This paper proposes a new system configuration
for a series hybrid power filter (SHPF) realized for all
harmonic types of loads. The series hybrid filter consists of
a small rated series active power filter (SAPF) and a shunt
passive filter with variable inductance using a thyristor
control reactor (TCR). The DC voltage available at the load
side of a typical voltage harmonics source, such as a diode
bridge rectifier followed by a capacitor, is utilized as a
source of DC power for the SAPF. To increase the filtering
performance of the shunt passive filter, SAPF is control in
such a way that it increases the network impedance at the
harmonic frequency. This also helps to avoid any series or
parallel resonance that may occur. The shunt passive filter
together with a TCR is used to support the variable load
reactive power demand as well to tackle the current
harmonics generated by non-linear load. The performance
of proposed series hybrid power filter is validated through
MATLAB/Simulink simulation study and successfully
utilized to compensate the voltage sag, voltage swell,
voltage harmonics, current harmonics and load reactive
power demand.

© All Rights Reserved

20 views

This paper proposes a new system configuration
for a series hybrid power filter (SHPF) realized for all
harmonic types of loads. The series hybrid filter consists of
a small rated series active power filter (SAPF) and a shunt
passive filter with variable inductance using a thyristor
control reactor (TCR). The DC voltage available at the load
side of a typical voltage harmonics source, such as a diode
bridge rectifier followed by a capacitor, is utilized as a
source of DC power for the SAPF. To increase the filtering
performance of the shunt passive filter, SAPF is control in
such a way that it increases the network impedance at the
harmonic frequency. This also helps to avoid any series or
parallel resonance that may occur. The shunt passive filter
together with a TCR is used to support the variable load
reactive power demand as well to tackle the current
harmonics generated by non-linear load. The performance
of proposed series hybrid power filter is validated through
MATLAB/Simulink simulation study and successfully
utilized to compensate the voltage sag, voltage swell,
voltage harmonics, current harmonics and load reactive
power demand.

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 6

Swell, Voltage and Current Harmonics and Reactive Power

Ab. Hamadi, Student Member, IEEE, S. Rahmani and K. AI-Haddad, Fellow, IEEE

Canada Research Chair in Energy Conversion and Power Electronics CRC-ECPE

Ecole de Technologie Superieure, 1100 Notre-Dame West, Montreal, Quebec H3C 1K3, Canada.

Email: abdelhamidhamadi@yahoo.fr.rsalem02@yahoo.fr.kamal@ele.etsmtl.ca

Abstract- This paper proposes a new system configuration

for a series hybrid power filter (SHPF) realized for all

harmonic types of loads. The series hybrid filter consists of

a small rated series active power filter (SAPF) and a shunt

passive filter with variable inductance using a thyristor

control reactor (TCR). The DC voltage available at the load

side of a typical voltage harmonics source, such as a diode

bridge rectifier followed by a capacitor, is utilized as a

source of DC power for the SAPF. To increase the filtering

performance of the shunt passive filter, SAPF is control in

such a way that it increases the network impedance at the

harmonic frequency. This also helps to avoid any series or

parallel resonance that may occur. The shunt passive filter

together with a TCR is used to support the variable load

reactive power demand as well to tackle the current

harmonics generated by non-linear load. The performance

of proposed series hybrid power filter is validated through

MATLAB/Simulink simulation study and successfully

utilized to compensate the voltage sag, voltage swell,

voltage harmonics, current harmonics and load reactive

power demand.

a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) to compensate

voltage and current problem simultaneously. However, the

use of UPQC is an expensive solution [9]. A SAPF

essentially requires a source of energy, such as a DC

battery, in order to compensate for voltage sag and swell.

Generally, a separate rectifier is used to provide the

necessary DC power for the SAPF. A full bridge diode

rectified followed by a capacitor is extensively used in

modern plants, for example, as in adjustable speed drive.

However, such a topology is often considered as a source of

voltage harmonics as it generates harmonics in supply

voltage. This paper proposes a new topology for a SHPF

which utilizes an existing front end diode bridge rectifier as

a source of DC power for the SAPF. This arrangement thus

helps to eliminate the use of additional rectifier require of

the SAPF. A shunt passive filter together with a thyristor

control reactor (TCR) is used to tackle the harmonics

generated by non-linear load as well as to support the load

reactive power demand. The TCR in passive filter is used to

support the variable load reactive power demand [10-12].

