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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF

SEMI-AUTOMATIC CIRCULAR PATH GAS


CUTTING
A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Submitted by:

C.RAJESH KUMAR
N.SANKAR
M.SIVA
V.SRIRAM AVINASH

91008144073
91008144086
91008144100
91008144103

Under the Guidance of


Mr. T.RAMACHANDRAN, M.E (Associate professor)
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ANNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY TIRUCHIRAPPALLI
APRIL 2011
1

DECLARATION
.

I hereby declare that the work entitled DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF

SEMI-AUTOMATIC CIRCULAR PATH GAS CUTTING is submitted in partial


fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree in B.E Anna University of Technology
Tiruchirappalli, is a record of the my own work carried out by me during the academic year
2010

2011

under

the

supervision

and

T.RAMACHANDRAN,M.E(Associate professor),

guidance

Department of

of

Mr.

Mechanical

Engineering , PSNA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY.


The extent and source of information are derived from the existing literature and have
been indicated through the dissertation at the appropriate places. The matter embodied in this
work is original and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree or diploma, either
in this or any other University.

(Signature of the Candidate)


M.SIVA
91008144100
I certify that the declaration made above by the candidate is true,

Signature of the Guide,

Mr. T.RAMACHANDRAN, M.E

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF


SEMI-AUTOMATIC CIRCULAR PATH GAS CUTTING is a bonafide work carried out
by Mr.M.SIVA, Reg.No: 91008144100. under my direct supervision and is submitted in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of Mechanical
Engineering in PSNA College of Engineering and Technology to Anna University of Technology
Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli 620024. No part of the dissertation has been submitted for
any degree/diploma or any other academic award anywhere before.
SIGNATURE
Mr. T.RAMACHANDRAN,M.E
SUPERVISOR
Forwarded by

SIGNATURE
Dr. D.VASUDEVAN M.E., Ph.D
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

Examined on:

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

SERIAL NO

TITLE

PAGES

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Welding

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1.2 Gas cutting


1.3 Oxy gas cutting equipment
1.4 Cutting torches
1.5 Cutting torch tips

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12
14
14

DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS

15

2.1 Motor

16

2.2 Power Supply

20

2.3 Spur Gear Terminology

22

2.4 Bearing

24

DESIGN AND DRAWING

26

WORKING PRINCIPLE

31

MERITS AND DEMERITS

33

APPLICATIONS

LIST OF MATERIALS

35

COST ESTIMATION

36

CONCLUSION

37

BIBLIOGRAPHY
PHOTOGRAPHY

34

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT

In this project DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF SEMI-AUTOMATIC CIRCULAR


PATH GAS CUTTING main objectives is to bring out the idea of making circular path cutting
in semi automatic manner without manual handling.
Generally in conventional welding type, the cutting is done manually. As it is manual
process, the chance for error is high moreover the accuracy is less, which leads to more
tolerance. since in minute cutting operation, it is difficult to obtain the desired output.
Particularly for cutting shapes, the conventional cutting method seems to more tedious.
Here in our project, we suggest a new idea to overcome the difficulties in the conventional
cutting.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

In Our project

DESIGN AND FABRICATION

OF

SEMI-AUTOMATIC

CIRCULAR PATH GAS CUTTING suggest a new method for circular path operation in
cutting process.. An Oxy-Acetylene outfit is portable, inexpensive and versatile. By using the
proper tips, almost any metal can be cut using the Oxy-Acetylene process. Acetylene is a gas
that is manufactured by mixing Calcium Carbide with water. Acetylene, when burned alone, can
produce a flame temperature of about 4000 deg. F. With the addition of Oxygen a flame
temperature in excess of 6000 deg. F. can be achieved, making Acetylene ideal for welding and
cutting. Today most welding is accomplished by arc welding, and gas is used predominately for
cutting purposes. Oxy-Acetylene torch cutting relies on the combustion of fuel gases, usually
Oxygen and Acetylene, to heat metals at the cutting point.
inexpensive solution to the problem of field cutting metals.

