UNIVERSITY O TECHNOLOG MARA OF GY SHAH ALAM CAMPUS H S SELANGOR S

CHAPTER 6 UE MATING “TECHNIQU FOR ESTIM PESTS POPULATION” S
AS220 BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONS) R PLA ANTATION TECH HNOLOGY AND M MANAGEMENT

GROUP 14  G
NAME N MOHAMMAD IZ M ZZAT BIN CHE AB AZIZ MOHD FAHMI B KENI M BIN MOHD FARID N M NAZMI BIN MO OHAMED MATRIX NO O 200842470 02 200841048 82 200841108 88

PR REPARED FOR ASSOC. PRO DR. FAUZIAH ISMAIL OF. H Lecturer Faculty o Applied Scien of nces University of Technology Mara y

Ins sect Pests Sam mpling: • • • • • Descripti ion: An irritant spray is useful alternati to ive shaking especially when large trees y hav to be sampled ve d. Use natural pyreth e hrin or non-res sidual synt thetic pyrethroids, combined with pipe eronyl butoxide. App plied with knapsack mist-blow to wer spra as high as p ay possible into the tree e canopy. A la arge area under the tree should be cover with white big cloth. g Suff ficient time sho ould be allowed for the entire insect to fall. • • • Fruit fly Gold dust wee evil Chafer beetle

KNOCK DOWN  K  SAMPLING 

Disadvantage es: • • • Colle ected of inse ect should be e quick after its fall d kly down Expe ensive equipment Need many labors. d • • • • Advantag ges: Easy to identif the insects fy Suitable for th large trees he Easy to get the sample of insects. e. Saving of time

Insect Pests Samplin ng: •
• Description: Crop inspection is a re egular inspection by g s walking through crops to examine the status of insect pest it a also to assess plant opment and monit toring pest level. develo The ex xperiment will be done during the 2nd r and 3rd on growing se eason at the stat tion and for two seasons at field. r Crops were selected a and monitored da aily sitoids or larvae. for emergence of paras xample, if the cabbage plant we ere For ex infecte by aphid and the population sco ed ore is not exceeding score number 3 (seve e eral es), we must de ecided what control colonie method should be used to control this pe d d est. Estima ated based o on the follow wing popula ation score: (1:no aphid, 2: a few, 3: o severa colonies, 4: half of leaves is inf al fest with Aphid and 5: Whole leaves covered A by pow wdery or sooty mo ould

Ap phids

• • •

CROP INSP PECTION 

Disadvantages s: • • • This me ethod takes a l long of time to get a result. Experim mental error. Need a lot of money

Advantages: nsect can • The population of in be m measured and control method will be determ d mined. • The status of insect p population and t the infection will be examin ned. • Types of damage will be determ mined.

Insec Pest Sampling: ct • • Description: The ba was a molas ait sses or sugar solution and the toxicant was n usually a stomach pois y son The pr rotein bait acts as a food s attracta ant and its effectiveness relies on the fact th hat immature females need a prot s tein meal for develop ping mature egg gs. The bait spray resi idue on the foliage is ingested by the flies and kills the em. Overall coverage o the tree l of canopy is unnecessar and a ‘spot y ry sprayin technique' is adequate. ng ocera Fruit fly (Bactro facialis) • Bactrocera trilineola blique • Bactrocera ob •

• •

BAIT SPRAY Y 

• • • •

Disadvantag ges:
Control may not be totally adequate at tim of mes e extreme pest pressure. Less ef ffective as the se eason progresse and es populat tions with fema ales at all stages of sexual maturity develop. m . Gravid female Queensla and fruit flies are less e ted in e interest in food than i finding suitable egglaying sites. s During periods of hig rainfall, sign gh nificant ts amount of bait solution may be washed off tree lea aves.

• • • • • •

Adv vantages: Less harmfu to beneficial ins ul sects Costs are lower as less m material is ee used per tre or per hectare. Less time consuming a and less of demanding o labor. Simple to us se More enviro onmentally sound because of reduced p pesticide usage Minimize fru residue problem uit ms. Reduced pe esticide usage.

