap, made of plastic or weatherproof card. Insects that fly into the trap are caught on a surface treated with a special type of non-drying glue.

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Insect Pests Sampling: • • • Coleoptera Lepidoptera Hemiptera

Advantages: • • • • • • Environmentally friendly method Easier to operate Attract specific insect Lower cost Safety to human health Minimize the resistance development

Disadvantages: • • This trap can trap the flying insect Only several of insect species attract with the pheromones trap

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14. BLUE STICKY TRAPS

Description: • About 10 X 25 cm blue sticky cards that attractive pest insects (especially effective for catching thrips as they are drawn to the blue colouring). You can identify what type of pests are damaging your plants, approximate infestation, and monitor the progress of your beneficial insects by observing what is caught on these traps. • This trap will collect and diminish the population of thrip on ornamental and flowering plants. You can look for thrip, by turning a leaf over or opening a flower and looking for black sliver like insects moving around, or cream coloured slivers. That is the thrip and the larvae. • In other flowers, you can see the distinct discoloration on the outside petals of the flower. This insect will be attract such flowers as gladiolas, iris, daylilies, and Roses, such ornamental shrubs as Rhododendron, Azalea, English Laurel, ferns and citrus as well as many vegetables. • • This trap attracts this specific insect away from the plants to lessen damage done by Thrip, and also will attract Leafminer. Leafminer is an insect that usually can't be seen, but gets between the layers of a leaf, like Swiss chard, or Artichoke leaves, and makes white trails that can be seen on the leaf. • When the traps are put out early enough in the season, we will greatly reduce the amount of the insect populations. A follow up spray may be needed, but the cards triple the effectiveness at eradicating the insects.

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Insect Pests Sampling: • • Thrips Leafminer

Advantages: • • • Easy to monitor the progress of your beneficial insects by observing what is caught on these traps. Greatly reduce the amount of the insect populations. This trap has greatly colouring to attract the insect pest.

Disadvantages: • • Only small insect trap in this sticky card Not suitable to covered the large area

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15. ATTRACTANT (METHYL EUGENOL)

Description: • Methyl eugenol is a synthetic insect lure which has been used for the following Antifeedant activity toward larvae of Pieris rapae crucivora of phenolethers related to methyl eugenol isolated from Artemisia capillaris. • Methyl eugenol mixed in different ratios with Cuelure is used as an attractant for melon fly (Cadus cucurbitae Coquillett). A mixture of 10% Cuelure and 90% methyl eugenol showed the highest attractant activity and remained effective for >225 days in field tests. • • The tendency of mail Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to re-visit a methyl eugenol source following initial exposure. Eugenol / methyl eugenol containing plant extracts as cockroach attractants. Enhanced durations of residual effectiveness against the oriental fruit fly of guava foliage treated with encapsulated insecticides and encapsulated methyl eugenol. • Efficiency of methyl eugenol as a male attractant for Dacus zonatus (Saunders) Diptera. Male annihilation through mass-trapping of male flies with methyl eugenol to reduce infestation of oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in papaya.

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Influence of seasonal climatic factors on the development of the methyl eugenol response in male Dacus Opiliae. Trappings of the fruit flies, Dacus species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with methyl eugenol in orchards. Influence of age, nutrition and time of day on the responsiveness of male Dacus opiliae to the synthetic lure, methyl eugenol.

Efficacy of methyl eugenol as male attractant for Dacus dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae). Attractancy of synthetic compounds related to methyl eugenol for the oriental fruit fly and the melon fly.

Attractiveness of methyl eugenol to the melon fly in Taiwan. Used of methyl eugenol for attraction and trap of fruit fly.

Insect Pests Sampling: • • Fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, Melon fly

Advantages: • • • Highest attractant activity and remained effective for >225 days in field tests. Reduce pest population rapidly Labour saving tools

Disadvantages: • • • Depends on environmental factors (wind, temperature and rainfall) to spread. Many insect fly and respond to semiochemicals only at certain time (dusk, night) Effective against only one or a few species.

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16. PIT-FALL TRAPS

Description: • • An adapting of hunting techniques that dates back to primitive man. It consists of a plastic cup with a funnel a hole is dug in the ground, the trap is sunk into the soil and the mouth is level with soil surface.

How to Use the Technique: • Dig holes that are the right size for your cups. Put at least 5 pit traps in each habitat. Place 2 cups, one inside the other, in the holes. Make sure the rim of the cup is just below the surface of the soil. • Leave the traps alone for 2-3 days. Empty the traps into plastic bags. Use a separate bag for each trap and label each bag to indicate the location of collection. To empty the trap, take the inside cup out of the second cup, leaving the second cup in the ground to preserve the hole for future use, and turn the cup over in a plastic bag or plastic shoe box. • Discuss the kinds of organisms that are found in the traps, you probably don’t have any butterflies, but do have species that crawl or walk.

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Insect Pests Sampling: • • • • True bug Ants Ground dwelling crickets Carabid beetles

Advantages: • • • • Cheap (empty food or drink containers may be used). Easy and quick to operate. Grid of traps can provide an impressive set of data. Do not kill the animals except inadvertently.

Disadvantages: • • • They not prevent trapped animals from killing each other. They are fairly non selective Catch size influenced by population sizes, activity levels, weather, size and nature trap.

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CONCLUSION

Sampling is necessary in IPM to provide a means of determining the approximate numbers of insects for making IPM decisions. This is absolutely necessary to provide information upon which management decisions can be made. It is necessary to know the insect population levels and the economics levels to make meaningful IPM decisions. Factor such as time requirements make it necessary to establish to most practical sampling technique for each crop. Usually, IPM utilises the simplest sampling methods that provide the quick information needed for insect control decisions. There are four ways of sampling crops for number or their damage: i) ii) iii) iv) Random sampling Sequential sampling Point sampling Trap sampling

Based on the sampling methods above, we should apply the trap technique to estimate the pest population relies on the type insect pest. Difference order or species of insect pest, different technique we should be used. Using the technology and trap we have, we can be successful to estimate the insect pest population to make best decision on the future.

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REFERENCES

   

1. Arbico organics, Pheromones Traps, http://www.arbico-organics.com/insect-

traps-lures-pheremone-lures.html, [Date Access: 10 August 2009]. 2. George Scott & Associates, Insect Light Traps, < http://www.gsaclt.com/insectlighttraps.html>, [Date Access: 9 August 2009]. 3. Santetraps.com, Insect Collection Traps, http://santetraps.com/, [Date Access: 9 August 2009 ]. 4. Wikipedia, Insect Traps, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insect_trap>, [Date Access: 10August 2009].

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