Torch cutting is a quick and

1.1 WELDING

WELDING IS A PROCESS FOR JOINING DIFFERENT MATERIALS

The large bulk of materials that are welded are metals and their alloys, although the
term welding is also applied to the joining of other materials such as thermoplastics.
Welding joins different metals/alloys with the help of a number of processes in which heat
is supplied either electrically or by means of a gas torch. In order to join two or more
pieces of metal together by one of the welding processes, the most essential requirement is
Heat.
Pressure may also be employed, but this is not, in many processes essential.
The use of welding in today's technology is extensive. It had a phenomenal rise since about
1930; this growth has been faster than the general industrial growth. Many common every
day use items,
e.g., automobile cars, aircrafts, ships, electronic equipment, machinery, household
appliances

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1.2 GAS CUTTING

The common methods used in cutting metal are oxy gas flame cutting, air carbon-arc
cutting, and plasma-arc cutting. The method used depends on the type of metal to be cut and the
availability of equipment. As a Steelworker, oxy gas or air carbon-arc equipment is the most
common type of equipment available for your use.
The oxy gas cutting torch has many uses in steel- work. At most naval activities, the Steelworker
finds the cutting torch an excellent tool for cutting ferrous metals. This versatile tool is used for
operations, such as beveling plate, cutting and beveling pipe, piercing holes in steel plate, and
cutting wire rope.
When using the oxy gas cutting process, you heat a spot on the metal to the kindling or
ignition temperature (between 1400F and 1600F for steels). The term for this oxy gas flame is
the PREHEATING FLAME. Next, you direct a jet of pure oxygen at the heated metal by
pressing a lever on the cutting torch. The oxygen causes a chemical reaction known as
OXIDATION to take place rapidly. When oxidation occurs rapidly, it is called COMBUSTION
or BURNING. When it occurs slowly, it is known as RUSTING.
When you use the oxy gas torch method to cut metal, the oxidation of the metal is
extremely rapid and part of the metal actually burns. The heat, liberated by the burning of the
iron or steel, melts the iron oxide formed by the chemical reaction and accelerates the preheating
of the object you are cutting. The molten material runs off as slag, exposing more iron or steel to
the oxygen jet. In oxy gas cutting, only that portion of the metal that is in the direct path of the
oxygen jet is oxidized. The narrow slit, formed in the metal as the cutting pro- gresses, is called
the kerf. Most of the material removed from the kerf is in the form of oxides (products of the
oxidation reaction). The remainder of the material is molten metal that is blown or washed out of
the kerf by the force of the oxygen jet.

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1.3 OXY GAS CUTTING EQUIPMENT

An oxy gas cutting outfit usually consists of a cylinder of acetylene or MAPP gas, a
cylinder of oxygen, two regulators, two lengths of hose with fittings, and a cutting torch with tips
(fig. 4-1). An oxy gas cutting outfit also is referred to as a cutting rig. In addition to the basic
equipment mentioned above, numerous types of auxiliary equipment are used in oxy gas cutting.
An important item is the spark igniter that is used to light the torch (fig. 4-2, view A). Another
item you use is an apparatus wrench. It is similar in design to the one shown in figure 4-2, view
B. The apparatus wrench is sometimes called a gang wrench because it fits all the connections on
the cutting rig. Note that the wrench shown has a raised opening in the handle that serves as an
acetylene tank key.

Other common accessories include tip cleaners, cylinder trucks, clamps, and holding jigs.
Personal safety apparel, such as goggles, hand shields, gloves, leather aprons, sleeves, and
leggings, are essential and should be worn as required for the job at hand. Information on safety
apparel is also contained in.

Oxy gas cutting equipment can be stationary or port- able. A portable oxy gas outfit, such
as the one is an advantage when it is necessary to move.

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13

1.4 CUTTING TORCHES


The equipment and accessories for oxy gas cutting are the same as for oxy gas welding
except that you use a cutting torch or a cutting attachment instead of a welding torch. The main
difference between the cutting torch and the welding torch is that the cutting torch has unscrew
the welding tip and then screw on the cutting attachment. The high-pressure cutting oxygen is
controlled

by

lever

on

the

torch

handle.

1.5 CUTTING TORCH TIPS


As in welding, you must use the proper size cutting tip if quality work is to be done. The
preheat flames must furnish just the right amount of heat, and the oxygen jet orifice must deliver
the correct amount of oxygen at just the right pressure and velocity to produce a clean cut. All of
this must be done with a minimum consumption of oxygen and fuel gases. Careless workers and
workers not acquainted with the correct procedures waste both oxygen and fuel gas. This does
not seem important when you are working in a shop, but if you are deployed.

