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MINISTRY OF REGIONAL

DEVELOPMENT AND TOURISM

GOVERNMENT OF ROMANIA
www.mdrt.ro

1. ------IND- 2010 0741 RO- EN- ------ 20101222 --- --- PROJET

ORDER
Nofrom the date of 2010
for the approval of technical regulation Normative document for the design,
manufacture, and operation of ventilation and climate control systems, code I5
2010

In accordance with the provisions of Article 10 and Article 38(2) of Law No 10/1995
regarding quality in constructions, with its subsequent modifications, the provisions of Article
2 of the Rules regarding the types of technical regulations and costs for the regulatory activity
in constructions, town planning, landscaping, and habitat, approved by Government Decision
No 203/2003, with its subsequent modifications and supplementation, and the provisions of
Government Decision No 1016/2004 regarding measures for the organisation and carrying out
of information exchange in the field of technical standards and regulations, as well as the rules
regarding information society services between Romania and the EU Member States, as well as
the European Commission, with the subsequent modifications,
taking into consideration the Notification report No 4 issued by the Technical General
Coordination Committee within the Ministry of Regional Development and Housing on the
date of 07 September 2010, as well as Notification No 3 issued by the General Inspectorate for
Emergency Situations on 04 November 2010,
on the grounds of Article 5(II)(e) and Article 13(6) of Government Decision No
1631/2009 concerning the organisation and operation of the Ministry of Regional
Development and Tourism, with its subsequent modifications and supplementation,
the Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism hereby issues the following
ORDER:
Article 1 The technical regulation Normative document for the design, manufacture,
and operation of ventilation and climate control systems, code I5 2010, stipulated in the
Annex that is an integrated part of this order, is hereby approved.
Article 2 On the date of this order coming into force, Order No 55/N/1998 of the
Ministry of Public Works and Land Development approving the technical regulation
Normative document for the design and manufacture of ventilation and climate control
systems, code I5-1998, Order No 15/N/1994 of the Ministry of Public Works and Land
Development approving the technical regulation Technical design instructions for warm air
heating or ventilation via horizontal air jets, code I5/1-1994, Order No 55/N/1998 of the
Ministry of Public Works and Land Development approving the technical regulation
Normative document regarding the operation of ventilation and climate control systems,
code I5/2-1998, as well as any other provisions to the contrary shall cease to be applicable.

Article 3 This order*) shall be published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I and shall
come into force 30 days after its date of publication.
The present regulation was adopted in accordance with the notification procedure stipulated by
Directive 98/34/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998, laying
down a procedure for the provision of information in the field of technical standards and
regulations, published in the Official Journal of the European Communities L 204 from the
date of 12 July 1998, amended by Directive 98/48/EC of 20 July 1998 of the European
Parliament and the Council, published in the Official Journal of the European Communities L
217 from the date of 5 August 1998.

MINISTER
Elena Gabriela UDREA

Annex
to Order No./2010 of the Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism

NORMATIVE DOCUMENT
for
the design, manufacture, and operation of ventilation and climate control systems
Code I 5 - 2010

CONTENTS
1. Object, field of application, general requirements
2. Terminology
3. Ventilation in buildings
3.1. Requirements for ventilation

Indoor air quality


Provisions for establishing the configuration of ventilated buildings

3.2. Ventilation systems

Types of ventilation systems


General criteria for choosing ventilation systems
Natural ventilation
Sizing principles
Components
Mechanical ventilation
Sizing principles
Components
Mixed ventilation
Sizing principles
Components

4. Climate control in buildings


4.1. Requirements for climate control
Thermal comfort
Sound (noise) level

4.2. Climate control systems

Types of climate control systems


General criteria for choosing climate control systems
Air-only climate control
Climate control with constant air flow
Climate control with variable air flow
Air to water climate control
Climate control via fan convectors
Climate control via ejector-convectors
Climate control via cooling panels
Climate control via a water loop heat pump
Climate control using refrigerant
Local climate control using refrigerant
Centralised climate control with variable refrigerant flow

5. General design elements


5.1. Indoor calculation parameters for ventilated/climatecontrolled buildings
5.2. Outdoor calculation parameters for ventilated/climatecontrolled buildings
5.3. Heating/cooling load of a building
5.4. Air flows in ventilated/climate-controlled spaces
5.5. Air pipe sizing and load loss calculation
6. General components of ventilation/climate control systems
6.1. Terminal devices and elements for introducing and
extracting (evacuating) air in/from ventilated/climate-controlled
rooms
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6.2. Air pipes and accessories


6.3. Fans
6.4. Air filters
6.5. Heating/cooling batteries
6.6. Central air treatment units
6.7. Ventilation/climate control unit
7. General provisions for the equipment of ventilation/climate control
systems
8. Ventilation/climate control solutions for buildings used for various
purposes
8.1. Dwellings
8.2. Offices
8.3. Hotels
8.4. Commercial centres
8.5. Education buildings
8.6. Swimming pools
8.7. Restaurants
8.8. Industrial halls
9. Measures and solutions for increasing the energy efficiency of
ventilation/climate control systems
9.1. Thermal insulation of the systems
9.2. Heat recovery and storage, and use of renewable sources
10. Manufacture of ventilation/climate control systems
11. Commissioning and acceptance of ventilation/climate control
systems
12.
Operation,
maintenance,
revisions,
and
repairs
of
ventilation/climate control systems
13. Annexes 1 8

1. Object, field of application, general requirements


1.1. The technical regulation covers the design, manufacture, and
operation of ventilation and climate control systems.
1.2. The provisions of the technical regulation are applicable to the
following types of buildings, regardless of their form of ownership:
a) new civilian and industrial buildings,
b) existing civilian and industrial buildings undergoing works for
modernisation,
modification,
transformation,
consolidation,
extension, change of intended use, major repairs, and thermoenergetic rehabilitation.
1.3. This technical regulation does not apply to: ventilation, climate control,
and air conditioning systems designed to provide special technological conditions
(installations used in clean rooms, odour removal systems, pneumatic transport
systems, mining installations, tunnels, and agro-zootechnical constructions), as
well as radiation cooling systems.
1.4. This technical regulation does not cover the design and manufacture of
systems for discharging smoke and hot gases in the event of a fire (fume
removal) or protective equipment and systems in which the risk of explosion is
exclusively due to the presence of explosive substances or unstable chemical
substances; however, it includes provisions that regulate the possibility for the
ventilation systems of the building to be used, partially or entirely, to discharge
smoke and hot gases.
1.5. During the design, manufacture, and operation of ventilation and
climate control systems, the quality and performance conditions relating to the
following essential requirements must be met:
a) mechanical resistance and stability,
b) fire safety,
c) hygiene, health, and the environment,
d) operational safety,
e) noise protection,
f) energy saving and thermal insulation.
1.6. (1) The provisions of this technical regulation aim to apply the
following normative documents in the field of ventilation and climate control
systems: Law No 10/1995 regarding quality in constructions, with its subsequent
modifications and Law No 372/2005 regarding the energy performance of
buildings, with its subsequent modifications, and are enforceable for all types of
constructions stipulated in Article 1.2.
(2) An exception is the provisions which explicitly include the phrase it is
recommended.
1.7. A series of articles in this technical regulation make references to other
specific technical regulations which shall apply depending on the degree of
enforceability of their provisions.

1.8. The corresponding provisions stipulated in Annex 1 shall also be


complied with during the design, manufacture, and operation of ventilation and
climate control systems in buildings.
1.9. The general requirements for designing and carrying out ventilation
and climate control works in buildings are as follows:
a) ventilation and climate control systems shall only be manufactured on
the basis of the basic technical design and engineering details. The technical
design shall be drawn up by specialist design engineers with competencies in the
field, in accordance with the legal provisions in force on the date when the
technical design is drawn up.
b) design verification engineers certified in accordance with the legal
provisions, on the basis of the technical regulations in force on the date of the
design verification, shall verify in accordance with the law that the technical
design complies with the essential requirements established by the design
engineer. The design verification reports are an integrated part of the technical
design.
c) the technical design for ventilation and/or climate control systems shall
be drawn up for systems belonging to the categories of buildings listed in Article
1.2.
d) the basic technical design provides, in the form of written text and
drawings, complete technical information about sizing, carrying out the works,
installing the equipment/machines, ensuring compliance with the essential
quality requirements, tests, etc.
e) the engineering details shall be drawn up on the basis of the basic
technical design endorsed by the investor/beneficiary, after choosing the
equipment/machines and materials for the ventilation and climate control
systems based on their technical characteristics; the engineering details must
contain all elements needed to manufacture the system, detailing and
customising the information provided in the basic technical design.
f) the basic technical design, engineering details, and, if applicable, site
instructions issued whilst carrying out the works must provide all data needed for
the energy certification of new buildings or existing buildings that have
undergone works for modernisation, modification, transformation, consolidation,
extension, change of intended use, major repairs, and thermo-energetic
rehabilitation.
g) the basic technical design, engineering details, operating instructions,
and, if applicable, site instructions issued whilst carrying out the works shall be
included in the technical manual of the construction, which will be given to the
investor/owner before the final acceptance of the works.
h) for new investment objectives, as well as to carry out specific
intervention works on existing constructions, whether these are fully or partially
financed from public funds, the design stages shall comply with the legal
provisions in force on the date the design is drawn up.

2. Terminology
2.1. The terminology and notations used in this technical regulation are in
accordance with the terms and definitions used in the Romanian standards
applicable to this field of activity:
Law No 10/1995, with its subsequent modifications and Law No
372/2005, with its subsequent modifications;
The methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings
MC001/2006;
SR EN 12792:2004, Ventilation in buildings. Symbols, terminology,
and graphic symbols;
SR CEN/TR 12101-5:2007, Smoke and hot gas control systems. Part 5:
Guide of functional recommendations and calculation methods for ventilation
systems used to discharge smoke and hot gases;
SR EN ISO 7730:2006, Moderate thermal environments Analytic
determination and interpretation of thermal comfort by calculating the PMV and
PPD indices and specifying the criteria for local thermal comfort
SR CR 1752:2002, Ventilation systems in buildings. Design criteria for
ensuring interior thermal comfort;
SR EN 12101-6:2005, Smoke and hot gas control systems. Part 6:
Specifications for differential pressure systems - Kits;
Other standards in force.
A series of terms and definitions are adopted and explained in order to
clarify the measures, concepts, etc. referred to in various parts of this technical
regulation.
2.2. Indoor air quality is the quality (feature) of the air of having a
pollutant content that does not exceed the admissible concentrations or doses
(assimilated by people during the occupancy period), which ensures human
health and hygiene.
2.3. Fire damper a fire-resistant closing (obstruction) device installed on
the ventilation pipe (duct) that penetrates a fire-retardant or fire-resistant
construction element, which is normally in an open position and is equipped with
automatic and manual actuation for the event of a fire).
2.4. (1) Climate control is the process by which a controlled air
temperature is provided in rooms regardless of the thermal processes that take
place inside or outside of the building. Climate control implies the controlled
heating and cooling of spaces. Climate control is intended to ensure the thermal
comfort of the room occupants.
(2) Climate control can also be used to control the indoor air humidity, but
this is not an implicit situation.
(3) The fresh air required for ventilation can also be treated during the
climate control process; in this case, climate control is combined with ventilation.
2.5. Very low-polluting building a building made of materials with very
low pollutant emissions (such as stone, glass, metal), in which no activities that
generate pollutant emissions are carried out and there are no sources of pollution
(such as cigarette smoke). Informatively, these emissions (TVOC, formaldehyde,
ammonia, etc.) are given in Annex C of standard SR EN 15251:2007.
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2.6. Low-polluting building a building made of materials with low


pollutant emissions, in which activities that generate pollutant emissions are
limited or prohibited. Informatively, these emissions (TVOC, formaldehyde,
ammonia, etc.) are given in Annex C of standard SR EN 15251:2007.
2.7. Polluting building a building which does not belong to the very low
or low polluting building types.
2.8. Thermal comfort it is the feeling of a good physical state
experienced due to the fact that the heat exchange between the human body and
the environment is carried out without overstressing the thermoregulatory
system.
2.9. Air conditioning is the process by which the temperature, humidity,
speed, and, most of the time, purity of the indoor air are controlled. The term is
particularly used for rooms provided with special technological conditions.
2.10. Ventilation efficiency is a non-dimensional measure which
expresses the extent to which the ventilation air mixes with the indoor air inside
the room; it is expressed as the ratio between the difference in pollutant
concentration (heat, humidity, gases) between the outgoing air c EHA and the
incoming air cSUP, and the difference in concentration between the indoor air
(inside the occupied area) cIDA and the incoming air cSUP:
V = (cEHA cSUP)/(cIDA cSUP)
2.11. Draught index (DR) is an estimate of the percentage of people
dissatisfied because of the draught created by the speed and turbulence
intensity of the air which causes discomfort, under certain temperature
conditions.
2.12. The percentage of people dissatisfied (PPD) is an estimate of
the percentage of people within a group which carries out a certain activity and is
provided with a certain degree of clothing insulation, who consider that the level
of thermal comfort in a room with certain parameters is unsatisfactory.
2.13. The design thermal load of the room (sensitive, latent, total)
represents the flux of sensitive/latent/total heat that needs to be introduced or
extracted in/from a room in order to reach the design interior state; it is
determined according to the design climate conditions and design interior
operating conditions (interior heat-generating sources).
2.14. The design thermal load of the system represents the flux of
sensitive/latent/total heat that needs to be introduced or extracted by the
ventilation/climate control system in order to reach the design interior state; it is
determined according to the design climatic conditions and design interior
operating conditions (interior heat-generating sources). The system load is not
the sum of the design load of the rooms.
2.15. Thermal load (of the room/system) represents the flux of
sensitive/latent/total heat that needs to be introduced or extracted in/from a
room at a given moment in order to achieve the design interior state; it is
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determined according to the climatic conditions and interior operating conditions


