You are on page 1of 78

Chapter 3

Prerequisite Skills (p. 150)

7. A system of linear equations can have either none, one,

1. The linear inequality that represents the graph shown at


3
the right is y < 2}4 x 1 3.
2. The graph of a linear inequality in two variables is the set

of all points in a coordinate plane that are solutions of the


inequality.
3. x 1 y 5 4

or innitely many solutions.


3.1 Guided Practice (pp. 153155)
1. 3x 1 2y 5 24

2y 5 23x 2 4

3y 5 1 2 x

3
y 5 2}2 x 2 2

4. y 5 3x 2 3

x 1 3y 5 1

1
x

21

y 5 }3 2 }3 x

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(22, 1).

22

1
x

21

5. 22x 1 3y 5 212

y
x

21

Check:
3x 1 2y 5 24

x 1 3y 5 1

3(22) 1 2(1) 0 24

22 1 3(1) 0 1

26 1 2 0 24

22 1 3 0 1
151

24 5 24
The solution is (22, 1).
6. 2x 2 12 5 16

7. 23x 2 7 5 12

2x 5 28

23x 5 19

2. 4x 2 5y 5 210

4
5

x 5 2}
3

5 5 4x 2 5

y
1

21

10 5 4x
Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

2
7

5
2

}5x

4
7

}x 2 } 5 y

9. y 2x 1 2

8. 22x 1 5 5 2x 2 5

2x 2 4 5 7y

}x 1 2 5 y

19

x 5 14

2x 2 7y 5 4

4x 1 10 5 5y

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(25, 22).

1
x

21

10. x 1 4y < 216

y < 2}4 x 2 4

4x 2 5y 5 210

2x 2 7y 5 4

11. 3x 1 5y > 25

4(25) 2 5(22) 0 210

2(25) 2 7(22) 0 4

220 1 10 0 210

210 1 14 0 4

y > 2}5 x 2 1
1

22

Check:

The solution is (25, 22).

x
22

454

210 5 210
3. 8x 2 y 5 8
x

3x 1 2y 5 216

y 5 8x 2 8

2y 5 23x 2 16
3

y 5 2}2 x 2 8

Lesson 3.1
Investigating Algebra Activity 3.1 (p. 152)

22

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(0, 28).

1. y1 5 y2 5 3 when x 5 21. The solution is (21, 3).


2. no solution; There are no values of x where y1 5 y2.
3. y1 5 y2 5 5 when x 5 2. The solution is (2, 5).
4. no solution; There are no values of x where y1 5 y2.

Check:
8x 2 y 5 8

3x 1 2y 5 216

5. y1 5 y2 5 2 when x 5 21. The solution is (21, 2).

8(0) 2 (28) 0 8

3(0) 1 2(28) 0 216

01808

0 2 16 0 216

6. y1 5 y2 for all values of x. There are innitely many

solutions.

858

216 5 216

The solution is (0, 28).

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 115

115

6/27/06 9:46:41 AM

Chapter 3,
4.

continued

2x 1 5y 5 6

3.1 Exercises (pp. 156158)

4x 1 10y 5 12

Skill Practice
1

2x 1 5y 5 6
1

1. A consistent system that has exactly one solution is

called independent.

4x 1 10y 5 12

2. If the two lines intersect at one point, then the solution

is the point of intersection. If the two lines are parallel,


there is no solution. If the two lines coincide then there
are infinitely many solutions.
Each point on the line is a solution, and the system has
infinitely many solutions. The system is consistent
and dependent.
5. 3x 2 2y 5 10

3.
1

3x 2 2y 5 2

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(1, 21).

21

1
1

3x 2 2y 5 2

3x 2 2y 5 10

The two lines have no point of intersection, so the system


has no solution. The system is inconsistent.
6. 22x 1 y 5 5

y 5 23x 1 2
21 0 23(1) 1 2

y 5 2x 2 3
21 0 2(1)23

21 0 23 1 2

21 0 2 2 3

21 5 21

21 5 21

The solution is (1, 21).


4.

21

22x 1 y 5 5

y 5 2x 1 2

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(21, 23).

(21, 3)
y 5 2x 1 2
1

y 5 5x 1 2

The lines intersect at (21, 3), so (21, 3) is the solution.


The system is consistent and independent.
7. y 5 1 p x 1 36

y 5 2.5x

23 0 3(21)
23 5 23

23 5 23
The solution is (21, 23).

y 5 2.5 p x

y 5 x 1 36

y 5 3x

23 0 5(21) 1 2
23 0 25 1 2

5.

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(4, 21).

Total cost (dollars)

y
1
60 y 5 x 1 36

(24, 60)

21

y 5 2.5x

20
0

y 5 2x 1 3
0

10

20

30

21 0 2(4) 1 3
21 0 24 1 3

40 x

Number of rides

The lines appear to intersect at (24, 60).

21 5 21

Check:

The solution is (4, 21).

y 5 x 1 36

y 5 2.5x

60 0 24 1 36

60 0 2.5(24)

60 5 60

60 5 60

The total costs are equal after 24 rides. If the monthly


pass is increased to $36, it will take longer for both
options to cost the same.

116

40

2x 2 3y 5 21
2(4) 2 3(21) 0 21
24 1 3 0 21
21 5 21

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 116

6/28/06 2:29:33 PM

Chapter 3,
6.

continued
From the graph, the lines
appear to intersect at
(6, 22).

y
2

10.

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(26, 5).

21

1
21

x 1 2y 5 2
6 1 2(22) 0 2

x 2 4y 5 14
6 2 4(22) 0 14

62402

6 1 8 0 14

252

y 5 23x 2 13
5 0 23(26) 2 13

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(5, 0).

11.

y
1
x

x 2 7y 5 6

x 2 4y 5 5
5 2 4(0) 0 5

0 0 10 2 10

y 5 }7 2 }7

The graphs of the equations are the same line. Each


point on the line is a solution. There are innitely many
solutions.

The solution is (5, 0).


From the graph, the lines
appear to intersect at
(12, 0).

21y 5 3x 2 18

6
x
y5}
2 }7
7

555

23x 1 21y 5 218

7y 5 6 2 x

52005

050

12.

y
3

22

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

24 5 24

The solution is (26, 5).

21

y 5 2x 2 10
0 0 2(5) 2 10

8.

6 2 10 0 24

555

21

2x 2 2y 5 24
2(26)22(5) 0 24

5 0 18 2 13

14 5 14

The solution is (6, 22).


7.

22

2x 1 6y 5 212

x 1 6y 5 12

2(12) 1 6(0) 0 212


212 1 0 0 212

12 1 6(0) 0 12

y 5 4x 1 3

25y 5 215 2 20x

12 1 0 0 12

212 5 212

y 5 4x 1 3

12 5 12

The graphs of the equations are the same line.


Each point on the line is a solution, so there are innitely
many solutions.

The solution is (12, 0).


9.

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(22, 4).

13.

y 5 23x 2 2
4 0 23(22) 2 2
40622
454
The solution is (22, 4).

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(3.5, 2.2).

1
21

20x 2 5y 5 215

21

5x 1 2y 5 22
5(22) 1 2(4) 0 22

4x 2 5y 5 3
4(3.5) 2 5(2.2) 0 3

3x 1 2y 5 15
3(3.5) 1 2(2.2) 0 15

210 1 8 0 22

14 2 11 0 3

10.5 1 4.4 0 15

22 5 22

14.9 15

353
The solution is approximately (3.5, 2.2).

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 117

117

6/28/06 2:30:13 PM

Chapter 3,
14.

continued

21

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(22, 23).

18.

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(3, 2).

(3, 2)
1
1

x 2 2y 5 21

7x 1 y 5 217
7(22) 1 (23) 0 217

3x 2 10y 5 24
3(22) 2 10(23) 0 24

214 2 3 0 217

26 1 30 0 24

2x 2 y 5 4

24 5 24

217 5 217

2x 2 y 5 4

x 2 2y 5 21

2(3) 2 2 0 4
62204

3 2 2(2) 0 21
3 2 4 0 21

The solution is (22, 23).


15. C;

454

y
1

24x 2 y 5 2
1

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(1, 26).

21 5 21

The solution is (3, 2). The system is consistent and


independent.
19.

7x 1 2y 5 25

(1, 26)

y 5 3x 1 2
1

y 5 3x 2 2

24x 2 y 5 2
24(1) 2 (26) 0 2

7x 1 2y 5 25
7(1) 1 2(26) 0 25

24 1 6 0 2

7 2 12 0 25

252

y 5 3x 1 2

25 5 25

The graphs of the equations are two parallel lines.


The system has no solution. The system is inconsistent.

The solution is (1, 26).


16. The student did not check the solution in the second

y 5 3x 2 2

20.

equation.
x 1 2y 5 6
0 1 2(21) 0 6

01202

22 6

26x 1 3y 5 23

1
1

y 5 2x 2 1

252
The solution is not (0, 21).
17.

3x 1 y 5 5

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(2, 21).

y 5 21

(2, 21)

21 5 21

3x 1 y 5 5
3(2) 1 (21) 0 5
62105
555

The solution is (2, 21). The system is consistent and


independent.

118

3y 5 6x 2 3
The graphs of the equations are the same line.
The system has innitely many solutions.
The system is consistent and dependent.

y 5 21

26x 1 3y 5 23
y 5 2x 2 1

1
1

y 5 2x 2 1

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

3x 2 2y 5 2
3(0) 2 2(21) 0 2

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 118

6/27/06 9:47:09 AM

Chapter 3,
21.

continued
24.

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(23, 3).

4x 1 5y 5 3
5x 2 3y 5 6

1
2

(23, 3)

220x 1 12y 5 224

220x 1 12y 5 224


12y 5 20x 2 24

23y 5 25x 1 6

5
y 5 }3 x 2 2

y 5 }3x 2 2

3x 2 5y 5 25
(5, 4)
2

4x 1 5y 5 3

6x 1 9y 5 9

4(23) 1 5(3) 0 3
212 1 15 0 3

6(23) 1 9(3) 0 9
218 1 27 0 9

5x 2 3y 5 6

21

The graphs of the equations are the same line.


The system has innitely many solutions.
The system is consistent and dependent.
22.

6x 1 9y 5 9

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(5, 4).

353

959

The solution is (23, 3).


The system is consistent and independent.
25.

5x 2 2y 5 17

1
1

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(3, 21).

(3, 21)

4x 2 5y 5 0
1

8x 1 9y 5 15

4x 2 5y 5 0
4(5) 2 5(4) 0 0

3x 2 5y 5 25
3(5) 2 5(4) 0 25

20 2 20 0 0

15 2 20 0 25

050
Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

15 1 2 0 17

26.

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(8, 22).

2 1 x 1 2y 5 22
4

(2, 0) x

2x 1 9y 5 4

17 5 17

The system is consistent and independent.

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(2, 0).

24 2 9 0 15
The solution is (3, 21).

The solution is (5, 4).


y

5x 2 2y 5 17
5(3) 2 2(21) 0 17

15 5 15

25 5 25

The system is consistent and independent.


23.

8x 1 9y 5 15
8(3) 1 9(21) 0 15

(8, 22)

3x 1 7y 5 6

1
x
2

3x 1 7y 5 6
3(2) 1 7(0) 0 6

2x 1 9y 5 4
2(2) 1 9(0) 0 4

61006

41004

656

454

2 3y 5 10

1
2

1
4

} x 2 3y 5 10

} x 1 2y 5 22

} (8) 2 3(22) 0 10

} (8) 1 2(22) 0 22

4 1 6 0 10

2 2 4 0 22

1
2

1
4

10 5 10

22 5 22

The solution is (2, 0).

The solution is (8, 22).

The system is consistent and independent.

The system is consistent and independent.

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 119

119

6/28/06 2:30:51 PM

Chapter 3,
27.

continued
31.

3x 2 2y 5 215

22
2

5 25

y 5 x 1 2
x 2 }3 y 5 25

32.

2
2}3 y 5 2x 2 5
3
15
y 5 }2 x 1 }
2

22y 5 23x 2 15
3

There is no solution.

3x 2 2y 5 215

15

y 5 }2 x 1 }
2

y
5
x
2

2 y 5 24
1

5x 2 2y 5

1
4

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(2.5, 1.5).

21

The graphs of the equations are the same line.


The system has innitely many solutions.
The system is consistent and dependent.
28.

y5x

y 5 x 2 1

y 5 2x 1 4

1.5 0 2.5 2 1
1.5 0 1.5

1.5 0 22.5 1 4
1.5 5 1.5

1.5 5 1.5
The solution is (2.5, 1.5).
33.

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(24, 2) and (4, 2).

1
22

5
2

5x 2 2y 5 }4

} x 2 y 5 24

2y 5 2}2 x 2 4

22y 5 25x 1 }4

y 5 }2 x 1 4

y 5 }2 x 2 }8

The graphs of the equations are parallel lines.


The system has no solution, so it is inconsistent.
29. A;

y 5 x 22
2 0 24 2 2

y52
252

20422
252
2 0 4 2 2
20422
252

3x 1 4y 5 26
1

The solutions are (24, 2) and (4, 2).


1

34. a. The system is consistent and independent when a c.


b. The system is consistent and dependent when a 5 c

and b 5 d.

212x 1 16y 5 10

c. The system is inconsistent when a 5 c and b d.

3x 1 4y 5 26

There is exactly one solution of the system.


The system is consistent and independent.
30. a. Sample answer:

3x 1 2y 5 9

Problem Solving
35. Let x 5 hrs as lifeguard.

Let y 5 hrs as cashier.

2x 1 y 5 5
b. Sample answer:

3x 2 y 5 2
26x 1 2y 5 10

c. Sample answer:

8x 1 6y 5 96

2x 2 3y 5 4
24x 1 6y 5 28

120

x 1 y 5 14

You worked 6 hours as a


lifeguard and 8 hours as a
cashier last week.

Hours as a cashier

212x 1 16y 5 10

y
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

(6, 8)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 x
Hours as a lifeguard

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

x2

2
y
3

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 120

6/27/06 9:47:29 AM

continued

36. Let x 5 warnings.

y 1 37 5 x

contained in the data set, but eventually the swimming


times will start leveling off as swimmers approach
the maximum swimming speed for a human. So, it is
not reasonable to assume that the winning times will
continue to decrease indenitely at the given rates.

x 1 y 5 375

320
Number of tickets

x 1 y 5 375

d. No. The lines may be good models for the years

Let y 5 speeding tickets.

240

(206, 169)

120
80

40. a. Distance

y 1 37 5 x

The state trooper issued


206 warnings and 169
speeding tickets.

0
0

80
160 240 320
Number of warnings

from
park(ft)
d

37. Let y 5 total cost (in dollars).

Option A: y 5 121 1 x
Option B: y 5 12x

Total cost (dollars)

Let x 5 days.

y
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0

y 5 12x

0 5 5000 2 25t
25t 5 5000

y 5 121 1 x

t 5 200
x

Cost (dollars)

2000
1000

d 5 3000 2 15t
0

50

(200, 0)

100 150 200


Time (seconds)

Your friend travels at a speed of 15 feet per second.

(60, 3600)

c. An equation for your friends distance is

d 5 3000 2 15t.

2000

Mixed Review

1000

41. 8x 1 1 5 3x 2 14

8x 5 3x 2 15

20
40
60
80 x
Number of years

In 60 years the total costs of owning the refrigerators


will be equal.

5x 5 215
x 5 23
42. 24(x 1 3) 5 5x 1 9

c. No. It is not likely that the refrigerators would be in

24x 2 12 5 5x 1 9

use for 60 years. You can conclude that, for the life of
the refrigerators, the cost of owning refrigerator A will
always be less than the cost of owning refrigerator B.

24x 2 21 5 5x
221 5 9x
7

39. a. m 5 20.09583x 1 50.84 (Men)

2}3 5 x

b. w 5 20.1241x 1 57.08 (Women)


Winning times (seconds)

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

d 5 5000 2 25t

3000

r 5 15

3000

y
64

women

men
The lines appear
to intersect at
(220.7, 29.7).
0

4000

0 5 3000 2 r (200)

Refrigerator B: y 5 1200 1 40x

56
48
40
32
24
16
8
0

Use the verbal model from part (a) to write the


equation d 5 3000 2 rt for your friends distance d
from the park after t seconds, where r represents your
friends speed. Let d 5 0 and t 5 200 and solve for r.

Let x 5 years since purchase.

c.

d
5000

Refrigerator A: y 5 600 1 50x

25

b. Let d 5 0 to nd when you reach the park.

(11, 132)

38. a. Let y 5 total cost (in dollars).

y
4000

5000

An equation is d 5 5000 2 25t.

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
The plans are equal
Number of days
when used for 11 days.
If the daily cost of Option B increases, the plans
will be equal in fewer days. The graph of the new
option B equation will be the rotation of y 5 12x
counterclockwise and the x-intersection with the
graph of the option A equation will be less than 11.

b.

Total
Time
Speed
5 distance 2
p
(sec)
(ft/sec)
(ft)

Distance from park (feet)

Chapter 3,

You can predict that the


womens performance
will catch up to the mens
performance about 221
years after 1972, or in
2193.

43.

x125}
x 2 }4
2
13

13
4

1
2

x1}
5 }2 x
4
} 5 }x

13
2

}5x

80
160 240 320 x
Years since 1972

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 121

121

6/27/06 9:47:37 AM

Chapter 3,

continued
3.1 Graphing Calculator Activity (p. 159)

44. x 2 18 5 9

x 2 18 5 9

or x 2 18 5 29

x 5 27 or

1. The solution is about (2.3,20.3).

x59

2. The solution is about (2.71, 9.57).

45. 2x 1 5 5 12

3. The solution is about (11.08, 16.25).

2x 1 5 5 12 or 2x 1 5 5 212
7
x 5 }2

or

2x 5 217

or

17
x 5 2}
2

4. The solution is (24,243).


5. The solution is about (251.43, 26.14).
6. The solution is about (212.21, 1.97).
7. Let x 5 days in San Antonio.

46. 5x 2 18 5 17

Let y 5 say in Dallas.

5x 2 18 5 17 or 5x 2 18 5 217
5x 5 35 or

5x 5 1

x 5 7 or

x 5 }5

x1y57
275x 1 400y 5 2300

47. 3x 2 2y 5 8

Using a graphing calculator, the solution is (4, 3).


You should spend 4 days in San Antonio and 3 days
in Dallas.

48. 25x 1 y 5 212

22y 5 23x 1 8

y 5 5x 2 12

3
y 5 }2 x 2 4

8. Let x 5 number of adult tickets sold.

Let y 5 number of child tickets sold.

When x 5 9:

When x 5 22:

x 1 y 5 800

y 5 5(9) 2 12

y 5 }2 (22) 2 4

y 5 45 2 12

y 5 23 2 4

y 5 33

7x 1 5y 5 4600
Using a graphing calculator, the solution is (300, 500).
The movie theater admitted 300 adults and 500 children
that day.

y 5 27
49. 8x 2 3y 5 10

Lesson 3.2

50. 8x 2 2y 5 7

23y 5 28x 1 10

22y 5 28x 1 7

8
10
y 5 }3 x 2 }
3

3.2 Guided Practice (pp. 161163)

7
y 5 4x 2 }2

When x 5 8:

1. 4x 1 3y 5 22

x 1 5y 5 29 x 5 29 2 5y

When x 5 21:

10

64

y 5 4(21) 2 }2

10

4x 1 3y 5 22
4(29 2 5y) 1 3y 5 22

y5}
2}
3
3

y 5 24 2 }2

y 5 18

15
y 5 2}
2

51. 16x 1 9y 5 224

236 2 20y 1 3y 5 22
217y 5 34
y 5 22

52. 212x 1 9y 5 260

9y 5 216x 2 24

9y 5 12x 2 60

16
8
y 5 2}
x 2 }3
9

20
4
y 5 }3 x 2 }
3

When x 5 26:

When y 5 22:
x 5 29 2 5y
x 5 29 2 5(22)
x 5 29 1 10

When x 5 27:

16

y 5 2}
(26) 2 }3
9
32

When x 5 29 2 5y:

y 5 }3 (8) 2 }
3

20

y 5 }3 (27) 2 }
3
28

20

y5}
2 }3
3

y 5 2}
2}
3
3

y58

y 5 216

5
53. C 5 } (F 2 32)
9
5

C 5 }9 (101 2 32)

x51
The solution is (1, 22).
Check: 4x 1 3y 5 22
4(1) 1 3(22) 0 22
4 2 6 0 22
22 5 22

x 1 5y 5 29
1 1 5(22) 0 29
1 2 10 0 29
29 5 29

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

2x 5 7

C 5 }9 (69)
115

C5}
38.3
3
Your dogs temperature is about 38.38C. Your dog does
not have a fever.

122

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 122

6/27/06 9:47:41 AM

Chapter 3,

continued
33

2. 3x 1 3y 5 215

5x 2 9y 5 3

9x 1 9y 5 245
5x 2 9y 5 3
14x

When y 5 270:
5x 1 7y 5 3715
5x 1 7(270) 5 3715

5 242
x 5 23

5x 5 1825
x 5 365

When x 5 23:

The school sold 365 short sleeve T-shirts and 270 long
sleeve T-shirts.

3x 1 3y 5 215
3(23) 1 3y 5 215

5. 12x 2 3y 5 29

29 1 3y 5 215

24x 1 y 5 3 y 5 4x 1 3

y 5 22

When y 5 4x 1 3:

The solution is (23, 22).

12x 2 3y 5 29

Check: 3x 1 3y 5 215
3(23) 1 3(22) 0 215

5x 2 9y 5 3
5(23) 2 9(22) 0 3

29 2 6 0 215

215 1 18 0 3

215 5 215

353

3. 3x 2 6y 5 9 x 5 2y 1 3

12x 2 3(4x 1 3) 5 29
12x 2 12x 2 9 5 29
29 5 29
There are innitely many solutions.
6. 6x 1 15y 5 212

24x 1 7y 5 216

6x 1 15y 5 212

22x 2 5y 5 9

When x 5 2y 1 3:

33

26x 2 15y 5 227


0 239

24x 1 7y 5 216
There is no solution.

24(2y 1 3) 1 7y 5 216

7. 5x 1 3y 5 20
3
2x 2 }5 y 5 24

28y 2 12 1 7y 5 216
2y 5 24

5x 1 3y 5
35

25x 2 3y 5 220
05

y54

There are innitely many solutions.

When y 5 4:
3x 2 6y 5 9

8. 12x 2 2y 5 21

3x 2 6(4) 5 9
Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

20

12x 2 2y 5 21

3x 1 12y 5 24

3x 5 33

3 (24)

212x 2 48y 5 16
250y 5 37

x 5 11

37

y 5 2}
50

The solution is (11, 4).


Check: 3x 2 6y 5 9
3(11) 2 6(4) 0 9

24x 1 7y 5 216
24(11) 1 7(4) 0 216

33 2 24 0 9

244 1 28 0 216

959

216 5 216

37

When y 5 2 }
:
50
12x 2 2y 5 21
37

12x 2 2(2}
) 5 21
50
37

4.

Short
Long
Long
Short
Total
Sleeve
Sleeve
Sleeve p Sleeve
1
p
5 Cost
Shirts
Shirts
Cost
Cost
($)
(shirts)
(shirts)
($/shirt)
($/shirt)
5
p
x
1
7
p
y
5 3715
Short
Long
Short
Long
Total
Sleeve
Sleeve
Sleeve
Sleeve
5 revenue
Selling p Shirts 1 Selling p
Shirts
($)
Price
Price
(shirts)
(shirts)
($/shirt)
($/shirt)
8
p
x
1
12
p
y
5 6160
5x 1 7y 5 3715

3 28

8x 1 12y 5 6160

35

12x 1 }
5 21
25
488

12x 5}
25
122

x5}
75
,2 }
.
The solution is 1 }
50 2
75
122

37

240x 2 56y 5 229,720


40x 1 60y 5

30,800

4y 5

1080

y5

270

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 123

123

6/27/06 9:47:50 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

35

9. 8x 1 9y 5 15

3 (28)

5x 2 2y 5 17

40x 1 45y 5

75

5. 6x 2 2y 5 5

23x 1 y 5 7 y 5 3x 1 7

240x 1 16y 5 2136

When y 5 3x 1 7:

61y 5 261

6x 2 2(3x 1 7) 5 5

y 5 21

6x 2 6x 2 14 5 5

When y 5 21:

214 5

8x 1 9y 5 15

There is no solution.
6.

8x 2 9 5 15

x 1 4y 5 1 x 5 1 2 4y
3x 1 2y 5 212

x53
The solution is (3, 21).
10. 5x 1 5y 5 5

5x 1 5y 5
3 (21)

5x 1 3y 5 4.2

25x 2 3y 5 24.2

When y 5 }2 :

3(1 2 4y) 1 2y 5 212

x 1 41 }2 2 5 1

3 2 12y 1 2y 5 212

x1651

The solution is 1 25, }2 2.


3

When y 5 0.4:
7.

3x 2 y 5 2 y 5 3x 2 2
6x 1 3y 5 14

5x 1 2 5 5
The solution is (0.6, 0.4).
3.2 Exercises (pp. 164 167)
Skill Practice

When x 5 }3 :

6x 1 3(3x 2 2) 5 14

3 1 }3 2 2 y 5 2

6x 1 9x 2 6 5 14

42y52

15x 5 20

y52

2. Multiply one (or both) of the equations by a constant

to obtain coefcients that differ only in sign for one


of the variables. Add the revised equations together and
solve for the remaining variable. Substitute this value
into either of the original equations and solve for the
other variable.
3. 2x 1 5y 5 7

x 1 4y 5 2 x 5 2 2 4y
When x 5 2 2 4y:

4
The solution is 1 }3, 2 2.
8. 3x 2 4y 5 25

2x 1 3y 5 25 x 5 5 1 3y
When x 5 5 1 3y:

When y 5 24:

3(5 1 3y) 2 4y 5 25

2x 1 3(24) 5 25

15 1 9y 2 4y 5 25

2x 2 12 5 25

5y 5 220
When y 5 21:

2x 1 5y 5 7

x 5 2 2 4y

2(2 2 4y) 1 5y 5 7

x 5 2 2 4(21)

4 2 8y 1 5y 5 7

x56

23y 5 3
y 5 21
The solution is (6,21).
3x 1 y 5 16 y 5 23x 1 16

The solution is (27, 24).


9. 3x 1 2y 5 6

x 2 4y 5 212 x 5 4y 2 12
When x 5 4y 2 12:

When y 5 3:

3(4y 2 12) 1 2y 5 6

x 2 4(3) 5 212

12y 2 36 1 2y 5 6

x 2 12 5 212

y53
When x 5 4:

2x 2 3(23x 1 16) 5 24

3x 1 y 5 16

2x 1 9x 2 48 5 24

3(4) 1 y 5 16

11x 5 44
x54

x 5 27

y 5 24

14y 5 42

2x 2 3y 5 24
When y 5 23x 1 16:

4
x 5 }3

1. To solve a linear system where one of the coefcients is 1

or 21, it is usually easiest to use the substitution method.

When y 5 3x 2 2:

x 5 0.6

4.

x 5 25

y 5 }2

y 5 0.4
5x 1 5y 5 5

210y 5 215

2y 5 0.8

5x 1 5(0.4) 5 5

When x 5 1 2 4y:

The solution is (0, 3).

x50

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

8x 1 9(21) 5 15

12 1 y 5 16
y54

The solution is (4, 4).

124

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 124

6/27/06 9:47:56 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

10. 6x 2 3y 5 15

15. 2x 1 6y 5 17

22x 1 y 5 25 y 5 2x 2 5
When y 5 2x 2 5:

2x 1 6y 5 17
3 (21)

2x 2 10y 5 9

22x 1 10y 5 29

6x 2 3(2x 2 5) 5 15

16y 5 8

6x 2 6x 1 15 5 15

1
y 5 }2

When y 5 }2 :

15 5 15

2x 1 6 1 }2 2 5 17
1

There are innitely many solutions.


11. 3x 1 y 5 21 y 5 23x21

2x 1 3 5 17

2x 1 3y 5 18
When y 5 23x 2 1:

When x 5 23:

2x 1 3(23x 2 1) 5 18

3(23) 1 y 5 21

2x 2 9x 2 3 5 18

y58

27x 5 21
x 5 23

x57
The solution is 1 7, }2 2 .
1

16.

32

4x 2 2y 5 216
23x 1 4y 5

12

23x 1 4y 5

The solution is (23, 8).


12.

