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We use the infinitive without to after:

modal verbs ( can, could, may, might, should..)

You should listen to the song attentively to grasp its meaning.
certain verbs, such as let, make, hear and see.
I saw him open the box and then I heard him laugh to himself.
verbal idioms would rather and had better.
Id rather swim in the pool that go down to the beach.
Richard has just arrived. Youd better see what he wants.

These verbs are followed by to infinitive:
ask, beg, expect, mean (=intend), want, would like, would love, would hate and
would prefer.
You can say:
Verb + to
we expected to be on time.
I would like to go now.

Verb + object + to
We expected Jim to be on time.
I would like you to go now.


These verbs have the structure verb + object + to:
enable, force, get(= persuade, arrange for), invite, persuade, remind, teach, tell,
order, warn.
They invited me to go to the concert.
Remind me to pay the phone bill.

The gerund is formed by adding the ending -ing to the verb:
run _ running
It is used after:

some verbs: admit, avoid, confess, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, imagine,
keep, love, mention, mind, miss, practice, recommend, risk, stop, suggest.
e.g. Many people enjoy doing the shopping in department stores.
prepositions or some expressions that end in a preposition: about,
after, at before, by, in, of, on, for, good at, bad at, interested in
e.g. Shes not good at playing football.

A) Fill in the gaps with the infinitive (with or without to).

Secure e-mail
The Internet is not the safest place __________________ (be) sending mail.
There are many ways of hackers __________________(cut) in and
__________________(interfere) with them. Did you know that is possible for
someone __________________ (read) and __________________(alter) your e-mail
while it is being sent to someone else? Many people dont realize how risky it
can be __________________(send) mail this way. Still even with all the risk email messaging is growing in numbers. If you are helping contribute to this
growing number of e-mails, then you want __________________(make) sure
that you protect yourself. You can __________________ (do) this by using secure
e-mail when you send out messages. This way you dont have
__________________ (worry) about being embarrassed because someone
altered the mail you sent. Take time __________________ (learn) as much about
how secure mail protects you as possible. No one wants a hacker
__________________ (get) control of their personal information. This would be
things like your address or phone number. They could even
__________________(find) out where you work and they could
__________________(start) calling you at home or send you mail at your home
address. This is so important for you __________________ (protect) your
personal information.
B) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form: gerund or

She agreed __________________ (buy) a new chandelier.

I look forward to __________________ (see) you at the concert.
My parents wanted me __________________(be) home at 10 0 clock.
Are you thinking of __________________(spend) next weekend in the

5. Avoid __________________ (make) silly mistakes.
6. They go on __________________(listen) loud music.
7. Do you know what __________________ (do) if theres a fire in the
8. I enjoy __________________ (write) postcards.
9. Ive got some work __________________(do).
10. I meant __________________(say) four, but I said forty.
11. My sister likes __________________(bake) cakes.
12. Mike postponed __________________(do) the exam.
13. Do you intend __________________(eat) a cake for breakfast?
14. When we finish __________________(drink) our tea, well probably go
15. Are you planning __________________(go) to the meeting?
16. Mary expects __________________(pass) the exam tomorrow.
17. After the film, I hope __________________(get) some flour at the

18. My friends and I intend __________________(go) out after dinner.

19. Yesterday Peter meant __________________(talk) to you, but he didnt
have time.
20. I was warned __________________ (not tell) anyone about what I saw.

C) Rewrite the sentences using the words given. The first one is done for
you as an example.
1. My mother allows me to use her car.
My mother lets me use her car.
2. Dont let me forget to pay the electricity bill.
_______________________________ the electricity bill.
3. I think you should meet her.
I ____________________________ meet her.
4. Someone said I shouldnt trust strangers.
I ___________________________ trust strangers.
5. Why dont you come and stay with us for the weekend?
They _______________________ for the weekend.
6. The robbers made us give them our mobile phones.
The robbers ____________________ our mobile phones.
Our teacher lets us use the dictionary in the tests.
7. Our teacher _____________________ the dictionary in the tests.

Answer key

A) to be; to cut; interfere; to read; alter; to send; to make; do; to worry; to

learn; to get; find; start; to protect.
1. to buy
2. seeing
3. to be
4. spending
5. making
6. listening
7. to do
8. writing
9. to do say
12.doing eat
14.drinking go pass get go talk
20.not to tell
2. Remind me to pay the electricity bill.
3. I want to meet her.
4. I was warned not to trust strangers.
5. They invited me / us to came and stay with them for the weekend.
6. The robbers forced us to give them our mobile phones.
7. Our teacher allows us to use the dictionary in tests.

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