at the time of the calculation.
2.16. The operating temperature of a given room is the uniform
temperature of an equivalent room in which the convection and radiation heat
exchange of a person is the same as in the given room; for air speeds lower than
0.4 m/s and average radiation temperatures lower than 50C, the operating
temperature can be calculated as the arithmetic mean between the air
temperature and the average radiation temperature.
2.17. The types of air are named and labelled depending on the role that
the air plays as the working agent in ventilation/climate control systems; these
are defined in accordance with Table 2 given in SR EN 13779:2007.
2.18. Ventilation is the process by which fresh air enters (in a natural or
forced way) a room, and by which polluted air is eliminated (in a natural or forced
way) from a room.
This leads to the dilution/elimination of interior pollutants: moisture, gases,
vapours, dust, which represents the function (purpose) of ventilation. Ventilation
is used to provide indoor air quality (limitation of pollutant concentration and
admissible pollutant doses).
To achieve physical equilibrium of the air flows (the sum of the incoming
and outgoing flows must be null), the air flow entering the room is always equal
to the air flow that exits the room.
2.19. Exposure limit value (ELV), the limit value, whether instantaneous
or for a period of 15 minutes, for the concentrations of a substance, which must
not be exceeded in order to ensure that human health is not affected.
2.20. Average exposure value (AEV), the time-weighted limit value for
the concentrations of a substance, which must not be exceeded within an 8-hour
interval in order to ensure that human health is not affected.
2.21. Smoke shutter (smoke damper), a fire-resistant closing
(obstruction) device installed on the smoke discharge pipes (ducts), which is
opened in the standby position and is provided with automatic and manual
actuation in the event of a fire.
2.22. The predicted mean vote (PMV) is an index that expresses the
predicted feeling of thermal comfort experienced by a group of people in a room
with given parameters under certain conditions of activity and with a known
degree of clothing thermal insulation.
2.23. The thermal zone of a building represents a part of a building
which is characterised by certain parameters of an indoor thermal environment
and a certain thermal load variation profile due to the orientation of the building,
the way in which the occupied space is used, the distribution of the interior heat
sources, etc.
2.24. The occupied area of a room is the part of a room where activities
are carried out and where the design parameters for air quality and thermal
comfort must be ensured; the distances from perimetric construction elements
that must be complied with when determining the occupied area shall be
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established in accordance with Article 6.2 stipulated in standard SR EN


13779:2007.
2.25. Air pipes an assembly of elements with different cross-sections
through which the ventilation/climate control air circulates between various parts
of a system (installation). The Romanian specialist literature also uses the terms
air ducts and ventilation tubing. The technical regulation, which is based on the
European standards in the field, uses the term air pipe. It is recommended that
the term air duct should be used if the air circulation is ensured by concrete or
masonry elements.

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3. Ventilation of buildings
3.1. Requirements for ventilation
Indoor air quality
3.1.1. (1) Indoor air quality must be ensured in all the rooms of a building.
(2) Indoor air quality shall be ensured by ventilation, depending on the
intended use of the room, the type of pollution sources and the activities carried
out in the room. In particular cases, the air quality can be ensured by special
means (activated charcoal filters, odour removal equipment, etc.); these
situations are not covered by this technical regulation.
3.1.2. For the occupied area of civilian rooms, there are four categories of
indoor air quality (IDA1 IDA4), which are listed in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1. Categories of indoor air quality (in accordance with SR EN
13779:2007)
Indoor air quality class
Description
IDA 1
High indoor air quality
IDA 2
Medium indoor air quality
IDA 3
Moderate indoor air quality
IDA 4
Low indoor air quality
The air quality shall be classified in one of the abovementioned IDA
categories depending on the intended use of the building, the activities carried
out in the rooms, and the type of pollution sources.
a) Therefore, for civilian buildings in which the main source of pollution are
human bio-effluents, the air quality in rooms where smoking is prohibited shall be
classified according to the carbon dioxide concentration accepted indoors, in
excess of the outdoor concentration, in accordance with Table 3.2.
Table 3.2. Categories of indoor air quality as a function of the CO 2 concentration
above the outdoor level (in accordance with SR EN 13779:2007)
Category

Level of CO2 above the level present in the outdoor


air, in ppm
Typical range

Value by absence

IDA 1

400

350

IDA 2

400 600

500

IDA 3

600 1 000

800

IDA 4

1 000

1 200

For ventilation systems adjusted depending on the CO2 concentration in the


indoor air or the air being evacuated, the CO 2 level will form the basis for
adjusting the ventilation systems as a function of the presence of humans, in
order to maintain the air quality category.
b) Depending on the pollutant emissions in civilian rooms, buildings can be
classified in (Article 2.5, 2.6, 2.7): very low-polluting buildings, low-polluting
buildings, and polluting buildings.
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c) For civilian rooms where the climate criteria are determined by the
presence of humans, the indoor air quality shall be ensured by the ventilation
(fresh air) flow, which will be established depending on the intended use of the
rooms, the number of occupants, and the activities they carry out, as well as the
pollutant emissions of the building (generated by construction elements,
finishings, furniture, and installation systems), in accordance with Article 5.4.3.
d) For rooms without a specified intended use (e.g. storage spaces), the air
quality category and the incoming ventilation air flow, which can be outdoor air or
air transferred from other rooms, shall be determined as a function of the usable
floor area, in accordance with Article 5.4.8.
e) For civilian and industrial rooms where there are pollutant emissions
other than bio-effluents and the emissions of the building, the indoor air quality
must be ensured by complying with the admissible concentration values for the
occupied area. For this purpose, the concentration of indoor pollutants and the
incoming air flow shall be calculated in accordance with Article 5.4.4.
f) It is considered that office equipment (computers, printers, copiers,
monitors) is characterised by a negligible level of emissions (for substances such
as: TVOC, HCHO, NH3, and cancerous products).
g) For the concentrations admissible in the occupied area of industrial
spaces, the values specified in the General Workplace Safety Standards (GWSS)
shall be complied with.
h) For civilian buildings, Annex C of SR CR 1752:2002 stipulates a series of
guiding values relating to the exposure and risk posed by certain indoor
pollutants.
i) In rooms where smoking is permitted, increased fresh air flows shall be
complied with in accordance with 5.4.3.
3.1.3. Depending on the level of pollution present in the rooms, the quality
of the air extracted from these rooms can be classified into four categories (ETA1
ETA4), in accordance with Table 3.3.
If the air being extracted originates from a mixture of air belonging to different
categories, the entire air flow shall be considered to belong to the highest category.
3.1.4. The categories for the evacuated air (EHA1 EHA4) correspond to the
categories for the air being extracted and shall apply to the air after potential
purification operations have been carried out. If a treatment is applied to purify the air
being evacuated, the treatment method and efficacy of the process must be specified
in the design.
The evacuated air belonging to class EHA 1 can never be obtained by treatment.
3.1.5. The quality of the air being evacuated from buildings can be
classified into four categories (EHA1 EHA4), in accordance with Table 4 of SR EN
13779:2007.
3.1.6. Outdoor air quality can be classified into five categories (ODA1
ODA5), in accordance with Table 3.4, taking into consideration the
recommendations stipulated in Article 5.2.3. of SR EN 13779:2007. Indicative
data for the outdoor air pollution level are given in Annex 6 of SR CR 1752:2002;
also, annual values for the pollution level are given in Table 6 of SR EN
13779:2007.
Table 3.3. Categories of quality of the air extracted from rooms (in accordance
with SR EN 13779:2007)
13

Catego
ry
ETA1

ETA2

ETA3

ETA4

Description

Examples (for information


only)
Extracted air with a low pollution level
Air from rooms in which the main
Offices, spaces for public
emission sources are construction
services, classrooms, meeting
and structural materials, and air
rooms, commercial spaces
from occupied rooms in which the
without particular emission
main emission sources are human
sources.
metabolism and construction and
structural materials. Rooms in
which smoking is prohibited
Extracted air with a moderate pollution level
Air from occupied rooms which
Dining rooms, hot drink
contain more impurities than
preparation areas, storage
category 1 from the same sources
spaces in office buildings,
and/or human activities. Rooms
hotel rooms, cloak rooms.
that would normally belong to
category ETA 1, but in which
smoking is permitted.
Extracted air with a high pollution level
Air from rooms in which moisture
Toilets, saunas, kitchens, some
emissions, technological processes, chemistry laboratories,
chemical substances, etc.
copying centres, rooms
significantly reduce the air quality.
intended to be used by
smokers
Extracted air with a very high pollution level
Air containing odours and
Professional extractor hoods,
impurities that are harmful to
grills and local devices used to
human health, in a concentration
evacuate air from kitchens,
higher than the values admissible
garages, tunnels and car
for the indoor air in occupied areas. parks, painting rooms, dirty
laundry rooms, bin rooms,
cleaning installations, rooms
that are intensely used for
smoking and certain chemistry
laboratories.

3.1.7. The air introduced in occupied rooms must ensure, through its
quality and air flow, the indoor air quality in the occupied area (two categories
are considered for the incoming air: SUP1 - SUP2, in accordance with Table 3.5).
Table 3.4. Categories of outdoor air quality (in accordance with SR EN
13779:2007)
Category
Description
ODA 1

Pure air which contains dust particles (e.g. pollen) only

ODA 2
ODA 3
ODA 4

temporarily
Outdoor air with a high concentration of dust particles
Outdoor air with a high concentration of gaseous pollutants
Outdoor air with a high concentration of dust particles and
gaseous pollutants

ODA 5

Outdoor air with a very high concentration of dust particles and


gaseous pollutants

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Table 3.5. Categories of quality of the air introduced in rooms (in accordance with
SR EN 13779:2005)
Category
Description
SUP1
SUP2

Incoming air that only contains outdoor air


Incoming air that contains outdoor air and recirculated air
Provisions for establishing the configuration of ventilated buildings

3.1.8. The configuration of the building helps increase comfort and save
energy; this must be created in accordance with the integrated design concept,
depending on the intended use of the building, its compactness, the climatic
conditions, and the location.
3.1.9. (1) To ensure economical ventilation, the configuration of the
building shall aim to:
a) reduce the thermal load of the building;
b) provide natural ventilation,
c) provide controlled ventilation and cooling of the building during the
night, in the summer;
d) enable a balanced air circulation inside the building.
(2) The following shall be taken into consideration in order to reduce the
thermal load of buildings:
a) achieving a convenient ratio between the footprint and the volume of
the building,
b) designing the building envelope to limit the heating/cooling load by:
1. thermal insulation of the opaque and glass section of the envelope,
2. providing a double, ventilated envelope (integrated in the building
ventilation strategy),
3. using windows provided with efficient and adjustable solar
protection,
4. using windows with variable solar transmittance to control lighting
and limit the thermal load in the summer
c) including passive or active elements in the envelope, which use solar
energy,
d) compartmenting the building, locating the interior sources of heat,
moisture, gaseous pollutants or dust in a way that would ensure that the systems
technical capability to absorb these emissions is not exceeded.
(3) To ensure natural ventilation, depending on the climatic conditions,
action shall be taken to use wind energy to activate the ventilation or to limit
wind action to not perturb ventilation, as applicable. Therefore:
a) the aim will be to ensure that, around the building, the air currents or
wind are blocked or deviated, which enables the creation of an efficient
ventilation scenario,
b) in order to use adaptive comfort in naturally ventilated buildings, the
occupants must be provided with the possibility of opening the windows and
shading their surfaces,
c) if the direction of the dominant wind is parallel to the long side of the
building, it is possible to induce ventilation using the wind, through architectural
methods or the type of joinery openings,
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d) gaps shall be created in the facades, which will be suitably positioned


to enable the intake and evacuation of air from the buildings, and will be
designed to ensure the required ventilation air flows; auto-adjustable or hygroadjustable ventilation elements will be installed in these gaps; it is important to
avoid obstructing these gaps in any way,
e) gaps shall be created in interior separation elements in order to
balance the air circulation inside the buildings, depending on the ventilation
diagram (crossing, with simple exposure);
f) It is also important to avoid compartmenting in a space that is
developed perpendicularly to the wind direction; on the other hand, the design
can stipulate rooms with double orientation using opposite, and not adjacent,
walls, which improves the natural ventilation system; a flexible open plan can
be chosen to facilitate air movement;
g) depending on the ventilation solution, vertical chimneys shall be
provided, whose cross-section will ensure the required air flows,
h) if applicable, air draught activation solutions shall be designed, which
will be integrated in the architecture of the building:
1. static extractors (deflectors),
2. solar towers,
3. wind towers,
4. atriums,
5.
vertical circulation nodes resolved through the staircase,
6. chimneys with the air draught assisted by heating/humidifying the
air, which use solar energy.
(4) Solutions shall be promoted which use the capacity to store/release heat
in the structure of the building, such as:

controlled over-ventilation and cooling of the building during the


night, in the summer,

designing floors that allow circulation of the ventilation air.