Insect Pests S Sampling:
• • • • • • • • • • • Descrip ption: This me ethod using 5x–10x visor or hand lens, optional (mite br rush) and sample vials and label. Apply th method 1 to 3 times per year. his Choose 20 trees random and pick up 5 leaves each. e mly Rotate leaf sample from north, south, eas and west. st ck for Use pic Scaffold such as glass plate f gather the mites af brush the mite from the leaf. fter es Leaves are dipped be etween contra-ro otating spiral the brushes which dislodge t mites. These then fall on the ro t otating glass plat coated with te a very th layer of adhes hin sive. It is imp portant that the br rushes be set car refully so as to remove the mites without crushing them. Another alternative sampling method is to place on a r clean piece of absorbe paper and to squash the p ent o mites with a roller. ains on the pape are then counted and the er The sta paper ca be kept for checking an Use index to calculate disturbance

Mites

M MITE SAMPLIN NG 

Disadvantag ges: • The samples not cover the who e ole pop pulation because the high trees lea aves on the top might be not in p sam mple. • •

Advantages:
Low of cost High labour need

• • • • • • •

Desc cription: Bright yellow, to attract insects away from flowers an nd nials. perenn Aphid adults are attrac cted to this colour and often can b r, be ht ggs r caugh before laying eg on the flower bud. Again this trap should be used to lessen the population of s. insects Gently shake the plan such as a pelar nt rgonium and see if e et e around the plant. you ge a cloud of white insects that fly a Used with Sun spray Ultra Fine oil or Neem oil w y will cate the white fl using the ca ly, ards will triple th he eradic effectiveness of eradica ation. ch. ard Cards come in packages of 5 cards eac Use either ca at a distance of 7 square feet or one per bush. Shake plant gently if the insect popu e ulation is heavy to encou urage the attractio to the cards. on

Inse Pests Samp ect pling: • A Aphids • C Cabbage root m maggots • C Carrot rust flies • T Thrips • W Whitefly

YEL LLOW STICKY   CARD 

• • •

Disad dvantages: Trap beneficial insec ct Cost of implement Cost of labour • • • Advan ntages: Non toxic from water Withstand f Monitoring fling insects

• •

Descrip ption:
This method is mu like sweeping. uch A sampling tray is held horizontally be eneath plant folia and the foliag age ge ab bove is struck sha arply a standard number of times (2 to 5) wi a short stick or the f ith ot ther hand. The tray may be one square foot in surface rea as ch ar or as small a 5 inch or 6 inc circle (p plastic disposable pie plates hav often e ve be used). een Arthropods fallin A ng to the tra ay are im mmediately col llected before them es scapes, so a po ooter (a small de evice for su ucking insects int a tube) is usefu to ul. This process re epeated several times round the periphe or the plant. ery ar An attempt is made to standard A dize the de ensity of foliage b beaten.

In nsect Pests Sam mpling: • Aphids • Bugs • Thrips • Spider mites

• •

SHAKING &  & BEATING 

• • •

Disadvantag ges: This method is applicable only on sm mall scale e This method requires repeated applic cation Time and labour requirements is hig gh.

• • •

Advanta ages: Cost required is very less d There are no any side effect o t Skilled labou are not urs required.

    How to Use This Trap:  sweep net consist of a cone shaped  cloth bag 2 feet(0.6 m) deep fitted    into a wire loop15 inches (38 cm) in    diameter and attached to a handle  26 inches (65 cm) long. 

WEEP NET CATCHES 

                     

Sweep may be taken singular visual  insects species a series of sweeps  count based on an average of  insects. 

Choose  the  locations,  Measure  an  area  that  is  one  square  meter  in  size  for  each  site  that  you  intend  to  sweep.  Pick  an  area  as  a  control  site  and  practice  your  sweep  net  swing.  Immediately grasp the bag about half  way  up  to  make  sure  your  captured  animals do not escape. While another  student  holds  the  resealable  plastic  bag open, place the net over it, loosen  your  grasp  and  turn  it  inside  out  into  the bag.  