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CHAPTER III
DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS

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MOTOR
Principles of operation
In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A current-carrying
conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic field, it
will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of the
external magnetic field. As you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid, opposite
(North and South) polarities attract, while like polarities (North and North, South and South)
repel. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction
between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational
motion.
Let's start by looking at a simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet
or winding with a "North" polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with a
"South" polarization).

Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator,
field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors (and all that BEAMers will see), the
external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets 1. The stator is the
stationary part of the motor -- this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent
magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotate with
respect to the stator.

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The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the windings being electrically
connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the rotor
inside the stator (field) magnets.
The geometry of the brushes, commutator contacts, and rotor windings are such that
when power is applied, the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are
misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. As
the rotor reaches alignment, the brushes move to the next commutator contacts, and energize the
next winding. Given our example two-pole motor, the rotation reverses the direction of current
through the rotor winding, leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field, driving it to continue
rotating.
In real life, though, DC motors will always have more than two poles (three is a very
common number). In particular, this avoids "dead spots" in the commutator. You can imagine
how with our example two-pole motor, if the rotor is exactly at the middle of its rotation
(perfectly aligned with the field magnets), it will get "stuck" there. Meanwhile, with a two-pole
motor, there is a moment where the commutator shorts out the power supply (i.e., both brushes
touch both commutator contacts simultaneously). This would be bad for the power supply, waste
energy, and damage motor components as well. Yet another disadvantage of such a simple motor
is that it would exhibit a high amount of torque "ripple" (the amount of torque it could produce is
cyclic with the position of the rotor).

So since most small DC motors are of a three-pole design, let's tinker with the workings of one
via an interactive animation (JavaScript required):
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DC MOTORS
A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power. Two examples of pure DC designs
are Michael Faraday's homopolar motor (which is uncommon), and the ball bearing motor,
which is (so far) a novelty. By far the most common DC motor types are the brushed and
brushless types, which use internal and external commutation respectively to periodically reverse
the current in the rotor windings

BRUSHED DC MOTORS

Workings of a brushed electric motor


DC motor design generates an oscillating current in a wound rotor, or armature, with a
split ring commutator, and either a wound or permanent magnet stator. A rotor consists of one or
more coils of wire wound around a core on a shaft; an electrical power source is connected to the
rotor coil through the commutator and its brushes, causing current to flow in it, producing
electromagnetism. The commutator causes the current in the coils to be switched as the rotor
turns, keeping the magnetic poles of the rotor from ever fully aligning with the magnetic poles of
the stator field, so that the rotor never stops (like a compass needle does) but rather keeps
rotating indefinitely (as long as power is applied and is sufficient for the motor to overcome the
shaft torque load and internal losses due to friction, etc.)
any of the limitations of the classic commutator DC motor are due to the need for brushes
to press against the commutator. This creates friction. Sparks are created by the brushes making
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and breaking circuits through the rotor coils as the brushes cross the insulating gaps between
commutator sections. Depending on the commutator design, this may include the brushes
shorting together adjacent sectionsand hence coil endsmomentarily while crossing the gaps.
Furthermore, the inductance of the rotor coils causes the voltage across each to rise when its
circuit is opened, increasing the sparking of the brushes. This sparking limits the maximum
speed of the machine, as too-rapid sparking will overheat, erode, or even melt the commutator.
The current density per unit area of the brushes, in combination with their resistivity, limits the
output of the motor. The making and breaking of electric contact also causes electrical noise, and
the sparks additionally cause RFI. Brushes eventually wear out and require replacement, and the
commutator itself is subject to wear and maintenance (on larger motors) or replacement (on
small motors). The commutator assembly on a large motor is a costly element, requiring
precision assembly of many parts. On small motors, the commutator is usually permanently
integrated into the rotor, so replacing it usually requires replacing the whole rotor.