Moreover, the TCR considerably reduces the size of overall

shunt passive filter. A hybrid detection method is added to

increase the impedance of the series transformer at the

harmonic frequency, which force the current harmonic to

flow in the shunt passive filter. The DC bus voltage of SAPF

is maintained at a constant level by regulating the voltage at

load bus at desired constant level.

thyristor control reactor, voltage sag and swell, harmonics,

reactive power support.

I. INTRODUCTION

power sector, the use of non-linear loads on a typical

distribution system has been increased significantly in

recent years. These non-linear loads are the major source of

harmonics in modem distribution system which is making

the distribution system polluted. On the other side, the

modem equipments are becoming increasingly sophisticated

and require clean power for their proper operation. Any

variation in supply voltage, such as voltage sag and swell or

even harmonics in voltage causes the sensitive equipment to

malfunction.

To improve the quality of power, several solutions have

been proposed by several authors. Among them the shunt

and series active power filters have proven as an important

and flexible alternative to compensate most important

voltage and current related power quality problems in the

TOPOLOGY

Fig. 1. It consists of - (i) small rated series active power

filter, (ii) shunt passive filter and (iii) a typical voltage and

current harmonics type of source. The SAPF protects the

sensitive load from variation in the supply voltage. It injects

a voltage component in series with the supply voltage and

thus considered as a controlled voltage source. The required

DC bus voltage for SAPF is provided from the load side.

The output of DC voltage of front end diode bridge rectifier,

as shown in Fig.1, is shared with the SAPF. This

arrangement thus eliminates the need of additional separate

rectifier for the SAPF. The regulation of necessary active

286

maintaining the load voltage at constant level. Thus in the

proposed configuration the need of SAPF DC bus voltage

regulation is also eliminated.

In the proposed topology a reduced size passive LC filter

alone with a TCR is connected in parallel with the load. The

SAPF controlled as a harmonic isolator, forcing the load

current harmonics to circulate mainly through the passive

filter rather than the power distribution system. The main

advantage of this scheme is that it reduces the required

power rating of SAPF.

expressed in synchronous (d-q) frame. v sd ' v sq represent

the voltages at the primary side of the transformer, isd ' iSq

are the d-q components of the line currents at the primary

side of the SAPF.

frequency.

system can mathematically be represented as: [13, 14]

diea

Le-=vea-van

dt

dieb

(1)

Le - = veb -vbn

dt

dice

Le - = Vee -Ven

dt

dvea .

.

C-= Isa -lea

dt

dveb .

.

(2)

C-- = Isb -leb

dt

dv;

.

.

C-- = Isc -lee

dt

ie,a,b,e

are given below:

d VCd

C ~==

dV cq

is,a,b,e

dt

0]

Sin(lOot) -COS(lOot)

P = ~ cos( mot) sin( mot) 0

[

3

0

0

1

0

3

2

..

-lcq

lsq

(6)

== uq

= k pvcd + k, JVeddt

u q = k pveq + ki JVeq

(7)

(8)

ied* = -ud + Cmoveq + t;

(9)

ieq*

(10)

= kpicd + k, Jieddt

uiq = kpieq + k, Jieqdt

Uid

(11)

(12)

J3

--

J3

--

-;

the mathematical representation the Park transformation is

considered. The transformation matrix P can be defined as:

1

..

%VSq-Zcd+zsd

1 -~

C - == -ClOOVsd

is the DC

V de

Where

Uid - ved - Lemoieq

dd =

v de

(3)

Eqn. (2), yield to:

(13)

uses a hybrid control; detect simultaneously the source

current is (abc) and the load voltage VL (abc) to get their

harmonic components. The main idea is to increase the

impedance of the series transformer at the harmonics

frequency. The reference compensation voltage of the SAPF

adopting hybrid control approach is: [15]

v = kish -VLh

(15)

(4)

(5)

287

on the control gain k, which is the ratio of the compensating

harmonic voltage generated by the SAPF to the harmonic

current flowing through it. Fig. 2 shows the series voltage

harmonic versus gain k. One can observe that by deceasing

k, from 5 to 2, reduce the amplitude of the series

transformer voltage harmonics which affects negatively the

filtering performance. For k = 5, the reflected impedance of

SAPF becomes high and therefore load current harmonic

flows through the shunt passive branches.