Insect Pests Sampling in  Classification Order:  •  •  •  • Hymenoptera  Coleoptera  Hemiptera  Phasmida Advantages:  •  •  •  • Inexpensive   Simple  Easy to obtain  Effective Disadvantages:  •Difficult to catches the flying  insect  •Need to long period to catches  the insect

                             

  

MALAISE TRAP 
• A Malaise trap is a large; the trap is made of  a  material  such  as  terylene  netting  and  can  be  various  colours.  Malaise  traps  are  generally  set  out  for  long  periods  of  time  and checked at least weekly, or occasionally  every  other  week.    The  walls  are  generally  black  and  the  roof  is  usually  white.  Poles,  wooden  or  otherwise,  are  used  to  support  the  trap  at  each  corner  and  at  the  peak  in  front. The traps we use are about 5 ft high at  the front peak, 4 ft high in the back, about 6  ft long, and 3 feet wide. It is recommended  that  the  bottle  end  be  placed  nearest  the  edge,  but  we  have  had  luck  either  way.  When  searching  for  suitable  spots,  try  to  envision  what  the  area  will  look  like  at  different times of day. 

Insect Pests Sampling:  •Hymenoptera  •Diptera  Advantages:  •Set out for long periods of  time  •Easy to adjustable so that  the samples jar may be  raised and lowered.  Disadvantages: 

•  Malaise trap  have a biggest size and  difficult to get the ideal  location and position to  maximum the collecting  of insect.

                             
Insect Pests Sampling:  • • • • • • Coleopteran:  Scolytidae  (e.g:  bark  beetles)  Grasshopper nymphs  Aphids  Bemisia argentifolii  Fruitfly  Lady beetle  Advantages: • • use  • More  effective  if  raise  Inexpensive  Simple  to  • Disadvantages: • They not prevent trapped  animals from killing each other.  They are fairly non selective  Catch size influenced by  population sizes, activity levels,  weather, size and nature trap.

Description: 
Impaction  trap  also  called  as  cylindrical  sticky  trap.  This  trap  use  to  trapped  insects  on  the  ground  surface.  This  trap  is  coated  with  substances that remain over a long period. The catch of certain species  may be increased if an attractant is added to the sticky material or the  surface is of a particular color. Banding is smeared on the plastic cover  and  the  cylinder  supported on  a  wooden stake  at  height  of  about 1‐2  meters.  This  trap  more  efficiency  which  it  constants  with  wind  speed.  Flat sticky boards also have been used to sample rice crop. 

   IMPACTION TRAPS 

 

 Materials: 
Insect Pests Sampling:

   

• • • • •

Water traps: plastic bowl or bucket.  Dimensions:  273mm  diameter  x  79mm  depth.  Color: bright yellow, yellow or white.  Pure  detergent:  unscented  liquid  • • Aphids   Thrips   White fly   Diptera  Hemiptera:  bug   • • Melon flies   Coleoptera:  bettle  Leaf  Mealy 

            WATER TRAPS 

• • •

dishwashing detergent.  Salt 

Advantages:  •Not damage the insects specimen  •Easy to remove insects specimen  •Easy to used by farmer  •More effective if raise above ground level  •Efficient in the sampling of hymenopteran 
• • • Disadvantages: • Easy to overflow if heavy rain occur and dry  out in the sun  Attracts and kill the beneficial insects.   Captures  are  unreliable  as  quantities  indicators of potential infestation  Need  more  quality  water  pan  trap  depend  on wide of the area.

• •

 

• •

Machines have engine-driven fans to suck a insects into a fine mesh net. ck e The knapsac with a 2-stroke 98cc engine and a centrif fugal fan 35cm di iameter which can be placed over plants. d The collectin bag is positi ng ioned at the opening of th long hose- dam foliage can he mp be sampled without insect being trapped in a w g water film in the hose. A motorized knapsack mist-bl lower can be adapted by fitting a hose top th suction side he of the fan. Electric eng gine powered by a portable y generator.

• • •

MOBILE  TRAPS 

FIXED  TRAPS 

Small suction traps for catch n hing insects exposed cone type usually has a 30cm fan e through which air and insect pa into the h ass cooper gauge cone at the end of which is e the connecting tubes. g Other traps w with an enclosed cone have been designed so those insects do not pass an. through the fa The number o insect caught id divided by of d the volume is needed. The 12.2m h high Rothamsted s suction trap has a centrifugal fan inside a bo of 76cm x ox 3m at the ba ase of a 9m plast chimney, tic 25cm diamete er.