5x

2x 2 y 5 1 y 5 21 1 2x

When x 5 24:

8x 1 4y 5 6

When x 5 }8:

8x 1 4(21 1 2x) 5 6

2 1 }8 2 2 y 5 1

8x 2 4 1 8x 5 6

5
}2y51
4

17. 3x 2 4y 5 210

6x 1 3y 5 242

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

x 5 24

216 2 2y 5 216
y50

y 5 }4

x 5 }8
5 1
The solution is }8 , }4 .

12

5 220

4(24) 2 2y 5 216

When y 5 21 1 2x:

16x 5 10

8x 2 4y 5 232

13. 3x 1 7y 5 13

x 1 3y 5 2 7 x 5 27 2 3y
When x 5 27 2 3y:
When y 5 217:
3(27 2 3y) 1 7y 5 13
x 1 3(217) 5 27
221 2 9y 1 7y 5 13
x 2 51 5 27
22y 5 34
x 5 44
y 5 217
The solution is (44, 217).
14. 2x 1 5y 5 10

23x 1 y 5 36 y 5 3x 1 36
When y 5 3x 1 36:
When x 5 210:
2x 1 5(3x 1 36) 5 10
23(210) 1 y 5 36
2x 1 15x 1 180 5 10
30 1 y 5 36
17x 5 2170
y56
x 5 210
The solution is (210, 6).

The solution is (24, 0).


3 (22)

26x 1 8y 5

20

6x 1 3y 5 242
11y 5 222

When y 5 22:

y 5 22

3x 2 4(22) 5 210
3x 1 8 5 210
x 5 26
The solution is (26, 22).
3 (22)

18. 4x 2 3y 5 10

8x 2 6y 5 20

28x 1 6y 5 220
8x 2 6y 5

20

05

There are innitely many solutions.


32

19. 5x 2 3y 5 23

2x 1 6y 5 0

10x 2 6y 5 26
2x 1 6y 5
12x

1
When x 5 2}2:

5 26
1

x 5 2}2

51 2}2 2 2 3y 5 23
1

2}2 2 3y 5 23
1

23y 5 2}2
1

y 5 }6
The solution is 1 2 }2 , }6 2.
1 1

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 125

125

6/27/06 9:48:03 AM

continued

20. 10x 2 2y 5 16
3 (22)

5x 1 3y 5 212

10x 2 2y 5 16

25. 4x 2 5y 5 13

3 (23)

210x 2 6y 5 24

6x 1 2y 5 48

32

212x 1 15y 5 239


12x 1 4y 5

96

19y 5

57

28y 5 40
When y 5 25:

y 5 25

When y 5 3:

10x 2 2(25) 5 16

4x 2 5(3) 5 13

10x 1 10 5 16

4x 2 15 5 13
x57

x 5 }5

The solution is (7, 3).

The solution is 1 }5 , 25 2.
3

21. 2x 1 5y 5 14

32

26. 6x 2 4y 5 14

3 (23)

26x 2 15y 5 242

32

6x 2 4y 5 272

3x 2 2y 5 236
When y 5 6:

12x 2 8y 5 28

2x 1 8y 5 21

2x 1 8y 5 21
14x

7
When x 5 }2 :

219y 5 2114
y56

x 5 }2

21 2 4y 5 14

2x 1 30 5 14

x 5 28

y 5 }4

The solution is (28, 6).


7x 1 2y 5 11

3 (23)

22x 1 3y 5 29

32

When x 5 21:

7 7

The solution is 1 }2 , }4 2.

221x 2 6y 5 233
24x 1 6y 5
225x
x

58

27. The error was made when multiplying the rst

equation by the constant 22. Not every term was


multiplied by 22.

25

5 21

3 (22)

3x 1 2y 5 7

7(21) 1 2y 5 11
27 1 2y 5 11

26x 2 4y 5 214

5x 1 4y 5 15

5x 1 4y 5

y59

2x

The solution is (21, 9).


3 (22)

23. 3x 1 4y 5 18

6x 1 8y 5 18

x
26x 2 8y 5 236
6x 1 8y 5

26x 2 15y 5 239

When x 5 23:
y 5 24(23) 2 2

y54

2x 1 5(4) 5 13

x 5 23

29.

2x 2 3y 5 8

32

24x 1 5y 5 210

2x 1 20 5 13

y 5 10

The solution is (23, 10).

213y 5 252

4x 2 6y 5

When y 5 26:

7
The solution is 2}2 , 4 .

2x 2 3(26) 5 8
2x 1 18 5 8

16

24x 1 5y 5 210
2y 5

7
2

x 5 2}

When y 5 24x 2 2:

25x 5 15

6x 1 2y 5 213

When y 5 4:

3x 1 2(24x 2 2) 5 11
3x 2 8x 2 4 5 11

6x 1 2y 5 213

5 21
5

4x 1 y 5 22 y 5 24x 2 2

18

There is no solution.
3 (23)

15

28. 3x 1 2y 5 11

0 218
24. 2x 1 5y 5 13

5 49

6 1 }2 2 2 4y 5 14

2x 1 5(6) 5 14

22.

y53

y 5 26

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Chapter 3,

x 5 25
The solution is (25, 26).

126

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 126

6/27/06 9:48:10 AM

Chapter 3,
30. 3x 1 7y 5 21

continued

3 (22)

26x 2 14y 5 2

33

6x 1 9y 5 18

2x 1 3y 5 6

36.

32

4x 2 3y 5 8

8x 2 6y 5 16

28x 1 6y 5 16

28x 1 6y 5 16

25y 5 20
When y 5 24:

0 32

y 5 24

3x 1 7(24) 5 21

There is no solution.
37.

3x 2 28 5 21

4x 2 y 5 210 y 5 4x 1 10
6x 1 2y 5 21

x59

When y 5 4x 1 10:

When x 5 2}2:

18

6x 1 2(4x 1 10) 5 21

y 5 41 2}2 21 10

24x 1 10y 5 218

6x 1 8x 1 20 5 21

The solution is (9, 24).


31. 4x 2 10y 5 18

4x 2 10y 5

22x 1 5y 5 29

32

05

x 5 2}2

3x 2 y 5 22 y 5 3x 1 2

The solution is 1 2}2 , 4 2.


3

5x 1 2y 5 15
When y 5 3x 1 2:

When x 5 1:

5x 1 2(3x 1 2) 5 15

y 5 3(1) 1 2

5x 1 6x 1 4 5 15

y54

14x 5 221

There are innitely many solutions.


32.

38. 7x 1 5y 5 212

34

3x 2 4y 5 1

35

y55

28x 1 20y 5 248


15x 2 20y 5

11x 5 11

y 5 21

3(28 2 2y) 2 4y 5 224


224 2 6y 2 4y 5 224

x 5 28 2 2(0)

y50
The solution is (28, 0).
3 (23)

26x 2 9y 5 18

32

6x 2 8y 5 50

3x 2 4y 5 25

39.

2x 1 y 5 21 y 5 22x 2 1
24x 1 6y 5 6

x 5 28

210y 5 0

34. 2x 1 3y 5 26

The solution is (21,21).

When y 5 0:

When x 5 2822y:
Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

5 21

5y 5 25

x 1 2y 5 28 x 5 28 2 2y
3x 2 4y 5 224

When y = 24:

y 5 24

2x 1 3(24) 5 26
2x 2 12 5 26
x53

When x 5 2}4:

24x 1 6(22x 2 1) 5 6

y 5 221 2}4 2 2 1

3x 1 y 5 15 y 5 23x 1 15
2x 1 2y 5 219
When x 5 7:

2x 1 2(23x 1 15) 5 219


2x 2 6x 1 30 5 219
27x 5 249

y 5 23(7) 1 15
y 5 26

x57

y 5 }2

216x 5 12
3

x 5 2}4
The solution is 1 2}4, }2 2.
3 1

3 (22)

6x 2 3y 5 227

26x 2 4y 5 28
6x 2 3y 5 227
27y 5 235

When y 5 5:

When y 5 23x 1 15:

24x 2 12x 2 6 5 6

40. B; 3x 1 2y 5 4

The solution is (3, 24).

When y 5 22x 2 1:

217y 5 68

35.

7(21) 1 5y 5 212

The solution is (1, 5).


33.

5 243

When x 5 21:

x51

43x

y5

3x 1 2(5) 5 4
3x 5 26
x 5 22
The solution is (22, 5).

The solution is (7, 26).

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 127

127

6/27/06 9:48:16 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

41. Let (x1, y1) 5 (1, 4) and (x2, y2) 5 (5, 0).

024
m5}
5 21
521

When y 5 22x 1 13:

When x 5 4:

19
1
22x 1 13 5 2}3 x 1 }
3

y 5 22(4) 1 13

y 2 y1 5 m(x, 2 x1)

20

y 2 4 5 21(x 2 1)

x54

y 5 2x 1 5
Let (x1, y1) 5 (0, 2) and (x2, y2) 5 (4, 4).
422

m5}
5 }2
420

The diagonals of the quadrilateral intersect at (4, 5).


43. Let (x1, y1) 5 (7, 0) and (x2, y2) 5 (1, 3).

320

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)

y 2 2 5 }2 (x 2 0)

y 2 0 5 2}2 (x 2 7)

y 5 }2 x 1 2

y 5 2}2 x 1 }2

System of equations:

Let (x1, y1) 5 (1, 21) and (x2, y2) 5 (5, 5).

y 5 2x 1 5

511

m5}
5 }2
521

y 5 }2 x 1 2
When y 5 2x 1 5:
1

2x 1 5 5 }2 x 1 2
3

When x 5 2:

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)

y 5 2(2) 1 5

y 1 1 5 }2 (x 2 1)

y 5 }2 x 2 }2

y53

3 5 }2 x

System of equations:

The diagonals of the quadrilateral intersect at (2, 3).


42. Let (x1, y1) 5 (6, 1) and (x2, y2) 5 (3, 7).

721

m5}
5 22
326
y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)
y 2 1 5 22(x2 6)
y 2 1 5 22x 1 12
y 5 22x 1 13
Let (x1, y1) 5 (1, 6) and (x2, y2) 5 (7, 4).
426

m5}
5 2}3
721

y 5 }2 x 2 }2
1

When y 5 2}2 x 1 }2 :
1

2}2 x 1}
5 }2 x 2 }2
2

When x 5 3:
7

y 5 2}2 (3) 1 }2
3

6 5 2x

y 5 2}2 1 }2

35x

y52

The diagonals of the quadrilateral intersect at (3, 2).

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)
1

y 2 6 5 2}3 (x 2 1)
1
1
y 2 6 5 2}3 x 1 }3
19

y 5 2}2 x 1 }2

y 5 2}3 x 1 }
3
System of equations:
y 5 22x 1 13
19

y 5 2}3 x 1 }
3

44. 0.02x 2 0.05y 5 20.38 3 (2300)

0.03x 1 0.04y 5 1.04

3 200

26x 1 15y 5 114


6x 1 8y 5 208
23y 5 322

When y 5 14:
0.02x 2 0.05(14) 5 20.38
0.02x 2 0.7 5 20.38
0.02x 5 0.32
x 5 16
The solution is (16, 14).

y 5 14

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

25x

128

m5}
5 2}2
127

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)

y55

2}3 x 5 2}
3

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 128

6/27/06 9:48:23 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

45. 0.05x 2 0.03y 5 0.21

3 200

10x 2 6y 5 42

0.07x 1 0.02y 5 0.16

3 300

21x 1 6y 5 48
31x

90

5 90
90

When x 5 }
:
31

x5}
31

2 6y 5 42
10 1 }
31 2
90

y12
x21
49. } 1 } 5 4
3
2

x 2 2y 5 5 x 5 2y 1 5
When x 5 2y 1 5:

y12

2y 1 5 2 1

3(2y 1 4) 1 2(y 1 2) 5 24
6y 1 12 1 2y 1 4 5 24
8y 5 8

900
31

} 2 6y 5 42

y51

402

26y 5 }
31

When y 5 1:
x 5 2(1) 1 5

67

y 5 2}
31

x57

90 67
,2} .
The solution is }
31 31

The solution is (7, 1).


50. Sample answer: Two lines intersect at (21, 4). Choose

2
46. } x 1 3y 5 234
3
1

another point in the plane to create one line. Then choose


a point not on that line to create a different line.
1

x 2 }2 y 5 21 x 5 }2 y 2 1
1
When x 5 }2 y 2 1:

x 5 }2 (210) 2 1

2
1
} y 2 } 1 3y 5 234
3
3

100
3

421

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

m5}
5 23
21 2 0

The solution is (26,210).


3 (230)
3 36

215x 2 20y 5 225


15x 1 21y 5

27

y5

When y 5 2:
} x 1 } (2) 5 }

1
2

4
3

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)
y 2 1 5 23(x 2 0)
y 5 23x 1 1
Line B: (x1, y1) 5 (0, 5), (x2, y2) 5 (21, 4)
425

m5}
51
21 2 0

5
6

2
3

Line A: (x1, y1) 5 (0, 1), (x2, y2) 5 (21, 4)

y 5 210

1
2

(0, 1)

x 5 26

} y 5 2}

5
2
1
47. } x 1 } y 5 }
3
6
2
7
3
5
}x 1 }y 5 }
12
4
12

(0, 5)

(21, 4)

} } y 2 1 1 3y 5 234

10
3

When y 5 210:

2 1
3 2

6 }
1}
54p6
3
2

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)

5
6

}x 1 } 5 }

y 2 5 5 1(x 2 0)
y5x15

x 5 21

System of equations:

The solution is (21, 2).

y 5 23x 1 1

y21
x13
48. } 1 } 5 1
3
4

y5x15

2x 2 y 5 12 y 5 2x 2 12
When y 5 2x 2 12:

Use substitution to check:


When x 5 5:

(2x 2 12) 2 1
x13
12 }
1 }}
5 1 p 12
3
4

3(x 1 3) 1 4(2x 2 13) 5 12


3x 1 9 1 8x 2 52 5 12

y 5 2(5) 2 12
y 5 22

When y 5 x 1 5:

When x 5 21:

x 1 5 5 23x 1 1

y 5 23(21) 1 1

4x 5 24

y54

x 5 21
The lines intersect at (21, 4).

11x 5 55
x55
The solution is (5, 22).

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 129

129

6/27/06 9:48:30 AM

Chapter 3,

Problem Solving

7y 1 18xy 5 30
13y 2 18xy 5 90
20y

55. Let x 5 acoustic guitars and y 5 electric guitars.

5 120

Total
Number of
Number of
acoustics guitars 1 electric guitars 5 number of
guitars

y56
When y 5 6:

7(6) 1 18x(6) 5 30
108x 5 212

The solution is 1 2}9, 6 2.


1

52. xy 2 x 5 14

xy 2 x 5 14

5 2 xy 5 2x

2xy 2 2x 5 25
23x 5

339

3611

When y 5 9 2 x:
339x 1 479(9 2 x) 5 3611
2140x 5 2700

23y 5 11

x55

11

y 5 2}
3

When x 5 5:
y5925

.
The solution is 1 23,2}
32
11

53. 2xy 1 y 5 44

y54
2xy 1 y 5 44

32

64 2 2xy 5 6y

2xy 1 y 5 44
22xy 2 6y 5 264
25y 5 220

The music store sold 5 acoustic guitars and 4


electric guitars.
56. Let x 5 price of adult pass and y 5 price of childrens

pass.
Adult
Child
price 5 price

12

When y 5 4:
2x(4) 1 4 5 44
8x 5 40
x55

Number
of adult
passes
378

Number
Adult
of
p price 1
childrens
passes

Child
p price 5 Total
revenue

represent different lines with the same slope.


Sample answer: r 5 23, s 5 25, and t 9.
b. The system will have innitely many solutions if the

equations represent the same line. Sample answer:


r 5 23a, s 5 25a, and t 5 9a, where a is any
real number.
c. The system will have a solution of (2,23) for any

values or r, s, and t that satisfy the equation


2r 2 3s 5 t. Sample answer: r 5 1, s 5 1, and
t 5 21.

214

x5y12

rx 1 sy 5 t
a. The system will have no solution if the equations

12

The solution is (5, 4).


54. 23x 2 5y 5 9

130

479

339x 1 4311 2 479x 5 3611

23y 1 3 5 14

y5

x1y59y592x

23y 2 (23) 5 14

339x 1 479y 5 3611

x 5 23

32 2 xy 5 3y

Number
Number
Price
Price
of
of
per
per
Total
p
1
p
electric 5 revenue
acoustic
electric
acoustic
guitars
guitars
guitar
guitar

1
9

x 5 2}

When x 5 23:

378x 1 214y 5 2384


When x 5 y 1 2:
378(y 1 2) 1 214y 5 2384
378y 1 756 1 214y 5 2384
592y 5 1628
y 5 2.75
When y 5 2.75:
x 5 2.75 1 2

2384

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

51.

continued

x 5 4.75
The cost of an adult pass is $4.75.

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 130

6/27/06 9:48:35 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

57. The company can ll its orders by operating Factory A

for 5 weeks and Factory B for 3 weeks.

games in progress.

Let x 5 weeks of operation at Factory A, and y 5 weeks


of operation at Factory B.
Total #
Wks at
Factory
1 Bs gas p Factory 5 of gas
mowers
B
mowers
per wk

Wks at
Factory
As gas p Factory
A
mowers
per wk
p

200

400

2200

Total #
Wks at
Wks at
Factory
Factory
of
Factory
Factory
As
Bs
1 electric p B
5 electric
electric p A
mowers
mowers
mowers
per wk
per wk
p

100

300

200x 1 400y 5 2200


100x 1 300y 5 1400

3 (22)

Number
Number
of doubles 1 of singles
games
games
x

y53

200x 1 400(3) 5 2200


200x 5 1000
The solution is (5, 3).
Let x 5 price of regular gasoline and y 5 price
of premium gasoline.

When x 5 12:

4x 1 2(26 2 x) 5 76

y 5 26 2 x

76

y 5 14

x 5 12
There were 12 doubles games and 14 singles games
in progress.
60. a. Let t 5 hours since 10:00 A.M. and d 5 distance
traveled (miles).

Regular
Premium
Gallons
Gallons
p price
1 of
p price
5 Total
of
price
regular
premium
11
p
x
1
16
p
y
5 58.55
Regular
Premium
5
1 0.2
price
gas
1 0.2

11x 1 16y 5 58.55


y 5 x 1 0.2

An equation for the distance Martha travels is d 5 4t.


b. Carols

distance

When y 5 26 2 x:

58. B;

Total
Singles
p game
5 number of
players

Marthas 5 Marthas p Marthas


rate
time
distance

x55

26

x 1 y 5 26 y 5 26 2 x

200x 1 400y 5 2200

2200y 5 2600

4x 1 2y 5 76

2x 5 24

2200x 2 600y 5 22800

Total number
of games

4x 1 52 2 2x 5 76

Double
Players
Players
p games 1 per
per
game
game

1400

When y 5 3:

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

59. Let x 5 doubles games in progress and y 5 singles

Carols
rate
6

p
p

Carols
time
(t 2 2)

An equation for the distance Carol travels is


d 5 6(t 2 2).
c. d 5 4t

d 5 6t 2 12
When d 5 4t:
4t 5 6t 2 12
t56

11x 1 16(x 1 0.2) 5 58.55

Carol will catch up to Martha 6 hours after 10:00 A.M.,


or at 4:00 P.M.
d. Changing starting time:

11x 1 16x 1 3.2 5 58.55

Let h 5 the number of hours Carol starts after Martha.

When y 5 x 1 0.2:

27x 5 55.35
When x 5 2.05:

d 5 4t
d 5 6(t 2 h) d 5 6t 2 6h
When t 5 5:
When d 5 20 and t 5 5:

y 5 2.05 1 0.2

d 5 4(5) 5 20

x 5 2.05

y 5 2.25
A gallon of premium gasoline costs $2.25.

20 5 6(5) 2 6h
6h 5 10
5

h 5 }3

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 131

131

6/27/06 9:48:40 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

Carol should start }3 hours, or 1 hour 40 minutes, after


Martha. It is reasonable that Carol could change
her starting time.

When y 5 200 2 x:

When x 5 150:

x 2 (200 2 x) 5 100

y 5 200 2 x

x 2 200 1 x 5 100

Changing speed:
Let r 5 Carols speed (miles per hour).

x 5 150

d 5 4t

The speed of the plane in calm air was 150 mi/h, and
the speed of the wind was 50 mi/h.

d 5 r(t 2 2)
When t 5 5:

When d 5 20 and t 5 5:

d 5 4(5) 5 20

20 5 r (5 2 2)
20

63. Let x 5 hours the electrician worked and y 5 hours the

apprentice worked.

Electricians
Apprentices
145
hours
hours
y
145
x

r5}
5 6 }3
3
2

Carol should run at a speed of 6 }3 miles per hour.


This is a reasonable speed.

ApprenElectriTotal
ElectriApprenp
1
p
5 earnings
tices
cians
cians
tices
hours
hours
pay rate
pay rate

61. Let x 5 pounds of peanuts in one pound of mix

and y 5 pounds of cashews in one pound mix.

5.30

2.8x 1 5.3(1 2 x) 5 3.3

y512x

2.8x 1 5.3 2 5.3x 5 3.3

y 5 0.2

70y 5 350
y55
The apprentice earned 20(5) 5 $100.
x5y14
x59
The electrician earned 50(9) 5 $450.
Mixed Review

22.5x 5 22
x 5 0.8

64. 25x 1 4 5 29

One pound of mix should contain 0.8 pounds of peanuts


and 0.2 pounds of cashews.
(0.8)100 5 80 lb peanuts

25x 5 25
x 5 25
65. 6(2a 2 3) 5 230

(0.2)100 5 20 lb cashews

12a 2 18 5 230

The wholesaler should use 80 pounds of peanuts and


20 pounds of cashews for 100 pounds of mix.
62. Let x 5 speed of the plane in calm air and y 5 speed

of the wind.

12a 5 212
a 5 21
66.

1.2m 5 2.3m 2 2.2


21.1m 5 22.2

Actual plane
5
speed
5

1000
} 5 200
5

Speed of
Actual plane
2 headwind 5
speed
2

x 1 y 5 200 y 5 200 2 x

550

When y 5 5:
When x 5 0.8:

Speed of
1
tailwind

50(y 1 4) 1 20y 5 550

x1y51y512x

Planes
speed in
calm air

50y 1 200 1 20y 5 550

When y 5 1 2 x:

When x 5 y 1 4:

3.30

2.8x 1 5.3y 5 3.3

Planes
speed in
calm air

20

50x 1 20y 5 550

Amount of
Amount of
Total weight
peanuts in 1 cashews in 5
of 1lb of mix
1lb of mix
1lb of mix
x

y145x

500
} 5 100
5

m52
67. x 1 3 5 4

x1354

or

x 1 3 5 24

x51

or

x 5 27

68. 2x 1 11 5 3

2x 1 11 5 3

or

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

50

Peanut Amount of
Cashew Amount of
Price
peanuts
cashews
price
price
p
1
p
5 of 1lb
in 1lb of
in 1lb of
per
per
of mix
mix
mix
pound
pound
2.80 p

y 5 50

2x 5 300

2x 1 11 5 23

2x 5 28

or

2x 5 214

x 5 24

or

x 5 27

x 2 y 5 100

132

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 132

6/28/06 2:31:29 PM

Chapter 3,

continued
79. 4x 2 y 5

69. 2x 1 7 5 13

2x 1 7 5 13
2x 5 6
x 5 26

or

2x 1 7 5 213

or

2x 5 220

or

x 5 20

80. y < 23x 1 2


1

y
x

21

1
21

10 2 5
70. Line 1: m1 5 } 5 5
221
27 2 (28)

5 2}5
Line 2: m2 5 }
328
Quiz 3.13.2 (p. 167)

Because m2 5 2}
m , the lines are perpendicular.

1.

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(2, 5).

512
7
71. Line 1: m1 5 } 5 2}
5
429
26 1 1

5 2}8
Line 2: m2 5 }
612

Because m1 m2 and m2 2}
m1 , the lines are neither
parallel nor perpendicular.

21

The solution appears to be (2, 5).

72. (x1, y1) 5 (2, 4), (x2, y2) 5 (5, 1)


y2 2 y1
124
m5}
5 21
x2 2 x1 5 }
522

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)

3x 1 y 5 11
3(2) 1 5 0 11

x 2 2y 5 28
2 2 2(5) 0 28

6 1 5 0 11

2 2 10 0 28

11 5 11

y 2 4 5 21(x 2 2)

28 5 28

2.

y 5 2x 1 6

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(23, 1).

73. (x1, y1) 5 (3, 1), (x2, y2) 5 (21, 27)

y2 2 y1
27 2 1
m5}
52
x2 2 x1 5 }
21 2 3

21

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)
The solution appears to be (23, 1).

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

y 2 1 5 2(x 2 3)
y 5 2x 2 5
74. (x1, y1) 5 (2, 4), (x2, y2) 5 (22, 22)
y2 2 y1
3
22 2 4
m5}
5 }2
x2 2 x1 5 }
22 2 2

2x 1 y 5 25

2x 1 3y 5 6

2(23) 1 1 0 25
26 1 1 0 25

2(23) 1 3(1) 0 6
31306
656

25 5 25

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)

3.

y 2 4 5 }2 (x 2 2)
3

21

y 5 }2 x 1 1

From the graph, the lines


appear to intersect at
(26, 22).

76. y 2

75. x < 23
y

The solution appears to be (26, 22).

1
x

21

1
x

21

26 1 4 0 22

218 2 2 0 220

4.

1
21

3x 1 y 5 220
3(26) 1 (22) 0 220

22 5 22

78. y 2x 1 4

77. 2x 1 y > 1

x 2 2y 5 22
26 2 2(22) 0 22

x 1 2y 5 6

1
21

220 5 220

The graphs of the


equations are parallel
lines. There is no
solution. The system
is inconsistent.

4x 1 8y 5 8

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 133

133

6/27/06 9:48:59 AM

Chapter 3,
5.

continued

y 5 3x 1 1
2

The graphs of the equations


are parallel lines. There is
no solution. The system is
inconsistent.

10. 2x 2 3y 5 21

2x 1 3y 5 219
4x

5 220
x 5 25

When x 5 25:

25x 1 3y 5 25

2(25) 2 3y 5 21
23y 5 9
1

y
x

21

x 2 2y 5 2

The solution is (24, 23).


The system is consistent and
independent.

y 5 23
The solution is (25, 23).
11.

(24, 23)

26x 1 4y 5 220

There are innitely many solutions.

3x 2 y 5 24
When x 5 228 2 3y:

3 (25)

5x 1 8y 5 20

32

284 2 9y 2 y 5 24

x 5 228 2 3(28)
x 5 24

2x 1 3(245) 5 17
x 5 76
The solution is (76, 245).

The solution is (24, 28).

13. Let x 5 cost per foot of cable and y 5 cost per

x 1 5y 5 1 x 5 1 2 5y

connector.

23x 1 4y 5 16
When x 5 1 2 5y:

When y 5 1:

23(1 2 5y) 1 4y 5 16

x 5 1 2 5(1)

23 1 15y 1 4y 5 16

x 5 24

19y 5 19
y51
The solution is (24, 1).
6x 1 y 5 26 y 5 26x 2 6
4x 1 3y 5 17

Cost per
Cost per
6 p foot of 1 2 p connector
cable

Cost of 6 foot
5 cable with
connectors

6p x

12p

3p

12p

y 5 26 1 2}2 2 2 6

3x 1 2y 5 10.25

y59

When x 5 1.75:

x 5 2}2

The solution is 2} , 9 .

6x 1 2y 5 15.50

4x 1 3(26x 2 6) 5 17

214x 5 35

15.50

Cost of 3 foot
5 cable with
connectors

When y 5 26x 2 6:

Cost per
Cost per
3 p foot of
1 2 p connector
cable
5
When x 5 2}2 :

4x 2 18x 2 18 5 17

10.25
6x 1 2y 5

3 (21)

15.50

23x 2 2y 5 210.25
3x

6(1.75) 1 2y 5 15.50
2y 5 5
y 5 2.5
4 - foot cable 5 4x 1 2y
5 4(1.75) 1 2(2.50)
5 12.00
A 4 - foot cable should cost $12.00.

134

40

2x 5 152

y 5 28

10x 1 16y 5

y 5 245
When y 5 245:

210y 5 80

5
2

210x 2 15y 5 285

When y 5 28:

3(228 2 3y) 2 y 5 24

9.

20

26x 1 4y 5 220

12. 2x 1 3y 5 17

x 1 3y 5 228 x 5 228 2 3y

8.

6x 2 4y 5

050

2x 2 y 5 25

7.

32

3x 2 2y 5 10

5.25

x5

1.75

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

6.