F~ ~!. U5 . lI{I: S11. 62".

i PFa

i LpFa :

: C pF

,

-,..

15

-,..

10

15

20

25

~"o II

o

II.

5

10

15

,...,""

20

25

d i1J' Fd

J .

dipFq i CI' Fd

Ll'lJa) - , - -LpF(a)aT!U'Fd = 2Lpp( a )(J)----'-+ dt

dt

Cw

.

d iU >Fq

dilJ' Fd

iCl'Fq

LPF(a)--, --LpF(a)allu'FQ= 2LPF (a ) (JJ----='-"-+ dt

dt

CPF

are based on Unit Vector Template Generation. A Phase

Locked Loop (PLL) is used to extract the sinusoidal signal

at fundamental frequency. The PLL gives signal in terms of

compared with the measured

VLCa ,b ,c)'

v" Ca ,b,c)

(17)

are

As shown in Fig. 4,

V hd

(18)

and vcq

'

(16)

:C pF

the firing instant of the thyristor to control the current in the

reactor, thus controlling the reactive power absorbed by the

TCR. Kirchoff's laws of voltages and currents neglecting

the resistor of the inductance applied to this system provide

three differential equations in the a-b- c frame. The TCR

control scheme is shown in Fig. 5.

Applying these transformations in dq frame to the shunt

passive filter:

.1.1.

10

:i CPFa

= LpFCa):.

harmonics .

(19)

Thyristor controlled reactor for continuously variable

reactive power can be obtained across the entire control

range, with full control of both inductive and capacitive of

the compensator. The principal benefit is its optimum

performance during major disturbances in the system such

as sudden load change and load rejections. This type of

TCR is characterized by continuous control, low losses,

redundancy, and flexibility. Fig. 3 shows the TCR

equivalent circuit. [16,17].

control is used. The reactance of the inductance can be

modeled as: [10,11]

Jr

2Jr -

iCPFq

2a + sm(2a)

(20)

uj = B(a)--+ o l lLl'Fq

CpF

(21)

, ) CpF

()

(U1-OJ2

I LPFq -.-= B a

(22)

I CPFq

fundamental frequency and very low impedance at the

harmonics frequency. This filter combined with the series

active filter is able to absorb practically all the current

288

filter is reduced in term of components and is very robust

when its parameters change.

working effectively, reducing the source current THD from

22.34 % to 1.94 % and the load voltage THD from 18.03 %

to 3.31 %, respectively.

simulated under MATLAB-PSB environment to estimate

its' performance. The set of loads consists of current-source

type of nonlinear load and voltage-source type of nonlinear

load to study of the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

The SHPF system was tested for several different operating

conditions such as - steady-state, transient condition,

voltage sag, voltage swell, and under balanced

nonsinusoidal utility voltages, intending to validate the

SHPF system performance. The simulation results are

shown in Figs. 6 - 8 and discussed in the following

subsections.

voltage swell, voltage sag and balanced non-sinusoidal

utility voltages. The simulation results are shown in Fig.8.

The source voltage has a voltage THD of 18.03% with

dominant 5th and 7th harmonics of 15 % and 10 %,

respectively. In consecutive cycles, the voltage swell is

introduced voluntarily in the utility voltage (20%). And

after that, the voltage sag is also introduced in the utility

voltage (-40%). The SHPF system does not show any

significant effect of distortion present in the utility voltages

on its compensation capability and, the source current and

the load voltage THD under this condition, are found pure

sinusoidal. Since the load voltage is maintained constant.

In order to verify the performance of the SHPF during

transient response, two types of three phase nonlinear loads

are used simultaneously (diode bridge rectifier followed by

R-L load and diode bridge rectifier followed by R-C load).

Fig.6 shows the transient response of SHPF system. The

load current is abruptly increased and decrease. As viewed

from the simulation results, the changeover from one

operating condition to the other is quite smooth,

maintaining the perfect compensation. The sudden increase

(decrease) in the load though causes a small decrease

(increase) in the DC link voltage. It was observed that this

decrease (increase) in DC link voltage was around 10 V for

nov DC link. Consequently as the load on the system

changes, the control algorithm takes minimum two cycles to

compute the new steady-state load active power demand.