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3.2. Ventilation systems


Types of ventilation systems
3.2.1. (1) The role of ventilation systems is to introduce/extract air in/from
rooms in order to ensure the required indoor air quality.
(2) The incoming air can be fresh air or transferred air.
3.2.2. Based on various criteria, ventilation can be classified in several
types (Figure 3.1).
a) Depending on the type of energy that creates the air movement,
ventilation can be natural, mechanical or hybrid.
Natural ventilation occurs due to the pressure differences between the
inside and the outside of the building, created by natural factors: differences in
temperature and wind.
Natural ventilation can be organised or non-organised. In the case of
organised ventilation, the ventilation system (openings, pipes) is designed to
meet the requirements relating to indoor air quality. Non-organised ventilation,
also called airing, occurs due to non-tightness of the building or by opening the
windows.
Mechanical ventilation is carried out using mechanical equipment (fans). In
the case of hybrid ventilation, mechanical equipment is automatically activated
along the natural outlet circuit when the natural factors cannot ensure the
required air draught.
b) Depending on the number of circuits, ventilation systems can be
classified into single-circuit (mono-flow) systems or two-circuit (double flow)
systems.
In single-circuit systems, the mechanical air circulation is carried out using
the air intake or air outlet circuit. In two-circuit systems, both the air intake and
the air evacuation are carried out mechanically.
Hybrid ventilation is a natural ventilation for which mechanical air
circulating equipment has been introduced, which will only activate when the
pressure differences created by natural factors are insufficient in order to provide
the required air flow.
c) Depending on the air pressure inside the rooms, as a ratio of their
exterior pressure, the systems can be of over-pressure, under-pressure or
balanced. Single-circuit mechanical ventilation systems can be either of the
under-pressure type (with a mechanical suction circuit), or of the over-pressure
type (with a mechanical intake circuit). Two-circuit systems are of the underpressure type if the mechanically-introduced flow is lower than the outgoing flow,
of the over-pressure type if the mechanically-introduced flow is higher than the
outgoing flow, or balanced if the two flows are equal.
d) Depending on the volume of the area ventilated by the system, the
ventilation can be local (e.g. by local suction) or general. Combined ventilation is
obtained when using local ventilation together with general ventilation.
e) Depending on the way in which the air is treated, ventilation can be
simple (without treatment) or with treatment; air treatment can be simple or
complex.

17

criterion energy source for air


circulation
NATURAL
VENTILATIO
N

MECHANICAL VENTILATION
WITH A SINGLE CIRCUIT (MONOFLOW)
WITH TWO CIRCUITS (DUALFLOW)

HYBRID

VENTILATI
ON

criterion indoor pressure of the


room
LOW PRESSURE

OVERPRESSURE

BALANCED

criterion volume of the ventilated space

LOCAL
VENTILATION

GENERAL
VENTILATION

COMBINED
VENTILATI
ON

criterion air treatment

WITHOUT
TREATMENT

WITH
TREATMENT

Figure 3.1. Classification of ventilation systems


General criteria for choosing ventilation systems
3.2.3. Choosing a ventilation system depends on the intended use of the
building, the activities carried out therein, the exterior climate, the indoor
pollution category of the building, and the category of environment quality
established in the design theme. Applicable provisions are introduced in Article
3.1 of this technical regulation.
3.2.4. In all situations, the system must be chosen so that the required
thermal comfort and air quality conditions can be obtained with the minimum
energy consumption.
3.2.5. Two-circuit (double flow) ventilation systems must be fitted with heat
recovery equipment.
3.2.6. Depending on the interior pressure created by the ventilation system
installed in the room, 5 categories of pressure conditions can be defined: PC1
18

PC5. These categories, established in the absence of wind and thermal draught,
are detailed in Table 15 of SR EN 13779:2007.
3.2.7. The under-pressure and over-pressure created by the ventilation
systems shall be established so that the air will circulate from the areas with
higher air quality requirements to the areas with lower air quality requirements.
For the assembly of the ventilated area, the air flows must be balanced.
3.2.8. Should concentrated pollutant emissions occur, it is necessary to provide
local suction systems. The compensating air shall be introduced either naturally or
via a general ventilation system, as applicable, making sure that it is heated
during the cold period of the year.

19

4. Climate control in buildings


4.1. Requirements for climate control
Thermal comfort
4.1.1. Climate control aims to create an indoor environment that meets the
indoor air quality and thermal comfort requirements.
4.1.2. To characterise the indoor environment, four categories I IV can be
established, in accordance with Table 4.1.
From the point of view of indoor air quality, classes I IV correspond to
classes IDA1 IDA4 defined in Article 3.1.2.
Category I is recommended for rooms occupied predominantly by people
with low metabolism and thermal adjustment difficulties (e.g.: older people).
4.1.3. Thermal comfort is determined by the following parameters:
a. indoor air temperature,
b. average radiation temperature of the surfaces with which the human
body exchanges heat by radiation,
c. relative air humidity,
d. indoor air speed,
e. thermal insulation of the clothing,
f. activities carried out by the occupants, which determine the amount
of heat generated (metabolism).
Table 4.1. Categories of indoor environment (in accordance with SR EN
15251: 2007).
Category
of
environm Characteristics and recommended field of application
ent
I

High level recommended for spaces occupied by people who


are very sensitive and fragile and have specific needs, such as
ill people, people with a handicap, small children, old people

II

Normal level recommended for new or renovated buildings

III

Acceptable moderate level, recommended for existing buildings

IV

A level other than those specified above; recommended to be


accepted for limited periods of time

4.1.4. The thermal comfort inside a room is expressed by the value of the
Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) which, for each category of environment, must be
within the value range given in Table 4.2. The resulting percentage of people
dissatisfied (PPD) relates to the PMV values. The required PMV value and category
of environment shall be established in the design theme and must be mentioned
in the technical documentation.

20

Table 4.2. PMV and PPD values corresponding to the category of indoor
environment (in accordance with SR EN 15251:2007)
Global thermal comfort state
Percentage of people
Predicted mean vote
Category
dissatisfied
of
PPD
PMV
environm
%
ent
I
<6
-0.2<PMV<0.2
II
< 10
-0.5<PMV<0.5
III
< 15
-0.7<PMV<0.7
IV
>15
PMV<-0.7 or PMV>0.7
4.1.5. The method stipulated in Article 4 and 5 of SR EN ISO 7730:2006
shall be applied to calculate the PMV value and the PPD percentage; the required
entry values shall be determined depending on the room for calculation (surfaces,
thermal insulation), the design indoor air parameters, and using the following
data:
- the thermal resistance of the clothing, given in Annex C of standard SR EN
ISO 7730:2006,
- the heat generated by people (metabolism), given in Annex B of standard
SR EN ISO 7730:2006 or Table 25 of standard SR EN 13779:2007,
- in climate controlled rooms where the humidity level is not adjusted, the
relative air humidity shall be considered to be 50 %.
The calculation shall be carried out for the representative rooms of the
climate-controlled building, which are specified in the calculation notes together
with the hypotheses that have been adopted.
4.1.6. Under certain activity and clothing conditions typical for certain
intended uses of rooms, taking into consideration a relative air humidity of 50 %
and low air speeds inside the rooms, the calculation of the PMV values can be
replaced by calculation of the operating temperature. The operating temperature
values for various intended uses and categories of climate are given in Table 4.3.
Unless otherwise required, the specified operating temperature shall be
considered in the centre of the room, 0.6 m above the floor.
These operating temperature values can also be considered to be design values
instead of the design indoor temperature, if using methods that determine the
thermal load on the basis of the operating temperature.
Table 4.3. Operating comfort temperatures (in accordance with SR EN
15251:2007)
Type of building or room Categor operating temperature [0C]
y
minimum for
Maximum for
heating; Clothing cooling;
Clothing
1.0 clo
0.5 clo
Residential buildings (living
I
21.0
25.5
rooms, bedrooms)
II
20.0
26.0
sedentary activity 1.2 met
III
18.0
27.0
Residential buildings (other
I
18.0
rooms)
II
16.0
21

standing, walking 1.5 met


Individual
or
landscape
offices, meeting rooms,
auditoriums, cake shops,
coffee shops, restaurants,
classrooms
sedentary activity 1.2 met
Crches, kindergartens
standing, walking 1.4 met
Large stores
standing, walking 1.6 met

III

14.0

I
II
III

21.0
20.0
19.0

25.5
26.0
27.0

I
II
III
I
II
III

19.0
17.5
16.5
17.5
16.0
15.0

24.5
25.5
26.0
24.0
25.0
26.0

4.1.7. If there are unusual comfort requirements, additional criteria shall be


taken into consideration when assessing thermal comfort: radiation asymmetry,
vertical temperature gradient, air currents, floor temperature. The calculation
methods stipulated in Article 6 of standard SR EN ISO 7730:2006 shall be applied
to assess the influence that these indoor conditions have on the comfort level.
4.1.8. Apart from the comfort conditions, which constitute design data, the
design engineer and the beneficiary can also agree on the time periods in which
the design values can be exceeded (e.g. hours per day or days per year).
4.1.9. For rooms which are intended to be used for sedentary activities
(with the metabolism between 1 and 1.3 met: offices, schools, etc.) and are
ventilated but not climate-controlled, the acceptable operating temperature in
the rooms can be verified depending on the climatic conditions, in accordance
with the procedure indicated in Article A2, Annex A of standard SR EN
15251:2007. The temperature limits resulting from this procedure shall only be
valid if the occupants can open the windows.
4.1.10. Within the temperature range prescribed for indoor air, (20 27C),
the relative humidity can vary between 30 and 70 %. The effect of this level of
humidity shall be assessed by calculating the PMV value. The relative humidity
must not drop below 30 %; this risk may occur in winter conditions and, in these
situations, the air must be humidified.
The upper humidity limit is set to a moisture content of 12 g/kg, which must
not be exceeded. Should this risk occur, the air must be dried.
4.1.11. (1) Humidity control shall only be provided in buildings where the
type of activity requires this (e.g.: museums, special laboratories, certain hospital
rooms, halls housing various technological processes).
(2) Humidity control can also be provided at the written request of the
beneficiary, who must specify that they have been informed about the additional
energy consumption that this would require. The design theme shall distinctly
specify the rooms that should be provided with humidity control; these rooms
shall form a separate thermal zone supplied by a designated air treatment unit.
(3) In civilian buildings where humidity control is adopted, the
recommended relative humidity of the indoor air is given in Table 4.4. The level of
22

comfort shall also be checked by calculating the PMV value, in accordance with
Article 4.1.4.
Table 4.4. Humidity values recommended for humidity-controlled buildings
Type of buildings/rooms Category design humidity design humidity
for
for
dehumidificatio
humidification
n [%]
[%]
Spaces in which the level
I
50
30
of humidity is related to
II
60
25
human presence
III
70
25
Spaces
with
special
IV
> 70
20
designations
(museums,
churches, laboratories)
may require other limits
4.1.12. The average air speed (in the sense of the time average for turbulence
values) is recommended in Table 4.5, for a draught index DR between 10 and
20 % and a turbulence intensity of 40 %. In all situations, the criteria for checking
the level of comfort will be the PMV value, calculated in accordance with Article
4.1.4.
Table 4.5. Average speeds recommended for air movement in rooms (in
accordance with SR EN 13779:2007)
Local air temperature Typical range
Value
by
absence
Ta (0C)
(DR=15 %)
Ta = 20
from 0.1 to 0.16
v 0.13
Ta = 21
from 0.1 to 0.17
v 0.14
Ta = 22
from 0.11 to 0.18
v 0.15
Ta = 24
from 0.13 to 0.21
v 0.17
Ta = 26
from 0.15 to 0.25
v 0.20
4.1.13. The annexes of standard SR EN ISO 7730:2006 contain tables with
the calculated PMV values for many combinations of entry data; a calculation
programme using the BASIC language is also given to carry out a numerical
calculation of the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV).
Sound (noise) level
4.1.14. When designing ventilation and climate control systems, the indoor
noise level shall be assessed by means of the A-weighted sound pressure level.
4.1.15. The noise emitted by the running systems is limited to the values
given in Table 4.6.
If the occupants are able to control the operation of the equipment (e.g. the
speed gear of fan convectors), the sound pressure level when this equipment is
running can exceed the values given in the Table by a maximum of 5 dB(A).
Table 4.6. The sound pressure level admissible for ventilation and climate control
systems (in accordance with SR EN 15251:2007)
Intended use of the Intended use of the Sound pressure level [dB(A)]
building
room
Range
value
by
absence
23

Dwellings

Living room
Bedroom

Crches, kindergartens
Spaces used by the Auditoriums, cinemas
public
Libraries, museums
Tribunals
Commercial spaces
Small shops
Large
stores,
supermarkets
Large computer rooms
Small computer rooms
Hospitals
Corridors
Operating theatres
Consultation rooms
Living rooms
Patient rooms
Hotels
Reception
Lounges
Rooms (night time)
Rooms (day time)
Offices
Small offices
Landscape offices
Conference rooms
Compartmented
offices
Restaurants
Coffee shop
Restaurant
Kitchen
Schools
Classrooms
Corridors
Teacher rooms
Sports
Covered stadiums
Swimming pools
General
Toilets, dressing rooms