Brushless DC motors
Some of the problems of the brushed DC motor are eliminated in the brushless design. In
this motor, the mechanical "rotating switch" or commutator/brushgear assembly is replaced by an
external electronic switch synchronised to the rotor's position. Brushless motors are typically 85
90% efficient or more (higher efficiency for a brushless electric motor of up to 96.5% were
reported by researchers at the Tokai University in Japan in 2009), whereas DC motors with
brushgear are typically 7580% efficient.
Midway between ordinary DC motors and stepper motors lies the realm of the brushless
DC motor. Built in a fashion very similar to stepper motors, these often use a permanent magnet
external rotor, three phases of driving coils, one or more Hall effect sensors to sense the position
of the rotor, and the associated drive electronics. The coils are activated, one phase after the
other, by the drive electronics as cued by the signals from either Hall effect sensors or from the
back EMF (electromotive force) of the undriven coils. In effect, they act as three-phase
synchronous motors containing their own variable-frequency drive electronics. A specialized
class of brushless DC motor controllers utilize EMF feedback through the main phase
connections instead of Hall effect sensors to determine position and velocity.
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POWER SUPPLY
There are many types of power supply. Most are designed to convert high voltage AC
mains electricity to a suitable low voltage supply for electronics circuits and other devices. A
power supply can by broken down into a series of blocks, each of which performs a particular
function.

For example a 5V regulated supply Functional Diagram:

Transformer only
The low voltage AC output is suitable for lamps, heaters and special AC motors. It is not
suitable for electronic circuits unless they include a rectifier and a smoothing capacitor.

Bridge rectifier:
A bridge rectifier can be made using four individual diodes, but it is also available in
special packages containing the four diodes required. It is called a full-wave rectifier because it
uses all the AC wave (both positive and negative sections). 1.4V.

Rectifier Unit:
A rectifier is a device which offers a low resistance in one direction and
high resistance in the opposite direction. Such a device is capable of converting AC voltage in to
pulsating DC voltage the rectifier employs one or more diodes.

Filter:
The function of the filter circuit is to remove the ripples or to reduce it.resistors,
inductors and capacitors are used in the filter circuit. The filter circuit is placed in between
rectifier and voltage regulator.
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Smoothing:
The smooth DC output has a small ripple. It is suitable for most electronic circuits

Voltage regulator:
Voltage regulator is a device, connected in the output circuit of a power supply.
To keep the output voltage constant regardless of variations in load currents are the supply
voltage with in the specified limit. Voltage regulator are connected in between the filter and the
load.
Figure shows the circuit diagram of a bridge rectifier. This includes a power transformer
and filter circuit. This employs four diodes, D1, D2, D3 and D4. During the positive half cycle of
the applied AC voltage diodes D1 and D3 conducts. While during the negative half cycle D2, D4
conducts. The current through the load flows in the same direction in the both half cycle the
output of the rectifier contains ripples. Filters are used reduces the ripples components in the
output.

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SPUR GEAR TERMINOLOGY

Addendum.

The radial distance from the pitch circle to the outside diameter.

Dedendum.

The radial distance between the pitch circle and the root diameter.

Circular

The distance of the arc along the pitch circle from one side of a gear tooth

thickness.

to the other.

Circular pitch.

The length of the arc of the pitch circle from one point on a tooth to the
same point on the adjacent tooth.

Pitch diameter. The diameter of the pitch circle.


Outside
diameter.
Root diameter.

The major diameter of the gear.


The diameter of the root circle measured from the bottom of the tooth
spaces.

Chordal

The distance from the top of the tooth to the chord connecting the circular

addendum.

thickness arc.

Chordal
thickness.
Whole depth.
Working

The thickness of a tooth on a straight line or chord on the pitch circle.


The total depth of a tooth space equal to the sum of the addendum and
dedendum.
The depth of engagement of two mating gears.
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depth.
Clearance.
Backlash.
Diametral
pitch.

The amount by which the tooth space is cut deeper than the working
depth.
The amount by which the width of a tooth space exceeds the thickness of
the engaging tooth on the pitch circles.
The number of gear teeth to each inch of pitch diameter.

Pressure angle. The angle between a tooth profile and a radial line at the pitch circle.
Center
distance.

The distance between the centers of the pitch circles.

23

BEARING
A bearing is a device to allow constrained relative motion between two or more parts, typically
rotation or linear movement. Bearings may be classified broadly according to the motions they
allow and according to their principle of operation as well as by the directions of applied loads
they can handle.

TYPES OF BEARING
Plain bearing
Rolling element bearing
Jewel bearing
Magnetic bearing
Flexure bearing

ROLLING-ELEMENT BEARING
A rolling-element bearing is a bearing which carries a load by placing round elements between
the two pieces. The relative motion of the pieces causes the round elements to roll with very little
rolling resistance and with little sliding. A rolling-element rotary bearing uses a shaft in a much
larger hole, and cylinders called "rollers" tightly fill the space between the shaft and hole. As the
shaft turns, each roller acts as the logs in the above example. However, since the bearing is
round, the rollers never fall out from under the load.