This proves that the SHPF system compensates the

harmonics and reactive power of the load during steadystate as well as transient operating conditions without losing

its performance.

The harmonics spectrums befor and after compensation are

shown in the Fig.7. The compensated source current and

VIII. CONCLUSIO N

of compensator, in this paper a new hybrid series active

power filter configuration has been proposed. The most

important power quality problems, such as, voltage sag,

voltage swell, voltage harmonics, current harmonics and

load reactive power are compensates effectively utilizing

the proposed system configuration. Thus it could be an

economical solution over a UPQC to tackle similar power

quality problems. Moreover, this configuration requires

reduced size of series active power filter. The

MATLAB/Simulink results show that the voltage sag and

swell are compensates effectively providing a regulated

voltage at load terminal. Additionally, the harmonics

present in the load current (load current THD= 22.34%) and

source voltage (source voltage THD= 18.03%) are

significantly reduced to 1.94% in source current and 3.31%

in load voltage. This proposed system configuration thus

eliminates the need of additional energy source required for

the series active power filter.

v/."

VLb

VL c

11

i l ,a :!

Vu l h lAC s u u r ce t ype HO

lin ear lo atl

~--------------Sh u nt

pa s si v e filt er

289

PLL

til

.. ..

..

:=

VI

s(a bc ) {re f)

tlZ

':U

c:

LL

.i;

0>

~ .u;

0>

+

(l 3

.S

"C

U iq

v c (ab c)

i cq

___0-.1

y

.

j3

uqt

controller

H,-----Hr-----~

Eq.22

Look up table c=7..r--

sa _

i"F"u

PFq

~ ~ 20~ V'\

-f\.JCA

~

A7\

-n

A7\

-n

f\.JCA

__f\.JCA~

-'A

A

A~

-200 .

20~

~5 __

~ ~ -20g

0 .05

. ~ ~ -:~o

__

0 .1

0 .1

0 .15

__

0 .15

0 .2 _ _

~5

0 .2

0 .25

__

~ __

0 .3

0 .35

0 .4

0 .4

0 .05

0 .1

0 .15

0 .2

0 .25

0 .3

0 .35

0 .4

0 .05

0.1

0 .15

0 .2

0 .25

0 .3

0 . 35

0.4

",20o.