25 40
20 - 35
30 - 45
30 35
28 -35
30 - 40
35 -50
40 -50

32
26
40
33
30
35
40
45

40 -60
40-50
35 - 40
30 - 48
25 - 35
20 - 35
25 - 40
35 45
35 45
25 35
30 - 40
30 40
35 - 45
30 40
35 - 45

50
45
40
40
30
30
30
40
40
30
35
35
40
35
40

35 50
35 -50
40 - 60
30 40
35 50
30 - 40
35 50
40 - 50
40 - 50

40
45
55
35
40
35
45
45
45

24

4.2. Climate control systems


Types of climate control systems
4.2.1. Climate control in buildings ensures indoor thermal comfort
throughout the year. The climate control can be provided by local climate control
equipment or units, or by centralised systems.
4.2.2. (1) Central climate control systems can be: air-only systems, air
to water systems or air/refrigerant (direct expansion) systems.
These can be mono-zone (serve a single thermal zone, which has a large
volume or is made up of several small volumes) or multi-zone.
a) Air-only climate control systems can be constructed in a low pressure
version or a high pressure version, and can operate with a constant or variable air
flow (VAV systems).
For variable-flow air-only climate control systems, air flow variation devices
must be introduced such as: variable-flow air holes or various types of variableflow variators and fans. These control the indoor air temperature by changing the
outgoing air flow with a constant temperature.
Air-only climate control systems can be equipped with one or two air intake
pipes.
The climate control systems equipped with a single intake pipe are
constructed in the following versions: without additional zonal treatment, with
zonal heating batteries and/or cooling batteries or with heating and cooling
batteries, zonal mixing dampers, and zonal fans.
The systems equipped with two intake pipes are also equipped with mixing
equipment; this equipment can be local (for each room) or zonal (serve a thermal
zone) and can be provided with one or two air intake fans.
b) Air to water climate control systems can operate with recirculated air
only (disconnected from the ventilation), or with fresh and recirculated air. Based
on the number of water pipes, air to water climate control systems can be
classified into two, three or four-pipe systems.
Based on the type of terminal equipment, the systems can be classified into
systems equipped with fan convectors or systems fitted with equipment that uses
the ejection principle (ejectors or cooling beams). Terminal equipment can be
adjusted for the air circuit or the water circuit.
The classification of air-only and air to water systems is shown in Figure 4.1.

25

AIR WATER

AIR-ONLY
low or high
pressure systems

with or without
primary (fresh)
air
with 2, 3 or 4
hot and/or
cold water
pipes

with 1 (hot or cold) air


intake pipe

- without zonal treatment


- with zonal heating
batteries
- with zonal heating and
cooling batteries
- with zonal fans
s
or
ct
eje
with
(including
cooling
beams)

with
adjustment
of the water
or air circuit

with fan
convectors

variable or
constant air flow
systems
with 2 intake
pipes: hot+cold

- with 1 outlet
fan
- with 2 outlet
fans

Figure 4.1. Classification of air to water and air-only climate control systems.
Selection criteria and prescriptions for the design of climate
control systems
4.2.3. Climate control systems shall be chosen depending on:
a. the indoor air parameters that must be reached in climate-controlled
rooms,
b. the number or areas to be climate controlled;
c. the thermal load of these areas;
d. the access to thermal energy, electricity, natural gases, etc.;
e. the dimensions of the technical rooms and the possibility to install the
climate control equipment;
f. the noise level accepted in the climate-controlled rooms;
g. the energy consumption of the system;
h. the architectural features of the buildings and rooms to be climate
controlled.
4.2.4.
Air-only climate control systems shall preferably be chosen for
areas of buildings in which the ventilation air (fresh air) flow rate is high and
comparable to the air flow required in order to absorb the heat. This type of
system is used for mono-zone volumes where a low level of noise is required.
4.2.5. If the thermal load displays small variations during the daily working
hours, a constant-flow air-only climate control system shall be used. The same
26

system shall also be chosen for rooms with a variable thermal load, if a constant
air flow rate must be evacuated from these rooms.
4.2.6. The use of single-pipe air-only climate control systems, zonal
batteries or zonal fans should be avoided, since these cannot reach the indoor
parameters during transition periods.
4.2.7. In rooms that display large thermal load variations, a variable-flow
air-only climate control system can be chosen, as long as the spaces are
correctly ventilated throughout the working hours.
4.2.8. Variable-flow air-only climate control systems should not be used
in the following situations:
a. in rooms where a variation of the air flow and, implicitly, of the air
speed in the room would create non-ventilated areas which could
disturb the processes carried out in the climate-controlled rooms;
b. in rooms where the system is visible and VAV equipment cannot be
installed;
c. in rooms where air pipes, even in the high pressure version, cannot
be installed;
d. in rooms in which the air distribution is ensured by air pipes made of
textile materials;
e. air to water and air-refrigerant climate control systems shall be
used in buildings with low height rooms, where the ventilation flow
rate is much lower than the one required to cover the thermal load.
4.2.9. If air to water and air-refrigerant climate control systems are
used, the building shall be equipped with a ventilation air intake system and a
ventilation air outlet system.
4.2.10. Due to the reduced pressure capacity of terminal ejector-convector
equipment, usage of these systems in high height rooms that require long range
jets should be avoided.
Air-only climate control systems
4.2.11. To use an air-only system correctly, a thermal zoning of the
building shall be performed, which consists of grouping together rooms that have
the same orientation, the same working hours, and are close to each other. A
thermal zone can consist of only one room.
4.2.12. In buildings that occupy a very large surface area, separation zones
with a maximum surface area of 2 300 m2 shall be created, which will be climatecontrolled using systems that can be shut down independently from other zones.
There can be several thermal zones in a separation zone.
4.2.13. The central air treatment unit will mix the fresh air with the
recirculated air and treat the mixture up to a certain temperature; the air will be
treated up to the parameters required for the zone using the zonal equipment;
the unit shall be located so that the routes of the air pipes towards the areas of
the building are approximately equal.
4.2.14. The unit shall be located in an accessible place, to enable cleaning
of the cooling and heating batteries.
27

4.2.15. The unit shall be equipped with a system for regulating the fresh
airrecirculated air ratio, which can be of the all-or-nothing type, indoor air
quality-dependent or equipped with progressive adjustment, depending on the
outdoor air temperature.
4.2.16. An all-or-nothing adjustment shall be provided for rooms that are
occupied on an intermittent basis and in which the number of occupants is always
the same.
4.2.17. The fresh air flow rate shall be adjusted based on the indoor air
quality in rooms where the number of occupants is variable and where it is
recommended for the fresh air flow rate to be variable, depending on the number
of people in the room.
4.2.18. The fresh air flow rate shall be adjusted by comparing the indoor
and outdoor air temperatures if aiming to achieve maximum energy saving and
high indoor air quality.
4.2.19. All the equipment used will bear the CE or Technical Agreement
marking, or will have equivalent performance and be legally sold in a Member
State of the European Union or Turkey, or will be legally manufactured in an EFTA
state that is a party to the agreement on the European Economic Area, the type
of certificate of conformity being stipulated in the system documentation included
in the Technical manual of the construction.
Constant-flow air-only climate control systems
4.2.20. Single-pipe climate control systems shall be used in buildings which
do not require relative humidity control and where temperature variations are
permitted in the rooms within the same thermal zone. They control the indoor
temperature of climate-controlled rooms by introducing a constant air flow with
variable temperature.
4.2.21. The single-pipe system should not be used in buildings where the
indoor air temperature must be regulated within relatively tight limits in all
climate-controlled rooms, and in rooms where the thermal load variation profile is
high during the day, rooms that need heating during the day or rooms that need
cooling during the day.
4.2.22. The air pipes used in single-pipe climate control systems shall be
preferably sized for the low pressure version, which would lead to lower energy
consumption and a low level of noise.
4.2.23. The air pipes can be connected to the air holes using rigid or
flexible fittings. In this case, the flexible fittings shall not be longer than 2 m.
4.2.24. The zonal treatment equipment of single-pipe climate control
systems, zonal heating and/or cooling batteries, and zonal fan units shall be
located at the entry to the thermal zone or in its centre of mass.
4.2.25. For a system equipped with heating batteries, cooling batteries,
and mixing dampers, the zonal equipment can even be located in the treatment
unit, if the number of zones is small. In this case, a multi-zone treatment unit
shall be used.
28

4.2.26. The dimensions of the zonal treatment equipment (heating and


cooling batteries) shall be chosen so that the outlet temperature required in the
thermal zone they serve can be obtained.
4.2.27. The temperature transducer shall be located in a representative
room within the climate-controlled zone or in the air recirculation pipe.

The transducer shall be located in the representative rooms when all


rooms display a similar thermal load variation.

For zones in which the rooms display different thermal load variations,
the temperature transducer shall be installed in the recirculation pipe.
4.2.28. If aiming to control the temperature in all climate-controlled rooms
of the building, a dual-pipe air-only climate control system shall be used.
4.2.29. In a dual-pipe air-only system, the two air pipes shall be
dimensioned for the entire air flow of the building.
4.2.30. For dual-pipe air-only systems, it is recommended that medium
or high pressure climate control systems are used to reduce the volume occupied
by these pipes within the building.
4.2.31. The mixing equipment of dual-pipe air-only systems can be
equipped with direct or indirect adjustment.
4.2.32. Mixing equipment shall be thermally and sound insulated so that
the noise level in the climate-controlled rooms is not exceeded.
4.2.33. The mixing equipment shall be chosen so that the air flow is
ensured for each individual room. For large rooms, several mixing devices of the
same type can be chosen, which would provide the desired flow rate.
4.2.34. The air pipes shall be connected to the mixing equipment by
flexible thermally insulated pipes with a maximum length of 2 m.
4.2.35. In dual-pipe air-only systems, the following adjustment methods
can be used to regulate the indoor air temperature: the method in which the cold
air temperature is constant all year around and the warm air temperature is
variable, depending on the outdoor air temperature, and the method in which
both temperatures are variable all year around, depending on the outdoor air
temperature.
Variable-flow air-only climate control systems
4.2.36. Terminal air intake devices must ensure the variation of the intake
flow and are of the following types: variable-flow air holes, simple air variators,
induction variators, and variators equipped with auxiliary fans.
a) Variable-flow air holes shall be used in rooms where the outlet speed
variation does not have a particular influence on the processes
carried out in these rooms.
b) In rooms where uniform air distribution is desired, induction air
variators and variators equipped with auxiliary fans shall be used.
c) In rooms where simple variators will be used to ensure air
distribution, the recommended variable-flow air holes shall be used.
29

d) In the perimetral zones of a building, where heating is required during


the winter, flow variators equipped with heating batteries shall be
used.
4.2.37. The air flow variation devices to be used in climate-controlled
rooms shall be chosen so that:
a. they ensure an air flow suitable for the room;
b. they cover the entire thermal load of the room;
c. the same automation system is used for all variators being used in
the building.
4.2.38. If variable-flow air holes are used, they must prevent the risk of air
being short-circuited between the air inlet holes and the air outlet (extraction)
holes of the room.
4.2.39. All flow variation devices must be able to reach the minimum flow
rate that would ensure air circulation in the climate-controlled rooms.
4.2.40. Flow variators equipped with auxiliary fans should not be used in
rooms where the noise level must be reduced.
4.2.41. The treatment unit of variable flow systems shall have the same
configuration as constant flow systems. The unit fan shall be equipped with an air
flow variation system that uses: a bypass valve, a frame fitted with shutters that
can be adjusted simultaneously during fan suction, or a variable speed fan.
4.2.42. The flow variation within the system shall occur between the
minimum flow, which must be equal to the minimum fresh air flow, and the
nominal flow. The nominal air flow of the unit shall be determined for the entire
building, taking into consideration the thermal load of the building calculated in
accordance with subchapter 5.3 of this technical regulation. The air flow rates of
the rooms, needed in order to choose the flow variators, shall be calculated for
each individual room taking into consideration their thermal loads.
4.2.43. The air flow variation shall be controlled by the regulating system,
based on the signals received from the static pressure sensors installed in the
system.
4.2.44. The static pressure sensors shall be located so that the energy
saving within the system is maximised.
4.2.45. Single-pipe climate control systems, which cannot ensure cooling
or heating during the day, should not be used in rooms where the thermal load
variation is high.
4.2.46. The variable-flow air holes can be supplied with air through
insulated rigid or flexible fittings. The flexible fittings shall not be longer than 2 m.
Air to water climate control
4.2.47. Air to water climate control systems can operate with recirculated
air only (disconnected from the ventilation), or with fresh and recirculated air.
Based on the number of water pipes, air to water climate control systems can be
classified into two, three or four-pipe systems.
30