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 134

6/27/06 9:49:07 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

Lesson 3.3

b. When x 5 60:

0.5(60) y 0.8(60)

3.3 Guided Practice (pp. 169170)


1. y 3x 2 2

30 y 48

Footwear regularly priced at $60 sells for between $30


and $48, inclusive, during the sale.

y > 2x 1 4
1

3.3 Exercises (pp. 171173)

21

Skill Practice
1. The ordered pair must be in the area of the graph that

is common to all of the inequalities in the system.


1
2. 2x 2 } y 4
2

2. Graph each inequality in the system. Then identify

4x 2 y 5

the region common to all the graphs of the inequalities.

21

3. D

22

5. x 2

4. x > 21

y5

x<3
y

4. y 4

3. x 1 y > 23

1
x

21

y x 2 5

26x 1 y < 1

22

6. y 5

7. 2x 1 y < 23

y1

2x 1 y > 4
y

1
1

21

y 2x 1 2

21

6. y 2x 1 1

5. y > 22

9. 4x 2 4y 216

8. y < 10

2x 1 2y 24

y > x
1

y<x11
y

x
1

7. Range of discounts: 20% 50%

21

Regular prices: $40 $100


a. Let x 5 regular footwear price and y 5 sale

footwear price.

x 40
x 100
y 0.5x
y 0.8x

y
Sale prices (dollars)

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

x 5 40

21

x 5 100

10. 2x y

80

y 5 0.8x

40
21

y 5 0.5x

20

11. y > x 2 4

2x 1 y 25

60

3y < 22x 1 9

y
x
1

80
100
20
40
60
Regular prices (dollars)

21

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 135

135

6/27/06 9:49:23 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

12. x 1 y 23

21. x 2

13. 2y < 25x 2 10

26x 1 4y < 14

5x 1 2y > 22
y

22. y x

23x 1 y < 21

x 1 3y < 5

4x 1 3y < 12

2x 1 y 23

21

14. 3x 2 y > 12

2x 1 8y > 24

1
x

21

22

15. x 2 4y 210

23. y 0

y 3x 2 1

x>3

x 1 y > 25

x 1 y 22

x2y<4

y < 4x

x 2 y > 22

24. x 1 y < 5

1
3

1
1

21

the line y 5 2x 2 2.

y
1

25. x 10
x

21

21

16. The graph of y 2x 2 2 should be shaded to the right of

x 22
3x 1 2y < 6

24

6x 1 4y > 212

y > 21

y 21

y<x

y < 22x 2 4
y

26. B;

y
1
23

Q II

y 2x 2 3 1 2

QI
x
2

4x 2 5y 20
Q III

Q IV

1
x

21

19. 3x 1 2y > 26

20. x 1 y < 5

25x 1 2y > 22

2x 2 y > 0

y<5

2x 1 5y > 220

27. Sample answer: x 0

y 21
29. y x 2 2

28. y < x

y x 2 2

y > 2x

y
1
1
23

21

1
x
21

136

22

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

18. x 28

17. x < 6

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 136

6/27/06 9:49:41 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

30. y 2x 2 3 1 2

System:

y 2x 1 1

y > x 2 3 2 1
1

y }1 x 2 }2
4

21

y 25x 1 8
34. Let x 5 the hours dog walking and y 5 the hours

31. y 3

car washing.

y 22

x 1 y 20

x 23

x0

x4
32. Line through points (22, 2) and (2, 4):

35. Discount: 30% 70%

Regular prices: $20 $50

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)

Let x 5 the regular price and y 5 the sale price.

y 2 4 5 }2 (x 2 2)

x 20

1
y 5 }2 x 1 3

(boundary)

Line through points (22, 22) and (2, 24):


24 2 (22)

y
40

x 50
y 0.3x
y 0.7x

m5}
5 2}2
2 2 (22)
When x 5 20:

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)

0.3(20) y 0.7(20)

y 1 4 5 2}2 (x 2 2)

System:
y }1 x 1 3

y 5 0.7x

20
10
0

y 5 0.3x
0

10

20

30

40

50

Regular price (dollars)

Games regularly priced at $20 sell between $6 and $14,


inclusive, during the sale.
36. x > 8.0

y
81

x < 8.3

y 2}2 x 2 3

y > 76

x 22

y < 80

x2

79
77
75

33. Line through points (22, 23) and (1, 3):


0

3 2 (23)

m5}
52
1 2 (22)
y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)
y 2 3 5 2(x 2 1)
y 5 2x 1 1
Line through points (22, 23) and (2, 22):
22 2 (23)
1
m5}
5 }4
2 2 (22)

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)
1

y 1 2 5 }4 (x 2 2)
5
1
y 5 }4 x 2 }2

Line through points (1, 3) and (2, 22):

y 2 3 5 25(x 2 1)
y 5 25x 1 8

8.0

8.1
8.2
pH level

8.3

C 5 }9 (F 2 32)

C 5 }9 (F 2 32)

C 5 }9 (80 2 32)

C 5 }9 (76 2 32)

C 5 }9 (48)

C 5 }9 (44)

}
C 5 26.6

}
C 5 24.4

The graphs would look similar; the y axis would be


incremented differently to show 24.44 < y < 26.67.
37. a. x 2

b.

y2
x1y8
x1y5

22 2 3
m5}
5 25
221

y 2 y1 5 m(x 2 x1)

In degrees Celsius:

Number of seniors

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

30

6 y 14
(boundary)

x 5 50

x 5 20

Temperature (8F)

y 5 2}2 x 2 3

Sale price (dollars)

422

m5}
5 }2
2 2 (22)

y0
7.5x 1 6y 92

c. Sample answer:

y
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
Number of juniors

3 juniors, 2 seniors
6 juniors, 2 seniors

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 137

137

6/27/06 9:49:49 AM

Chapter 3,

continued
Mixed Review

38. Let x 5 the horizontal distance (in inches) from

the left side of home plate and y 5 the distance above


the ground (in inches).
x0

41. 6x 2 8y 5 6(4) 2 8(21)

5 24 1 8

y
Vertical distance (in.)

x 17
y 20
y 42

y 0.75(220 2 x)
y 0.5(220 2 x)

Heart rate (beats per minute)

b.

x 20

42. 12x 1 3y 5 12(4) 1 3(25)

5 48 2 15

30

5 33

20

43. x 2 2xy 1 3y 5 (22)2 2 2(22)(3) 1 3(3)

10
0

39. a. x 65

5 32

40

y
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0

5 4 1 12 1 9
0

4
8
12
16
Horizontal distance (in.)

5 25

44. 4x 2y 2 2 xy 5 4(5)2(26)2 2 (5)(26)

5 4(25)(36) 1 30
5 3600 1 30
5 3630
45. x 2 8 25

x3
21
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 x
Age (years)

x>3
21

47. 9x 1 2 23x 2 13

1500

12x 215

1000

x 2 }4

500
0

24
0

500

1000 1500 2000 x


Your guess

x 500
y 500

y 2 1000 > x 2 1000


When y < 1000:

y 2 1000 5 1000 2 y > x 2 1000


2y > x 2 1000 2 1000
y < 1000 2 x 2 1000
When y 1000:

y 2 1000 5 y 2 1000 > x 2 1000


y > 1000 1 x 2 1000
System of inequalities:
x 500
y 500

y 2 1000 > x 2 1000

24

22

48. 25x 1 y 5 211

4x 2 y 5 7 y 5 4x 2 7
When y 5 4x 2 7:

When x 5 4:

25x 1 4x 2 7 5 211

y 5 4(4) 2 7

2x 5 24

y59

x54
The solution is (4, 9).
49. 9x 1 4y 5 27

3x 2 5y 5 234

9x 1 4y 5 27
3 (23)

29x 1 15y 5 102


19y 5 95

When y 5 5:
9x 1 4(5) 5 27
9x 5 227
x 5 23

y5

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

You friends guess

6x > 18

0.5(220 2 40) 5 90 and 0.75(220 2 40) 5 135.


A heart rate of 158 is outside of this range.
y
2000

46. 5x 2 11 > 2x 1 7

c. No; the target zone for a 40-year-old is between

40.

The solution is (23, 5).

138

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 138

6/27/06 9:49:57 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

3 (22)

50. 4x 1 9y 5 210

8x 1 18y 5 20

28x 2 18y 5 20

4.

8x 1 18y 5 20

(0, 5)

0 40
There is no solution.
51.

x 2 5y 5 18 x 5 5y 1 18

(5, 0)

(0, 0)

2x 1 3y 5 10
When x 5 5y 1 18:

When y 5 22:

2(5y 1 18) 1 3y 5 10

x 5 5(22) 1 18

10y 1 36 1 3y 5 10

At (5, 0): C 5 3(5) 1 4(0) 5 15

x58

At (0, 5): C 5 3(0) 1 4(5) 5 20


Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 20

y 5 22
5.

The solution is (8, 22).

8x 2 6y 5 24

At (0, 0): C 5 3(0) 1 4(0) 5 0

13y 5 226

52. 16x 2 12y 5 28

16x 2 12y 5 28
3 (22)

(5, 9)

216x 1 12y 5 8
05 0

(5, 3)

(25, 3)
2

There are innitely many solutions.

53. 16x 1 5y 5 24

8x 2 2y 5 7

3 (22)

216x 1 4y 5 214

When y 5 22:

At (25, 3): C 5 2(25) 1 5(3) 5 5

9y 5 218

At (5, 3): C 5 2(5) 1 5(3) 5 25

y 5 22

At (5, 9): C 5 2(5) 1 5(9) 5 55

8x 2 2(22) 5 7
8x 5 3

Minimum value: 5; maximum value: 55


6.

(0, 4)

3
x 5 }8

The solution is 1 }8 , 22 2.
3

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

16x 1 5y 5 24

3.3 Extension (p. 176)

(0, 0)

(2, 22)

1. At (0, 7): C 5 0 1 2(7) 5 14

At (1, 0): C 5 1 1 2(0) 5 1


At (8, 0): C 5 8 1 2(0) 5 8
Minimum value: 1; maximum value: 14
2.

At (28, 4): C 5 4(28) 2 2(4) 5 240


At (28, 28): C 5 4(28) 2 2(28) 5 216
At (2, 28): C 5 4(2) 2 2(28) 5 24
At (6, 22): C 5 4(6) 2 2(22) 5 28
Minimum value: 240; maximum value: 28

3.

At (20, 60): C 5 3(20) 1 5(60) 5 360


At (40, 10): C 5 3(40) 1 5(10) 5 170
At (80, 0): C 5 3(80) 1 5(0) 5 240
At (100, 40): C 5 3(100) 1 5(40) 5 500
At (60, 80): C 5 3(60) 1 5(80) 5 580
Minimum value: 170; maximum value: 580

At (0, 4): C 5 3(0) 1 4 5 4


At (0, 0): C 5 3(0) 1 0 5 0
At (2, 22): C 5 3(2) 1 (22) 5 4
Minimun value: 0; no maximum value
7. x 5 the number of mini piatas

y 5 the number of regular-sized piatas


2x 1 3y 30

x 1 y 12
x0
y0

(6, 6)
3

P 5 12x 1 24y

(15, 0)
3 (12, 0)

At (12, 0): P 5 12(12) 1 24(0) 5 144


At (15, 0): P 5 12(15) 1 24(0) 5 180
At (6, 6): P 5 12(6) 1 24(6) 5 216
The owner should make 6 mini piatas and
6 regular-sized piatas to maximize prot.

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 139

139

6/27/06 9:50:05 AM

Chapter 3,

continued
Lesson 3.4

8. x 5 the number of inkjet printers

y 5 the number of laser printers

Investigating Algebra Activity 3.4 (p. 177)

x 1 y 60

1. 4x 1 3y 1 2z 5 12

x 1 3y 120

x0

(0, 0, 6)

(0, 0, 2)

(30, 30)

(0, 40)

y0

2. 2x 1 2y 1 3z 5 6

(0, 3, 0)

P 5 40x 1 60y

10

(3, 0, 0)

(0, 0)

(60, 0)

10

(0, 4, 0)

At (0, 0): P 5 40(0) 1 60(0) 5 0

(3, 0, 0)

At (60, 0): P 5 40(60) 1 60(0) 5 2400


At (30, 30): P 5 40(30) 1 60(30) 5 3000

3. x 1 5y 1 3z 5 15

At (0, 40): P 5 40(0) 1 60(40) 5 2400

The company should make 30 inkjet printers and


30 laser printers.

(0, 0, 5)

9. t 5 the number of jars of tomato sauce

(0, 3, 0)

s 5 the number of jars of salsa

10t 1 5s 180

t 1 0.25s 15
t 3s

(0, 15)

s0

4. 5x 2 y 2 2z 5 10

(0, 0)

P 5 2t 1 1.5s

(15, 0, 0)

(2, 0, 0)

(0, 210, 0)

At (0, 0):

P 5 2(0) 1 1.5(0) 5 0

At (0, 15):

P 5 2(15) 1 1.5(0) 5 30

450

, } : P 5 21 }
1 1.51 }
5}
34.62
At 1 }
13
13 13 2
13 2
13 2
60 180

180

60

(0, 0, 25)

180

The maximum value of P occurs when t 5 }


13.85
13

5. 27x 1 7y 1 2z 5 14

60

4.62.
and s 5 }
13

(0, 0, 7)

You should make 13 jars of tomato sauce and 4 jars


of salsa.
10. a. Sample answer:
y

b. Sample answer:
(22, 0, 0)

(5, 7)

(0, 2, 0)

(2, 6)

y
x

(7, 2)
1
21

6. 2x 1 9y 2 3z 5 218

1
x

21

(6, 1)
(0, 0)

(0, 0, 6)

(29, 0, 0)
(0, 22, 0)

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

t0

60 180
,
13 13

y
x

140

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 140

6/27/06 9:50:17 AM

Chapter 3,

continued
3.4 Exercises (pp. 182185)

7. Sample answer:

The planes of three linear equations in three variables


can intersect in three different ways. They could intersect
in exactly one point, intersect in a line, or never intersect
at all.
3.4 Guided Practice (pp. 180181)
1. 3x 1 y 2 2z 5 10 3 (24)

x 1 4y 1 3z 5

of the other two, substitute that expression into the


remaining two equations, and solve the new linear
system in two variables.

211x 1

11z 5 233

2x 1

z 5 23

3.

x 1 4y 1 3z 5

1 5z 5

5 18

5 1

(1, 4, 23) is not a solution.


4.

x1y1z52

3(1) 1 y 2 2(22) 5 10 y 5 3

21 1 (22) 1 5 0 2

The solution is (1, 3, 22).


3 (22)

252
22x 2 2y 1 2z 5 24

2x 1 2y 2 2z 5 6

2x 1 2y 2 2z 5

05

x 1 3y 2 2z 5 217
21 1 3(22) 2 2(5) 0 217
217 5 217
(21, 22, 5) is a solution.

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Because this is a false equation, there is no solution.


3.

x1 y1z53

2x 1 2y 1 z 5 6

56

3x 1 3y

2x 1 2y 5 6
3x 1 3y 5 9

5.

x1 y2z53

x1 y2z53
2x 1 2y

3 (22)

x 1 4y 2 2z 5 12
6 1 4(0) 2 2(23) 0 12
12 5 12

59
18

3x 2 y 1 4z 5 6

26x 2 6y 5 218

3(6) 2 0 1 4(23) 0 6

6x 1 6y 5

33

05

656

2x 1 3y 1 z 5 29
2(6) 1 3(0) 1 (23) 0 29

Because you obtain the identity 0 5 0, the system has


innitely many solutions.
4.

4x 2 y 1 3z 5 13
4(21) 2 (22) 1 3(5) 0 13
13 5 13

21 1 z 5 23 z 5 22

2. x 1 y 2 z 5 2

214 25

19 5 19

13x 1 5z 5 3
18x

x 2 3y 1 z 5 25
1 2 3(4) 1 (23) 0 25

5x 1 2y 2 2z 5 19
5(1) 1 2(4) 2 2(23) 0 19

5x 2 5z 5 15

3 (25)

2x 2 y 1 z 5 25
2(1) 2 4 1 (23) 0 25
25 5 25

12x 2 4y 1 2z 5 24

32

13x

13x 1 5z 5

ax 1 by 1 cz 5 d. The graph of this equation will be


a plane.
2. Sample answer: If one variable is expressed in terms

x 1 4y 1 3z 5

2x 1 z 5 23

1. A linear equation in three variables has the form

212x 2 4y 1 8z 5 240

x 1 4y 1 3z 5 7

6x 2 2y 1 z 5 22

Skill Practice

x 1 y 1 z 5 60

29 5 29

x 1 (x 1 z) 1 z 5 60

(6, 0, 23) is a solution.

2x 1 2z 5 60
1000x 1 200y 1 500z 5 25,000
1000x 1 200(x 1 z) 1 500z 5 25,000
1200x
2x 1

2z 5 60

700z 5 25,000

3 (2600)

1200x 1 700z 5 25,000

21200x 2 1200z 5 236,000


1200x 1 700z 5 25,000
2500z 5 211,000
z5

22

2x 1 2(22) 5 60 x 5 8
8 1 y 1 22 5 60 y 5 30
The department should run 8 TV ads, 30 radio ads, and
22 newspaper ads each month.

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 141

141

6/27/06 9:50:23 AM

Chapter 3,

3x 1 4y 2 2z 5 211

10. 2x 2 y 1 2z 5 27

3(25) 1 4(1) 2 2(0) 0 211

x 1 4y 2 6z 5 21

2x 2 y 1 2z 5 27
22x 2 8y 1 12z 5

3 (22)

211 5 211
2x 1 y 2 z 5 11
2(25) 1 1 2 (0) 0 11

2x 1 2y 2 4z 5

29 11

6y 2 10z 5

x 1 4y 2 6z 5 21

x 1 4y 1 3z 5 21
25 1 4(1) 1 3(0) 0 21
21 5 21

29y 1 14z 5 25

35

6y 2 10z 5 4

37

245y 1 70z 5 225


42y 2 70z 5
23y

(25, 1, 0) is not a solution.


7.

28
3

y 5 21

3x 2 y 1 5z 5 34
3(2) 2 (8) 1 5(4) 0 34

29(21) 1 14z 5 25 z 5 21
x 1 4(21) 2 6(21) 5 21 x 5 23

18 34

The solution is (23, 21, 21).

x 1 3y 2 6z 5 2
2 1 3(8) 2 6(4) 0 2

11. 3x 2 y 1 2z 5

3 (22)

6x 2 2y 1 4z 5 28

252

26x 1 2y 2 4z 5 28
6x 2 2y 1 4z 5 28
0 5 216

23x 1 y 2 2z 5 26
No solution.

23(2) 1 8 2 2(4) 0 26

12. 4x 2 y 1 2z 5 218 3 2

26 5 26
(2, 8, 4) is not a solution.
8.

3x 1 3y 2 4z 5 44

2x 1 4y 2 z 5 223
2(0) 1 4(24) 2 7 0 223

8x 2 2y 1 4z 5 236
3x 1 3y 2 4z 5
11x 1 y

2x 1 2y 1 z 5 11

223 5 223

34

3x 1 3y 2 4z 5 44

x 2 5y 2 3z 5 21
0 2 5(24) 2 3(7) 0 21

11x 1

2x 1 y 1 4z 5 24

24x 1 8y 1 4z 5 44

11x 1

y5
2x 1 11(8) 5 88 x 5 0

(0, 24, 7) is a solution.

2(0) 1 2(8) 1 z 5 11 z 5 25

9. 3x 1 y 1 z 5 14

The solution is (0, 8, 25).

5x 2 y 1 5z 5 30

13. 5x 1 y 2 z 5 6

1 6z 5 44

5x 2 y 1 5z 5 30

x1 y1z52
2x 1 2y 2 3z 5 29

6x 1 2y

10x 2 2y 1 10z 5 60

6x 1 2y 5 8

1 7z 5 51

9x
8x 1 6z 5 44
9x 1 7z 5 51

y5

3 (27)
36

3x 1 y 5 4

58
6x 1 2y 5
3 (22)

54x 1 42z 5
22x

3(1) 1 y 1 6 5 14 y 5 5

306

22

x5

26x 2 2y 5 28

256x 2 42z 5 2308

9(1) 1 7z 5 51 z 5 6

122y 5 976

24 5 24

32

5 88

211x 1 121y 5 968

3 11

2(0) 1 (24) 1 4(7) 0 24

2x 1 2y 2 3z 5 29

3x 1 3y 2 4z 5 44

y5 8

2x 1 11y 5 88

44

2x 1 11y

21 5 21

8x

29y 1 14z 5 25

0 5
Innitely many solutions.

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

6.

continued

The solution is (1, 5, 6).

142

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 142

6/27/06 9:50:32 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

14. 2x 1 y 2 z 5 9

17. 4x 1 y 1 5z 5 240

5x 1 7y 1 z 5 4
7x 1 8y

23x 1 2y 1 4z 5 10
x 2 y 2 2z 5 22 x 5 y 1 2z 2 2

5 13

2x 1 6y 1 2z 5 217
5x 1 7y 1 z 5 4

2x 1 6y 1 2z 5 217
3 (22)

2y 2 2z 5 4
5y 1 13z 5 232

5 212
x5

5 225

23(y 1 2z 2 2) 1 2y 1 4z 5 10

13

211x 2 8y 5 225
24x

5y 1 13z 5 232

210x 2 14y 2 2z 5 28
211x 2 8y

7x 1 8y 5

4(y 1 2z 2 2) 1 y 1 5z 5 240

2y 2 2z 5

5y 1 13z 5 232
25y 2 10z 5

35

3z 5 212

7(3) 1 8y 5 13 y 5 21

z 5 24

5(3) 1 7(21) 1 z 5 4 z 5 24

2y 2 2(24) 5 4 y 5 4

The solution is (3, 21, 24).


15.

x1 y2

x 2 4 2 2(24) 5 22 x 5 26

z5 4

The solution is (26, 4, 24).

3x 1 2y 1 4z 5 17

18. x 1 3y 2 z 5 12

2x 1 5y 1 z 5 8 z 5 x 2 5y 1 8

2x 1 4y 2 2z 5 6

x 1 y 2 (x 2 5y 1 8) 5 4 y 5 2

2x 2 2y 1 z 5 26 z 5 x 1 2y 2 6

z 5 x 2 5(2) 1 8 z 5 x 2 2

2x 1 4y 2 2(x 1 2y 2 6) 5 6

3x 1 2(2) 1 4(x 2 2) 5 17 x 5 3

12 5 6

z5322z51

No solution.

The solution is (3, 2, 1).

19. 2x 2 y 1 z 5 22 z 5 22x 1 y 2 2

16. 2x 2 y 2 z 5 15 z 5 2x 2 y 2 15

6x 1 3y 2 4z 5

4x 1 5y 1 2z 5 10

23x 1 2y 5 3z 5 26

2x 2 4y 1 3z 5 220

6x 1 3y 2 4(22x 1 y 2 2) 5 8

4x 1 5y 1 2(2x 2 y 2 15) 5 10
Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

20

14x 2 y 5 0

8x 1 3y 5 40

23x 1 2y 1 3(22x 1 y 2 2 5 26

2x 2 4y 1 3(2x 2 y 2 15) 5 220


5x 2 7y 5

29x 1 5y 5

25

8x 1 3y 5 40

37

56x 1 21y 5 280

5x 2 7y 5 25

33

15x 2 21y 5 75
71x

2(5) 2 0 2 z 5 15 z 5 25
The solution is (5, 0, 25).

29x 1 5y 5 0

70x 2 5y 5 0

35

29x 1 5y 5 0
61x

5 355
x5

8(5) 1 3y 5 40 y 5 0

14x 2 y 5 0

50
x50

14(0) 2 y 5 0 y 5 0
2(0) 2 0 1 z 5 22 z 5 22
The solution is (0, 0, 22).

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 143

143

6/27/06 9:50:36 AM

continued

20. 3x 1 5y 2 z 5 12

25.

x 1 y 1 z 5 0 x 5 2y 2 z
2x 1 2y 1 2z 5 227

x 1 5y 2 2z 5 21
2x 2 2y 1 z 5

3y 2 z 5

3(2y 2 z) 1 5y 2 z 5 12

2x 2 2y 1 z 5 6

2y 2 4z 5 12

22x 2 7y 1 3z 5 7

2x 1 4y 2 2z 5 212

3 (22)

22x 2 7y 1 3z 5

2(2y 2 z) 1 2y 1 2z 5 227
3y 2 z 5

3y 1 3z 5 227
2y 2 4z 5

12

3y 1 3z 5 227

3 (23)

26y 1 12z 5 236

32

6y 1 6z 5 254
18z 5 290
z 5 25

2y 2 4(25) 5 12 y 5 24

23y 1 z 5 25
05

Innitely many solutions.


26. 4x 1 5y 1 3z 5 15

x 2 3y 1 2z 5 26 x 5 3y 2 2z 2 6

x 1 (24) 1 (25) 5 0 x 5 9

2x 1 2y 2 z 5 3

The solution is (9, 24, 25).

4(3y 2 2z 2 6) 1 5y 1 3z 5 15
17y 2 5z 5 39

21. The error is in line 2. Equation 2 is 3x 1 2y 1 z 5 11. So

2 times Equation 2 is 6x 1 4y 1 2z 5 22, not


6x 1 2y 1 2z 5 22.
22. The error is in line 1. Equation 2 is 3x 1 2y 1 z 5 11.

After you solve for z, you should get z 5 11 2 3x 2 2y,


not z 5 11 1 3x 1 2y.

2(3y 2 2z 2 6) 1 2y 2 z 5 3
2y 1 z 5 23
17y 2 5z 5 39
2y 1 z 5 23

17y 2 5z 5 39
35

25y 1 5z 5 215

23. A;

12y

2x 1 5y 1 3z 5 10
2(7) 1 5(1) 1 3(23) 0 10
10 5 10
3x 2 y 1 4z 5 8
3(7) 2 (1) 1 4(23) 0 8
858
5x 2 2y 1 7z 5 12
5(7) 2 2(1) 1 7(23) 0 12
12 5 12
Because all three equations are true, (7, 1, 23) is the
solution of the system.
24. B;

2x 2 2y 2 z 5 6
2(x) 2 2(x 2 3) 2 0 0 6
2x 1 y 1 3z 5 23
2x 1 (x 2 3) 1 0 0 23
23 5 23
3x 2 3y 1 2z 5 9
3x 2 3(x 2 3) 1 0 0 9
959
Because all three equations are true, (x, x 2 3, 0)
describes all of the solutions of the system.

24

y5

22 1 z 5 23 z 5 21
2x 1 2(2) 2 (21) 5 3 x 5 2
The solution is (2, 2, 21).
27. 6x 1 y 2 z 5 22

6x 1 y 2

2x 1 y 1 2z 5 5

36

z 5 22

26x 1 6y 1 12z 5 30
7y 1 11z 5 28

x 1 6y 1 3z 5 23
2x 1 y 1 2z 5 5
7y 1 5z 5 28
7y 1 11z 5 28
7y 1 5z 5 28

7y 1 11z 5
3 (21)

7y 1 5(0) 5 28 y 5 4
x 1 6(4) 1 3(0) 5 23 x 5 21
The solution is (21, 4, 0).

28

27y 2 5z 5 228

656

144

23y 1 z 5 25

6z 5

z5

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Chapter 3,

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 144

6/27/06 9:50:45 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

28. x 1 2y 5 21 x 5 22y 2 1

32. 2x 2 y 1 4z 5 19 3 (22)

3x 2 y 1 4z 5 17

24x 1 2y 2 8z 5 238

4x 1 2y 1 3z 5 37

4x 1 2y 1 3z 5

24x 1 2y 2 3z 5 230
3(22y 2 1) 2 y 1 4z 5 17

2x 1 3y 2 2z 5 27

27y 1 4z 5 20

4x 1 2y 1 3z 5 37

24x 1 12y 2 8z 5 228

34

4x 1 2y 1 3z 5

37

14y 2 5z 5

24(22y 2 1) 1 2y 2 3z 5 230
4y 2 5z 5 21

10y 2 3z 5 234
27y 1 4z 5

20

33

10y 2 3z 5 234

34

221y 1 12z 5

14y 2 5z 5

60

14y 2 5z 5 9

2x 1 3(1) 2 2(1) 5 27 x 5 8
The solution is (8, 1, 1).
33. x 1 y 1 z 5 3 x 5 2y 2 z 1 3

The solution is (7, 24, 22).