0 .05

0 .1

0 .15

0 .2

0 .25

0 .3

0 . 35

0 .4

0 .05

0 .1

0 .15

0 .2

0 .25

0 .3

0 .35

0 .05

0 .1

0 .15

0 .2

0 .25

0 .3

0 . 35

0.4

0.05

0.1

0.15

0 .2

0 .25

0 .3

0.35

0.4

~~ -:~o

~ ~ -:g

~g -2~

~~ -:~

~~~!~F " " " " " " " " ' :?=SF

:.~

0 .4

: 3

THO ;; 1.94 %

THO = 3.31%

80

THD =1 8.03%

-360

'0 40

to

1

10

15

10

15

20

_LI

~_-:-:------=---!

5

10

15

Harmonic orde r

a) Source current

b) Load current

d) Load voltage

c) Source voltage

Fig.? Harmonics spectrum a) source current b) load current c) load voltage d) source voltafe

290

~ ~ -::~

2000

~~

0.05

0.1

0.15

2

o

0.05

0 .1

0.15

",_20

.!e

s,

-2g

0.2_

0.25

?Ln~

0

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

n~f\~J

0

.

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0 .05

0 .1

0 .15

0 .2

0 .25

0 .3

0.35

0.4

0.45

1000

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0 .35

0.4

0.45

~~ _10~f

0 .05

~""""

0.2

0.25

0 .3

0 .35

0.4

0 .45

~ ~ -:~

'"

200

0.1

0.15

~ ~ -2~

~

_2~1

!!::~-20 ~

o

-g ~ ~~~ E

o

0.05

0.1

0 .15

0 .2

0 .25

l i ......; :

0.05

0 .1

0 .15

0.2

0.25

5

0.3

:.;;.;;. 1

0 .3

--

0 .35

0.4

0 .45

0.35

0 .4

0 .45

IX. REFER ENCES

[1]

controller implementation for a hybrid series active filter system,"

iEEE/iAS Annu. Meet., 1995, pp. 2531-2540.

[2] S. Bhattacharya, D.M. Divan and 8.8. Banerjee, "Control and

Reduction of Terminal Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

in a Hybrid Series Active and Parallel Passive Filter System,"

iEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, PESC '93, pp.779

- 786, June 1993.

[3] H. Akagi and H. Fujita, "A Combined System of Shunt Passive

and Series Active Filters - An Alternative to Shunt Active Filters,"

EPE, vol. 3, pp. 12-17, 1991.

[4] H. Fugita and H. Magi, "The Unified Power Quality Conditioner:

The Integration of Series Active Filters and Shunt Active Filters,"

iEEEPESC'96, pp. 494-501,1996.

[5] A. Hamadi, S. Rahmani, and K. AI-Haddad, "A Novel Hybrid

Series Active Filter for Power Quality Compensation," IEEE

Power Electronics Specialists Conference, PESC 2007, pp.10991104, June 2007.

[6] Ab. Hamadi, K. AI-Haddad and R. Rahmani, "Series active filter

to mitigate power quality for medium size industrial loads (multi

Pulses Transformer and modem AC drive)," IEEE international

Symposium on ind. Electronics, vol.2, pp.1510 - 1515, July 2006.

[7] H. Akagi, A. Nabae and S. Atoh, "Control Strategy of Active

Power Filters Using Multiple- Voltage Source PWM Converters",

EEE Trans. on Ind. Appl. vol. IA-22, no.3, pp. 460-465, May

1986.

[8] Ab. Hamadi, K. AI-Haddad, P.J. Lagace and A. Chandra, "Indirect

current control techniques of three phase APF using fuzzy logic

and proportional integral controller: comparative analysis," 11th

International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power,

pp.362 - 367, Sept. 2004.

[9] V. Khadkikar, A. Chandra, A.O. Barry and T.D. Nguyen,

"Application of UPQC to Protect a Sensitive Load on a Polluted

Distribution Network," IEEE Power Engineering Society General

Meeting, 2006.

[10] A. Garcia-Cerrada, P. Garcia-Gonzalez, R. Coliantes, T. Gomez

and 1. Anzola, "Comparison of thyristor-controlled reactors and

voltage-source inverters for compensation of flicker caused by arc

furnaces," iEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 15, no. 4, pp.

1225 - 1231, Oct. 2000.

[II] 1. E. R. Alves, L. A. S. Pilotto and E. H. Watanabe, "ThyristorControlled Reactors Nonlinear and Linear Dynamic Analytical

291

[12]

[13]

[14]

[I5]

[16]

[17]

Models," iEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 23, no. I, pp. 338

- 346, Jan. 2008

J. G. Mayordomo, M. Izzeddine and R. Asensi, "Load and Voltage

Balancing in Harmonic Power Flows by Means of Static VAR

Compensators," IEEE on Power Engineering Review, vol. 22, no.

4, pp. 80 - 80, April 2002.

S. Rahmani, K. AI-Haddad and H.Y. Kanaan, "Average Modeling

and Hybrid Control of a Three-Phase Series Hybrid Power Filter,"

iEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2006,

vul.2, pp. 919-924, July 2006.

H.Y. Kanaan and K. AI-Haddad, "Comparative evaluation of

average-model-based control schemes applied to a three-phase

series active power filter for voltage harmonic cancellation," iEEE

International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, vol.2, pp.783789, May 2004.

W. Zhaoan, W. Qun; Y. Weizheng and L. Jinjun, "A series active

power filter adopting hybrid control approach," IEEE Trans. on

power Electronics, vo1.16, no.3, pp. 301-310, May 200 I.

S. Rahmani, Ab. Hamadi and K. AI-Haddad, "A new single phase

hybrid passive filter to dampen resonances and compensate

harmonics and reactive power under distorted source conditions,"

34th Annual Conference of IEEE industrial Electronics, iECON

2008, pp.473-478, Nov. 2008.

S. Rahmani, A. Hamadi and K. AI-Haddad, "A New Three Phase

Hybrid Passive Filter to Dampen Resonances and Compensate

Harmonics and Reactive Power for Any Type of Load under

Distorted Source Conditions ," IEEE Power Electronics Specialists

Conference, PESC 2007, pp.2594-2599, June 2007.

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