4.2.48. Based on the type of terminal equipment, the systems can be


classified into systems equipped with fan convectors or systems fitted with
equipment that uses the ejection principle (ejectors or cooling beams).
Climate control via fan convectors
4.2.49. A climate control system equipped with fan convectors can be used
in rooms that are 2.5 - 5 m high and are designed to be used for: blocks of flats,
villas, hotels, hospitals, restaurants, cake shops, brasseries, banks, meeting
rooms, discos, auditoriums, laboratories, administrative buildings, precision
mechanics, the aeronautical and electronics industry.
4.2.50. Fan convectors should not be used in rooms with high thermal
loads (more than 23 W/m3), a humidity level above 80 %, dust or toxic fumes, as
well as in rooms with special sound requirements (theatres, cinemas, opera halls,
philharmonic halls, audio-video recording rooms, etc.).
4.2.51. The location of the fan convectors shall be chosen taking into
consideration the following: the architecture of the building; the heating supply
options, the noise level admissible in the climate-controlled rooms and the
possibilities to evacuate condensation.
4.2.52. Encased fan convectors can be placed in rooms where there is not
enough room in the false ceiling and where the breastwork is high enough to
mask the fan convectors.
4.2.53. Using encased fan convectors only on the exterior walls of a
building and in spaces with large openings, where they cannot ensure a uniform
distribution of the treated air, should be avoided.
4.2.54. Non-encased fan convectors shall be used in these spaces, which
have enough pressure capacity to ensure that air distribution takes place through
a network of air holes. Any type of outlet hole can be used in accordance with the
provisions of Article 6.1.8 and 6.1.9 of this technical regulation.
4.2.55. The air shall be recirculated through holes connected to the suction
pipe of the fan convector; direct suction from the false ceiling is not admissible.
4.2.56. The air holes and recirculation pipes should be chosen so that the
load losses do not exceed the pressure capacity of the fan, which is usually no
higher than 40 Pa.
4.2.57. The air flow inside a room shall be established based on the
medium speed level of the fan convectors, in accordance with Article 5.4.19 of
this technical regulation.
4.2.58. Condensation shall be evacuated via independent discharge pipes;
these must be connected in a way that prevents any gases from the sewage
system from entering the rooms. The minimum diameter used shall be 32 mm.
Condensation discharge pipes shall not be thermally insulated.
4.2.59. The heat supply shall be ensured by a two or four-pipe system.
31

4.2.60. Fan convectors shall be chosen so that they meet all the heating
and cooling needs of the climate-controlled room or area of the building.
4.2.61. The thermal load for choosing the fan convectors shall be
established as follows:
a. the sensitive load shall be determined based on the thermal balance
of the room (or climate-controlled area),
b. the total load includes the sensitive load and the heat generated
when the water vapours condense on the surface of the cooling
battery.
4.2.62. The thermal load of the fan convectors shall be increased by the
load required in order to cool or heat the fresh air, as applicable.
4.2.63. It is recommended for the chosen fan convectors to provide the
thermal and refrigeration load required for the respective room when running at
medium speed.
4.2.64. The fan convectors used will have to:
a. provide the outdoor air flow required for the rooms that are not yet
fitted with an independent fresh air intake system;
b. regulate the indoor air temperature in each independent room;
c. ensure that the noise level is suitable for the intended use of the
room.
4.2.65. The number of fan convectors and their location shall be
established so that the air jets ensure uniform air distribution within the room,
avoiding the occurrence of discomfort zones due to air currents.
4.2.66. Whenever possible, fan convectors shall be chosen taking into
account the possibility that the climate-controlled space will be recompartmented.
4.2.67. Outdoor air can be supplied by:
a. fresh air kits, if the fan convectors are located on an exterior wall in
which holes can be made; these will be provided with anti-frost
protection,
b) individual fresh air installations, which can use fan convectors or
local air treatment units to treat the air, sized so that they can treat
the air until the indoor temperature is reached; these installations will
be provided with anti-frost protection,
c) centralised fresh air installations, whose dimensions will enable
them to treat the air until the indoor temperature is reached,
d) naturally-organised ventilation.
4.2.68. If using a centralised fresh air installation, the air intake shall be
carried out via fittings connected to the suction plenum of the fan convectors or
to devices that introduce the air directly into the room.
4.2.69. Heat pipes shall be thermally insulated. The cooled water pipes
shall be insulated so that no condensation occurs on the outer surface of the
insulation. The thermal insulation must be resistant to water vapours to ensure
32

that condensation does not occur on the outer surface of the pipes. The pipes
shall be protected against corrosion.
Climate control using induction equipment (ejector-convectors,
cooling beams)
4.2.70. When this type of system is used, the fresh air is prepared in
centralised systems. The fresh air flow shall be calculated in accordance with
Article 3.1.1 and 3.1.2 of this technical regulation; if the primary air flow required
for the operation of the ejector-convectors within the system is higher than the
necessary fresh air flow, this shall be ensured by mixing it with indoor air.
4.2.71. The primary air flow shall be distributed to the ejectorconvectors/cooling beams by thermally insulated and sound insulated pipes.
4.2.72. Given the characteristics of the ejector-convectors, the system
shall be used in:
- rooms with small dust discharges,
- buildings provided with breastwork for installing ejector-convectors.
4.2.73. If the rooms have large interior spaces, the system using ejectorconvectors can be combined with cooling beams.
4.2.74. The cooling beams can be located inside the rooms, either in a
visible place or in the false ceiling.
4.2.75. The climate control system shall be equipped with a condensation
outlet pipe constructed in accordance with Article 4.2.58 of this technical
regulation.
Climate control via water loop heat pumps
4.2.76. The system is recommended in large buildings whose rooms are
grouped into thermal zones that have both heating and cooling requirements.
4.2.77. The heat carrier used in this climate control system is water, which
is circulated in a closed circuit that forms a water loop.
4.2.78. In winter, the heat pump uses water with a temperature of
approximately 20C, taken from the water loop, and cools it down to a
temperature of approximately 16C.
4.2.79. In the summer, the system runs in the cooling mode, in which it
takes water with a temperature of approximately 30C from the water loop and
heats it to a temperature of 36C.
4.2.80. In winter, the water is kept on the feed pipe at a temperature
above 16C using a source of heat. The temperature on the return pipe has a low
limit for reasons relating to condensation of the water vapours in the indoor air,
and therefore the pipes shall not be insulated.
4.2.81. In the summer, a closed-circuit or open-circuit cooling tower shall
maintain the temperature of the water in the loop below 35C.
33

4.2.82. One or several heat pumps shall be used to ensure the climate
control of large rooms. These recirculate the air in the room and bring it to the
required parameters to ensure that the indoor air temperature is within the
prescribed range.
4.2.83. The heat pumps can be encased, which are installed in a visible
place the same as fan convectors, or non-encased, which are installed in false
ceilings or especially designated technical spaces (for large flow rates).
4.2.84. When installing heat pumps, care shall be taken to leave access to
the pumps for maintenance operations.
4.2.85. The system shall be equipped with a fresh air installation sized in
accordance with Article 5.4.3 of this technical regulation.
4.2.86. Fresh air shall be introduced in accordance with Article 4.2.67 of
this technical regulation.
4.2.87. For each heat pump, regulating and balancing valves shall be
installed that are provided with the possibility to measure the heat carrier flow
rate.
4.2.88. The water loop shall be constructed as an annular distribution
network.
4.2.89. The water loop can be designed as two versions:
a. without accumulation; in this case, the water flow circulated in the
loop and through the heat source or cooling tower is constant;
b. with heat accumulation; the heat can be accumulated in a tank or
boiler.
Air-refrigerant climate control
Local air-refrigerant climate control
4.2.90. Local climate control using refrigerant shall be carried out using
split systems and can be used in residential buildings and office buildings with a
small number of rooms.
4.2.91. It is recommended that equipment that can also function as a heat
pump in the winter is used.
4.2.92. Indoor units shall be located so that the air jet does not disturb the
occupants.
4.2.93. Buildings that are climate-controlled using local equipment must
allow for outdoor units to be installed if necessary.
4.2.94. Whenever possible, outdoor units shall be located on facades that
are exposed to very little direct sunlight and where the aesthetic aspect is not
important.
34

4.2.95. Multi-split equipment can be used to reduce the number of outdoor


units used.
4.2.96. In large rooms, SPLIT equipment can be used that has a significant
air pressure capacity and to which air pipes and inlet/outlet holes can be
installed.
4.2.97. The air holes shall be located in accordance with the requirements
stipulated in Article 6.1.
Centralised air-refrigerant climate control with variable refrigerant
flow (VRV)
4.2.98. Centralised variable-flow air-refrigerant climate control systems are
indicated for use in buildings with a large number of rooms, large thermal load
differences, and where there are no sources of thermal energy or the installation
of a hot or cooled water pipe network, which is necessary for an air to water
system, is not desirable.
4.2.99. The indoor units shall be chosen similarly to fan convectors. (Article
4.2.52-4.2.53 of this technical regulation).
4.2.100. The VRV system must be connected to a fresh air supply system.
The fresh air shall be supplied similarly to a climate control system using fan
convectors (Article 4.2.67 of this technical regulation).
4.2.101. Outdoor units can be located on the roof of the climate-controlled
building or on the ground, in specially designated areas. It must be ensured that
the noise level does not exceed the values admissible for the area.

35

5. General design elements


5.1. Indoor calculation
controlled buildings

parameters

for

ventilated/climate-

5.1.1. The dimensions of ventilation and climate control systems shall be


determined in accordance with calculation requirements, which include:
a. indoor calculation parameters,
b. outdoor calculation parameters,
c. indoor operating conditions (indoor sources of heat, humidity,
pollutants, technological processes, etc.).
5.1.2. The calculation parameters established for the design shall also be
taken into account in order to assess the energy consumption of the building and
obtain energy certification for the building.
5.1.3. The indoor calculation parameters shall be determined as a function
of the intended use of the building and of the ventilated/climate-controlled rooms,
the desired climate category (category of indoor air quality and the desired level
of comfort), the type of system used, and the season (heating and/or cooling).
5.1.4. The indoor calculation parameters, established in agreement with
the beneficiary of the building, shall be clearly specified in the design theme, as
well as in the specialist report and the design calculation notes.
Climate control systems
5.1.5. (1) For climate control systems designed to ensure the thermal
comfort of the occupants, the indoor calculation parameters shall be determined
depending on the season, category of environment, and intended use of the
room.
Most frequently, the indoor calculation parameters are:
a. indoor design temperature,
b. indoor air humidity
(2) For daily intended uses, the indoor design temperature shall be chosen
from Table 5.1. For other intended uses, typical values are indicated in
subchapters 8.1 8.8 of this technical regulation, or can be chosen by
assimilation, depending on the activities carried out, metabolism, and clothing.
Table 5.1 Indoor calculation temperature for comfort climate control (in
accordance with SR EN 15251:2007)
Type of building or room
Category design air temperature [0C]
temperature
for temperature for
heating;
cooling *;
Clothing 1.0 clo
Clothing 0.5 clo
Residential buildings (living
I
21.0 25.0
23.5 25.5
rooms, bedrooms)
II
20.0 -25.0
23.0 26.0
sedentary activity 1.2 met
III
18.0 25.0
22.0 27.0
Residential buildings (other
I
18.0 25.0
rooms)
II
16.0 25.0
III
14.0 25.0
standing, walking 1.5 met
36

Individual
or
landscape
offices, meeting rooms,
cake shops, coffee shops,
restaurants, classrooms
sedentary activity 1.2 met

I
II
III

21.0 23.0
20.0 24.0
19.0 25.0

23.5 25.5
23.0 26.0
22.0 27.0

Crches, kindergartens

I
II
III

19.0 21.0
17.5 22.5
16.5 23.5

22.5 24.5
21.5 25.5
21.0 26.0

standing, walking 1.4 met


Large stores

I
17.5 20.5
22.0 24.0
II
16.0 22.0
21.0 25.0
standing, walking 1.6 met
III
15.0 23.0
20.0 26.0
* For cooling, the air temperature shall be chosen from the value range given in
the table, so that the difference between the outdoor and indoor design
temperature does not exceed 10C; if the resulting temperature is higher than
10C, the corresponding maximum value given in the table shall be adopted.
(3) The relative design humidity shall only be set for climate control
systems that regulate humidity; in this case, the values chosen shall be those
given in Table 4.4 or those given for special intended uses. For equipment that
does not require humidity control, the values given in Table 4.4 can only be
adopted as a guide for calculating the air flow and tracing the complex treatment
processes in the humid air diagram h-x.
(4) Instead of the indoor temperature and humidity, the operating
temperature or comfort index PMV can be adopted as the calculation basis for
determining the dimensions of the system (in accordance with subchapter 4.1 of
this technical regulation).
5.1.6. For buildings provided with climate control for technological
purposes, the indoor calculation parameters are set in accordance with the
requirements of the processes carried out in the room. Other design requirements
apart from temperature and humidity can also appear which usually refer to air
purity and air current speed.
5.1.7. For buildings that are ventilated naturally or mechanically without air
treatment, the indoor temperature shall be limited in relation to the outdoor
design temperature by adopting a maximum temperature increase of 5C.