2x 2 y 1 2z 5 221

3 (22)

24x 1 2y 2 4z 5 42
23x 1 2y 1 4z 5 6
27x 1 4y

5 48

3x 2 4y 1 2z 5 228
2x 1 5y 1 z 5 23
3(2y 2 z 1 3) 2 4y 1 2z 5 228
27y 2 z 5 237

4x 1 20y 2 4z 5 100

34

23x 1 2y 1 4z 5 6

23x 1 2y 1 4z 5
x 1 22y

27x 1 4y 5 48

5 106

4y 5 48

27x 1

2(2y 2 z 1 3) 1 5y 1 z 5 23
6y 1 2z 5 26
27y 2 z 5 237
6y 1 2z 5

7x 1 154y 5 742

37

32

214y 2 2z 5 274

26

6y 1 2z 5 26
28y

158y 5 790

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

y5

x 1 6 1 (25) 5 3 x 5 2
The solution is (2, 6, 25).

The solution is (24, 5, 24).


4x 2 8y 1 2z 5

10

24x 1 8y 2 2z 5 216

3 (22)

0 5 26
No solution.

2x 1 3y 1 4z 5 18

2x 1 3y 1 4z 5 18
22x 2 2y 1 2z 5 16

3 (22)

y 1 6z 5 34
y 1 6z 5

3x 2

y1

3x 2 2y 1 z 5 10

z54

8x 2 y 1 4z 5 24

x 2 12y 1 10z 5 7

26x 1 4y 2 2z 5

No Solution

4x 2 6y 1 2z 5 72

6y 2 2z 5 224

33

b. Sample answer:

x 1 6y 2 2z 5 7

c. Sample answer:

x 1 y 2 z 5 28

6y 2 2z 5 224

34. a. Sample answer:

Solution is (1, 2, 3).

31. 2x 1 5y 2 z 5 216

x 1 y 2 z 5 28

27(6) 2 z 5 237 z 5 25

27x 1 4(5) 5 48 x 5 24

30. 4x 2 8y 1 2z 5 10

5 248
y5

2(24) 2 5 1 2z 5 221 z 5 24

2x 2 4y 1 z 5 8

5 10

4(1) 2 5z 5 21 z 5 1

24

x 1 2(24) 5 21 x 5 7

x 1 22y 5 106

y51

27(24) 1 4z 5 20 z 5 22

x 1 5y 2 z 5 25

24y 1 5z 5 1
10y

5 276
y5

23x 1 2y 1 4z 5

3 (21)

40y 2 12z 5 2136


19y

29.

37

4y 2 5z 5 21

18y 2 6z 5 272

34

y 1 6z 5
19y

34

5 238
y 5 22

6(22) 2 2z 5 224 z 5 6

x 1 y 2 z 5 26
24x 2 4y 1 4z 5 24

Innitely many solutions.

5
1
1
32
35. x 1 } y 1 } z 5 }
2
2
2
3
13
2
1
} x 1 } y 1 } z 5 } 3 (26)
2
3
6
3

22x 2 9y 2 4z 5 213
28y 2 3z 5 28

3
7
1
3
} x 1 } y 1 } z 5 } 3 (28)
4
2
4
4
3
13
2
1
}x 1 } y 1 } z 5 }
3 18
2
3
6
3

x 1 (22) 2 6 5 28 x 5 0
The solution is (0, 22, 6).

2x 1 y 1 z 5

26x 2 2y 2 12z 5 214


6x 1 27y 1 12z 5 39
25y

5 25
y5

28(1) 2 3z 5 28 z 5 0
1

x 1 }2 (1) 1 }2 (0) 5 }2 x 5 2
The solution is (2, 1, 0).

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 145

145

6/27/06 9:50:54 AM

continued

5
2
4
1
36. } x 1 } y 1 } z 5 } 3 (212)
6
3
3
3
3
1
4
2
}x 1 } y 1 }z 5 }
36
6
2
3
3
5
2
1
1
3 24
3
4
6
6
3
1
4
2
} x 1 } y 1 } z 5 } 3 (26)
6
2
3
3

24x 2 10y 2 8z 5 216


4x 1

4x 1 16y 1 6z 5 20
24x 2

15y 2 3z 5
212y

12

5 212
y5

29(1) 1 z 5 28 z 5 1
5
6

2
3

4
3

1
2

} x 1 } (1) 1 } (1) 5 } x 5 2}

The solution is 1 2}2, 1, 1 2.


1

37. Substitute 21 for x, 2 for y, and 23 for z.

21 1 2(2) 2 3(23) 5 a a 5 12

2w 1 2x 1 2y 2 z 5 210

Add Equation 3

w 1 x 2 y 1 3z 5

14

3x 1 y 1 2z 5

2x 2 y 2 5z 5 224
3x 1 y 1 2z 5
2x

3w 1 x 1 y 2 z 5 25

Add 21 times Equation 2


to Equation 4.

w 1 2x 2 y 5 26

New Equation 2
Add Equation 3

6w 1 2x 1 2y 2 2z 5 210

to 2 times Equation 4.

5w 1 4x 1 y 5 212
4w 1 2x 1 2y 5 23
210w 2 8x 2 2y 5 24

New Equation 3
Add new Equation 1
to 22 times new Eq. 3.

to new Equation 3.
Add new Equation 2
to 22 times new Eq. 3.

210x 2

6z 5 10

Call this Equation 5.

24x 1

6z 5 40

Add 22 times Eq. 4

210x 2

6z 5 10

to Equation 5

5 50

214x

25

30
z5 }
7
43

76

25 43 30

76

40. 210w 1 5x 1 20y 1 10z 5 235

22w 2 4x 1 4y 2 10z 5 26
24w 1 48x 1 120y

5 264

Add 24 times Eq. 1

60w 2 5x 2 120y

5 205

to 25 times new
Eq. 2.

84w 1 43x

5 469

New Eq. 1

Because 0 5 3 is a false equation, the system has


no solution.

New Eq. 2

Rewrite Eq 4.
5 469

Call this Equation 6.


to Equation 6.

to 22 times Eq. 3.

5 241

x 5 3w 2 1

Add Equation 5

Add 5 times Eq. 2

x 1 24y

212w 1

84w 1 43(3w 2 1)

05

Substitute into an original


equation to nd w.

The solution is 1 }
, 2}
, }, } .
7 7 72
7

to new Equation 3.

21

Substitute into a new


equation to nd y.

w5 }
7

Add new Equation 2

6w 1 6x 5 218

Substitute into Equation


4 or 5 to nd z.

y5 }
7

Call this Equation 5.

26w 2 6x 5

Solve for x.

x 5 2}
7

21

6w 1 6x 5 218

Call this Equation 4.

26x 2 2y 2 4z 5 28

w 1 2x 2 y 5 26
5w 1 4x 1 y 5 212

New Equation 3

24x 1 2y 2 2z 5 18

New Equation 1

2w 1 2x 2 y 1 2z 5 22

26w 2 6x 5

to Equation 4.

22w 1 x 2 2y 1 z 5 21

to Equation 4.
Add new Equation 1

2 3z 5 220

Add Equation 1

4w 1 2x 1 y 5 23

to 21 times Equation 4.
New Equation 2

When a 5 12, b 5 24, and c 5 10, the system has


(21, 2, 23) as its solution.
3w 1 x 1 y 2 z 5 25

Add Equation 2

18

2(21) 1 3(2) 2 2(23) 5 c c 5 10

w1x1y1z5 2

New Equation 1

32

24x 1 2y 2 2z 5

2(21) 2 2 1 (23) 5 b b 5 24

38.

Add Equation 1
to 22 times Eq. 4.

2w 2 x 1 y 2 3z 5 214

y 2 9z 5 28

15y 2 3z 5 12

2x 2 y 2 5z 5 224
w 2 3x 1 y 1 z 5

227y 1 3z 5 224

33

15y 2 3z 5 12

1
3

2w 1 x 2 3y 1 z 5

22w 2 2x 1 2y 2 6z 5 228

29y 1 z 5 28

}x 1 }y 1 } z 5 }

29y 1 z 5 28

y 1 9z 5

39.

Substitute 3w 2 1
for x in new Eq. 1.

213w 5 512
512

w5}
213
441

x5}
71

Solve for w.
Substitute into Eq. 4
to nd x.

163

y 5 2}
Substitute into new
213
Eq. 2 to nd y.

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Chapter 3,

569

z 5 2}
Substitute into an
213
original equation to
nd z.
The solution is 1 }
, }, 2}
, 2}
.
213
273 2
213 71
512 441

146

163

569

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 146

6/27/06 9:51:02 AM

Chapter 3,
41.

continued
Add Equation 1

1.1(750) 1 1.5z 5 3900 z 5 2050

to 2 times Equation 4.

0.7x 1 0.5(750) 1 0.3(2050) 5 1200 x 5 300

25

New Equation 1

2w 2 2x 1 y 5 213

Add Equation 2

The health club received 300 gallons in the rst delivery,


750 gallons in the second delivery, and 2050 gallons in
the third delivery.

2w 1 7x 2 3y 5

41

22w 2 2x 1 2y 5 216
5x 2 y 5

w1 x2y5
2x
x5 5

to 21 times Equation 4.
New Equation 2

5 25

44. a. c 5 comedy shows

d 5 dramas

Solve for x.

y5

w5

3 Substitute into an original equation for nd w.

r 5 reality shows

Substitute into new Equation 1 to nd y.

30c 1 60d 1 60r 5 360

z 5 22 Substitute into original Equation 3 to nd z.


The solution is (3, 5, 0, 22).

b.

2c 5

30c 1 60d 1 60r 5

360

Add Eq. 1

Problem Solving

260c 2 60d 2 60r 5 2420 to 260 times Eq. 2.

42. p 5 cost of a small pizza

230c

5 260

x 5 cost of a liter of soda

c 5 2 Solve for c.

y 5 cost of a salad

d 5 4 Substitute into Eq. 3 to nd d.

Equation 1: 2p 1 x 1 y 5 14

r 5 1 Substitute to nd r.

Equation 2: p 1 x 1 3y 5 15

There are two comedies, four dramas, and one reality


show on the tape.

Equation 3: 3p 1 x 5 16 x 5 16 2 3p

c. New system of equations:

2p 1 (16 2 3p) 1 y 5 14

30c 1 60d 1 60r 5 360

2p 1 y 5 22

c1

p 1 (16 2 3p) 1 3y 5 15
2p 1 y 5 22

d1

2c

22p 1 3y 5 21
2p 2 2y 5 4

3 (22)

22p 1 3y 5 21

22p 1 3y 5 21
y5

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

c1d1r5

2p 1 y 5 22 p 5 5
2(5) 1 x 1 3 5 14 x 5 1
A small pizza costs $5, a liter of soda costs $1, and a
salad costs $3.
43. x 5 gallons received in 1st delivery

y 5 gallons received in 2nd delivery

r5

30c 1 60d 1 60r 5

360

260c 2 60d 2 60r 5 2300 to 260 times Eq. 2.


230c

60

22

45. a. x 5 athletes who nished in 1st place

y 5 athletes who nished in 2nd place


z 5 athletes who nished in 3rd place
Equation 1: x 1 y 1 z 5 20

Equation 1: 0.7x 1 0.5y 1 0.3z 5 1200

Equation 2: 5x 1 3y 1 z 5 68

Equation 2: 0.2x 1 0.3y 1 0.3z 5 900

Equation 3: y 5 x 1 z

21.4x 2

y 2 0.6z 5 22400

x 1 (x 1 z) 1 z 5 20

5x 1 3(x 1 z) 1 z 5 68

2x 1 2z 5 20

1.4x 1 2.1y 1 2.1z 5

6300

2x 1 2z 5 20

1.1y 1 1.5z 5

3900

8x 1 4z 5 68

0.7x 1 0.5y 1 0.3z 5

1200

3 (24)

8x 1 4z 5 68
28x 2 8z 5 280
8x 1 4z 5

68

24z 5 212
z5

20.7x 2 1.4y 2 2.8z 5 27000


20.9y 2 2.5z 5 25800

Solve for c.

Because a negative number of shows cannot be


recorded, this situation is impossible.

z 5 gallons received in 3rd delivery

Equation 3: 0.1x 1 0.2y 1 0.4z 5 1000

Add Equation 1

2x 1 2(3) 5 20 x 5 7

1.1y 1 1.5z 5

3900

35

7 1 y 1 3 5 20 y 5 10

20.9y 2 2.5z 5

25800

33

5.5y 1 7.5z 5

19,500

Seven athletes nished in rst place, ten nished


second, and three nished third.

22.7y 2 7.5z 5 217,400


2.8y

2100

y5

750

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 147

147

6/27/06 9:51:08 AM

Chapter 3,

continued
r 1 l 1 i 5 12

r 1 l 1 i 5 12

x 1 (x 1 z) 1 z 5 20

5x 1 3(x 1 z) 1 z 5 70

(2l 1 2i) 1 l 1 i 5 12

r 1 4 5 12

2x 1 2z 5 20

8x 1 4z 5 70

3l 1 3i 5 12

r5 8

b. The new Equation 2 would be 5x 1 3y 1 z 5 70.

28x 2 8z 5 280

3 (24)

8x 1 4z 5 70

8x 1 4z 5

3(l 1 i) 5 12
l1i5 4

70

No; Three possible solutions are:


(8 roses, 2 lilies, 2 irises), (8 roses, 3 lilies, 1 iris),
(8 roses, 1 lily, 3 irises).

24z 5 210
z 5 2.5
This claim must be false because you cannot have
2.5 athletes.

48. t 5 weight of one tangerine

b 5 weight of one banana

46. m 5 cost of mixed nuts

g 5 weight of one grapefruit

g 5 cost of granola

t 1 a 5 g Equation 1

d 5 cost of dried fruit


d58

t 1 b 5 a Equation 2

Equation 2: 2m 1 0.5g 1 0.5d 5 9

2g 5 3b Equation 3

Equation 1: m 1 0.5g 1

m 1 0.5g 1

d58

m 1 2g 1 0.5d 5 9

t 1 (t 1 b) 5 g

2g 1 0.5d 5 9

Equation 3: m 1

m 1 0.5g 1 d 5
2 m 2 3.5g

2m 1 0.5g 1 0.5d 5 9
m1

2g 1 0.5d 5 9

5 210

2m 1 0.5g 1 0.5d 5
2m 2

3 (21)

5 0

2}2 b 5 22t
Solve for b.
Substitute 4t for b in Eq. 2

5t 5 a

3 1 0.5(2) 1 d 5 8 d 5 4

Mixed Review

Mixed nuts cost $3 per pound, granola costs $2 per


pound, and dried fruit costs $4 per pound.

49. 15 1 (28) 5 7

47. a. r 5 number of roses

50. 24 2 (213) 5 24 1 13 5 9
51. 15 p 7 5 105

l 5 number of lilies

52. 24(28) 5 4 p 8 5 32

53. (1, 24), (2, 6)

i 5 number of irises

6 2 (24)

Equation 1: r 1 l 1 i 5 12

m5}
5 10
221

Equation 2: 2.5r 1 4l 1 2i 5 32

The slope is positive, so the line rises.

Equation 3: r 5 2(l 1 i) or r 5 2l 1 2i

54. (4, 2), (218, 1)

b. (2l 1 2i) 1 l 1 i 5 12

122

m5}
5}
218 2 4
22

3l 1 3i 5 12
2.5(2l 1 2i) 1 4l 1 2i 5 32

The slope is positive, so the line rises.

9l 1 7i 5 32
3 (23)

Substitute }2 b for g in new Eq. 1.

Because 5t 5 a, ve tangerines will balance the apple


in the nal picture.

m 2 1.5(2) 5 0 m 5 3

55. (6, 26), (26, 6)

29l 2 9i 5 236

9l 1 7i 5 32

9l 1 7i 5

32

22i 5 24
i5

3l 1 3(2) 5 12 l 5 2

148

2t 1 b 5 }2 b

t 1 4t 5 a

25g 5 210

3l 1 3i 5 12

Rewrite Equation 3.

b 5 4t

2m 2 3.5g 5 210

g5

2g 2 0.5d 5 29

m 2 1.5g
m 2 1.5g 5

g 5 }2 b

4g 2 d 5 218

22m 2

3 (22)

Substitute t 1 b for a in Eq. 1.


New Equation 1

2t 1 b 5 g

6 2 (26)

m5}
5 21
26 2 6
The slope is negative, so the line falls.
56. (25, 2), (25, 10)

10 2 2

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

2x 1 2z 5 20

c.

r 1 2 1 2 5 12 r 5 8

m5}
5 }0
25 2 (25)

Each bouquet should contain 8 roses, 2 lilies, and


2 irises.

The slope is undened, so the line is vertical.

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 148

6/27/06 9:51:13 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

57. (22, 4), (26, 8)

b. (p 1 j) 1 4p 1 6j 5 24

824
m5}
5 21
26 2 (22)

Substitute p 1 j for t in
Equation1.

5p 1 7j 5 24

The slope is negative, so the line falls.

(p 1 j) 1 p 1 j 5 8

Substitute p 1 j for t in
Equation 2.

58. (27, 3), (5, 3)

2p 1 2j 5

323

m5}
50
5 2 (27)

8 New Equation 2

10p 1 14j 5 48 Add 2 times new Eq. 1.


210p 2 10j 5 240 to 25 times new Eq. 2.

The slope is 0, so the line is horizontal.


59. 3x 2 y 5 27 3 3

9x 2 3y 5 221

2x 1 3y 5 21

2x 1 3y 5 21
5

x5

11x

4j 5

The solution is (0, 7).

j 5 2 Solve for j.
t 5 4 Substitute to nd t.
There are four tapers, two pillars, and two jar candles
in each basket.
c.

60. 3x 1 2y 5 23

33

9x 1 6y 5 29

4x 2 3y 5 238

32

8x 2 6y 5 276
17x

5 285
x 5 25

p 5 2 Substitute to nd p.

3(0) 2 y 5 27 y 5 7

t1p1j58

t1p1j58

(p 1 j) 1 p 1 j 5 8

t1458

2p 1 2j 5 8

t54

2(p 1 j) 5 8
p1j54
No; three possible solutions are:
(4 tapers, 2 pillars, 2 jar candles),
(4 tapers, 3 pillars, 1 jar candle),
(4 tapers, 1 pillar, 3 jar candles).

3(25) 1 2y 5 23 y 5 6
The solution is (25, 6).
61. 5x 1 y 5 11 y 5 11 2 5x

2x 1 3y 5 219

3. Sample answer: y > 1, x > 2, y < 4 2 x

2x 1 3(11 2 5x) 5 219

4. a. s 5 the number of small tables

213x 5 252

l 5 the number of large tables

x5
Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

New Equation 1

5(4) 1 y 5 11 y 5 29
The solution is (4, 29).

1. a. n 5 the number of necklaces

b 5 the number of bracelets


3.5n 1 2.5b 5 121

Equation 1

9.0n 1 7.5b 5 324

Equation 2

b. 210.5n 2 7.5b 5 2363

21.5n

20

4s 1 6l 5

90

24s 2 4l 5 280

Mixed Review of Problem Solving (p. 186)

9.0n 1 7.5b 5

s1l5

324

Add 23 times Eq. 1


to Equation 2.

5 239
n5

26

Solve for n.

b5

12

Substitute to nd b.

At the craft fair, 26 necklaces and 12 bracelets


were sold.

4s 1 6l 5

90

2l 5

10

l5

s5

15

Equation 1
Equation 2
Add 24 times Equation. 1
to Equation 2.
Solve for l.
Substitute to solve for s.

The restaurant has fteen 4-seat tables and ve


6-seat tables.
b. Sample answer:

1. The restaurant could buy ve more 6-seat tables and


ve more 4-seat tables.
2. The restaurant could buy one additional 6-seat table
and eleven more 4-seat tables.
3. The restaurant could buy three more 6-seat tables
and 8 more 4-seat tables.

2. a. t 5 number of tapers

p 5 number of pillars
j 5 number of jar candles
t 1 4p 1 6j 5 24

Equation 1

t1p1j58

Equation 2

t5p1j

Equation 3

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 149

149

6/27/06 9:51:16 AM

continued

5. s 5 the price of a soda

b. Sample answer:

p 5 the price of a pretzel

30 small chairs and 5 large chairs

h 5 the price of a hot dog

20 small chairs and 13 large chairs

s 1 p 1 2h 5

7 Equation 1

2s 1 p 1 2h 5 8 Equation 2
4h 5 10 Equation 3

s1

s 1 p 1 2h 5

7 Add Equation 1

22s 2 p 2 2h 5 28 to 21 times Equation 2.


2s

10 small chairs and 20 large chairs

Lesson 3.5
3.5 Guided Practice (pp. 188190)

5 21
s 5 1 Solve for s.
5

h 5 2.25 Substitute into original Equation.


3 to nd h.
The price of one hotdog is $2.25.

6. h 5 the number of hours skating

b 5 the number of hours bicycling


6h 1 8b 5 34

Equation 1

b1h55
b552h

2.

Solve for h.

Life span (years)

22 1 (23)

511

11 1 (25)

4 1 (22)

26 1 (28)

814

25

214

12

F GF G
F
G
F G
F G
F
G
F G
0

0
2 23
5 214

022

10 22

2 21

3. 24 27
(40, 84.7)

22

23

0 25

24(2) 24(21) 24(23)

5 24(27)

24(6)

24(22)

12

24

4.

l 5 the number of large chairs


45s 1 70l 2000

F
F

4 21

23 25

20

GF
1

22 22
0

30
20
10

3(21) 1 (22)

3(23) 1 0

3(25) 1 6

316

10

20

30

40

Number of small chairs

10 25

29 29

125 100

215

2 278 251

205 300

225 270

95 2 125

114 2 100

5 316 2 278

215 2 251

205 2 225 300 2 270

GF

F GF G
F
GF G

5. B 2 A 5

3(4) 1 (22)

95 114

80s 1 110l 2750

24(1)

24(0) 24(25)

28 224

28

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 x
Years since 1996

8. a. s 5 the number of small chairs

Number of large chairs

28 15

The lines intersect at about (40, 84.7). This means that


in the year 2036, men and women will both have a life
span of about 84.7 years.

150

22 28

26 22

b. y 5 0.14x 1 79.12

1 25

23

24 2 2

7. a. y 5 0.29x 1 73.14

y
88
86
84
82
80
78
76
74
72
0

GF

22 2 0
5 7 2 (23)
23 2 5 1 2 (214)

The student spends three hours skating.

c.

7 22

Rewrite Equation 2.
Substitute 5 2 h for b in Eq. 1.

5 11
26

23

22h 5 26
h5

24

Equation 2

6h 1 8(5 2 h) 5 34

F
F
F

22

1.

230

14

38

236

220

30

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Chapter 3,

This matrix represents the change in the number of DVD


racks sold from last month to this month.

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 150

6/27/06 9:51:25 AM

Chapter 3,
6. 22

(F

GF
F

23x 21
4

22

continued
9

24
3

25

G)
G
G
G

23x 1 9

25

21

y13

22(23x 1 9)

22(25)

22(21) 22(y 1 3)

6x 2 18

10

22y 2 6

6x 2 18 5 12

5
5

F
F
F
F

12

10

2 218
12

10

2 218
12

10

2 218
12

10

2 218

G
G
G
G

F GF G
F
GF G
7 23

9.

12

y5

526

24 2 6

11 2 5

2(21)

10. 2

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

5.

10

28

5 23

12

5 1 (28)

2 1 10

21 1 (26)

813

5 2 3 23 2 (24)

7.

F GF G
F
GF
0.1

4.4

6.2

0.7

1
14. }
2

2.4 20.6

8.1 21.9

1.2 1 2.4

5.3 1 (20.6)

0.1 1 6.1

4.4 1 3.1

6.2 1 8.1

0.7 1 (21.9)

F
F
F

3.6
6.2

4.7

7.5
14.3 21.2

0 15

26

212

221

8.1

1.6

1.5(1.6)

1.5(0) 1.5(23)
2.4

0 24.5

8 12

22

20 21 0

F G
F G
10

1
2

1
2

1
2

} (8)

} (12)

} (20)

1
2

} (21)

1
2

} (0)

1
2

}(10)

1
2

}(2)

21

24 1 }7 2

0 23

}(28)

matrix to a 3 3 2 matrix.

11
24 1 }
2

3.4

5.4

} (22)

8. This operation is not possible. You cannot add a 3 3 3

24(22)

23 5.1

24(23)

222 27

22

28

3.1

6.1

23(23)

1.5(5.4)

2 3 1 matrix from a 2 3 2 matrix.


5.3

23(4) 23(7)

1.5(22) 1.5(3.4)

6. This operation is not possible. You cannot subtract a

1.2

5
2

13. 1.5

3 24

25

23(25)

12

28

27 11

22

23(2) 23(0)

7
4

11
2

23

10 2 12 28 2 (23)

2}8

24 2}8 2

23 12

6 212

24(2)

13.1 .

26

F G
F1
F G

12. 24

21.2

2(4)

2(3) 2(26)

3. The nal matrix has the wrong dimensions.

2 23 22

the dimensions and then compare the corresponding


elements. If they are the same, then the matrices
are equal.

28 10

25

14 21

210

22

4 7 23

2. To determine if two matrices are equal, rst compare

3 26

2 0 25

11. 23

22

GF
G
F G
F GF
G
F
G

21

are 3 3 4.

21 8

6
5

23 2 2

1. The dimensions of a matrix with 3 rows and 4 columns

5 2

22

729

Skill Practice

4.

3.5 Exercises (pp. 190193)

F G
F GF GF
F G
F GF G
F
GF G

5 12 2 (22)

The solution is x 5 5 and y 5 6.

It should be

5
11

24

22y 2 6 5 218

x5 5

4
1

1
2

10 2}2

24

1
2

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 151

151

6/27/06 9:51:40 AM

Chapter 3,

F
F

3.1 4.5

21

0 2.5

5.5 21.8 6.4

22.2(6)

22. D 2 2C 5

22.2(3.1)

22.2(4.5)

22.2(0) 22.2(2.5)
5 22.2(21)
22.2(5.5) 22.2(21.8) 22.2(6.4)

213.2 26.82
2.2

17. B 2 A 5

5 24
3 21

21 1 0

18 212

0 2 (21)

29

2
3

26

}(18)

F
F
F

2
3

2
3

}(26)

25.

}3(0)

7.2

1
5

3.4

28.8

1.8 1 7.2

21.5 1 0 10.6 1 (25.4)

28.8 1 2.1 3.4 1 (21.9)


9

21.5 5.2
1.5 3.3

26.7

21. C 1 3D 5

13

0 1 3.3

226.6

19.7 28.7

3.3

3.4

7.2

0 25.4

2.1 21.9

1.8 1 3(7.2)

3.3

21.5 1 3(0) 10.6 1 3(25.4)

28.8 1 3(2.1) 3.4 1 3(21.9)

3.3 2 2(0)

1.8 21.5 10.6


3.4

28.8

7.2

25.4

2.1 21.9

3.3

0.5(1.8) 2 7.2

21 3x
5

24

10.7

GF

21 218

2y

G
0.5(0) 2 3.3

2y 5 24

x 5 26

y 5 22
6

22x

1 28

G F
12

22x 1 2(5)

5 21
6

27

6 1 2(21)

1 1 2(27) 28 1 2(6)

GF
GF
GF
5

213 4
y54

22x 1 10 5 29

29

213

29

213

29

213

G
G
G

19

x5}
2
19

The solution is x 5 }
and y 5 4.
2
26.

F GF
8 2x
5

2(8) 2 3
2(5) 2 10

29

10 24y

2(2x) 2 (29)

22x 1 9 5 4
5
x 5 }2

GF G
GF G
GF G

2(6) 2 (24y)

13 22x 1 9
0

3x 5 218

0.5(21.5) 2 0 0.5(10.6) 2 (25.4)

3.6 23.3

26.5

1.8 21.5 10.6

28.8

0 2 2(21.5) 25.4 2 2(10.6)

22x 1 10

0 25.4

3.3

2.1 21.9

3.4

3.6

1.8 21.5 10.6

20. C 1 D 5

1.8 21.5 10.6


28.8

The solution is x 5 26 and y 5 22.

12 28

24

3.3

26.3 20.75

24.