TYPES OF ROLLING-ELEMENT BEARING


Ball bearing
Cylindrical roller
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Needle
Tapered roller bearing
Spherical roller

BALL BEARING
A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the
separation between the moving parts of the bearing.

The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial
loads. It achieves this by using at least two races to contain the balls and transmit the loads
through the balls. Usually one of the races is held fixed. As one of the bearing races rotates it
causes the balls to rotate as well. Because the balls are rolling they have a much lower coefficient
of friction than if two flat surfaces were rotating on each other.

Ball bearings tend to have lower load capacity for their size than other kinds of rollingelement bearings due to the smaller contact area between the balls and races. However, they can
tolerate some misalignment of the inner and outer races.
Compared to other rolling-element bearings, the ball bearing is the least expensive,
primarily because of the low cost of producing the balls used in the bearing.

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Chapter IV
DESIGN AND DRAWING

26

MATERIAL SELECTION
Material for both pinion and gear is TEFLON GEAR

TEFLON GEAR

PROPERTY

VALUE
2200 kg/m3

Density
Melting point

3270

Youngs modulus

0.5 N/mm2

Yield strength

23Mpa

Co efficient of friction

0.05-0.1

SPECIFICATION
Number of teeth on gear 1(Z1) =96
Number of teeth on gear2(Z2) =15
Facewidth

=16mm

Module

=3mm

DESIGN OF SHAFT
Material for shaft is MILD STEEL
Diameter of the shaft

=16mm

Length

=180mm

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FORMULAE USED

1. Power (P)

=2*3.14*N*T/60

2. Torque (T) =3.14*d2/16

Where N=speed of the motor


T=Torque produced
d=Shaft diameter

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29

CHAPTER V
WORKING PRINCIPLE

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Working principle

The table consist of gear coupled motor, pinion, mating gear,bearing,


revoving disc and guiding plate. the shaft of the motor to which pinion gear is fixed. The pinion
is made to be matted with the large matting gear for the pupose of speed reduction. The shaft of
the matting gear to which the revolving disc fixed.

The guiding plate in the revolving disc is used to hold the cutting torch. The
gear coupled motor which acts as the external source of power transmits the speed from the
pinion to matting gear and thus the speed gets reduced. Due to the revolving disc rotates the
torch attached to it also rotated.

The forward and reverse motion of the disc is obtain by using forward and
reverse switch. the work piece when placed on a bed at certain distance from the torch get cutted
in circular path.

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MERITS AND DE-MERITS

MERITS

Portable.
Less space occupied.
Less maintenance.
Initial cost is less.

DE-MERITS

High safety precaution is required.


Chance to burst

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APPLICATION

Used in small scale industries.


Regular fabrication of automobile cars, air-crafts, refrigerators etc.
Machine tools frames, cutting tools and dies.

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LIST OF MATERIAL

SI .NO
1
2
3
4
5

COMPONENT
Gear
Centre shaft
Bearing
Guide plate
Indexing plate

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MATERIAL
Teflon
Mild steel
Cast iron
Mild steel
Mild steel

COST ESTIMATION

LABOUR COST:
Lathe, drilling, welding, power hacksaw, gas cutting cost
Labour cost=1000rs

OVERHEAR CHARGES:
Manufacturing cost =Material cost + Labour cost
=3000+1000
=4000rs

Overhead charges

=20% of the manufacturing cost


=800rs

TOTAL COST:
Total cost= Material cost + Labour cost + Overhead cost
=4800rs

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CONCLUSION
In recent trend, the cutting process plays an important role in a material
production. Generally in conventional welding type, the cutting is done manually. As it is
manual process, the chance for error is high. More over the accuracy is less, which leads to
more tolerance. The idea that we suggested here in this project will be more helpful for the
workers to minimize their mistakes and come out with high accuracy. This project creates
a new trend in the cutting process in future.

36

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Websites
www.adhesivesandsealants.com
www.aws.org/w/a
www.Weldingtipsand.com

Books
A text book of welding technology O.P.KHANNA
Elements of workshop technology S.K.HAJRA CHOUDHURY., A.K.HAJRA
CHOUDHURY., NIRJHAR ROY
Metal cutting process S.V.NADKARNI

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PHOTOGRAPHY

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