5.2.
Outdoor
calculation
ventilated/climate-controlled buildings

parameters

for

5.2.1. The outdoor calculation parameters shall be determined as a


function of the location of the building, the type of system being constructed, and
the season (heating and cooling).
5.2.2. The outdoor calculation parameters shall be clearly specified in the
design theme, as well as in the specialist report and the design calculation notes.
5.2.3. The outdoor calculation parameters for comfort or technological
climate control systems are as follows:
a) for the cooling season
37

1. outdoor design temperature,


2. daytime outdoor temperature variation for a typical day,
3. outdoor air humidity,
4. solar radiation.
The summer outdoor design temperature shall be chosen as the
maximum hourly temperature of an average climatic year, for the design locality.
If there is no processed weather data available for the locality where the building
is located, the value chosen shall be the one for the nearest county capital city
that has a similar climate (the values for county capital cities are given in Annex
2 of this technical regulation).
The relative design humidity for the summer is the one corresponding to
the maximum hourly temperature value determined as stipulated above (the
values for county capital cities are given in Annex 2).
The daytime outdoor temperature variation for a typical day shall be
calculated for each hour of the day as a cosine function having the outdoor
design temperature value as its maximum and 7C as its amplitude compared to
the average daily value. An exception is the Black Sea coast region, for which the
amplitude shall be considered to be 4C.
Depending on the time and orientation, the solar radiation (direct and
diffuse) shall be considered regardless of the locality, using the values
corresponding to the meridian that goes through Bucharest and for
45N latitude, with corrections for the altitude and clarity of the
atmosphere (the values are given in Annex 3 of this technical
regulation).
b) for the heating season
1. outdoor design temperature,
2. outdoor air humidity.
The outdoor design temperature for the winter is given in standard SR
1907-1:1997 and is chosen depending on the climatic zone in which the locality is
located.
The relative design humidity for the winter shall be considered to be
80 %.
Solar radiation shall not be taken into consideration when sizing the
system for winter conditions.
5.2.4. For mechanical ventilation systems, the winter and summer outdoor
design temperature and relative design humidity shall be chosen similarly to
those for climate control systems (Article 5.2.3).
5.2.5. In certain particular situations, which are specified in this technical
regulation, it may be necessary to carry out calculations and inspections in other
outdoor design conditions.

5.3. Heating/cooling load of a climate-controlled building


5.3.1. The heating/cooling load shall be calculated for each climatecontrolled thermal zone of a building.
5.3.2. The limits of a thermal zone are given by all the construction
elements that separate the respective zone from the outside environment (air,
ground or water), climate-controlled adjacent spaces, adjacent spaces that are
not climate-controlled or neighbouring buildings. There are situations in which the
38

thermal zones are separated by fictitious surfaces (for example, supermarket


areas that are not compartmented but have different temperatures). In all
situations, the areas for which the thermal load is calculated must be defined in
the technical design documentation.
5.3.3. In rooms where humidity is generated (by people and other
sources), the thermal load shall be calculated separately for the sensitive heat
(sensitive load) and the latent heat load or the total thermal load (sensitive plus
latent) and the latent load.
5.3.4. The heating load shall be determined by means of a thermal balance
of the room or area, being equal to the difference between the heat discharges
inside the climate-controlled area (including those generated by heating systems
with static units if applicable) and the amount of heat needed to heat this area.
5.3.5. The following shall be considered to be heat discharges inside the
climate-controlled area during the heating period:
a) occupants if their presence is permanent, certain, and constant;
otherwise, a lower degree of occupancy (25-50 %) than the nominal situation
shall be taken into consideration. Whenever possible, the design values for the
nominal degree of occupancy must be based on real data specific to the
respective project; if no values are available, the values by absence indicated in
Annex 4 of this technical regulation shall apply. The heat discharged by a person
shall be determined based on the values given in Annex 5 of this technical
regulation. The heat discharged by the occupants shall be calculated in the form
of:
1. sensitive heat,
2. latent heat,
3. total heat.
b) electrical lighting; whenever possible, the design values for the installed
capacity of the lighting units must be based on real data specific to the respective
project; if no values are available, the values by absence indicated in Annex 6 of
this technical regulation shall apply.
c) electrically-activated machines, equipment, and devices; the design
values must be based on real data specific to the respective project, taking into
account the ratio between the maximum power needed and the nominal power of
the electrical motor, their simultaneous operation, and the way in which the heat
is absorbed by the air.
d) electronic office equipment; whenever possible, the design values must
be based on real data specific to the respective design; if no values are available,
a value by absence of 100 W/person can be applied during the operating period.
e) heaters if the climate-controlled area is also equipped with a heating
system with static units, the thermal power dissipated by these units shall be
considered to be a heat discharge inside the climate-controlled area.
f) other sources depending on the intended use of the respective space,
other heat discharges can be taken into consideration (e.g. food - areas where a
large number of portions are served within a short period of time, materials spaces where warm or melted materials are brought in, etc.).
The heat discharges inside the climate-controlled area shall be added up,
taking into consideration a plausible scenario of occupancy and activity that is
characteristic of the winter period.
5.3.6. The amount of heat needed to heat the climate-controlled area shall
be determined in accordance with the methodology stipulated in SR 1907-1:1997.
39

For areas that are climate-controlled using over-pressure, the amount of heat
needed for the infiltrated air shall not be taken into consideration; the calculation
shall also not include the amount of heat needed for the ventilation air, if this air
is treated in a centralised way.
5.3.7. The cooling load shall be determined using the heat balance of the
room, as being the sum between the heat flows exchanged between the inside
and the outside of the climate-controlled area and the heat discharges (or losses)
inside this area.
5.3.8. The following heat flows exchanged between the outside and the
climate-controlled area shall be considered:
a) heat flows through the opaque construction elements of the climatecontrolled area envelope; the calculation for these heat flows shall take into
consideration the indoor air and outdoor air parameters, determined in
accordance with the provisions of Article 5.1 and 5.2, respectively. This
calculation must take into account the damping and displacement of the indoor
flow compared to the outdoor flow.
b) heat flows through the glass construction elements of the climatecontrolled area envelope; the calculation for these heat flows shall take into
consideration the indoor air and outdoor air parameters, determined in
accordance with the provisions of Article 5.1 and 5.2, respectively. The calculation
must also take into account the thermo-physical and optical properties of the
materials and the shading created by construction elements and neighbouring
buildings.
c) heat flows from adjacent spaces that are not climate-controlled; the
calculation for these heat flows shall take into consideration the thermo-physical
properties of the materials in the structure of the construction elements that
separate the climate-controlled area from the adjacent spaces that are not
climate-controlled; the air temperature inside the spaces that are not climatecontrolled shall be determined following a heat balance of these spaces.
5.3.9. The heat discharges inside the climate-controlled area during the
cooling period are of the same type as those established in Article 5.3.4, with the
note that the values which depend on the indoor temperature must be
recalculated.
5.3.10. The design cooling load is the result of the hourly thermal load
calculation for a typical day, where the daytime outdoor temperature variation is
as stipulated in Article 5.2.3 and an occupancy and activity scenario
characteristic to the summer period is taken into consideration, in order to assess
the heat discharges inside the climate-controlled area. The maximum value of the
resulting load profile shall be chosen as the design thermal load.
5.3.11. For climate-control systems that introduce air in the occupied area
(displacement systems, etc.), the design cooling load shall be determined by
means of a thermal balance both for the entire room and the occupied area
alone.
5.3.12. The design load for sizing the heating/cooling source shall be
determined as the maximum value obtained by overlapping the load profile of all
thermal zones connected to the source.
40

5.4. Air flows in ventilated and climate-controlled spaces


5.4.1. The design flows shall be used to determine the dimensions of the
system of air intake/outlet pipes and devices, and to choose the
ventilation/climate control equipment.
5.4.2. The design flows shall also be used to assess the energy
consumption of the building and obtain its energy certification.
Design ventilation flow rate
5.4.3. In rooms occupied by people, the ventilation air flow must ensure
the indoor air quality necessary for the hygiene, health, and comfort of their
occupants. This flow rate shall be determined depending on the level of human
occupancy and the emissions of pollutant substances.
a) For non-residential civilian rooms that are occupied by people, the
ventilation (fresh air) flow rate shall be determined depending on the category of
environment, the number of occupants, and the activities they carry out, as well
as the pollutant emissions of the building and systems.
Therefore, the flow rate q [l/s or m3/h] for a room is:
q = N qp + A q B
(5.4.1)
where: N number of people,
qp fresh air flow rate for one person, [l/s/pers or m 3/h/pers], from Table
5.4.1,
A floor surface area [m2];
qB fresh air flow rate for 1 m 2 of the surface area, [l/s/m 2 or m3/h/m2], from
Table 5.4.2

Table 5.4.1. Fresh air flow rate for one person, in a non-smoking environment (in
accordance with SR EN 15251:2007).
Category
of Expected
Flow rate for one Flow rate for one
environment
percentage
of person [l/s/pers]
person [m3/s/pers]
people dissatisfied
PPD [%]
I
15
10
36
II
20
7
25
III
30
4
15
IV
>30
<4
<15
Table 5.4.2. Fresh air flow rate for 1 m2 of surface area (in accordance with SR EN
15251:2007).
Category
Flow rate per m2 of surface area Flow rate per m2 of surface area
of
[l/(s.m2)]
[m3/(h.m2)]
environme
nt
very low low
Others
very low low
Others
polluting polluting
polluting
polluting
41

I
II
III
IV

building
s
0.5
0.35
0.3

buildings

buildings

buildings

1
2.0
1.8
3.6
0.7
1.4
1.26
2.52
0.4
0.8
1.1
1.44
lower than the values for category III

7.2
5.0
2.9

b) In smoking areas, the fresh air flow rates shall be double the values
given in the table. These flow rates ensure the comfort of the occupants, but not
their health.
5.4.4. For the rooms of civilian and industrial buildings where there are
pollutant emissions other than bio-effluents and the emissions of the building, the
indoor air quality must be ensured by complying with the admissible
concentration values for the occupied area.
Therefore, for a stationary regimen, the fresh air flow rate q [m 3/s] shall be
calculated with the relationship:
q= G/(Ci Ce)
(5.4.2)
where: G pollutant flow rate (mg/s)
Ci admissible concentration in the indoor air [mg/m3],
Ce admissible concentration in the outdoor air [mg/m3].
If several pollutants are discharged into the room, the calculation shall be
performed for each pollutant, and if the pollutants do not have a synergic action
on the human body, the highest resulting flow rate value shall be chosen; if the
pollutants have a synergic action and there are no specific recommendations
relating to them, the air flow rate is the sum of the flow rates calculated with the
relationship 5.4.2, for each individual pollutant.
5.4.5. For civilian and industrial buildings, if the permanent ventilation
regimen is not reached, the concentration of a pollutant in the room shall be
determined in accordance with the method stipulated in paragraph 6.4.2.3 of
standard SR EN 13779:2007.
5.4.6. The ventilation air flow rates typical for various intended uses of the
rooms and various categories of climate were determined in accordance with the
specific standards relating to room occupancy and using relationship 5.4.1. These
values are given, only as a recommendation, in Table B2 of standard SR EN
15251:2007.
5.4.7. For the types of buildings discussed in chapter 8 of this technical
regulation, fresh air flow rates specific to various situations are recommended.
5.4.8. For a ventilation system designed for rooms that are not occupied by
people and do not have a clear intended use (storage rooms), the outdoor air flow
rates can be expressed as a function of the floor surface area (Table 5.4.3). These
are based on an operating time of 50 % and a room height of up to 3 m. For
smaller operating times and higher rooms, the air flow rate must be higher.
Table 5.4.3: Outdoor air flow rates for rooms designed for other uses than human
occupancy (in accordance with SR EN 13779 : 2007)
Category
Outdoor air flow rate [m3/(h/m2)]
Typical range
Value by absence
42

IDA 1
*
IDA 2
> 2.5
IDA 3
1.3-2.5
IDA 4
< 1.3
* for IDA 1, this method is not sufficient.

*
3
2
1

Extracted air flow rate


5.4.9. In a balanced mechanical ventilation system, the extracted air flow
rate is determined by the intake air flow rate and the pressure conditions
required.
5.4.10. The typical design values for kitchens and toilets/lavatories are
given in Table 5.4.4. The extracted air can be replaced with outdoor air or air
transferred from other rooms. For specialised applications (certain industrial
buildings and hospitals), the outlet air flow rate must be established in
accordance with specific requirements, taking into account its possible influence
on the outdoor environment.
Table 5.4.4: Design values for the outlet air flow rate
Intended use
Typical range
values of absence
3
Kitchen (m /h)
> 72
108
Toilet/lavatory
- per room (m3/h)
> 24
36
- per floor surface area
> 5.0
7.2
(m3/h m2)
Design climate control flow rate
5.4.11. The design air flow rate for climate-controlled rooms shall be
calculated to ensure thermal comfort.
5.4.12. The air flow required to ensure thermal comfort shall be
determined to compensate the thermal and humidity (latent) load of the room.
5.4.13. If the climate control system also ensures ventilation of the room,
the fresh air and comfort air flow rates shall be calculated; the system will be
sized for the highest flow rate, which will become the design flow rate. Some of
the air flow rate can be recirculated, in accordance with Article 9.2.3. In this case,
the design flow rate is usually called total air flow rate.
5.4.14. The air flow rate shall be determined for the situation in which the
room is cooled.
5.4.15. In rooms where humidity is not controlled, the air flow rate can only
be established based on the thermal load of sensitive heat of the room s, using
the temperature difference between the air in the occupied area IDA and the
intake air, SUP. The relationship below shall be used:
q = s /ca /(IDA - SUP)
(5.4.3)
5.4.16. In rooms where humidity is controlled, the air flow rate shall be
established based on the thermal load of total heat of the room t (sensitive and
43

latent), using the enthalpy difference between the air in the occupied area h IDA
and the intake air, hIDA. The relationship below shall be used:
q = t / (hIDA - hSUP)
(5.4.4)
5.4.17. (1) In rooms where the air is introduced into the occupied area, the
air flow rate shall be established based on the thermal load of sensitive heat in
the occupied area, OC, using the temperature difference between the intake air
and the air in the occupied area. The relationship below shall be used:
q = oc /ca /(IDA - SUP)
(5.4.5)
(2) The outlet air temperature shall be determined as a function of the
thermal balance of the entire room.
5.4.18. In air-only climate control systems that operate with recirculated air
and supply air to several rooms, the fresh air - recirculated air mixture ratio must
be established depending on the situation that leads to the highest fresh air recirculated air ratio.
5.4.19. If the air is circulated by mixing, the method of the
recommended hourly changes shall be used to assess if the air flow rate is
adequate. These hourly changes can be used to choose the fan convectors. The
number of hourly air changes [h-1] for various room uses is given in the table
presented in Annex 7 of this technical regulation.