18 24

}(212)

2.1 21.9

0.5(28.8) 2 2.1 0.5(3.4) 2 (21.9)

2 24

4(21) 2 0

18 212

26

4(24) 2 (212)

4(3) 2 (26)

18 212

3 21

21

13 28

25.4

7.2 2 2(1.8)

3 21

18 2 5 212 2 (24)

5 24

23

23. 0.5C 2 D 5 0.5

23 216

5 24

4(5) 2 18

152

24 1 (212)

3 1 (26)

26

7.2

2.1 2 2(28.8) 21.9 2 2(3.4)

18 212

26

26 2 3

2
2
19. } B 5 }
3
3

5 1 18

18. 4A 2 B 5 4

GF

F
F

G
GF G
GF G
GF G
F GF G
F
GF G
F GF
G
F G
F
G
F
G
F
G
F
G
F
G
F
G
F
G
F
G
5

F
F
F
F

25.5

3.96 214.08

212.1

16. A 1 B 5

29.9

22

12 1 4y

12 1 4y 5 16
y51

13

0 16

13

0 16

13

0 16

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

15. 22.2

continued

5
The solution is x 5 }2 and y 5 1.

0 1 3(3.3)

23.4 21.5 25.6

22.5 22.3

9.9

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 152

6/27/06 9:51:55 AM

Chapter 3,
27.

continued

F GF
F
GF
F GF
21 2

4x

3 6

4x(21)

4x(2)

8 216

12x

24x

3y

224

8x

24x

3y

224

4x(3) 4x(6)

8 216

8 216
3y

224

G
G
G

d.

3X 2

3y 5

24x

x 5 22

3y 5

24(22)

3b 2 (26)

3c 2 2

3d 2 1

y 5 20.25

X5

Problem Solving

30. a.

F G F G
F GF G
F
GF G
23 2

4 23

a 1 (25)

d 1 (23)

7 28

23

b10

c14

5 2

25

X1

7 28

23

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

a 5 12, b 5 28, c 5 27, and d 5 8.

G
F GF G
F
GF G
X5

b.

X2

a22

b23

c25

d20

30

19

16

20

14

29

39

36

31

32

42

29 20

12

17

25

16

G
G

28 40

32

21

32 2 32 47 2 42

30 2 29 19 2 20

5 2 12 16 2 17

20 2 25 14 2 16

29 2 28 39 2 40

36 2 32 31 2 21

21

27 21 25

22

1 21

Economy
Mid-size

Mini-van

21 3
8

47

Suv

21 3

40

24

34

18

25

19

c.

23 1

2X 1

4 7

2a 1 (23) 2b 1 1
2c 1 4

2d 1 7

8 29

33. a.

10

Downtown
Mall

a 5 211, b 5 10, c 5 4, and d 5 23.


X5

211

10

4 23

40

34.56

24 34
18

25

19

22

b. M 1 J 5

F
F
F

31

42 18

22

25 11

31

42 18
25 11

19.44

GF

GF
1

25

36 12

38

32 15

32 15
18 1 12

22 1 38

25 1 32

11 1 15

78 30
57 26

G
G

36 12

38

42 1 36

56

25

31 1 25

60

27

June (J)

22

43.2

25.92 36.72
20.52 23.76

May(M)

10

8 29

After an 8% increase: 1.08

F GF G
22

32

F G
F GF G
F
GF G
X5

Highway mpg

32

a 5 10, b 5 9, c 5 4, and d 5 3.
10

10

City mpg

32

32.

12 28

27

F
F
F
F

31. Change in sales 5 Sales for 2004 2 Sales for 2003

5 10.1

,B5

F G
2}3 3
17

29. Sample answer:

25 4

219

2}
1
3

5 9.6 1 0.50

A5

213 15

G
G

17

3x 2 2y 5 3(3.2) 2 2(20.25)

10 3

219

a 5 2}3 , b 5 3, c 5 2}
, and d 5 1.
3

The solution is x 5 22 and y 5 216.


x 5 3.2

213 15

3a 2 11

y 5 216
3y 5 20.75

GF
GF

11 26

24x 5 8

28. C; 2x 5 6.4

This matrix represents the total sales for May and June.

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 153

153

6/27/06 9:52:06 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

1 56
1
c. }(M 1 J) 5 }
2 60
2

78 30
57 26

GF
5

28

39 15

30

28.5 13

Quiz 3.33.5 (p. 193)


1.

2.

34. No, the matrix A 1 B does not give meaningful

information. The team size in each matrix is an average,


but the sum of the two averages is not an average.
35. A 5

3A 5

3 15

3 12

15

3 12

22

3.

4.

2
2

y
x

21
x

The height of the large rectangle is three times the


height of the small rectangle, and the width of the large
rectangle is three times the width of the small rectangle.
Therefore, the large rectangle is nine times the size of the
small rectangle.

5.

6.

Mixed Review
36. 5 1 (28) 5 23

37. 27 1 6 5 21

38. 8(27) 5 256

39. 26 2 (215) 5 26 1 15 5 9
x

22

40. 25(29) 5 45

7. 2x 2 y 2 3z 5

41. 6 2 (218) 5 6 1 18 5 24

x 1 2y 2 5z 5 211

42. y 5 x 1 1 when x 0.

y 5 2x 1 1 when x 0.

2x 2 3y 5 10 x 5 210 2 3y

y 5 x 1 1

2(210 2 3y) 2 y 2 3z 5 5
(210 2 3y) 1 2y 2 5z 5 211

passes through (3, 22) 22 5 a(3 2 1) 1 1

2y 2 5z 5 21

a 5 2}2

27y 2 3z 5 25

3
2

y 5 2}x 2 1 1 1

2y 2 5z 5 21

27y 2 3z 5 25
3 (27)

7y 1 35z 5 7
32z 5 32

44. vertex: (3, 21) y 5 ax 2 3 2 1

z5 1

passes through (2, 2) 2 5 a2 2 3 2 1

27y 2 3(1) 5 25 y 5 24

a53

x 1 2(24) 2 5(1) 5 211 x 5 2


25 1 2(1) ?
23
23 23

(25, 1) is a solution of the inequality, but (0, 3) is not.


5(5) 2 23 ?
46. 5(25) 2 0 ?
>2
>2
225 2

5 5

28(3) 2 3(29) ?
<5
3<5

(3, 29) is a solution of the inequality, but (21, 1) is not.


21(21) 2 10(0) ?
48. 21(2) 2 10(3) ?
>4
>4
12 > 4

8.

x 1 y 1 z 5 23

22x 2 2y 2 2z 5 6

3 (22)

4x 2 5y 1 2z 5 16

4x 2 5y 1 2z 5 16

2x 2 7y
2x 2 3y 1 z 5 9

22

Neither ordered pair is a solution.

47. 28(21) 2 3(1) ?


<5

The solution is (2, 24, 1).

3 (22)

24x 1 6y 2 2z 5 218

4x 2 5y 1 2z 5 16
2x 2 7(22)

5 22

4x 2 5y 1 2z 5 16
y
5 22

5 22 x 5 4

4 1 (22) 1 z 5 23 z 5 25

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

27y 2 3z 5 25

43. vertex: (1, 1) y 5 ax 2 1 1 1

y 5 3x 2 3 2 1
?
45. 0 1 2(3) 23
6 23

21

The solution is (4, 22, 25).

221 4

(2, 3) is a solution of the inequality, but (21, 0) is not.

154

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 154

6/27/06 9:52:21 AM

Chapter 3,
9.

continued
20.3(14) 2 0.1g 5 24.4 g 5 2

2x 2 4y 1 3z 5 1

e 1 14 1 2 5 21 e 5 5

22x 1 5y 2 2z 5 2
y1 z53
6x 1 2y 1 10z 5 19
22x 1 5y 2 2z 5 2
y1 z5 3

26x 1 15y 2 6z 5 6

33

17y 1 4z 5 25
24y 2 4z 5 212

3 (24)

17y 1 4z 5 25

17y 1 4z 5
y5

1
3.

2x 2 4(1) 1 3(2) 5 1 x 5 2}2

1
The solution is 2}2, 1, 2 .
10. A 1 B 5

F GF G
F
GF G
F G F G
F
GF G
1

3 21

24

8 10

2 1 (24)

25 1 3

318

21 1 10

24

11. B 2 2A 5

24 2 2(2)

22 22
11

2 25

22

8 10

3 21

3 2 2(25)

8 2 2(3) 10 2 2(21)

28 13
2 12

12. The sum 3A 1 C is not possible. You cannot add a 2 3 2

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

matrix to a 2 3 3 matrix.

F
F

2
3

} (26)

2
3

13. } C 5

2
3

} (9)

}3(1)

2
3

}(21)

2
3

}(24)

24

4
2}3

2
3

2}3

2
3

} (22)

2}3

32.24 17.68 23.12

22.08 14.56 28.32

26 11 25
21 11

18 20 28

5.

Hardcover
Paperback

F G
G
22 225

4.

38 239

44

36

38

21

76

44

22

50

3.6 Guided Practice (pp. 195198)


1. AB is dened and has dimensions 5 3 2.
2. AB is not dened because the number of columns in A

does not equal the number of rows in B.


3. AB 5

F
F
F

23

GF

1 22

23 22

23(1) 1 3(23)

23(5) 1 3(22)

1(1) 1 (22)(23)

1(5) 1 (22)(22)

212 221
7

F G (F
F GF
F
F G
21

23

21

5 23

Equation 3: r 5 2(g 1 e), or 22e 1 r 2 2g 5 0


3 (21.4)

21.4e 2 1.4r 2 1.4g 5 229.4


1.4e 1 1.1r 1 1.3g 5 25

22 21
7

23

23

21

4 1
21(7) 1 2(23)

Equation 2: 1.4e 1 1.1r 1 1.3g 5 25

12

211

Lesson 3.6

4. A(B 2 C) 5

g 5 pounds of Golden Delicious apples


Equation 1: e 1 r 1 g 5 21

g 5 21

19 25

r 5 pounds of Red Delicious apples

r1

F
F

14. e 5 pounds of Empire apples

e1

1.

2.

11z53z52

Graphing Calculator Activity 3.5 (p. 194)

25

5 13

13y

2 25

You should buy 5 pounds of Empire, 14 pounds of Red


Delicious, and 2 pounds of Golden Delicious apples.

6x 1 2y 1 10z 5 19

G F G)
G
2

24

21(23) 1 2(21)

5 23(7) 1 0(23)

23(23) 1 0(21)

4(7) 1 1(23)
213
1

4(23) 1 1(21)

5 221

25 213

1.4e 1 1.1r 1 1.3g 5

25

20.3r 2 0.1g 5 24.4


e 1 r 1 g 5 21
22e 1 r 2 2g 5 0

32

2e 1 2r 1 2g 5 42
22e 1 r 2 2g 5 0
3r
5 42
r 5 14

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 155

155

6/28/06 2:32:08 PM

5. AB 2 AC 5

continued

(F
(F
F
G
F
G
F GF G
F G
F G
21

23

21

23

GF
GF

22 21

24

21(3) 1 2(22)

21(2) 1 2(21)

5 23(3) 1 0(22)

23(2) 1 0(21)

4(3) 1 1(22)

14(2) 1 1(21)

21(24) 1 2(1)

21(5) 1 2(0)

2 23(24) 1 0(1)

23(5) 1 0(0)

4(24) 1 1(1)

27

24

29

26

10

213

5 221

1
2

1
2

14

30

16

equal the number of rows in B.


8. AB is dened and has dimensions 2 3 5.
9. A; Matrix A has 2 rows and matrix B has 2 columns,

so AB has dimensions 2 3 2.
10.

11.

20

10

2}2 (24)

2}2 (29)

2}2 (26)

2}2 (10)

GF

75
1
45

2}2 (7)

14(75) 1 30(1) 1 18(45)


16(75) 1 25(1) 1 20(45)

GF G
5

7
2

9
2

13.

14.

2125

The total cost of equipment for the womens team is


$1890 and the total cost of equipment for the mens team
is $2125.

156

9 23
0

F
F

G5F 8G

GF G

5 3(5) 1 (21)(7)

G5

GF

4 22

1(22) 1(1)
4(22) 4(1)

9(1) 1 (23)(22)

0(0) 1 2(4)

0(1) 1 2(22)

23

24

F
F

9(0) 1 (23)(4)

8 24

212

15

GF

5(23) 1 0(6)

5(2) 1 0(2)

24(23) 1 1(6) 24(2) 1 1(2)

215

10

18 26

F GF
F
F G
5

24

22

28

22

5(3) 1 2(22)

5(7) 1 2(0)

5 0(3) 1 (24)(22)

0(7) 1 (24)(0)

1(3) 1 6(22)

1(7) 1 6(0)

29

16. Not dened; The number of columns in the rst matrix

does not equal the number of rows in the second matrix.

1. The product of matrices A and B is dened provided the

4. AB is dened and has dimensions 3 3 2.

11 35

3.6 Exercises (pp. 199202)

3. AB is dened and has dimensions 2 3 2.

1890

rst column of AB, multiply each element in the rst row


of A by the corresponding element in the rst column of
B, then add the products.

FG

22 1

GF G

2. Sample answer: To nd the element in the rst row and

number of columns in A is equal to the number of rows


in B.

F GF

25 2}2

Skill Practice

21

does not equal the number of rows in the second matrix.

15.

F3

12. Not dened; The number of columns in the rst matrix

25

215

26

25 20

7. AB is not dened. The number of columns in A does not

12 215

29

2}2 (27)

18

4(5) 1 1(0)

equal the number of rows in B.


6. AB is dened and has dimensions 1 3 3.

25 213
27 24

6. 2}(AB) 5 2}

7.

G)
G)

5. AB is not dened. The number of columns in A does not

F
GF
F
F G

17.

2 12

24

23

22

1(9) 1 3(4) 1 0(22)

1(1) 1 3(23) 1 0(4)

2(9) 1 12(4) 1 (24)(22)

2(1) 1 12(23) 1 (24)(4)

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Chapter 3,

21 28

74 250

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 156

6/27/06 9:52:55 AM

Chapter 3,

F GF
F
F
G

18.

21

3 27

continued

23 10

24

24. AB 1 AC 5

2(0) 1 5(23)

2(1) 1 5(10)

2(5) 1 5(24)

21(0) 1 4(23)

21(1) 1 4(10)

21(5) 1 4(24)

3(0) 1 (27)(23) 3(1) 1 (27)(10) 3(5) 1 (27)(24)

1
5

52 210

215

39 221
5 212
21 267
43

19. The multiplication should be row 1 of the left matrix by

column 1 of the right matrix.


3(7) 1 (21)(1) 5 20

20. The multiplication should be row 1 of the left matrix by

column 1 of the right matrix.


25. AB 2 BA 5

2(4) 1 5(3) 5 23
21. B;

5
5

F GF G
F
G
F G
F GF G
F GF G
F
G
F G
F GF G
F
G
F
GF G
1 24

4 21

3 22

0 23

1(4) 1 (24)(0)
11

12

22. 3AB 5 3

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

1(21) 1 (24)(23)

3(4) 1 (22)(0)
4

26

12

22

15(0) 1 (29)(4)

15(1) 1 (29)(22)

26(0) 1 12(4)

26(1) 1 12(22)

33

48

230

1
1
23. 2} AC 5 2}
2
2

26 3

4 1

1 5(26) 1 (23)(4)

5(3) 1 (23)(1)

22(26) 1 4(4)

22(3) 1 4(1)

5 2}2

5 23

22

2}2 (242)
1

22

29

236

15

3(21) 1 (22)(23)

23

22

2}2 (12)
1

2}2 (28) 2}2 (22)

21 26

214

F GF
F GF
F
F
F GF
F G
F GF
F GF
F
F
F GF
F G
5 23

F
F

4 22

5 23

26 3

4 1

22

G
G

5(0) 1 (23)(4)

5(1) 1 (23)(22)

22(0) 1 4(4)

22(1) 1 4(22)

5(26) 1 (23)(4)

5(3) 1 (23)(1)

22(26) 1 4(4)

22(3) 1 4(1)

11

212

16 210

12

242

28 22

44 212
5 23
4

22
0

4 22

5 23

4 22

22

G
G

5(0) 1 (23)(4)

5(1) 1 (23)(22)

22(0) 1 4(4)

22(1) 1 4(22)

0(23) 1 1(4)

4(5) 1 (22)(22)

4(23) 1 (22)(4)

11

16 210

22

24

220

210

28 10

22

21

23

22

21

G (F
GF

1 3

23 1

2 1 22

22

23

GF
G
1

23

22

21

23(22) 1 1(4) 1 4(5)

23(4) 1 1(1) 1 4(5)

5 7(22) 1 0(4) 1 (22)(5)

7(4) 1 0(1) 1 (22)(5)

3(22) 1 4(4) 1 (21)(5)

3(4) 1 4(1) 1 (21)(5)

23(6) 1 1(2) 1 4(23)


7(6) 1 0(2) 1 (22)(23)

3(6) 1 4(2) 1 (21)(23)

30

G
G

0(5) 1 1(22)

212

G
G

23

254

23

22

26. E(D 1 E)

228

5 224 18

48

5 11

29

G)

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 157

157

6/27/06 9:53:06 AM

Chapter 3,

(F
F
F

1 3

23 1

2 1 22

G F G) F
GF G
23

1 3

22

23 1

21

22

23

23

22

The solution is x 5 2 and y 5 8.

4(3) 1 1(1) 1 2(1)

5(1) 1 5(23) 1 (23)(2)

5(3) 1 5(1) 1 (23)(1)

5 15

216 17

36

22

5 22
5

26

22

0(3) 1 1(1)

4(26) 1 (22)(4)

4(3) 1 (22)(1)

22(1)

5 23

26

22

5 23

22

1 3 22

13
5
1
5
5

4(9) 1 1(2) 1 3(21) 5 y


35 5 y

32. A2 5

0(26) 1 1(4)

22(232) 22(10)

54

x53

22(4)

29. 4AC 1 3AB 5 4

2x 5 6

The solution is x 5 3 and y 5 35.

F GF G
F
G
F
GF G
F GF G
F GF G
F
G
F
G
F
G
F
G
F
G
F
G

28. 22(BC) 5 22

x52
0(1) 1 (22)(x) 1 4(3) 5 y

31. 22(9) 1 x(2) 1 1(21) 5 213

4(1) 1 1(23) 1 2(2)

5(2) 1 5(4) 1 (23)(22)

2x 5 4

85y

22(3) 1 4(1) 1 6(1)

4(2) 1 1(4) 1 2(22)

3(1) 1 2(x) 1 4(3) 5 19

0(1) 1 (22)(2) 1 4(3) 5 y

22(1) 1 4(23) 1 6(2)

22(2) 1 4(4) 1 6(22)

2 1 22

30.

5(26) 1 (23)(4)
(22)(26) 1 4(4)

28

22

64

220

5(3) 1 (23)(1)

5(1) 1 (23)(22)

(22)(0) 1 4(4)

(22)(1) 1 4(22)

4(12)

4(28)

4(22)

3(212)

3(11)

3(16)

3(210)

2168 2 36

48 1 33

112 1 48

28 1 (230)

2204

81

A3 5
5
5
5
33. A2 5

(22)(3) 1 4(1)

5(0) 1 (23)(4)

4(242)

5
5
A3 5
5
5

160 238

158

F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F

1 21
0

GF G
1 21
0

1(1) 1 (21)(0)

1(21) 1 (21)(2)

0(1) 1 2(0)

0(21) 1 2(2)

1 23
0

1 21
0

1 23
0

G
GF GF G
GF G
1 21

1 21

1 21
0

1(1) 1 (23)(0)

1(21) 1 (23)(2)

0(1) 1 4(0)

0(21) 1 4(2)

27

24

G
GF

2 21

24

2 21

(24)(24) 1 1(2)

(24)(1) 1 1(21)

2(24) 1 (21)(2)

2(1) 1 (21)(21)

G
GF GF
GF G

18 25

210

24

3
1

2 21

24

18 25

210

2 21

24

24

2 21

2 21

18(24) 1 (25)(2)

18(1) 1 (25)(21)

210(24) 1 3(2)

210(1) 1 3(21)

282

23

46 213

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

27. (D 1 E)D

continued

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-a.indd 158

6/27/06 9:53:12 AM

Chapter 3
34. A2 5

A3 5

F
F
F

F
F

continued

0 21

22 21

1 22

25 23

GF
GF
G
0

0 21

22 21

1 22

25 23

GF
G

0 21

22 21

37.

Equipment

GF
G

0 21

0 21

22 21

22 21

0 21

22 21

Total cost 5

38.

13

Class 1

213 29

21

Class 2

F G F
(F GF
F
F
( F G) F
F GF
F
F G( F
F GF
F
4

B5
9 ,

36. k(AB) 5 k

A(kB) 5

5
5

ce 1 dg

G
G)
G

cf 1 dh

kae 1 kbg kaf 1 kbh


kce 1 kdg kcf 1 kdh

(kA)B 5 k
5

Cost

30

G
G

ka

kb

kc

kd

kae 1 kbg kaf 1 kbh


kce 1 kdg kcf 1 kdh
a

k g

ke

kf

kg

kh

G)
G

kae 1 kbg kaf 1 kbh

FG
21
4

G 5 F 882 G

Paint

24

12

17

20

14

15

FG
4.50

Total cost 5

Canvases

1.75

Canvases

Brushes

3.35

Brushes

Paint

(dollars)

ae 1 bg af 1 bh

5k

Balls

Art Supplies

16

A5

(dollars)
21

The total cost of equipment for the softball team is $882.

21

45 15

24

12

5 12(21) 1 45(4) 1 15(30)

Bats

30

17

FG

Cost

Bats Balls Uniforms


12 45
15

Uniforms

35. Sample answer:

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Problem Solving

24 12

17

20 14

15

GF

3.35
1.75
4.50

24(3.35) 1 12(1.75) 1 17(4.50)


20(3.35) 1 14(1.75) 1 15(4.50)

GF G
177.9
159.00

The supplies for class 1 cost $177.90 and the supplies for
class 2 cost $159.00.

39.

Attendance
Friday
Saturday

Students

Adults

Seniors

120

150

40

192

215

54

FG

Ticket cost (dollars)


Students

kce 1 kdg kcf 1 kdh


All of the matrices are equal, so k(AB) 5 (kA)B 5 A(kB).

Adults

Seniors

120 150

40

192

54

215

GF G
2
5
4

120(2) 1 150(5) 1 40(4)


192(2) 1 215(5) 1 54(4)

GF G
5

1150
1675

The income from Friday nights play was $1150 and the
income from Saturday nights play was $1675.

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 159

159

6/27/06 9:55:00 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

40. Medals Won

China
Russia

Bronze

35

39

29

32

17

14

27

27

38

FG

Gold

Points
3

Silver

Bronze

35

39

29

32

17

14

27

38

27

Silver

43. a. T 5

GF G
2
1

27(3) 1 27(2) 1 38(1)

c. M2 5

GFG
212

5 144
173

M3 5

41. SP: (3 3 2)(1 3 3) PS: (1 3 3)(3 3 2)

not equal

equal

The matrix PS is dened.


825 1050

F G

M4 5

21 16

40 33

15 19

F650(21)1825(40)11050(15) 650(16)1825(33)11050(19) G
5 F62,400 57,575 G

Ted
Pat
Al
Matt

Grades (G)

Homework

Quizzes

Tests

82

88

86

92

88

90

82

73

81

74

75

78

88

92

90

Homework
Tests

0.8

0.05

0.2

0.95

1 2 0.2

G
GF G

0.8

0.05

0.2

0.95

0.05

0.2 1 2 0.05

5000
8000

0.8(5000) 1 0.05(8000)
0.2(5000) 1 0.95(8000)

FG
0.5

82(0.2) 1 88(0.3) 1 86(0.5)

92(0.2) 1 88(0.3) 1 90(0.5)

GW 5 82(0.2) 1 73(0.3) 1 81(0.5)


74(0.2) 1 75(0.3) 1 78(0.5)
88(0.2) 1 92(0.3) 1 90(0.5)

0.8

0.05

0.2

0.95

GF G
4400
8600

0.8(4400) 1 0.05(8600)
0.2(4400) 1 0.95(8600)
0.8

0.05

0.2

0.95

GF G
3950
9050

0.8(3950) 1 0.05(9050)
0.2(3950) 1 0.95(9050)
0.8

0.05

0.2

0.95

GF G
4400
8600

GF G

GF G
3950
9050

GF G
3612.5
9387.5

3612.5
9387.5

0.8(3612.5) 1 0.05(9387.5)

0.2(3612.5) 1 0.95(9387.5)

GF
5

3359.375
9640.625

Cost (C)
Plain
Class year

b.

Price (P)

10

Plain

15

15

Class year

20

20

School name

25

20

Mascot

30

Sales (S)

Plain Class year School name

Year 1
Year 2
Year 3

GF G
85.8
89.8

FG FG

44. a.

Mascot

0.2
0.3

F
F
F
F
F
F

School name

Weights (W)
Quizzes

12q

M2, M3, and M4 represent the number of commuters


after 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively.

This matrix shows that dealer A made a prot of $62,400


and dealer B made a prot of $57,575.

Jean

GF

This matrix represents the number of commuters who


will drive and use public transportation after one year.

USA scored 212 points, China scored 144 points, and


Russia scored 173 points.

42.

32(3) 1 17(2) 1 14(1)

12p

b. M1 5

35(3) 1 39(2) 1 29(1)

PS 5 650

F
F
F
F

20

Mascot

100

10

100

50

30

20

300

100

50

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

USA

Gold

5 78.8
76.3
90.2

The students received the following overall grades:


Jean, 85.8; Ted, 89.8; Pat, 78.8; Al, 76.3; and Matt, 90.2.

160

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 160

6/28/06 2:40:32 PM

Chapter 3,

F
F
F G
0

c. SC 5

continued

20 100

10 100

50

30

20 300 100

50

GF G
15

20

20
0(10) 1 20(15) 1 100(20) 1 0(20)

b. For the triangle rotated 1808:

10

10(10) 1 100(15) 1 50(20) 1 30(20)

20(10) 1 300(15) 1 100(20) 1 50(20)

21

27 24

27 24

0 21

F
GF G
F
G
F G
20 100

15

50

30

20 300 100

50

20
25

10(15) 1 100(20) 1 50(25) 1 30(30)

20(15) 1 300(20) 1 100(25) 1 50(30)

24

4300

10,300

0 21

0 21

0 21

21

0 21

0 21

21

27 24
4

F GF G
F GF G

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

2900

46.

4300 2 3200

F GF
F
G

27 24

24 28 22

(28, 24)

24

24

47.

y
x

1100

48.

49.

2600

24

21

y
x

21

1
x

21

50.

27 24 24

21

24

21

This matrix represents the prot that is made


each year.

Mixed Review

600

10,300 2 7700

2300

4300 2 3200
10,300
7700
2900 2 2300

0 21

27 24

27 24

SP represents the total price received for the scarves


each year.

45. a. AB 5

The vertices of this triangle are (4, 7), (8, 4), and (2, 4).

2900

24 28 22

30
0(15) 1 20(20) 1 100(25) 1 0(30)

d. SP 2 SC 5

24

F GF GF GF
G
F G F GF
G
F GF
G
F G

SC represents the cost of making the scarves


each year.

For the triangle rotated 2708:

7700

0 21

The vertices of this triangle are (7, 24), (4, 28),


and (4, 22).

2300

SP 5 10 100

0 21

5 3200

F GF GF
F GF
G
F
G

51.

21

y
x

(22, 24)

1
x

21

(24, 27)

52. y 2 (24) 5 2(x 2 0)

y 1 4 5 2x
y 5 2x 2 4

53. y 2 2 5 23(x 2 5)

y 2 2 5 23x 1 15
y 5 23x 1 17

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 161

161

6/28/06 2:41:00 PM

Chapter 3,

continued
3
55. y 2 3 5 } (x 2 0)
4

2
54. y 2 (21) 5 2}(x 2 0)
3

63.

y 2 3 5 }4 x

x5 6

y 2 2 5 2(x 2 1)
y 5 2x

3.7 Guided Practice (pp. 204207)


3 2 5 3(1) 2 6(22) 5 15
1.
6 1

128
7
57. m 5 } 5 2}
8
0 2 (28)

y 2 1 5 2}8 (x 2 0)

2.

y 2 1 5 2}8 x

4 21
2
4 21
23 22 21 23 22
0
5
1
0
5

5 (28 1 0 2 30) 2 (0 2 20 1 3)

y 5 2}8 x 1 1

5 238 2 (217) 5 221

58. 3x 1 2y 5 5

2x 1 3y 5 13 x 5 3y 2 13

3.

3(3y 2 13) 1 2y 5 5 y 5 4
2x 1 3(4) 5 13 x 5 21

10 22
3 10 22
2 212
4 2 212
0 27 22 0 27

5 (240 1 0 2 42) 2 (0 2 280 1 8)

The solution is (21, 4).

5 198 1 272 5 470

2x 1 5y 5 24

1
4. Area 5 6}
2

5 35
x57

9x 2 3y 5

33

22x 1 3y 5 226

5 6}2 (268) 5 34

12

The area of the triangle is 34 square units.

22x 1 3y 5 226
7x

5 214

5.

x 5 22

4x 2 3y 5

3 215

17

2 13 39 2 (230)
y5} 5}53

24x 2 10y 5 230


y5

6.

The solution is (5, 1).