SUCTION TRAP S PS 
• • • • • • Disa advantages: Needs an electric power source e Less efficie than Malaise trap ent Less versa atile than yellow p trap pan Apparatus is usually heavy. . • • Insect Pests Sam mpling: Foxglove Aphid d (Aulocauthum s solani) Green Peach A Aphid (myzus percae) n Melon or Cotton Aphid (Aphis gossypii i) Potato Aphid (M Macrosiphum euphorbiae)

• • • •

Advantages: Sim mple Ine expensive Constantly in most weather and ht ligh condition Best current ap pproach for easuring absolute population me den nsity

 

Description: •

About 10 X 25 cm blue sticky cards that attractive pest insects (especially

effective for catching thrips as they are drawn to the blue colouring).

Insect pest sampling: • • Thrips Leafminer

Approximate infestation, and monitor the progress of your beneficial insects by observing what is caught on these traps.

Advantages: •

Easy to monitor the progress of your beneficial insects by Disadvantages: • • Only small insect trap in this sticky card Not suitable to covered the large area

observing what is caught on these traps. • • Greatly reduce the amount of the insect populations. This trap has greatly colouring to attract the insect pest.

 

Description: Light traps make use of a light source to attract night-flying insects. They are especially useful to monitor certain species of moths. Catching moths in the light trap will tell the farmer that is time to start searching for eggs or caterpillars in the field.

1. • •

ROTHAMSTED TRAP Originally fitted with a 200 W tungsten lamp. 60cm square roof cover the lamp confining the illumination to a beam, which diverges about 22.5° above direction. the horizontal in all

2. Advantages:
• • Taken of the attraction of many insect to a light source. Can used with or without a cover but if they are to be operated for several night, covers should be installed to keep out rain. • Insects fall directly into a killing jar.

ROBINSON The first to use ultra violet light. Exposed to a

complete hemisphere

Disadvantages: • That moth within the egg-trays of the metal bin remain the darkness and will be attempting to escape should the lamp be switched off before down.

Methyl eugenol mixed in different ratios with Cuelure is used as an attractant for melon fly (Cadus cucurbitae Insect pest sampling: •

 

Coquillett). A mixture of 10% Cuelure and 90% methyl eugenol showed the highest attractant activity and remained effective for >225 days in field tests. Fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel,

Melon fly

Advantages: Disadvantages: • •

Highest

attractant

activity

and

remained effective for >225 days Depends on environmental factors (wind, temperature and rainfall) to spread. • Many insect fly and respond to semiochemicals only at certain time (dusk, night) • Effective against only one or a few species. • • in field tests. Reduce pest population rapidly Labour saving tools

Description:

   

Pheromones used as a bait to attract certain insects (especially moths) and catch them in a trap. This traps use a sticky surface to catch the insects, but others use containers filled with water or other liquids to catch them. Most pheromones are "sex pheromones". These are chemicals

Insect pest sampling: • • • Coleoptera Lepidoptera Hemiptera

released by female moths to attract a male partner.

Disadvantages:
Advantages: • • • • • • • The chemicals and are not often easily

Environmentally friendly method Easier to operate Attract specific insect Lower cost Safety to human health Minimize the resistance development •

expensive available.

Not very efficient for controlling pests.

Insect pest sampling:

     

Description: • • An adapting of hunting techniques that dates back to primitive man. It consists of a plastic cup with a funnel a hole is dug in the ground, the trap is sunk into the soil and the mouth is level with soil surface.

• • • •

True bug Ants Ground dwelling crickets Carabid beetles • • • Advantages: • Cheaps (empty food or drink containers may be used). Easy and quick to operate. Grid of traps can provide an impressive set of data. Do not kill the animals except inadvertently.

Disadvantages: • • • How to use: They not prevent trapped animals from killing each other. They are fairly non selective Catch size influenced by population sizes, activity levels, weather, size and nature trap. Dig holes that are the right size for your cups. Put at least 5 pit traps in each habitat. Place 2 cups, one inside the other, in the holes. Make sure the rim of the cup is just below the surface of the soil. Leave the traps alone for 2-3 days. Empty the traps into plastic bags.

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