5.5. Air pipe sizing and load loss calculation


5.5.1. The cross section of the air pipes shall be determined as a function
of the flow rate they carry, choosing a recommended air speed. The usual air
movement speeds through the pipes are given in Annex 8 of this technical
regulation.
5.5.2. For an air intake/outlet pipe system, the pressure drops (total load
losses) p shall be determined as a function of the linear and local losses:
n

p = Rl Z i
i 1

Pa

(5.5.1)

where: l - length of the pipe section in metres; R unitary linear load loss for the
respective pipe section, in Pa/m; Z - local load loss for a certain pipe section, in
Pa; i - number of pipe sections along the route being calculated.
5.5.3. The R values, which are necessary in order to determine the linear
load losses, shall be established depending on the type and roughness of the air
pipe material. For pipes whose cross section is different from the circular one, the
R values shall be determined as a function of the equivalent diameter, d e, relative
to the speed. For rectangular pipes with the sides axb:
de = 2ab/(a+b)
(5.5.2)
5.5.4. (1) The local load loss shall be calculated with the relationship:
v2
Z =
Pa
(5.5.3)
2

44

where: - the sum of the local resistance coefficients for each pipe
section; v air speed through the pipe section, in m/s, density of the air in the
pipe, in kg/m3.
(2) The local resistance coefficients shall be determined by taking into
consideration the geometrical shape of each special part.
5.5.5. The load losses must be calculated for each air circuit through which
the air is circulated by a fan or natural ventilation chimney (natural draught). This
circuit must be followed from the moment the air enters until it is evacuated in
the system; aeraulic balancing of the circuits must be ensured as much as
possible.
5.5.6. The design notes regarding the load loss calculation must be
included in the technical documentation of the project.

45

6. General components of ventilation/climate control


systems
6.1. Terminal elements and devices for introducing and
extracting air in/from rooms
Organising indoor air circulation
6.1.1. The indoor air circulation shall be organised according to one of the
following movement schemes: mixture, piston or by displacement.
Ventilation efficiency and the functional conditions for indoor air quality and
thermal comfort depend on the way in which air circulation is organised.
6.1.2. The movement scheme, as well as the position and type of the air
intake and outlet devices shall be chosen depending on:
- the intake air flow rate and temperature,
- the activity carried out in the room, the type of indoor discharges (heat,
humidity, gases, dust) and their time variation,
- any limitations due to the built-up space, furniture and equipment.
6.1.3. The displacement scheme is better than the mixture scheme with
regard to ventilation efficiency; whenever it is aesthetically acceptable, it is
recommended to be used to introduce air of the same or lower temperature than
the temperature in the room.
6.1.4. For a mixing scheme, it is recommended that the air intake and
outlet devices (holes) are positioned on opposite surfaces of the room.
Any relative position of the air intake and outlet devices must prevent the
intake air from being short-circuited through the outlet devices.
6.1.5. (1) To enable the evacuation of heat, humidity, and smoke, the outlet
devices shall be positioned at the upper part of the room. If the indoor ventilation
air outlet system also serves other spaces than the evacuation ones, this system
cannot be used to discharge smoke and hot gases in the event of a fire.
(2) The smoke and hot gases must be discharged from the evacuation
routes of the building (corridors, staircase, buffer rooms that protect the
evacuation staircases and fire-fighter lifts) independently from the
ventilation/climate control system of the building.
(3) The ventilation system in fire-fighting pumping stations and electric
generator sets designed for fire protection systems must be independent from
the ventilation/climate control system of the building.
(4) The air outlet and intake pipes of the ventilation system must not pass
through the buffer rooms that protect the evacuation staircases and fire-fighter
lifts; an exception are technically-justified situations, in which the intake and
outlet pipes located in the buffer room shall be protected so that they ensure the
same fire resistance as the buffer room walls, and fire dampers with the same fire
resistance as the walls shall be installed at the points where these pipes pass
through the walls.
(5) The staircase and buffer rooms that protect evacuation staircases and
fire-fighter lifts shall not be used for any air intake, outlet, and recirculation
processes related to the ventilation/climate control system.
46

(6) If used to introduce or evacuate air, false ceilings, raised floors, and
their supporting structures must belong at least to reaction to fire class B-s1.
6.1.6. To ensure air circulation in rooms that display pressure differences,
for large flow rates, air transfer grilles and valves shall be used; it is
recommended that these devices enable the air flow to be adjusted.
6.1.7. The terminal devices located on the lower part of the room must
have mechanical characteristics that are suitable for the activities carried out in
the room.
Terminal devices
6.1.8. The terminal devices must be chosen to ensure the required comfort
and air quality conditions throughout the entire operating period, regardless of
the intake air temperature and flow variations (if applicable). If significant
temperature differences occur between the heating and the cooling seasons,
variable geometry devices should be used, which can be activated manually or by
remote control. For all variable geometry devices, the operating situation shall be
stipulated in the calculation and operating requirements.
6.1.9. (1) The indoor air intake and outlet devices shall be chosen on the
basis of the technical documentation drawn up by the equipment manufacturer.
The design shall stipulate the characteristics of the devices that need to be
installed; if these are chosen during the manufacturing stage, the documentation
shall include the characteristics of the devices purchased (type of device,
geometrical and aeraulic characteristics: flow rate, pressure drop, air jet range for
the winter and summer design conditions, and noise level). The technical
documentation must include all the abovementioned characteristics.
(2) The air jet range shall be established for the accepted speed value for
meeting the comfort requirements in the occupied area (subchapter 4.1 of this
technical regulation).
6.1.10. The main types of air intake devices and the recommended
operating range are given in Table 6.1.1.

**
***
**

***
***
***

Under-chair holes

Swirl diffusers

**
***
***

Floor-mounted diffusers

Cone diffusers (anemostats)

**
***
**

Wall-mounted air diffusers

Perforated air diffusers

Wall-mounted air diffusers

** **

Ceiling-mounted air diffusers

Offices
(cold+warm)
loads: 0 30

grilles

nozzles

Table 6.1.1. Air intake devices

***
47

W/m2
60 W/m2
2

**

**

**

**

***

*
**
***

**
*
*
**
***
***

**
*
*
**
***
***

**
*
*
**
***
***

***
**
**
***
***
***

***
**
**
**

**
***

***
***

***
***

*
*

*
**
**

***
***
**
**
**
**
**

***

30
> 60

W/m
Conference
rooms
Cinemas
Auditoriums
Restaurants
Education
spaces
Exhibition halls
Stores
*
Supermarkets
*
Sports halls
***
Swimming pools ***
Industrial
kitchens
Laboratories
Clean rooms
Dwellings
Institutions
Key : * possible ** well

**
**

* **
*
**
**

*
** ** ***
** ** ***
*** very well

**
***
***

***
***

***

*
**
**
**

**
**

**

6.1.11. Ceiling-mounted diffusers can be used both to introduce and to


extract air. To introduce large volumes of air in rooms of medium and large
height, ceiling-mounted swirl diffusers are recommended.
6.1.12. Grilles can be used to introduce or extract air. For air intake, the
grilles shall be preferably mounted on the wall, near the ceiling, which favours the
occurrence of the Coanda effect. These can also be mounted on the lower part of
the room, on the wall, floor, step risers, etc. For air outlet, the grilles shall also be
mounted on the ceiling, wall or floor; grilles mounted directly on the false ceiling
can also be used.
6.1.13. Outlet nozzles shall be used to introduce air in large spaces where
the air jet needs to be long and guided. Therefore, they can be used in sports
halls, swimming pools (with a vertical upward jet), and industrial halls.
6.1.14. Slots can be used to introduce or extract air. It is recommended
that air intake slots are equipped with deflectors that enable orientation of the air
jet.
6.1.15. Valve-type devices should be used for the natural introduction of
outdoor (ventilation) air in residential buildings and schools. These can also be
used to transfer air between rooms.
6.1.16. The air intake/outlet devices can be connected to the air pipes
either directly or via a plenum box, depending on the recommendations issued by
the equipment manufacturer.

48

6.1.17. Dampers (registers) shall be used to regulate the flow that ensures
the aeraulic balancing of the system; these elements can only be activated within
the admissible noise limits.
6.1.18. Special devices, either fixed or mobile, can be used to introduce air
directly to the occupied area, which discharge the air through the leg or backrest
of the chairs, in front of desks, tables, etc. In this case, all furniture must be
adequate. The air shall be supplied via pressure chambers or pipes. Flexible
fittings can be installed to enable positioning of the devices according to the
users personal preferences. These solutions are recommended for energy saving.
6.1.19. The diffusers used to ensure air circulation by displacement are
recommended for the ventilation and cooling of large spaces, which possibly open
to an atrium. These can be integrated in the architecture of the room, near the
wall, near pillars or in the corners. This solution is recommended for energy
saving.
6.1.20. Perforated pipes made of metal or textile materials can also be
used to introduce air in rooms.
6.1.21. All air intake, outlet, and transfer devices must be technically
approved.

6.2. Air pipes and accessories


Materials and technologies.
6.2.1. The materials and technologies used for air pipes shall be chosen
depending on the particularities of the building, the operating conditions, the
installation, aesthetics, economical aspects, etc.
6.2.2. (1) Ventilation pipes shall be made of non-combustible materials
(classes A1, A2-s1,d0 of reaction to fire). Air pipes made of hardly flammable
materials (classes B1, C, and D of reaction to fire) shall be accepted in buildings
with low and medium risk of fire, provided that they are located so that they do
not contribute to fire propagation.
(2) Ventilation pipes can be classified according to their fire performance on
the basis of the fireproofing (E) and thermal insulation (I) criteria, in accordance
with Joint Order No 1822/394/2004 of the Ministry of Transport, Constructions,
and Tourism and Ministry of Administration and Interior, with its subsequent
modifications and supplementation; the minimum level of fire performance for
ventilation pipes is EI 15.
Therefore, the following materials can be used for the pipes: steel sheet
(zinc-plated or made of stainless steel), aluminium, plastics, mineral wool boards,
expanded polyisocyanurate plated with aluminium foil, textile materials, etc.
(3) The pipes of ventilation systems which are installed along fire
evacuation routes, installation housings or other spaces where they cannot be
accessed must be made of materials belonging to class A 1 of reaction to fire,
whilst the insulating materials must belong at least to class A 2-s1,d0 of reaction to
fire. These pipes, as well as their supporting elements must be fire resistant EI h0
io 30 or EI ve io 30. Flexible fittings must belong at least to class B-s1,d0 of
reaction to fire, and must not exceed 1 m in length.
49

Ventilation pipes made of mineral wool boards


6.2.3. Air pipes made of mineral wool boards can be used for air intake in
civilian or production buildings included in the categories of fire hazard, provided
that they are plated on both sides with aluminium foil.
6.2.4. These pipes shall be manufactured and used in accordance with the
provisions of the technical agreement and technological requirements.
Ventilation pipes made of plastic materials
6.2.5. The air pipes and the special parts that enable operation in corrosive
environments can be made of plastic materials in accordance with the
requirements stipulated in the technical agreement.
6.2.6. Air pipes made of plastic materials shall be equipped with a ground
in order to remove any accumulation of static electricity, in accordance with the
specific technical regulations in force.
6.2.7. The air pipes, as well as the special and auxiliary parts made of
plastic materials shall not be used in: tall and very tall buildings, crowded rooms,
buildings for people who cannot evacuate themselves, buildings that house very
valuable goods, laboratories that pose the risk of fire, buildings for temporary
accommodation and rooms with high and very high risk of fire.
6.2.8. (1) When using air pipes and special parts made of plastic materials
in rooms with high and very high risk of fire, these must belong to class A 1 or A2s1,d0 of resistance to fire.
(2) The use of air pipes and special parts made of plastic materials is
permitted in corrosive environments, in rooms with a very high risk of fire,
provided that the material used for their manufacture is fireproofed, selfextinguishing, and does not lead to burning droplets falling during burning.
6.2.9. The transverse joints of air pipes made of plastic materials shall be
made so that they ensure the leak-tightness and mechanical resistance of the
pipes.
6.2.10. Air pipes made of plastic materials shall be supported by
supporting devices which enable longitudinal displacement of the piping by
dilation or contraction.
For air pipes made of plastic materials, the axial dilations or contractions must be
absorbed.
6.2.11. It is prohibited to use pipes made of plastic materials and
polyurethane coated with aluminium foil in ventilation systems which are also
used to discharge smoke and hot gases in the event of a fire.
Ventilation pipes made of polyisocyanurate plated with aluminium
foil.
6.2.12. Air pipes made of polyisocyanurate boards plated with aluminium
foil shall not be used in ventilation or climate control systems used to introduce
air in civilian, public or industrial buildings belonging to the categories of fire
hazard and classes of reaction to fire specified in Article 6.2.2(1).