22x 1 y 5 27

4x 2 2y 5
32

24x 1 2y 5 214
05

Innitely many solutions.

14
0

23

23

The solution is (21, 3).

4x 2 3(1) 5 17 x 5 5
4x 2 2y 5 14

23

23

213y 5 213

62.

3 24

215 24

The solution is (22, 210).


61. 4x 2 3y 5 17

2 5 5 15 2 (28) 5 23
13 5 275 2 (252)
x 5 } 5 }} 5 21

3(22) 2 y 5 4 y 5 210

3 (22)

5 11
9 2
1 3

5 6}2 [(10 1 11 1 27) 2 (2 1 15 1 99)]

The solution is (7, 2).

2x 1 5y 5 15

1
1
1

3(7) 2 5y 5 11 y 5 2
4

5 11
9 2
1 3

4
7
5 28 2 (221) 5 13
23 22

2
7
28 22
24 2 (256)
x5}5}
54
13

13

4
2
23 28

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

59. 3x 2 5y 5 11

3x 2 y 5

Lesson 3.7

y 2 2 5 2x 2 2

60.

5 42

1
6 1 4y 5 4 y 5 2}2
1
The solution is 6, 2}2 .

228
56. m 5 } 5 2
124

5x

6x 2 4y 5 38

32

7x

3
y 5 }4 x 1 3

2
y 5 2}3 x 2 1

x 1 4y 5 4

3x 2 2y 5 19

y 1 1 5 2}3 x

x 1 4y 5 4

232 2 (26)

5 22
y5} 5}
13
13

The solution is (4, 22).

162

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 162

6/27/06 9:55:23 AM

Chapter 3,
7.

3 24
2
4
1 25
2 23
1

continued

3 24
4
1
2 23

5 (3 1 40 1 (224)) 2 (4 1 45 1 (216)) 5 214


18 24
2
18 24
213
1 25 213
1
11 23
1
11 23
x 5 }}}
214

10.

11.

(18 1 220 1 78) 2 (22 1 270 1 52)

5 }}}
52
214

(239 2 180 1 88) 2 (252 2 165 1 72)

12.

214

21 12
4
21 12
4 21 12
0 2 25 5 0 2 25
0 2
3 0
1
3 0
1
3 0

1
2
5 28
2
4

3
1 5
3

13.

14.

4
5
2 24 5
1
6

27
1
210

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

1 23
2
6

15.

12 5
0 6
1 10

8
28 5
4

12 5
0 6
1 10

8
28
4

12 5
0 6
1 10

5 (288 2 40 1 0) 2 (48 2 960 1 0)


5 1160
16.

24
3 29
12
6
0
8 212
0

24
3 29
12
6
0
8 212
0

24 3
12 6
8 212

5 (0 1 0 1 1296) 2 (2432 1 0 1 0)

5 2(25) 2 4(21) 5 26

5 1(6) 2 2(23) 5 12
10 26
27 5 5 10(5) 2 (26)(27) 5 8
0
3
5 23 5 0(23) 2 5(3) 5 215
9 23
7 2 5 9(2) 2 7(23) 5 39

4
2
1

5 129

2. Cramers rule is used to solve a system of linear


7 1
0 3 5 7(3) 2 0(1) 5 21
24
3
1 27 5 24(27) 2 1(3) 5 25

4
5 27
2 24
1
1
6 210

27
1
210

5 (284 1 160 1 5) 2
(2100 1 28 1 24)

the products of the elements of the diagonals.

2 21
4 25

5 234

3.7 Exercises (pp. 207209)

3.

5
0
2
5
0
2
5
0
23
9 22 5 23
9 22 23
9
1 24
0
1 24
0
1 24

The solution is (2, 21, 4).

equations. The numerators for x and y are the


determinants of the matrices formed by replacing the
coefcients of x and y, respectively, with the column of
constants. The denominator of x and y is the determinant
of the coefcient matrix.

3 1
2
1 5 28
3 2
4

5 (0 1 0 1 24) 2 (18 1 40 1 0)

(33 1 104 2 216) 2 (36 1 117 2 176)

1. The determinant of a 2 3 2 matrix is the difference of

1
2
5 28
2
4

5 54

5 }}}
54
214

Skill Practice

5 (224 1 4 1 60) 2 (248 1 4 1 30)

5 }}}}
5 21
214
3 24
18 3 24
4
1 213 4 1
2 23
11 2 23
z 5 }}

5 25(6) 2 4(12) 5 278

5 2206

214

5 (22 2 180 1 0) 2 (24 1 0 1 0)

3
18
2 3
18
4 213 25 4 213
2
11
1 2
11
y 5 }}

25 12
4 6

5 1728
17.

22
6
8 15
4 21

0
3 5
7

22
6
8 15
4 21

0 22
6
3
8 15
7
4 21

5 (2210 1 72 1 0) 2 (0 1 6 1 336)
5 2480
18.

5
24
1

7
0
8

6
8 5
7

5
24
1

7
0
8

6
5 7
8 24 0
7
1 8

5 (0 1 56 2 192) 2 (0 1 320 2 196)


5 2260

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 163

163

6/27/06 9:55:30 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

19. The values in the upward diagonals should be subtracted

from the values in the downward diagonals.


2 0 21
2 0
4 1
6
4 1
23 2
5 23 2

59
The area of the triangle is 9 square units.

The determinant is 225.


20. The column extensions should be on the right side

of the matrix.
3 0
1
3 0
2 2 23
2 2
23 5
0 25 5

1
27. Area 5 6}
2

5 25
28. A;

5 10 2 (251) 5 61
1

21. D;

Area 5 6}2

det A 5 212 2 6 5 218

det B 5 8 2 18 5 210

The area of the triangle is 20 square units.

The greatest determinant is det D.


1 1
1 4
1 7

5
6
3

29.

21
3

1
1
1

4
4
8

2
8
5

30.

24 24 1 24 24
21
2 1 21
2
2 26 1
2 26

5 6}2 [(28 2 8 1 6) 2 (4 1 24 1 4)]


5 21
The area of the triangle is 21 square units.

164

2 21
2

5 4 2 (21) 5 5
5

2 22

1 14 28 2 (22)
y5} 5}56
5

The solution is (2, 6).

5 6}2 [(212 1 36 1 0) 2 (18 2 24 1 0)]

1
25. Area 5 6}
2

22 21

The area of the triangle is 15 square units.

30 2 (23)

14 2 24 2 (214)
x 5 }} 5 } 5 2

24 6 1 24 6
0 3 1
0 3
6 6 1
6 6

5 15

11

The solution is (24, 3).

The area of the triangle is 12 square units.

y5} 5}
53
11

5 12

11

11

1
5 6}2 [(32 1 16 1 20) 2 (64 1 20 1 8)]

1
24. Area 5 6}
2

3 3
21 10

The area of the triangle is 6 square units.


2
8
5

5 6 2 (25) 5 11

56
4
4
8

5
2

10 2 6 2 50
x 5 } 5 } 5 24

5 6}2 [(6 1 35 1 12) 2 (42 1 3 1 20)]

1
23. Area 5 6}
2

5 20

det D 5 25 2 (22) 5 27

23
4 1 23
4
6
3 1
6
3
2 21 1
2 21

5 6}2 [(29 1 8 2 6) 2 (6 1 3 1 24)]

det C 5 25 2 (221) 5 16

1
26
3

The area of the triangle is 25 square units.

5 (0 1 0 1 10) 2 (26 2 45 1 0)

5
6
3

26
1 1 26
22 26 1 22
0
3 1
0

1
5 6}2 [(36 1 0 2 6) 2 (0 2 18 2 2)]

1
22. Area 5 6}
2

5 24
6
3
8 21

5 2 2 27 5 225

1
4
7

1
1
1

24
3
21

5 6}2 [(15 2 32 2 6) 2 (24 2 5 2 24)]

5 (10 1 0 2 8) 2 (3 1 24 1 0)

5
6
8

31.

2
5

1
25

5 225 2 2 5 227

240
1
11 25

200 2 11

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

1
26. Area 5 6}
2

x 5 }} 5 }
5 27
227
227

5 240
2
11

55 2 (280)

y 5 }} 5 }
5 25
227
227

The solution is (27, 25).

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 164

6/27/06 9:55:37 AM

Chapter 3,
32.

continued

21 1 1 21
1
4 21 4
4 21
1
2 21 1
2

34.

5 (21 1 4 1 8) 2 (21 2 8 2 4) 5 24
23
1
1
214 21
4
9
2 21

24

(270 2 8 1 57) 2 (30 2 28 2 38)


5 }}}
5 21
215

21 23
24 214
1
9

4
7 3
4
7
2 219 4
2 219
1 22 2
1 22
y 5 }}}

y 5 }}}
24

(2152 1 28 2 12) 2 (257 2 32 1 28)


5 }}}
55
215

21
1
24 21
1
2

4
1
7
4
1
2 25 219
2 25
1 21 22
1 21
z 5 }}

z 5 }}}
24

(40 2 19 2 14) 2 (235 1 76 2 4)


5 }}}
52
215

The solution is (1, 2, 24).

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

21 22
4
1
1
2
2
1 23

21 22
1
1
2
1

5 (3 2 8 1 4) 2 (8 2 2 1 6) 5 213

228 22
4 228 22
211 1
2 211
1
30 1 23
30
1

x 5 }}}
213

(84 2 120 2 44) 2 (120 2 56 2 66)


5 }}}
56
213

21 228
4 21 228
1 211
2
1 211
2 30 23
2
30

y 5 }}}
13

(233 2 112 1 120) 2 (288 2 60 1 84)


5 }}}}
5 23
213

21 22 228 21 22
1
1 211
1
1
2
1
30
2
1

z 5 }}}
213

(230 1 44 2 28) 2 (256 1 11 2 60)


5 }}}
5 27
213

The solution is (6, 23, 27).

215

(9 2 14 2 24) 2 (3 1 28 1 36)
5 }}}
5 24
24

33.

215

(214 2 12 1 36) 2 (214 2 36 1 12)


5 }}}
52
24

21
1 23
4 21 214
1
2
9

215

(23 1 36 2 28) 2 (29 2 24 1 14)


5 }}}
51
24

4
1
2 25
1 21

7
1 3
7
1
219 25 4 219 25
22 21 2
22 21
x 5 }}}

x 5 }}}

21 23
1
4 214
4
1
9 21

3
4
2

5 (240 1 4 2 6) 2 (215 2 16 1 4) 5 215

23
1
214 21
9
2

4
1
2 25
1 21

The solution is (21, 5, 2).

35.

5 21 22
1
3
4
2 24
1

5 21
1
3
2 24

5 (15 2 8 1 8) 2 (212 2 80 2 1) 5 108


26 21 22 26 21
16
3
4
16
3
215 24
1 215 24
x 5 }}}

108

(218 1 60 1 128) 2 (90 1 96 2 16)


5 }}}
50
108

5 26 22
5 26
1
16
4
1
16
2 215
1
2 215
y 5 }}}

108

(80 2 48 1 30) 2 (264 2 300 2 6)


5 }}}
54
108

5 21 26
5 21
1
3
16
1
3
2 24 215
2 24
z 5 }}}

108

(2225 2 32 1 24) 2 (236 2 320 1 15)


5 }}}}
51
108

The solution is (0, 4, 1).

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 165

165

6/27/06 9:55:43 AM

36.

1
1
1
3 23
2
21
2 22

continued

1
1
3 23
21
2

5 (6 2 2 1 6) 2 (3 1 4 2 6) 5 9
28
1
1 28
1
221 23
2 221 23
11
2 22
11
2
x 5 }}

9
(248 1 22 2 42) 2 (233 2 32 1 42)
5 }}}
5 25
9

1 28
1
1 28
3 221
2
3 221
21
11 22 21
11
y 5 }}}

9
(42 1 16 1 33) 2 (21 1 22 1 48)
5 }}}
50
9

1
1
1
1 28
3 23
3 23 221
2
21
2
11 21
z 5 }}}

(233 1 21 2 48) 2 (224 2 42 1 33)


5 }}}
5 23
9

The solution is (25, 0, 23).


37.

3 21
1
21
2 23
1
1
1

3 21
21
2
1
1

5 (6 1 3 2 1) 2 (2 2 9 1 1) 5 14
25 21
1
25 21
217
2 23 217
2
21
1
1
21
1
x 5 }}

38. Sample answer:

F G
F GF G
F
F G
10 17
5

2 21

39. a. AB 5

(50 1 63 2 17) 2 (42 2 75 1 17)

3
25
1
3
25
21 217 23 21 217
1
21
1
1
21
y 5 }}}

14

(251 2 75 2 21) 2 (217 2 189 2 25)

5 }}}
56
14
3 21
25
3 21
21
2 217 21
2
1
1
21
1
1
z 5 }}}

14

(126 1 17 2 25) 2 (50 2 51 1 21)

22 24

2(3) 1 (21)(22)

2(5) 1 (21)(24)

1(3) 1 2(22)

1(5) 1 2(24)

8 14
5 21 23

det AB 5 224 2 (214) 5 210


det A 5 4 2 (21) 5 5
det B 5 212 2 (210) 5 22
The determinant of AB is equal to the product of det A
and det B.
2k 2k
b. det kA 5
5 4k 2 2 (2k 2) 5 5k 2
k 2k

The determinant of kA is equal to k 2 times the


determinant of A.
Problem Solving

938

454 1 938
454
2518 1 900 2518
0
0 1
0
0

1
40. Area 5 6} 900
2
1

5 6}2 F (2485,884 1 0 1 0) 2 (0 1 0 1 408,600) G


5 447,242
The area of the Bermuda Triangle is 447,242
square miles.
1
41. Area 5 6}
2

14

5 }}}
58
14

0
5
3

0
2
6

1 0
1 5
1 3

0
2
6

5 6}2 [(0 1 0 1 30) 2 (6 1 0 1 0)]


5 12
The area of the garden will be 12 square feet.

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Chapter 3,

5}}}
57
14
The solution is (8, 6, 7).

166

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 166

6/27/06 9:55:50 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

134 1.20 1.60


134 1.20
120
1
1
120
1
0 21 21
0 21
s 5 }}}

42. f 5 number of oor seats

n 5 number of other seats

20.80

Equation 1: 40f 1 25n 5 185,500


Equation 2: f 1 n 5 6700

2(134 1 0 2 192) 2 (0 2 134 2 144)

5 }}}
5 60
20.80

Method 1: Cramers rule

1 15 40 2 25 5 15
40

25

185,500
6700

25
1

0.90 134 1.60 0.90 134


1 120
1
1
1
1
0 21
1
0
d 5 }}}

20.80

f 5 }}
15

(2108 1 134 1 0) 2 (192 1 0 2 134)

5 }}}
5 40
20.80

185,500(1) 2 6700(25)
5 }}
5 1200
15

40

185,500

1 6700
n 5 }}

0.90 1.20 134


1
1 120
1 21
0

0.90 1.20
1
1
1 21

t 5 }}}
20.80

15

(0 1 144 2 134) 2 (134 2 108 1 0)

40(6700) 2 1(185,500)

5 }}}
5 20
20.80

5 }}
5 5500
15

The ice cream shop sells 60 single scoop, 40 double


scoop, and 20 triple scoop cones.

Method 2: Substitution
n 5 6700 2 f

b. New prices:

40f 1 25(6700 2 f ) 5 185,500

Single scoop: 0.90(1.10) 5 0.99

15f 5 18,000

Double scoop: 1.20(1.10) 5 1.32

f 5 1200

Triple scoop: 1.60(1.10) 5 1.76

n 5 6700 2 1200 5 5500

Number of cones sold:

Method 3: Elimination

Single scoop: 60(0.95) 5 57


40f 1 25n 5

40f 1 25n 5 185,500


Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

f 1 n 5 6700

3 (240)

Double scoop: 40(0.95) 5 38

185,500

Triple scoop 20(0.95) 5 19

240f 2 40n 5 2268,000

Total revenue 5 0.99(57) 1 1.32(38) 1 1.76(19)

215n 5 282,500
n5

5 140.03

5500

The total revenue from the ice cream cones


is $140.03.

f 1 5500 5 6700 f 5 1200


Each method used above produces the same outcome.
1200 oor seats and 5500 other seats were sold.
43. a. s 5 number of single scoop cones

d 5 number of double scoop cones


t 5 number of triple scoop cones
Equation 1: 0.90s 1 1.20d 1 1.60t 5 134
Equation 2: s 1 d 1 t 5 120
Equation 3: s 5 d 1 t, or s 2 d 2 t 5 0

0.90 1.20
1
1
1 21

0.60
1
21

0.90 1.20
1
1
1 21

5 (20.90 1 1.20 2 1.60) 2 (1.60 2 0.90 2 1.20)


5 20.80

44. F 1 Na

5 42

Na 1 Cl 5 58.5
1 Cl 5 130.5

5F

1
0
5

1
1
0

0
1
1

1
0
5

1
1 5 (1 1 5 1 0) 2 (0 1 0 1 0) 5 6
0

42 1 0
42 1
58.5 1 1 58.5 1
130.5 0 1 130.5 0
F 5 }}

(42 1 130.5 1 0) 2 (0 1 0 1 58.5)

5 }}}
5 19
6
1
42 0 1
42
0 58.5 1 0 58.5
5 130.5 1 5 130.5
Na 5 }}

6
(58.5 1 210 1 0) 2 (0 1 130.5 1 0)
5 }}}
5 23
6

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 167

167

6/27/06 9:55:55 AM

Chapter 3,

1
0
5

1
42
1 58.5
0 130.5

continued

1
0
5

53.

1
1
0

54.

y
x

21

Cl 5 }}}
6

(130.5 1 292.5 1 0) 2 (210 1 0 1 0)


5 }}}
5 35.5
6
55.

5 4786

0 70 1
0
1
0 1 67
b. Area 5 6} 67
2
124 36 1 124

57.

70
0
36

58.

c. Total area 5 4786 1 3201 5 7987

The total of the Dinosaur Diamond is 7987 mi2.


create a left and right triangle.

1
x 120
1 100 50 5 5000
1
0
0

46.

6}2 F (50x 1 0 1 0) 2 (0 1 0 1 12,000) G 5 5000


1
2

6} (50x 2 12,000) 5 5000

2(23) 1 (24)(1)

2(0) 1 (24)(7)

6(23) 1 1(1)

6(0) 1 1(7)

2 24

59.

26(5) 1 (28)(1)

2(0) 1 (24)(7)

2(5) 1 (24)(1)

25x 5 11,000
x 5 440

228
0

25 10
2

1(25) 1 0(2)

1(10) 1 0(0)

3(25) 1 (22)(2)

3(10) 1 (22)(0)

219 30

Lesson 3.8
3.8 Guided Practice (pp. 210213)

2. 2}2 (50x 2 12,000) 5 5000


225x 5 21000
x 5 40

4
1
1. }
24 2 2 22

21
6

The farmer could put the nal post at (40, 120) or


(440, 120).
Mixed Review
47. f (8) 5 8 2 12 5 24

48. f (7) 5 4(7) 1 8 5 36

49. f (25) 5 (25) 2 10 5 15


50. f(3) 5 2(3)2 1 2(3) 5 23
51. f (4) 5 2(4)2 2 4 1 5 5 215
52. f (22) 5 (22)2 2 2(22) 1 4 5 12

256 238

3 22

1
1. }2 (50x 2 12,000) 5 5000

26(0) 1 (28)(7)

25 10

Two possibilities:

168

23

26 28

d. You could connect Vernal, UT, to Moab, UT, to

x 120
50
0
0

2 24

210 228
5 217
7

5 3201

1
6}2 100

F GF G
F
F G
F GF G
F
F G
F GF G
F
F G
5

1
5 6}2 [(0 1 8680 1 2412) 2 (0 1 0 1 4690)]

The area of the bottom triangular region is 3201 mi2.

5 6}2 [(4900 1 15872 1 0) 2 (8680 1 2520 1 0)]


The area of the top triangular region is 4786 mi2.

y
1
21

70 128 1 70 128
1
0 70
45. a. Area 5 6}
0 70 1
2
124
36
124 36 1

56.

G F

21

22 22

1
5}

2
11

2}
11

2}
22
3

}
11

F G F G

1
2. }
28 2 (220)

8 25

4 21

5}
12

8 25

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

The atomic weights of ourine, sodium, and chlorine are


19, 23, and 35.5, respectively.

21

4 21

F G
}

2
3

2}
12

1
3

2}
12

5
1

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 168

6/27/06 9:56:04 AM

Chapter 3,

22
1
3. }
624
1

continued

G F

1 22

5 }2

6. A 5

F G
F GF G
F GF G F GF G
F G F
G
23

21

1
2

2}2

0 24

1
}
6

}
24

24

1
6

X5

5. A 5

AA21 5

1
6

24

2}4 1 }4

014

011

G F
F GF
F
F G
F
GF
F
F G
0 22 ; A

21 21.5 0.5

5 21.5 21.5 0.5


22 0.5

21

22

21 21.5

0.5

22

21.5 21.5

0.5

12

24

26

21

22

0.5

23 1 3 1 0

12110

22 1 0 1 2

23 1 0 1 4

11021

212 1 6 1 6 218 1 6 1 12
0

5 0

62223

21.5

0.5

22

A21A 5 21.5

21.5

0.5

22

21

22

0.5

12

24

26

22 2 3 1 6

21022

01323

5 23 2 3 1 6

31022

01323

22 2 4 1 6

21022

01423

5I

F
F GF
F

0.01307

Check:

0.2026 20.0327

23

AA21

0.1634
0.1242

0.01307

0.1634

20.0654 20.0131

0.2026 20.0327

0.1503 20.1699

0.1242

0.1962 1 0.05228 1 0.7515


20.0654 1 0.06535 1 0

20.327 1 0.02614 1 0.3006


0.0393 1 0.8104 2 0.8495
20.0131 1 1.0130 1 0
20.4902 2 0.1308 1 0.621
0.1634 2 0.1635 1 0
0.817 2 0.0654 1 0.2482

F
F G
F
F

0.99998

2 3 1024

25

0.9999

21 3 1024

22.6 3 1024

21 3 1024

0.9998

25 3 10

0.01307

5I

0.1634

20.0654 20.0131

A21A 5

0.2026 20.0327

0.1503 20.1699

0.1242

GF G
23

0.1962 2 0.0131 1 0.817

5I

21

5 0

0.1503 20.1699

22 1 3 1 0

20.0655 1 0.4052 2 0.3398

22 1 1

21 22

12 24 26

Check:

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

21

1
24

2}4

X5

X5
2 22

20.0654 20.0131

21

1
24

2}4

2}4

6 21

1
24

4. 2}

1 23

23

5 20.03921 1 0.2026 2 0.1635


20.4509 2 0.1699 1 0.621

20.2616 2 0.0655 1 0.3268


0.05228 1 1.013 2 0.0654

0.6012 2 0.8495 1 0.2484


20.327 1 0 1 0.3268
0.06535 1 0 2 0.0654
0.7515 1 0 1 0.2484

F
F G

1.0001

23 3 1024

22 3 1024

24

0.99988

25 3 1025

2 3 1024

1 3 1024

0.9999

21.1 3 10

5I

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 169

169

6/27/06 9:56:10 AM

Chapter 3,

F G F
F GF
F
F G
F GF
F
G
F G
2

1 22
0

12 27
; A21 5 220 12

3
25

1.5 21

0.5

Check:
21

AA

22

12

27

5 5

220

12

25

1.5

21

0.5

24 2 20 2 3

214 1 12 1 2

10.

62521

60 2 60 1 0

235 1 36 1 0

15 2 15 1 0

228 1 36 2 8

12 2 15 1 4

5 0

5I

27

22

A21A 5 220

12

25

1.5

21

0.5

24 2 35 1 12

12 2 21 1 9

5 240 1 60 2 20

220 1 36 2 15

32512

1.5 2 3 1 1.5

224 1 0 1 24
40 1 0 2 40

8.

5 0

21

5}

X 5 A21B 5

5
17

2}
17

2}
17

9.

6 23

5
17

2}
17

10

3
2}
17

4
}
17

21

4
17

22

1 23

26

A21 5 }0

26

218

Because A 5 0, } is undened and A does not


A
have an inverse. The system has innitely many solutions.

170

5
1
2

3
2

25

3
}
2

21

The solution of the system is (21, 2).

F GF G F G
FG
2

17
5 35

69

A21B 5

17

A movie pass costs $8, a package of popcorn costs $1, and


a DVD costs $17.
3.8 Exercises (pp. 214217)
Skill Practice

1
3. }
425

F GF G F G
F G
x

FG
FG
x
y

1
det A

The solution of the system is (3, 22).


2 21

1
2

multiply } and the new matrix.

F GF G F G
1

elements on the downward diagonal and negate the


elements on the upward diagonal. Finally, you

10

2. First, you nd the determinant of A. Then, switch the

21

5 21
1
17 23
4

1
5 }2

4
Matrix of constants: 22

5I

F GF G F G
F GF

25

1. Matrix of variables:

23 1 0 1 4

X 5 A21B 5

11.

12

24

GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G

3 21

21

48 2 60 1 12
1

F G F GF G
F G F GF G
F G F GF G
F G F G
4
1

5
1

1
4. }
28 2 (29)

2
1
5. }
12 2 10 25

4
5 21 1

4 23
3 22
22
6

3
1
6. }}
221 2 (218) 22

5
1

24 25

21 21

4 23
5 1 3 22
2 22

5 }2

27

25

4 23

1 21

F G
21 23
2
3

2}2

3
9
1
5 2}3 22 27

3 22

7
3

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

7. A 5

continued

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 170

6/27/06 9:56:19 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

7
6
1
7. }}
228 2 (224) 24 24

G F

7
6
1
5 2}4 24 24

F G
7

F G
20 22

1
8. }
120 2 264 12

2}4

2}2

3
2

F G
20 22

1
144 12

5 2}

F G
6

11

30
1
9. }}
2720 2 (2360) 6

260

30 260

5 2}
360

F G
F GF G
F G
224

224

5
6

21 2 }

1
10. }
10
4
2}3 2 1 2}
32

2}
12

}6

1
2}
60

1
}
15

5
6

21 2 }

5 }2

4
3

4
3

2 }2 2 }
12
2
3

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

1
11. The new matrix should have been multiplied by },
det A

F G F GF G
F GF G
F GF G
F GF G F GF G
F G F
G
F G
not by det A.
2

21

5 }6 21

12. C;

21
1
}
210 2 (29) 23

5 21
1
13. }
1 24
1

10

2 }6

2 }3
1
3

23

3 210

5 21

24

5 21

1 1

4 5

24

5
6

5 24

1 0
0 1

X5

X5

X5

5 21

21

24

10 1 1

15 2 6

28 2 1 212 1 6
11

29 26

28

3
2

24

21

24

21

3
2

X5

X5

4
1
15. 2}
4 26

21

21

3
2

F GF

9
2

23 2 6

25
}
2

1
4

X5

21

3
2

1
4

23 1 0
9
2

}11

GF G
G
G
3 21
4

110
3

2}2 1 }4

23
11
2

2}4

1
2

2}6

23

}18

26

610

X5

2
1
16. 2}
12 21

0 22

X5

21

1
4

21

24 29

3
2

24

21

GF G
G
G

24 1 0

X5

2}
2}
36
72
2}
2}
12
24

F GF G
F GF G F
F G F
F
F GF G
F GF G F
F G F
F
F GF G

3
1
14. }
2 22

1
4

}
12

F GF G
F
G
F G
F GF G
F GF G F GF G
1

G
F G

1
2

2}6

1
}
12

1
}
4

23 6

X5

1 2

2}6

X5

5
12
19
}
6

5
2

1
2}2

0 22

29
12

1
6

}11

2}
1 }2
12

7
6

5
12

5
2

0 2}2

X5

F G F
F
1

}12

5 21

1
1
}
}
12 4
5
2}6 1 4

X5

1 22 25
17. 2}
2
0
1

1
2

X5

X5

5
2

1
2}2

3 21

3 1 15 21 1 20
023

024

18

10

19

23 24 22

0 1 10
022

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 171

171

6/27/06 9:56:28 AM

F GF
F GF G
F G

1 3 22
18. }
3 9 25

1
3

3 2}3
2

25

5
2}3

G
F GF G
F
G
F G
G
GF
G

1 2}3

2
2}3

continued

X5

29
1

2
2}3

5
2}3

422

X5

F
F
F

Check:

0.6

20.2

0.2

5 2 }3

13
3

24

40
3

210

21

AA

20.3

20.2

0.3

0.9

0.6

0.1

20.2

0.2

0.2

0.4 1 0 1 0.6

20.9 1 0.9 1 0

20.6 1 0.6 1 0

0.3 1 0.1 2 0.4


20.6 1 0 1 0.6
0.9 1 0.1 1 0

5 2

0.3

22

0.6

0.1

22

20.2

0.2

0.2

20.2

0.9

20.3 1 0 1 0.3

0.9 2 1.2 1 0.3

0.9 1 0 1 0.1

20.2 2 0.4 1 0.6

20.2 1 0 1 0.2

4
3

4
3

8
3

2} 1 } 1 }

F G
F
0

}
}
20.8 3
}
21.1 6

1. 3

7
6

4
3

2}3

1
3

7
6

4
3

1
6

2}6 1 }3 1 }6
}2}1}

F G
1

2}3 1 }3 2 }3

1
6

2}3

1
6

1
3

2
3

2
3

5I

GF G
F G
}
}
0.1 6
}
0.1 6

20. 3

F G
F
1

}
}

5I

}
}
0. 3
}
20. 6

21. 3

5I

14
3

}1}2}

10
3

4
3

4
3

2} 2 } 1 }

1
6

2}3 1 }6 1 }2

21.8 1 1.8 1 0

1
3

2}3

1
6

8
3

7
6

}1}22

5 0

5 0

1
3

2}3 2 }6 1 }2

2}3

2}3 1 0 1 }3

5 0

21

4
3

4
3

0.6 2 0.6 1 0
0.4 1 0.6 1 0

F G
5

}
}
0.1 6
}
0.1 6

20. 3

}102}

20.3

20.3 1 0.4 1 0.9

1. 3

2}6

5 2}6

}
}
0. 3
}
20. 6

2}3

5I

}
}
20.8 3
}
1.1 6
21. 3

2}3 1 0 1 }3

2}3

0
0

5 2

A A5

F G
F
GF
F
G
F G

5 0

20.3 1 0.9 1 0.4 20.2 1 0.6 2 0.4


0.6 1 0 2 0.6

}
}
0.1 6
}
0.1 6

20. 3

0.2

22

0.1

}
}
0. 3
}
20. 6
1. 3

0.3

Check:

0 2 10

A21A 5

20. A21 5

024

AA21 5 22

172

20.3 20.2
0.9

12 2 5 15 2 }3

X5

19. A21 5

F
G
F GF
F G
}
}
20.8 3
}
1.1 6
21. 3

2
3

2
3

0 1 }3 2 }3

0 1 }3 1 }3

02}1}

7
3

2
3

2}3 1 4 2 }3
2}3 1 1 1 }3
}221}

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Chapter 3,

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 172

6/27/06 9:56:39 AM

Chapter 3,
21. A21 5

Check:

F
F
F

continued

20.5

0.5

21.0625

0.125

0.4375

0.21875

0.0625

20.03125

GF

1 21

AA21 5 22

G
G

20.0685 1 0.41095 2 0.34247

0.5

0 1 0.65752 1 0.34247

3 10

21.0625

0.125

0.4375

0.411 2 0.41095 1 0

0.21875 0.0625 20.03125

20.17808 1 0.0685 1 0.10960

20.5 1 1.0625 1 0.4375

0 2 0.125 1 0.125

0 1 0.1096 2 0.10960

1 2 3.1875 1 2.1875

0 1 0.375 1 0.625

1.06848 2 0.0685 1 0

21.5 1 1.0625 1 0.4375

0 2 0.125 1 0.125

21 1 1.3125 2 0.3125
1.5 2 0.4375 2 0.0625

F G
F
F
1

5 0

0.5

A21A 5 21.0625

0.125

0.4375

GF

1 21

22

0.21875 0.0625 20.03125

0.99999

5 3 1025

5 3 1025

0.99998

A A

21.0625 2 0.25 1 1.3125

0.21875 2 0.125 2 0.09375


5

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

1.0625 1 0.375 2 0.4375

0.08219

0.08219

0.01370

20.65753

0.34247

20.10960

22

21

12

25

0.17125 1 0.274 2 0.4452


0.41095 1 0.65752 2 0.0685

22.125 1 1.25 1 0.875

23.28765 1 2.73976 1 0.548

F G
F
F G
F
0

5 0

20.08219 1 0.08219 1 0
0.65753 1 0.34247 1 0

0.03425

0.08904

0.08219

0.08219

0.01370

20.65753 0.34247

20.10960

21

12

25

22

0.03425

20.03425 1 0.03425 1 0

5I

0.03425

0.03425

20.16438 1 0 1 0.1644

21 1 0 1 1

0.4375 1 0.625 2 0.0625

0.08904

1.31506 1 0 2 1.3152

20.21875 1 0.1875 1 0.03125

AA

0.03425

20.0685 1 0 1 1.06848

0.5 1 0 2 0.5

21

5I

0.03425

21

20.5 1 0 1 1.5

2.0 3 1025

5 21.0 3 1025

3 10

3 21

F
F G
F
F G
F

22.0 3 1025

0.99998

5I

20.5

Check:

0.411 2 0.41095 1 0

20.5

0.5 2 0.4375 2 0.0625

22. A21

0 1 0.65752 2 0.65753

3 21

20.0685 1 0.41095 1 0.65753

0.08904

0.08219

0.08219

0.01370

20.65753

0.34247

20.10960

F
F G

5 3 1025

0.99998

25

0.99997

21.4 3 1024

1.1 3 1024

2 3 10

5I

G
Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 173

173

6/27/06 9:56:45 AM

Chapter 3,
23. A

0.3

0.05

5 20.06875

0.1125

0.01875

20.025

20.05

20.175

Check:
21

AA

F
F
F

0.15

GF

G
0.3

0.05

20.06875 0.1125 0.01875

0 26

20.025 20.05 20.175

0.45 1 0.55 1 0

0.9 2 0.9 1 0

5 0.3 2 0.275 2 0.025

0.6 1 0.45 2 0.05

20.15 1 0 1 0.15

20.3 1 0 1 0.3

0.1 1 0.075 2 0.175


20.05 1 0 1 1.05

F G
F
F
1

5 0

0.15

21

1.0002

0.15 2 0.15 1 0

21 3 1024

21

0.15

0.9999

1 3 1024

20.0851 1 0.2978 2 0.2128

0.3

GF

0.05

3 28
2

21

1.383 2 0.234 2 1.149

1.5955 1 0.1915 2 1.7874

20.4255 1 0.1489 1 1.2768

F
F G

0 26

F G
F
F GF
F
1

0.2766

24. A21

1 3 1024

24 3 1024

2 3 1024

21 3 1024

1.0002

5 23 3 10

0 1 0.3 2 0.3

0 1 0.1125 2 0.1125

0 2 0.05 1 1.05

25.

4 21

27 22

5I

20.2340

20.1915

0.3191

0.1915

20.2979

20.0851

0.1489

0.2128

21

0.2766 20.2340 20.1915

AA21 5 22

0.3191

3 21

20.0851

0.1489

0.8298 2 0.3191 2 0.5106

0.383 2 0.5958 1 0.2128


20.5745 1 0.2979 1 1.2768

2
15

2}
15

2}
2}
15
15

2
15

2}
15

10

225

3
2

The solution is (3, 2).

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G
4

216
24

3 27

0.468 1 0.383 1 0.1489

225

1 22
5 2}
15
7

A21 5 2}2

20.936 1 0.1915 1 0.7445

20.766 2 0.2979 1 1.064

2}
2}
15
15

26.

5 20.5532 1 0.6382 2 0.0851

20.702 2 0.1915 1 0.8934

0.2128

10

22

X 5 A21B 5

7
2

2}2
1

5I

GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G

X 5 A21B 5

0.1915 20.2979

24

1.1064 1 0.3191 2 0.4255

174

3 21

0.9999

0.2 2 0.2 1 0

1.2764 2 0.383 2 0.8937

5I

0.55 1 0.45 1 0

0.2766 2 0.468 1 0.1915

21.2 1 1.2 1 0

0.3191 1 0.383 1 0.2979

20.075 2 0.1 1 0.175

0.2128

22

1.1064 1 0.468 2 0.5745

0.45 1 0.6 2 0.05

5 0

0.1489

20.0851

5 20.20625 1 0.225 2 0.01875

GF

0.1915 20.2979

20.3404 2 0.2978 1 0.6384

20.025 20.05 20.175

0.3191

5I

0.2766 20.2340 20.1915

A21A

A A 5 20.06875 0.1125 0.01875

1 3 1024

5 21 3 1024

3 28
4

F
F G
F
F
1

22

7
2

2}2

22

216
24

10
28

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

21

continued

The solution (10, 28).

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 174

6/27/06 9:56:55 AM

Chapter 3,
27.

continued

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G
3 22

x
y

6 25

1 25

26

A21 5 2}3

5
14

5
3

2}3

X 5 A21B 5

5
3

2}3

21

5
14

32.

1 21

x
y

9 210

4
45

210 1

A21 5 21

29 1

4
45

9 21

33.

GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G

22 29
4

x
y

16

21

A21 5 }4

16

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

9
}
4

X 5 A21B 5

21 2}2
22
8

21 2}2
The solution is (10, 22).
30.

21

x
y

21

GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G

2 27

1
5 }3

5
3
1
}
3

7
3
2
}
3

5
}
3
1
}
3

X 5 A21B 5

7
}
3
2
}
3

26
3

23
0

31.

GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G

21

3
1

A21 5 }
19

21

x
y

3 21
1

X5A B5

22
225

3
19
1
}
19

3
19
1
}
19

1
19
6
}
19

} 2}

1
19
6
}
19

} 2}

22
225

26
10

20
16

5
4
3
2}4

2}4

5
4

F GF G F G
7

5
4
3
2}4

2}4

20
16

5
}
4

23
5

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G
3 25

x
y

21 2

2 5

A21 5 1

226
10

2 5

1 3

1 3

2 5

X 5 A21B 5

226
10

1 3

22
4

The solution is (22, 4).

The solution is (23, 0).


6

34. C;

26
5
3

The solution is (23, 5).

10
22

22
38

1
}
4

24 22

2}8

5 27
1
5 }4
23
5

X 5 A21B 5

9
4

1
4

F GF G F G

x
y

22
8

2}8

5
8
1
2}4

F GF G F G
F GF

The solution is (25, 29).


29.

5
8
1
2}4
}

The solution is (26, 10).

25
29

22
38

5 21
1
5 }8
22
2

X5A B5

9 21

10 21

X 5 A21B 5

x
y

10 21

21

21

21
24

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G

21

The solution is (21, 24).


28.

F GF G F G
F GF

35.

GF G F G
F G
F GF G F G

1 21 23
5

23 21

5 217
8

21

5 23 29 216
1
4
7
1

X 5 A B 5 23 29 216
1
4
7

217

21

29

19

210

The solution is (29, 19, 210).

1
28

The solution is (1, 28).

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 175

175

6/27/06 9:57:04 AM

GF G F G
F
G
F
GF G F G
1 28

23

36.

18

5 211
217

1 22

2 22

40.

2.2 23

18

0.2 21
X 5 A21B 5 20.6
0.4 20.8
1

211

A21 5

217

21

5 24

22

21

0.25

23

0.1429

1.2143 22.0714 20.0714


2

21

FG

21

0 21
4

GF G F G
y

5 227
23

0.1905

0.0476

0.0476

FG

8 27

14

225

6 25

10

216

210

21 25
4

A21 5

}
}
21.58 3
21.41 6

X 5 A21B 5

5 248
2

20.58 3

0.916

}
}
21.41 6

F
FG

1.08 3

0.25

20.25

20.58 3

0.91 6

}
}
21.41 6

22

4 22 217

20
8

27

25

Problem Solving

20.25

}
}
21.58 3

18

60s 1 240t 5 21,000

0.25

21.41 6

27 229

5 22 216

s 1 t 5 200
14

0.75

52

t 5 hours in a twin-engine plane

GF G F G

0.75

43. s 5 hours in a single-engine plane

x
z

1 27

The solution is (23, 8, 1, 25).

The solution is (24, 1, 3).

GF G F G
F G
FG
w

39.

X 5 A21B 5

2 21

23

24

4 10

2 21

0.9048 20.0952
A21 21.3810
1.1429 20.7143
0.2857
X 5 A21B 5

25

F G

The solution is (21, 22, 3).

38.

14

220

25

5 24

21

11

}
}
0.58 3
0. 3

22

4 21 21

}
}
2.08 3
0. 3

0.25

42.

21

X5A B5

}
}
0.58 3
0. 3

20.75 20.25

41. Sample answer:

0.5714 20.8571

21

}
}
2.08 3
0. 3

The solution is (3, 3, 25).

GF G F G
y

14

20.75 20.25

25

X 5 A21B 5

The solution is (22, 4, 21).


2

0.25

22

GF G F G
F
G
F
GF G F G
0.25

0.2 21
5 20.6
0.4 20.8
1
21.6

37.

11

6
1
2
1 21
1
21
4 21

2.2 23

21.6

21

continued

10

}
}
1.08 3

60

240

21

GF G
14

248
2

GF G F G
F GF

240 21
1
5}
180 260
1

21

X5A B5

200

21,000

4
3

2}
180

1
180

2}3

F GF
1

4
3

2}
180

200

1
2}3

1
}
180

21,000

GF G
5

150
50

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Chapter 3,

The pilot spent 150 hours ying a single-engine plane


and 50 hours ying a twin-engine plane.

0
The solution is (22, 10, 0).

176

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 176

6/27/06 9:57:11 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

44. x 5 three-point eld goals

b. 3c 1 5m 5 28

7c 1 10m 5 60
3 5
c

y 5 two-point eld goals

F GF G F G
F GF

z 5 free throws

7 10

x 1 y 1 z 5 976
3x 1 2y 1 z 5 1680

F GF G F G
1

976

5 1680

1 21

135

F G
F GF G F G
2}3

A21 5

1 2}3

2
3

X 5 A21B 5

X 5 A21B 5

2
3

2}3

976

99

1 2}3

2
}
3

1680

5 506

135

371

1 2}3 2}3

Dirk made 99 three-point eld goals, 506 two-point eld


goals, and 371 free throws.
45. a. m 5 number of batches of mufns

r 5 number of batches of rolls

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

m 1 3r 5 11 (number of eggs)
b.

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G
1 2

1 3

3
1
c. A21 5 }
1 21
X 5 A21B 5

22
1

11

3 22

21

3 22

11

21

2
3

The class should make two batches of mufns and


three batches of rolls.
46 a. c 5 cost of cheese

A21 5 1

21

5 23

23

X5A B5

18

28

5 23

23

5 23

18

28

23

6
2

Each cheese costs $6.00 and each meat costs $2.00.

2}5

GF G F G
28

60

3.2

t 5 ounces of Toasted Oats


w 5 ounces of Whole Wheat Flakes
78b 1 104t 1 198w 5 500
b 1 0.6w 5 5
22b 1 25.5t 1 23.8w 5 100

78

104

198

0.6

25.5 23.8

GF G F G

20.0056

21

500

b
t

0.9348

5
100

0.0223

0.0549
5 20.0039 20.9079
0.0093
0.1086 20.0378

FG

2.3
X 5 A21B 0.8

1.2
About 2.3 ounces of Bran Crunchies, 0.8 ounces of
Toasted Oats, and 1.2 ounces of Whole Wheat Flakes
should be combined.
48. a. Equation 1:

3c 1 5m 5 28
2

3
2}5

7
5

47. b 5 ounces of Bran Crunchies

2c 1 3m 5 18

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G

7
}
5

not the same. The larger volume of cheese reduces the


unit price. The amount of meat is larger and raises the
unit price.

Area per p
sheet

m 5 cost of meat

22

22

Each cheese costs $4.00 and each meat costs $3.20.

22

m 1 2r 5 8 (cups of buttermilk)

c. Sample answer: The results of parts (a) and (b) are

1 2}3 2}3
21

27

2
3

21

60

10 25

A21 5 2}5

y 2 z 5 135

28

Sheets
Sheets of
1
1 Sheets
of red
yellow
of blue

Total
area

Area of
Area of
Equation 2: Area 5
1
yellow
blue
of red
Equation 3:
Cost

Sheets
Sheets of
1 Cost p
of red
yellow

Sheets
Total
1 Cost p
5
of blue
cost
Equation 1: 0.75r 1 0.75y 1 0.75b 5 9
Equation 2: r 2 y 2 b 5 0
Equation 3: 6.5r 1 4.5y1 8.5b 5 80

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 177

177

6/27/06 9:57:18 AM

b.

0.75 0.75
1

21

6.5

4.5

continued

GF G F G
FG
0.75

21

8.5

Mixed Review

51.

21

c. X 5 A

5
5

014

21

023

(3, 4)

(1, 1)
(21, 21) (1, 21)
AAT

AT

ad 2 bc
}
ad 2 cb
cd 2 dc
}
ad 2 cb

2ab 1 ba
}
ad 2 cb
2cb 1 da
}
ad 2 cb

ad 2 bc
}
ad 2 bc
2ca 1 ac
}
ad 2 bc

db 2 bd
}
ad 2 bc
2bc 1 ad
}
ad 2 bc

57. The points have approximately no correlation because

they show no linear pattern.


58. The points have a positive correlation because y tends to

increase as x increases.

(4, 23)

61.

AAAAT, or A2(AAT). This means the triangle will be


rotated 908 clockwise four times from T, or rotated
908 clockwise twice from AAT, so it will be back to its
original position.

1
21

b. To get back to the original triangle, you must nd

F G

60.

(2, 25)

d
ad 2 cb
b
,B5
2c
d
}
ad 2 cb

56.

decrease as x increases.

(5, 2)

(23, 24)

59. The points have a negative correlation because y tends to

(25, 22)

55.

21 24 22

BA 5

21

025

21 23 25

F
F

Matrix A rotates the triangle 908 clockwise about


the origin.

AB 5

1
21

21 1 0 24 1 0 22 1 0

21 23 25

021

54.

012

21 23 25

AAT 5 A(AT ) 5

50. A 5

53.

21 1 0 23 1 0 25 1 0
1

21

F GF G
F
G
F
G
F GF
G
F
G
F
G
21

21

You should buy 6 sheets of red, 2.5 sheets of yellow,


and 3.5 sheets of blue tiles.

011

B 5 2.5
3.5

49. a. AT 5

52.

80

2b
ad 2 cb
a
}
ad 2 cb

GF
GF
5

1 0
0 1

1 0
0 1

F GF

220

3y

4x 5 220

3y 5 18

x 5 25

y56

4x

18

23x 29
13 25

GF
F
1

G
GF
GF

4 12

25y 16

23x 1 4

13 2 5y 11

23x 1 4 5 220

220

G
G

18 11

220

18 11

13 2 5y 5 18
25y 5 5

23x 5 224
x58

y 5 21

Quiz 3.63.8 (p. 217)

G
G

F GF G F GF G
F
GF G

1. 2AB 5 2

5I
5
5I

1 24

2 23

410

26 2 8

20 1 0 230 1 4

2 28

10

4 214

20 226

2 23
0

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Chapter 3,

Because AB 5 BA 5 I, B is the inverse of A.

178

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-b.indd 178

6/27/06 9:57:28 AM

Chapter 3

continued

(F GF G)
(F GF G)

2. AB 1 AC 5

1 24

2 23

1 24

1
5

F
F
F
F
F
F
(F
F
F

9.

26 21

210

23 2 4

230 1 4

G
GF G
G F G)
G
GF G
G)F G
G
GF G

2 2 14 27 2 17

5
5

4. (B 2 A)C 5

5
5

G(F
GF

1 24

2 23

1 24
5

10.

216 210

24 2 20

220 1 4

220 1 10

GF
GF

2 23

25 21

524

24

28

2 23

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

6.

5
4
22 23

1
23
2

25

1 25
5 }3
26

1
23
2

11.

22

2 21
23
6
22
3

3 21

2 22

12.

A21 5 }1

7 23

22

X 5 A21B 5

26

7 23

22

7 23

22

26

22

The solution is (4, 22).

17
3

24

24

22

28

1
2
1
}
2

2}4

1
2
1
}
2

2}4

2}4

24

3
2}4

28

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G
7
5

225

24

25

X 5 A21B 5

22

213

21

A21 5 1

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G
3

21

The solution is (0, 4).

0
1
3

22

1 22

X5A B5

5
2 21
9 23
6
1 22
3

2}3 2}3

21

5 (12 1 18 2 45) 2 (260 1 54 1 3) 5 212


8.

23

2}3 2}3

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G
A21 5 2}4

5 (21 1 0 1 18) 2 (24 1 12 1 0) 5 9

7.

24

17

5 5(23) 2 (22)(4) 5 27

0 22
1
4
3 21

213

5.

The solution is 1 }
,2 .
3 2

2 23

3 24

22

26 21
2

3 24

216 210

26 1 2 21 1 4
30 2 2

X 5 A21B 5

26 21
2

22

GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F

212 224

1 24
5

23

23

26 21
2

21

24 2 8

24 24

212 224

2 23

The solution is (3, 1).

25 1 8

10 2 26 213 1 3

3. A(B 1 C) 5

X 5 A21B 5

26 2 8 21 2 16

3 24

A21 5 21

10 1 0 215 1 2

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G

24

25

24

25

225

118

2205

The solution is (118, 2205).


13.

F GF G F G
F GF
4

26

A21 5 }
10

21

22

X5A B5

18

1
10

2}
10

3
5

2
5

F GF G F G
1

1
10

2}
10

22

3
5

2
5

18

21

22

22
6

The solution is (22, 6).

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 179

179

6/27/06 9:58:32 AM

Chapter 3,

12

2
2
26

1 0
1 12
1 12

3. s 5 pounds of sunower seed

2
2
26

t 5 pounds of thistle seed


s 1 t 5 20

5 6}2[(0 1 24 1 312) 2 (24 1 0 1 24)] 5 144

F
F
F

0.34s 1 0.79t 5 10.85

The area of the sail is 144 square feet.


Problem Solving Workshop 3.8 (p. 219)
1. 2m 1 p 5 17.75

2m 1 2p 1 d 5 34.50
4m 1 3p 1 2d 5 67.25

(22)R1 1 R3
(21)R1 1 R2

(21)R2 1 R3

F
F
F
F

17.75

34.50

4
2

3
1

2
0

34.50

0
2

1
1

2
0

31.75
17.75

16.75

0
2

1
1

2
0

31.75
17.75

16.75

15

67.25
17.75

G
G
G
G

From the third row, d 5 15. From the second row,


p 1 d 5 16.75, so p 1 15 5 16.75, or p 5 1.75. From
the rst row, 2m 1 p 5 17.75, so 2m 1 1.75 5 17.75,
or m 5 8.
A movie pass costs $8, a package of popcorn costs $1.75,
and a DVD costs $15.

(20.34)R1 1 R2
R2

0.45

s2b2m50

100R2
R1 1 (21)R3
(210)R1 1 R2

2R2 1 3R3
(21)R2

1 2}14 2R3

F
F
F
F

0.1 0.07

0.05

18000

1440

21
18,000

1 21
1 1 1

144,000

10

0
1

2 2 18,000
1
1
18,000

0 23 25

236,000

4. x 2 2y 1 4z 5 210

5x 1 y 2 z 5 24
3x 2 6y 1 12z 5 230

(23)R1 1 R3

0
1

2
1

2
1

18,000
18,000

0 23 25

236,000

0
1

0 24
1
1

218,000
18,000

36,000

4500

From row 3, m 5 4500. From row 2, 3b 1 5m 5 36,000,


so 3b 1 5(4500) 5 36,000, or b 5 4500. From row 1,
s 1 b 1 m 5 18,000, so s 1 4500 1 4500 5 18,000, or
s 5 9000. You should invest $9000 in stocks, $4500 in
bonds, and $4500 in money market funds.

180

20

0.45

20

4.05
9

F
F

1 22
5

210

1 21

3 26
1 22

24

G
G

230

210

12
4

1 21

24

Because row 3 produces the equation 0 5 0, the system


has innitely many solutions.
Mixed Review of Problem Solving (p. 220)
1. a. A 5

G
G

20

10.85

The mixture contains 11 pounds of sunower seed and 9


pounds of thistle seed.

4.5
5.5

b. B 2 A 5

0.1s 1 0.07b 1 0.05m 5 1440

From row 2, t 5 9. From row 1, s 1 t 5 20. So,


s 1 9 5 20, or s 5 11.

2. s 5 amount in stocks; b 5 amount in bonds

m 5 amount in money market funds


s 1 b 1 m 5 18000

0.34 0.79

G F
F
GF
F
G
6

2.5

2.5

B5

4 6.5 3.25

6.5

3.25

8.5

3.25

5 8.5 3.25

20.5

0.5

0.75

20.5

0.5

0.75

4.5

2.5

5.5

2.5

Each element in each row of B 2 A represents the


difference in cost (in thousands of dollars) of a
daytime, primetime, and late-night commercial on a
cable TV network between the two cities.

F
F

c. A 5 1.10

4.5

2.5

5.5

2.5

6.5

8.5

B 5 1.10

GF
GF

4.95
5 6.05

6.6

2.75

8.8

2.75

3.25

4.4
5
3.25
5.5

2. a. n 5 number of nickels

d 5 number of dimes
q 5 number of quarters
n 1 d 1 q 5 85
0.05n 1 0.1d 1 0.25q 5 13.25

22d 1 q 5 0
b.

0.05 0.1

0.25

0 22

GF G F G
n

85

5 13.25
0

7.15

3.575

9.35

3.575

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

1
14. Area 5 6} 12
2

continued

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 180

6/27/06 9:58:39 AM

Chapter 3,

c. A21 5

}
}
20. 1
}
20. 2

continued

}
}
2. 2
}
4. 4
}
1. 3
}
20. 1
}
20. 2

}
}
20. 4
}
0. 1
}
26. 6
}
2. 2
}
4. 4

1. 3 26. 6

21

X5A B5

0. 3

F
FG

G
}
}
20. 4
}
0. 1
0. 3

GF G
85

5 16

The atomic weights of hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen


are 1, 14, and 16, respectively.
6. c 5 bushels of corn

s 5 bushels of soybeans

6 13

w 5 bushels of wheat
2.35c 1 5.40s 1 3.60w 5 4837

F G F G

b. Sample answer:

c 1 s 1 w 5 1700

3 D5

c 2 3.25s 2 3.25w 5 0

2.35

det B 5 det D 5 64
4. Matrix BA is dened because B has three columns and

F G

A has three rows.


BA 5 [ 0.03

175

0.05

225

200

255

3.60

4837

5 1700
0

0.7647

0.2353

0.5556 21.4690

0.1634

23.25 23.25

A21 5

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

The farmer harvested 210 bushels of wheat.


Chapter 3 Review (pp. 222226)
1. A system of linear equations with at least one solution

5. a. H 1 N 1 3O 5 63

is consistent, while a system with no solution is


inconsistent.

2N 1 O 5 44

F G

2H 1 O 5 18
1 1 3
1

1
0
2

1
2
0

det A 5

190
210

This matrix represents the total commission made by


each salesperson. Mary and Mark each made a total of
$39.75 in commission.

1.7042 20.3987

1300

X 5 A21B 5

39.75]

F G

20.5556

0.03(270) 1 0.05(225) 1 0.08(255)]


5 [39.75

GF G F G
G
c

270

0.08] 370

5.40

5 [0.03(175) 1 0.05(370) 1 0.08(200)

b. A 5

(36 1 88 1 0) 2 (252 1 0 1 0)

det A 5 det C 5 24

B5

1
2
0

5 }}}
28

F G F G
8

63 1
44 0
18 2

O 5 }}

20

C5

1
2
0

28

3. a. Sample answer:

1
0
2

13.25

The person has 25 nickels, 20 dimes, and


40 quarters.
3

28
(44 1 126 1 0) 2 (264 1 18 1 0)
5 14
5 }}}
28

40

A5

1 63
0 44
2 18

N 5 }}

25

1 63 3
0 44 1
2 18 1

2. A solution (x, y, z) of a system of linear equations in

three variables is called an ordered triple.


3. The product of two matrices is dened when the number

3
1
1

1
0
2

1
2
0

5 (2 1 2 1 0) 2 (12 1 0 1 0) 5 28

of columns in the rst matrix is the same as the number


of rows in the second matrix.
4.

y
2

(5, 1)

22

c. You can use Cramers rule to solve the system.

63 1
44 2
18 0

3 63
1 44
1 18

1
2
0

H 5 }}
28

(126 1 18 1 0) 2 (108 1 0 1 44)

5 }}}
51
28

The lines appear to intersect at (5, 1).


Check: 2(5) 2 1 0 9
959

5 1 3(1) 0 8
858

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 181

181

6/27/06 9:58:44 AM

Chapter 3,
5.

continued
11. 4x 1 y < 1

12. 2x 1 3y > 6

2x 1 2y 5

2x 2 y 8
y

21

(24, 22)
1

1
x

21

21

The lines appear to intersect at (24, 22).


Check: 2(24) 2 3(22) 0 22

24 1 (22) 0 26

22 5 22

13. x 1 3y 5

2x 1 2y < 4

(0, 6)

1
1
x

22

14.

Check: 3(0) 1 6 0 6

20 1 2(6) 0 12

656

x 2 y 1 z 5 10
23x 1 5y 2 z 5 218

The lines appear to intersect at (0, 6).

7.

21

12 5 12

22x 1 4y

5 28

4x 1 y 2 2z 5 15

4x 1

23x 1 5y 2 z 5 218

3x 1 2y 5 5

32

6x 1 4y 5 10

22x 1 3y 5 27

33

26x 1 9y 5 81

y 2 2z 5 15

6x 2 10y 1 2z 5 36

3 (22)

10x 2 9y
22x 1 4y 5 28

13y 5 91

210x 1 20y 5 240

35

10x 2 9y 5 51

y57

10x 2 9y 5

51

11y 5

11

3x 1 2(7) 5 5 x 5 23

y51

The solution is (23, 7).


8. 3x 1 5y 5 5

2x 2 3y 5 16

22x 1 4(1) 5 28 x 5 6

33

9x 1 15y 5 15

6 2 1 1 z 5 10 z 5 5

35

10x 2 15y 5 80

The solution is (6, 1, 5).

5 95

19x

15. 6x 2 y 1 4z 5 6

x55

26x 2 6y 1 15z 5 126

3 (23)

2x 2 3y 1 z 5 31

2x 1 3y 5 9

2x 1 3y 5

22x 2 6y 1 2z 5

32

2x 1 2y 2 5z 5 242

11x
x

24y 2 3z 5

5 266

27y 1 19z 5 132

5 26

24y 2 3z 5 20

2(26) 1 3y 5 9 y 5 7

34

228y 1 76z 5 528

3 (27)

28y 1 21z 5 2140


97z 5

The solution is (26, 7).

z54

10. r 5 price of regular gasoline

27y 1 19(4) 5 132 y 5 28

p 5 price of premium gasoline


14r 1 10p 5 46.68
2r 1 p 5 0.30

6x 2 (28) 1 4(4) 5 6 x 5 23
14r 1 10p 5 46.68

3 14

214r 1 14p 5 4.2


24p 5 50.88

62

2x 1 2y 2 5z 5 242

9x 2 3y 5 275

3 (23)

27y 1 19z 5 132

The solution is (5, 22).

23x 1 y 5 25

6x 2 y 1 4z 5

2x 1 2y 2 5z 5 242

3(5) 1 5y 5 5 y 5 22
9.

5 51

The solution is (23, 28, 4).

388

20

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

6.

26 5 26

p 5 2.12
2r 1 2.12 5 0.30 r 5 1.82
Regular gas costs $1.82 per gallon and premium gas
costs $2.12 per gallon.

182

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 182

6/27/06 9:58:58 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

16. 5x 1 y 2 z 5 40

2x 1 3y 1 z 5 16

5x 1

y 2 z 5 40
16y 1 4z 5 120

x 1 7y 1 4z 5 44

23. 8

2x 1 3y 1 z 5 16
10y 1 5z 5 60
16y 1 4z 5 120

35

10y 1 5z 5 60

34

40y 1 20z 5

240

59

The solution is (5, 9, 26).

25.

17. w 5 number of wind instruments

s 5 number of string instruments


p 5 number of percussion instruments
Equation 2: w 5 2(s 1 p)
w 5 2(3 1 p) w 5 6 1 2p
26.

(6 1 2p) 1 3 1 p 5 15 p 5 2
w 5 6 1 2(2) w 5 10
Ten students play wind instruments, three play string
instruments, and two play percussion.

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

F GF GF
F
F GF GF
F
F GF GF
F
F
GF
F
F G
2

27

25 1 3

2 1 (27)

314

3 22

19.

21

2 23

7 24
6

21

20.

22

21

6 22

27.

8 1 (24)

216

23 1 (21)

10 2 0

24 2 9

522

127

24 7

26
5

28 0 29

21 2 (28)

620

22 2 (29)

23(22)

23(3)

23(6)

215

29 218

8(8)

8(4)

8(5)

8(21)

8(6)

8(22)

64

32

28

48 216

40

7]

0 25
4 23

21(2) 1 (21)(29)]

11(0) 1 7(4)

11(25) 1 7(23)

1(0) 1 (25)(4)

1(25) 1 (25)(23)

28 276

220

21

10

5 22

12

4(5) 1 (21)(3)
1(5) 1 7(3)
17 220

10

26

46

82

4(22) 1 (21)(12)

4(4) 1 (21)(6)

1(22) 1 7(12)

1(4) 1 7(6)

22

6 23

GF

26 29

1 25

22(6) 1 5(2)

22(23) 1 5(0)

22(5) 1 5(21)

0(6) 1 3(2)

0(23) 1 3(0)

0(5) 1 3(21)

22

215

23

525

11

AC 5

327

23(5)

6 22

28. C 5 BI 5

22 2 (24)
2 24

F GF
F
F
F GF
F
F
F GF
F
F
5

8 24

10 213

21.

21 1 7
6

10 24

25

4 1 (21)

21

Equation 3: s 5 3

21

Equation 1: w 1 s 1 p 5 15

5 [22

5x 1 9 2 (26) 5 40 x 5 5

4 25

5 [21(8) 1 (21)(26)

16(9) 1 4z 5 120 z 5 26

18.

22

24. [21 21]

5 2360

280y 2 20z 5 2600


240y

F GF
F
GF
F
F G

22. 23

25x 1 15y 1 5z 5 80

35

109.99

319.99

549.99

5000

6000

8000

4000 10,000

5000

109.99

319.99

549.99

549,950

1,919,940

4,399,920

439,960

3,199,900

2,749,950

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 183

183

6/27/06 9:59:04 AM

continued

The labels for the matrix are shown below.


Total Value (Dollars)
Warehouse 1
Warehouse 2

19 in.
549,950

27 in.
1,919,940

32 in.
4,399,920

439,960

3,199,900

2,749,950

35.

30.
31.

2
8

5 24(8) 2 5(2) 5 242

1
32. Area 5 6}
2
1

0
0
0 50
70 20

4 23

X5A B5

2 25

21

4
17

3
17

2
17

2
17

211
8

3
4
} 2}
17
17

21

24

3x 2 y 5 2

(1, 1)
x

The lines appear to intersect at (1, 1).


Check: 3(1) 2 1 0 2

4(1) 1 1 0 5

252
2.

555

26x 2 2y 5 214
1

x 1 2y 5 26

11

(4, 25)

5
13

2
}
13

1
2}
13

5
13

4
13

11

2
13

2}
13

4x 1 y 5 5

25 24
1
5}
213 22
1

X 5 A21B 5

3
17

} 2}

1 0
0
1 0 50
1 70 20

The solution is (21, 24).

3
17

1 ft2
}2 12.2 ft2
144 in.

1 23 22
17 24
3

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G
1

211

5 2}

You will need approximately 12.2 square feet


of material.
33.

21

1.

5 1750 square inches

(1750 in. ) 1

5 6}2 [(0 1 0 1 0) 2 (3500 1 0 1 0)]

Chapter 3 Test (p. 227)


3 25
2 6 5 3(6) 2 2(25) 5 28
3 0
1 6 5 3(6) 2 1(0) 5 18
24
5

21

In warehouse 1, the total value of the 19 in. TVs


was $549,950, the total value of the 27 in. TVs was
$1,919,940, and the total value of the 32 in. TVs was
$4,399,920. In warehouse 2, the total value of the
19 in. TVs was $439,960, the total value of the 27 in.
TVs was $3,199,900, and the total value of the 32 in.
TVs was $2,749,950.
29.

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G

4
13

7
1

The lines appear to intersect at (4, 25).


Check: 4 1 2(25) 0 26
26 5 26
3.

y
1

26(4) 2 2(25) 0 214


214 5 214

x 2 2 y 5 23
1

The solution is (7, 1).


34.

F GF G F G
F GF
3

21 2

21

21

1 2 21
5 }7
1
3

12

X5A B5

2
7

2}7

1
7

3
7

The lines do not intersect, so there is no solution.

F GF G F G
1

2
7

2}7

21

1
7

3
7

12

21

2x 2 3y 5 15

22

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

Chapter 3,

The solution is (22, 5).

184

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 184

6/27/06 9:59:13 AM

Chapter 3,
4.

continued
12. x 2 y 1 z 5 23 3 2

2x 1 8y 5 24

(4, 0)

2x 2 2y 1 2z 5 26

4x 1 2y 2 z 5 2

4x 1 2y 2 z 5

6x
2x 2 y 1 5z 5 4

1 z 5 24

4x 2 2y 1 10z 5 8

32

4x 1 2y 2 z 5 2

3x 2 y 5 12

4x 1 2y 2

The lines appear to intersect at (4, 0).


Check: 3(4) 2 0 0 12

8x 1 9z 5 10
5 46

246x

x 5 21

6. x 2 3y 9
1
}x 2 y 3
3

y > 22
1

8x 1 9z 5 10
24 5 24

5. 2x 1 y < 6

1
x

21

254x 2 9z 5 36

3 (29)

24 1 8(0) 0 24

12 5 12

z5 2

1 9z 5 10

8x
6x 1 z 5 24

6(21) 1 z 5 24 z 5 2
21 2 y 1 2 5 23 y 5 4

The solution is (21, 4, 2).


x

22

13.

x1 y1 z5

2x 1 3y 1 2z 5 28
4y 1 3z 5 25
5y 1 z 5 2

The solution is a line.


7. x 2 2y 214

215y 2 3z 5 26

4y 1 3z 5 25

8. 23x 1 4y > 212

y x

3 (23)

4y 1 3z 5 25
211y 5 211

y < 22x 1 5
y

y51

5(1) 1 z 5 2 z 5 23
x 1 1 1 (23) 5 3 x 5 5
The solution is (5, 1, 23).

1
2
x

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

22

9. 3x 1 y 5 29

21

32

x 2 2y 5 210

6x 1 2y 5 218

x 1 y 1 3z 5 19

x 2 2y 5 210

24x 1 6y 1 z 5 220
z 5 14

34

24y 2 z 5

14

4x 1 4y 1 12z 5

76

24x 1 6y 1

5 238

4x 1 7y 5 26
y 5 22

2x 1 3(22) 5 22 x 5 2
The solution is (2, 22).
11. x 1 4y 5 226 x 5 226 2 4y

25x 2 2y 5 214
25(226 2 4y) 2 2y 5 214

17

y 5 2}
3
241 2}
2 z 5 14 z 5 }
32
3
17

26

2}
5 19 x 5 2}3
2x 2 51 2}
32
3
17

x 1 4(28) 5 226 x 5 6

26

,} .
The solution is 1 2}3, 2}
3 32
4

17 26

F GF G
F
GF G

15. 2A 1 B 5 2

18y 5 2144
y 5 28

56

10y 1 13z 5 56
242y

24x 2 6y 5

z 5 220

252y 2 13z 5 182

3 13

10y 1 13z 5 56

The solution is (24, 3).

34

24x 1 6y 1 z 5 220

10y 1 13z 5
24y 2

3(24) 1 y 5 29 y 5 3

4x 1 7y 5 26

4x 2 10y 2 2z 5

32

5 228
x 5 24

10. 2x 1 3y 5 22

2x 2 5y 2 z 5 17
24x 1 6y 1 z 5 220

7x

3 (22)

14.

1 22

4 23

21 0

2(1) 1 3

2(22) 1 5

2(4) 1 (21)

2(23) 1 0

7 26

The solution is (6, 28).

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 185

185

6/27/06 9:59:24 AM

Chapter 3,

F G F G
F
GF
8

26

23

10 15

26.

21 0

26 2 3(3)

8 2 3(5)

10 2 3(21)

15 2 3(0)

215 27

13

15

17. Not possible; A and D do not have the same dimensions.

F
F
F

18. 4D 1 E 5 4

5
5

2 0 21

GF
1

4 21

6 22

4(3) 1 (21)

4(22) 1 3

4(2) 1 6

4(0) 1 (22)

4(21) 1 1

5 (236 1 0 2 20) 2 (3 1 16 1 0) 5 275


27.

4 23

28.

10 15

1(8) 1 (22)(15)

4(26) 1 (23)(10)

4(8) 1 (23)(15)

the number of rows in E.

5
5

5
5
5

25.

186

21

3 22

21 0

0 21

21

3 22

0 21

3 23

4(3) 1 3(0)

2 27

1 23

1 22

1 22
4 23

10 15

4 23

29

21 0

1(29) 1 (22)(11)

1(3) 1 (22)(15)

4(29) 1 (23)(11)

4(3) 1 (23)(15)

227

269

233

5 3(1) 2 (4)(22) 5 11
24
5
2 21 5 (24)(21) 2 (5)(2) 5 26
3 22
4
1

21 3
1 21 3
0 2 23 0 2 5 (4 2 45 1 0) 2 (10 1 3 1 0)
5 1 22 5 1
5 254

22

236

216

23

21

23 7

236

21 2

216

24

GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G

29 26

25

12

X 5 A21B 5

23 2}3

4(22) 1 3(21)

11 15

231

1 26 23

25

5
23 2}3

12

25

The solution is (2, 25).

23

26

4 23

25

21 2

A21 5 2}3

2 12 211
9

4 23

The solution is (24, 4).


29.

F
G
F G(F G F G)
F GF G
F
G
F G
29

24

25

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G

3(21) 1 (23)(2) 3(3) 1 (23)(0) 3(22) 1 (23)(21)

22. A(C 2 B) 5

24.

4(21) 1 3(2)

23.

(F G F G)F

F GF

5 24

X 5 A21B 5

20. Not possible; the number of columns in D does not equal

4 23

1 23

254 213

A21 5 }1

226 222

1 22

The solution is (22, 3).

1(26) 1 (22)(10)

21. (A 1 B)D 5

X 5 A21B 5

14 22 23
26

A21 5 2}1

11 25

1 22


F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G
1

4(21) 1 4

G
F GF G
F
F G
5

19. AC 5

21 3 22

2
0 21 2
0
5 23
2 5 23
1
4
6 1
4

30.

F GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G
3 2

21 4

21

1
5}
14

4 22
1

X 5 A21B 5

15

233
5

2
7

2}7

1
14

3
14

2
7

2}7

15

1
14

3
14

233

The solution is (9, 26).

26

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

16. C 2 3B 5

continued

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 186

6/27/06 9:59:32 AM

Chapter 3,

continued
Standardized Test Preparation (p. 229)

31. f 5 amount invested in 5% interest bond

s 5 amount invested in 7% interest bond

1. Substitute these values into the rst equation:

f 1 s 5 15,000

21 1 2 1 (23) 0 2

0.05f 1 0.07s 5 880

GF G F G
F GF G
F GF G F G
1

0.05 0.07

A21 5 }
0.02

15,000

880

0.07 21

20.05

X 5 A21B 5

3.5 250

3.5 250

15,000

50

880

22.5

50

22.5

8500
6500

The investor should invest $8500 in 5% interest bonds


and $6500 in 7% interest bonds.
32. c 5 number of childrens tickets

22 2
Because 22 2, choice B can be eliminated.
2. Substitute the matrix in choice D for X in the equation:

F GF G F G
F GF G
3

26

2d 5 640.8
d 5 320.4

c 5 2a

The top DVD grossed $320.4 million.

2a 1 a 1 s 5 800

2. C;

3a 1 s 5 800

3x 1 2y 5 8 Eq. 1

3(2a) 1 8a 1 5s 5 3775

3(0) 1 2(4) 0 8

14a 1 5s 5 3775
215a 2 5s 5 24000
14a 1 5s 5
2a
Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

4 210

Because the resulting matrices are not equal, choice D


can be eliminated.

3c 1 8a 1 5s 5 3775

3775

5 2225
a 5 225

c 5 2(225) 5 450
450 1 225 1 s 5 800 s 5 125
There were 450 childrens tickets, 225 adult tickets, and
125 senior citizen tickets sold.
33. b 5 speed of boat

b 1 c 5 34
b 2 c 5 28
5 62
b 5 31
31 1 c 5 34 c 5 3

x 2 4y 5 216 Eq. 2
0 2 4(4) 0 216

858

216 5 216

3. B;

Eliminate other possibilities.


4. A;

s 5 number of scarves
g 5 number of pairs of gloves
s1g58g582s
6s 1 9g 5 66
6s 1 9(8 2 s) 5 66
23s 5 26

c 5 speed of current

2b

26

d 1 (d 2 39.9) 5 600.9

c 1 a 1 s 5 800

14a 1 5s 5 3775

1. C;

s 5 number of senior citizen tickets

3 (25)

4 210

Standardized Test Practice (pp. 230 231)

a 5 number of adult tickets

3a 1 s 5 800

s52

5. D;

F GF G
F GF G F

A21 5 2}1

X 5 A21B 5

27 23

25 22

27 23

25 22

0 21

228 239
220 228

The boat travels 31 miles per hour in still water. The


speed of the current is 3 miles per hour.

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 187

187

6/27/06 9:59:37 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

6. B;

26

6
5 4(29) 2 (26)(6) 5 0
29
Because the determinant is 0, the matrix has no inverse.

10. B;

d 5 driving time
c 5 classroom instruction

11. 2x 2 5y 5 210

b 5 observing
d 1 c 1 b 5 46

x 1 4y 5 21 x 5 21 2 4y

c 5 3d

2(21 2 4y) 2 5y 5 210


213y 5 252

b5d24

y54

d 1 3d 1 (d 2 4) 5 46

12. 21 1 2(22) 1 2z 5 7

5d 5 50

2z 5 12

d 5 10

z56

2
2x 2 3 }3 x 1 2 5 9

13.

0x 5 15
0 5 15

2
1
4
3 25
0
1
0 21

F GF GF G
F GF GF G
F
GF G
5 (10 1 0 1 0) 2 (220 1 0 2 3) 5 33

No solution
8. D;

14. 2

Area of triangle with vertices

1 25
2
3
12
2

5x

22

10x 0

(1, 25), (2, 3), and (12, 2):


1
Area 5 6}2

24 6

1 1 25
1 2
3
1 12
2

(21, 0), (5, 9), and (8, 0):

15.

210

17

210

17

210

24 2 4y 5 210

10x 5 20

24y 5 26

x52

y 5 }2

21 11

46 22

43

21 12

41

19 15

GF G F G
2

109

0
1

5 106
104

104

Detroit earned 109 points. Tampa Bay earned 106 points


and San Jos and Boston each earned 104 points.

9. B;

p 5 number of peony bulbs

16. m 5 number of matine tickets

h 5 number of phlox bulbs

r 5 number of regular tickets

l 5 number of lily bulbs

4m 1 6r 5 6000

p1h1l56

r 5 890 1 m

3.99p 1 2.61h 1 2.24l 5 19.43

4m 1 6(890 1 m) 5 6000

h 5 2l

10m 5 660

p 1 2l 1 l 5 6

m 5 66

p 1 3l 5 6

r 5 890 1 66 5 956

3.99p 1 2.61(2l) 1 2.24l 5 19.43

The theater sold 66 matine tickets and 956


regular tickets.

3.99p 1 7.46l 5 19.43


3.99p 1 7.46l 5 19.43

4y 22

48

5 40.5

3 (23.99)

3 21

17

x 1 4y 5 2 1 41 }2 2 5 8

0
9
0

1
5 6}2[(29 1 0 1 0) 2 (72 1 0 1 0)]

p 1 3l 5 6

4y 22

10x 2 3 5 17

Area of triangle with vertices

24 2 4y 8

5 40.5

0 1 21
9 1
5
0 1
8

3 21

10x 2 3

1
5 6}2[(3 2 60 1 4) 2 (36 1 2 2 10)]

21
1
Area 5 6}2 5
8

2 1
3 25
1 0

23.99p 2 11.97l 5 223.94


3.99p 1 7.46l 5

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

7. C;

19.43

24.51l 5 24.51
l51

188

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 188

6/27/06 9:59:43 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

17. a. y 5 3x 1 12.87 where x represents the number of

6.

years since 1996


b. y 5 1.86x 1 26.97 where x represents the number of

years since 1996

Spending (dollars)

c.

y
72
64
56 y 5 1.86x 1 26.97
48
40
32
24
16
8
0

1 2

y 5 3x 1 12.87

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 x

0
20
x

0
0
y

0
1
6}2 20
x

b.

1
1
1
0
0
y

x1355

or

x 1 3 5 25

1 0
1 20
1 x

0
0 5 100
y

x52

or

x 5 28

4x 2 1 5 27

or

4x 2 1 5 227

4x 5 28

or

4x 5 226

x57

or

x 5 2}
2

9 2 2x 5 41

or

9 2 2x 5 241

22x 5 32

or

22x 5 250

or

x 5 25

x 5 216

10. 6(x 2 4) > 2x 1 8

6x 2 24 > 2x 1 8

20y 5 6200

4x > 32

y 5 610

x>8

Because (x, y) is in the rst quadrant, y must be


positive. So, y 5 10.
c. The value of x does not matter as long as y 5 10.

Cumulative Review, Chs. 13 (pp. 232233)

3. 3x 1 6 2 4x 1 3x 1 9 5 24x 1 6x 1 15
4. 6x 2 7 5 22x 1 9

10

12

11

3x228

11.

312x812
5 x 10

1. 3x 2 2 5x 2 2 8x 1 12x 1 3x 5 22x 2 1 7x
2. 15x 2 6x 1 4x 1 10y 2 3y 5 13x 1 7y

13

9. 9 2 2x 5 41

6}2 (20y) 5 100

8. 4x 2 1 5 27

5 100

6}2 [(0 1 0 1 20y) 2 (0 1 0 1 0)] 5 100

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

7. x 1 3 5 5

Years since 1996

Sample answer: If you look at the graphs of the


2 equations, the two lines intersect at (12.5, 50.4). This
means that about one-half of the way into the twelfth
year, the video game spending will equal that of the
box ofce spending.
1
18 a. Area 5 6}
2

7
3
2
2
7
3
1
} x 1 } x 5 2} 2 3
2
2
3
3
6
21
2
} x 1 } x 5 2} 2 }
6
2
2
6
9
23
}x 5 2}
2
6
9 6
x 5 2}2 }
23
27
}
x 5 223
7 27
3
1 27
Check: }3 2}
1 3 0 2}2 2}
2 }2
23
23
60
60
}5}
23
23
1
3

} x 1 3 5 2} x 2 }

21

12. 2x < 26

or

x12>5

x < 23

or

x>3

8x 5 16
25

x52
Check: 6(2) 2 7 0 22(2) 1 9

25 < x 2 4 < 5
25 1 4 < x < 5 1 4

5. 4(x 2 3) 5 16x 1 18

21 < x < 9

4x 2 12 5 16x 1 18
212x 5 30

22

5
2

x 5 2}
5
5
Check: 4 2}2 2 3 0 16 2}2 1 18

21

13. x 2 4 < 5

555

23

1 2

222 5 222

10

14. x 1 3 15

x 1 3 215

or

x 1 3 15

x 218

or

x 12

218 212 26

12

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 189

189

6/27/06 9:59:51 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

15. 6x 1 1 < 23

29.

30.

223 < 6x 1 1 < 23


1

223 2 1 < 6x < 23 2 1


24
6

22
6
11
24 < x < }
3

21

2} < x < }

The relation is a function.

11
3

24

22

31. 4x 2 3y 5 32

25 2 2
7
16. (3, 2), (21, 25), m 5 } 5 }
21 2 3
4

24x 1 2y 5 228

32

4x 2 3(24) 5 32 x 5 5

4 2 (26)
10
18. (24, 26), (24, 4), m 5 } 5 }
0
24 2 (24)

The solution is (5, 24).

No slope; the line is vertical.

32. 5x 2 2y 5 24 3 3

5
323
0
2
19. 2}, 3 , }, 3 , m 5 } 5 }
50
23
5
4
3
2
}
} 2 1 2} 2
12
4
3

15x 2 6y 5 212

3x 1 6y 5 36

3x 1 6y 5
18x

21.

The solution is 1 }3 , }
.
32
4 16

33.

1
x

22.

16

51 }3 2 2 2y 5 24 y 5 }
3

21

x 2 y 1 2z 5 24
2x 1 3y 1 z 5 9

x 2 y 1 2z 5 24

3 (22)

24x 2 6y 2 2z 5 218
23x 2 7y

3x 1 y 2 4z 5 26
2x 1 3y 1 z 5 9

1
22

23.

3x 1

11x 1 13y
24.

23x 2 7y 5 222

3 11

11x 1 13y 5 30

33

33x 1 39y 5

21

26.

y54
23x 2 7(4) 5 222 x 5 22
22 2 4 1 2z 5 24 z 5 1

21

The solution is (22, 4, 1).


34. B 2 3A 5

1
x

22

5
27.

28.

1
21

F G F G
F
G
F G
3 21
5

23

22

3 2 3(22)

21 2 3(6)

5 2 3(1)

2 2 3(4)

9 219

2 210

1
21

190

90

238y 5 2152

1
x

5 30

233x 2 77y 5 2242

25.

5 222

y 2 4z 5 26

8x 1 12y 1 4z 5 36

34

21

24

4
x 5 }3

21

36

The line is horizontal.


20.

y 5 24

The line falls.

21

32

2y 5

23 2 4
7
17. (27, 4), (5, 23), m 5 } 5 2}
12
5 2 (27)

4x 2 3y 5

22x 1 y 5 214

The line rises.

The relation is not


a function.

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

26

21

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 190

6/27/06 10:00:06 AM

Chapter 3,

continued

35. 2(A 1 B) 2 C

(F G F G) F G
22 6

52

24

24

27 12

F GF G
F
GF G
(F G F G)F G
F GF G
F
G
F G

52
5

3 21

1 4

2(5) 2 8

2(6) 2 (27)

2(6) 2 12

24

36. (C 2 A)B 5

22

27 12

19

22 2

3 21

28 8

The area of the playground is 147.5 square yards.


R2
W
43. a. } 5 }
T
R 2 1 A2
TR2
R 1A

W5}
2
2
162(949)2
b. W 5 }}
(949)2 1 (768)2

W 97.9

24

5
5

F GF

27

12

21

0 24

22

14

22

3 21

21(1) 1 7(22)

G)F
G

0 24

22

3 21

21(0) 1 7(3)

21(24) 1 7(21)

22(1) 1 14(22) 22(0) 1 14(3) 22(24) 1 14(21)

5
Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

(F G F

24

G
F GF
F GF

215

21 23

230

42 26

3
1
38. A21 5 2}
1 24

21

39. A

21

40. A

21

41. A

1 24
5 }3
3

24

29

1
1
5 2}
10 24

1 28
5}
24 22

22

28
25

23

25

(0, 21)

18
12
6
0

(5.25, 0)
0

8 t

Time (hours)

1
5

2
5

2}3
1

2}
12

Range: 0 g 21
45.

c 5 kp
3900 5 k(78,000)
c 5 0.05p

2}
10

g
24

k 5 0.05

F G
GF G

22

b.

c. Domain: 0 t 5.25

2}3 23

44. a. g 5 21 2 4t

Gasoline (gallons)

3 21

The estimate shows that the Red Sox won about 98


games, which is about the same as the actual number
of games won.

37. (B 1 C)D

5 147.5

22(3) 1 2(5) 22(21) 1 2(2)


5 28(3) 1 8(5) 28(21) 1 8(2)
4
5 16

1 0
0
1 15 10
1 8 25

3 21

1 4

0
10
25

5 6}2 [(0 1 0 1 375) 2 (80 1 0 1 0)]

27 12

2(1) 2 (24)

1
42. Area 5 6} 15
2

1
5

When p 5 125,000: c 5 0.05(125,000)


c 5 6250
If a house sells for $125,000, the real estate agents
commission will be $6250.

2}3
5

2}
24

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 191

191

6/27/06 10:00:12 AM

Chapter 3,
46.

continued

Recovered material
(millions of tons)

m
70
65
60
55
50
0

Years since 1994

Sample answer:
Best-fitting line approximation: m 5 2.5t 1 52
When t 5 16: m 5 2.5(16) 1 52
m 5 92
In 2010, about 92 million tons of material will
be recovered.
47. s > 213, j 263, s 1 j > 472.5
Clean and jerk weight (kg)

400
300
200
100

100 200 300 400


Snatch weight (kg)

Copyright by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifin Company.

192

Algebra 2
Worked-Out Solution Key

n2ws-03-c.indd 192

6/27/06 10:00:15 AM