50

6.2.13. Pipes made of polyisocyanurate plated with aluminium foil shall not
be installed in places where they can deteriorate due to accidental impact with
hard objects.
Shapes and dimensions.
6.2.14. The cross section of the pipes shall be chosen depending on the
aesthetics of the rooms where they are mounted, the space available, the
possibility to integrate them in the architecture of the building, the presence of
airborne particles, etc. Normally, the pipes have a rectangular, circular or ovoid
cross section, but can have other shapes, too (triangular, trapezoidal, etc.).
6.2.15. It is recommended that pipes with a circular cross-section are used.
6.2.16. For pipes with a rectangular cross-section, it is recommended that
the longer side does not exceed the smaller side by more than 3 times.
6.2.17. Pipes with an ovoid cross-section are preferable to pipes with a
circular cross-section if there is not enough space for their installation.
Special parts.
6.2.18. The special parts used to create the pipe network must introduce
the smallest flow perturbations possible, in order to limit the noise and pressure
drops; therefore, the special parts shall be manufactured so that they comply
with certain requirements regarding radius, angle, length, etc.
6.2.19. A radius of curvature of a minimum of 1d (where d is the pipe
diameter, for circular pipes, or the size of the side where the direction is changed,
for rectangular or ovoid pipes, respectively) is recommended.
6.2.20. For pipes with a rectangular cross-section, right-angle changes in
direction are admissible, with the rounded edge and inner guide blades. The edge
shall be rounded using a minimum radius of curvature of 100 mm.
6.2.21. The section shall be changed using diffusers or confusors, in
accordance with the following requirements:
a) the vertex angle of symmetrical diffusers must be between 20 and
30;
b) the vertex angle of symmetrical confusors is preferably 30, the
maximum admissible value being 60,
c) asymmetrical diffusers and confusors shall be made so that their
angles are equal to half the values mentioned above.
6.2.22. Elbows with an enlargeable cross-section can be used, providing
that this is not bigger than twice the initial cross-section.
6.2.23. The special parts should not be connected in series; a straight
section with the minimum length of 1d shall be interposed between them;
upstream from the pipe branches, this section is compulsory.
6.2.24. The following is recommended in order to create functional
branches:
a) the cross-sectional areas of the branches must be proportional to the
air flows they carry;
51

b) the rectangular branch pieces must have the same height as the
main pipe;
c) for circular cross-sections that have branches on either side of the
main pipe axis, these shall be displaced by a distance that is at least
equal to the diameter of the largest of them. These branches can also
be made in the right-angle version, if machined parts are used.
Special conditions for corrosive environments
6.2.25. Air pipes that carry air bearing corrosive substances or cross
corrosive environments shall be made of materials that are corrosion-resistant or
are covered on the interior and/or exterior with protective coatings. The material
or protective coating shall be chosen by simultaneously taking into consideration
the resistance to chemical action, period of operation, and manufacturing
possibilities.
6.2.26. When installing air pipes in corrosive environments, special
measures shall be taken to seal all joints so that the pipes belong to class C or D
(defined in accordance with Article 6.2.97 of this technical regulation).
Considerations regarding the design of ventilation pipes.
6.2.27. Air pipes shall be designed so that linear and local load losses
(pressure drops) are minimised. For this purpose:
a) the shortest possible pipe routes shall be chosen, with a minimum
number of parts that introduce local resistances;
b) the pipes shall be made of materials with a low level of interior
roughness;
c) air pipes must not be crossed by the elements of other installations
(pipes, electrical conductors, etc.); for air pipes (ducts) made by
closing construction elements, if it is not possible to go around them,
the elements introduced in the air current shall be jacketed using
parts with an aerodynamic shape.
6.2.28. Air pipe routes shall be established so that the longest possible
straight sections are created upstream from the terminal ventilation devices
(especially for air inlet ones), branches, measurement points, and regulating
devices.
6.2.29. If the terminal ventilation devices, branches, measurement points,
and regulating devices are located in the vicinity of any sources of flow
disturbance, the following equipment shall be installed to make the flow uniform:
guide walls or blades in the direction-changing parts, air flow baffle plates
installed in straight pipe sections downstream from the source of disturbance,
etc.
6.2.30. The pipe networks must be designed so that they are aeraulically
balanced (to obtain the design air flows in the branches and terminal devices).
For this purpose, regulating devices shall be installed in accordance with Article
6.2.46-6.2.51 of this technical regulation.
6.2.31. Deviations of 10 % from the nominal flow rate are admissible
between the air flow rates of the terminal air intake devices (inlet holes), as long
as the necessary air flow is ensured in each room without creating disturbing air
currents.
52

6.2.32. The fan pressure must cover the pressure drop at the design flow
rate (load loss) along the entire air circuit, depending on the role that the fan
plays within the system (suction, outlet or suction-outlet). In all situations, the
total pressure required shall be determined by calculating the load loss along the
route with the highest aeraulic resistance of the system (also taking into
consideration the dynamic pressure when the air exits the system). It is
prohibited to determine the fan pressure by estimation. The calculation shall be
included in the technical design documentation.
6.2.33. When there is a risk of the vapours in the circulated air condensing
on the pipe walls, pipes with a minimum slope of 1 % shall be installed to drain
the condensation; the condensation shall be collected and evacuated at the
bottom end of the pipe.
6.2.34. For air pipes made of materials belonging to classes C, D, E or F of
reaction to fire, pipe sections made of non-combustible materials (A 1,A2-s1,d0)
shall be interposed and shall be equipped with fire dampers at the points where
they pass through floors and walls, located depending on the configuration of the
network, in order to limit fire propagation. The length of the pipe sections made
of non-combustible materials shall be equal to at least 3 equivalent diameters,
but no less than the thickness of the element being crossed plus 300 mm on each
side of this element.
6.2.35. (1) When constructing ventilation and climate control systems, the
creation of explosive mixtures and the propagation of fire through the ventilation
pipes shall be avoided.
(2) It is prohibited to install ventilation or climate control systems to be
shared by several rooms in which substances are discharged which, when mixed
or in a chemical combination, can cause fire or explosions.
6.2.36. The ventilation or climate control systems used in rooms with a
high and very high risk of fire shall be separated from the systems used in rooms
with a low and average risk of fire.
6.2.37. (1) Crossing fireproof walls and floors with ventilation pipes is not
recommended. If these crossings cannot be avoided, the following measures shall
be taken to avoid fire propagation:
a) when they cross walls or floors, the ventilation pipes shall be made of
non-combustible materials (A1,A2-s1,d0), which provide them with a
fire resistance EI io equal to the fire resistance of the wall or floor they
pass through.
b) when crossing walls and floors, the gap around the ventilation pipe
shall be sealed with materials whose fire resistance (EI) is equal to
the fire resistance (REI/EI) of the wall or floor being crossed.
c) fire dampers shall be installed inside ventilation pipes, near the points
where these cross walls and floors; the fire resistance of these fire
dampers shall be equal to the fire resistance of the element being
crossed EI-S io, ho and EI - S io, ve, respectively, but shall not exceed
EI-S 240 io.
(2) When laying ventilation pipes in vertical and horizontal housings, the
specific provisions of the technical regulations on fire safety in constructions shall
be complied with.
53

Special requirements for ventilation pipes that are also used to


discharge smoke and hot gases in the event of a fire
6.2.38. (1) The ventilation system of a building can also be used to
discharge smoke and hot gases in the event of a fire, but only if it meets the
specific requirements for both these functions.
(2) The provisions of this technical regulation and the specific provisions of
the technical regulations on fire safety in constructions shall be complied with
when designing and constructing ventilation systems that are also used to
discharge smoke and hot gases.
(3) If the ventilation pipes are also used to discharge smoke and hot gases
in the event of a fire, these must meet the following requirements:
a) inside the rooms from which smoke is discharged, the air inlet pipes,
which shall also be used to discharge smoke in the event of a fire,
must be made of materials that belong to at least to class A2-s2, d0
of reaction to fire and are E15-o-I, ve or ho fireproof. When these
pipes (tubes) pass through other compartments of the building or
other designated uses, they must be at least EI 60, ve or ho fireproof.
b) their cross-section shall be equal to the cross-section of the holes to
which they are connected;
c) the ratio between the sides of the pipe sections shall not be higher
than 2.
(4) The fittings that connect the smoke and hot gas outlet fan and the
smoke and hot gas discharge pipes must be made of materials that belong to
class A1 or A2-s2d0 of reaction to fire.
6.2.39. If the smoke and hot gas discharge system installed in a fire
compartment of the building comes into operation, this shall automatically
discontinue the normal mechanical ventilation of the building. An exception is
situations in which these systems share their components, in which case only the
fans used for ventilation climate control shall be turned off.
6.2.40. When they pass through construction elements, the discharge
pipes shall be protected so that they meet the following requirements:
a) their fire resistance must be equal to the fire resistance of the
element being crossed, but not exceed 240 min,
b) when passing through a false ceiling, the pipes must have the same
fire resistance; cross-over joints shall be sealed using fire-resistant
materials with the same performance as the pipes,
c) at the connection points, the pipes and fire dampers must have the
same performance.
6.2.41. When they cross other levels, fire compartments of the building
or rooms with other intended uses, the vertical collecting ventilation pipes (ducts)
shall be equipped with EI 120 fire-resistant walls.
6.2.42. (1) The places where the ventilation pipes on each level of the
building enter the vertical smoke discharge or air intake pipes shall be fitted with
EI 60 fireproof shutters, for the discharge pipes, and E 60 fireproof shutters, for
the air intake pipes. All the shutters shall be equipped with automatic activation
in the event of a fire. The smoke and hot gas discharge holes must be located at
the upper part of the rooms, in the upper third of the height of the room, in the
54

roof or in the ceiling, at a distance of more than 1.80 m above the floor,
measured from the bottom of the smoke discharge hole.
(2) Air inlet holes shall be located on the lower part of the spaces from
which smoke is discharged, with their upper edge no higher than 1 m from the
floor.
6.2.43. The components used to install the pipes onto the structure must
support the pipes for a period at least equal to their fire resistance.
6.2.44. To prevent smoke and hot gases from being discharged from a
smoke control area to another via the ventilation pipes, smoke dampers
(shutters) must be installed at the edges of the smoke control areas. These must
operate when receiving a signal emitted by the fire detection, signalling, and
alarm system. Alternatively, the engineer who designs the smoke and hot gas
control system must demonstrate, by calculation, that it is impossible for smoke
to move from one smoke control area to another.
6.2.45. All smoke dampers (shutters) located in the part of the ventilation
system which corresponds to the smoke control area affected must be activated
in their operational positions in the event of a fire, at the same time as the
extraction fans.
Air flow regulating devices
6.2.46. It is recommended that air flow regulating devices are installed in
the following locations:
a) in terminal ventilation devices or their fittings;
b) in each main branch that supplies a group of secondary branches;
c) in each secondary branch that supplies a group of terminal devices;
d) in mixing chambers, at the fresh air inlet hole and on the recirculation
pipe.
6.2.47. The regulating devices inside terminal ventilation equipment shall
be used for fine-tuning, to supplement the adjustment performed by an upstream
device installed on the air pipe or in the branches. These devices shall be used to
ensure aeraulic balancing when the system is commissioned. In large systems, it
is recommended that automatic regulating devices are used.
6.2.48. The regulating devices provided must be especially designed for
this purpose, to ensure that their regulating power is adequate; therefore, slide
valve devices are prohibited.
6.2.49. For suction, when the air speeds through the pipes do not exceed
12 m/s, it is advisable to not install regulating devices on terminal devices that
form a group installed within the same room if there is already a regulating device
in place in the connection branch pipe of this group.
6.2.50. The regulating devices must be chosen so that the admissible level
of noise in the room is not exceeded when they are shut down.
6.2.51. The regulating devices inside pipes shall be installed upstream, as
far as possible from the branches, so that the air flow through the branches is not
disturbed. This recommendation also applies to the devices installed inside the
branches, upstream from the terminal intake devices.
55

6.2.52. No regulating devices shall be installed inside the pipes in areas


where the air flow is disturbed by various upstream parts and configurations
(elbows, branches, etc.).
6.2.53. If the ventilation pipes are located in non-dismountable false
ceilings, it is recommended that no regulating devices are fitted in these ceilings,
and that accessible regulating devices are installed in the terminal ventilation
equipment instead; if this is not possible, either automatic regulating devices will
be installed, or the buried part of the network will be balanced before closing the
false ceiling.
6.2.54. It is recommended that butterfly valves or shutter frames with
opposed shutters are installed on the branch pipes. Valves should not be installed
inside branch pipes.
6.2.55. Butterfly valves which are used for initial adjustment (to balance
the air flows inside the system) and remain fixed in the regulating position
throughout the entire period of operation of the system, shall be equipped with
tightening nuts (or other types of retainers) without an actuation lever.
6.2.56. For all types of regulating devices, the mobile elements introduced
in the air current shall be well braced so that they do not produce noise and
vibrations.
6.2.57. All the regulating devices shall be installed so that the controls of
the mobile elements can be easily activated, either manually or automatically.
6.2.58. If the regulating devices are installed in locations that are hard to
access (e.g. false ceilings), access hatches shall be fitted to enable their
actuation.
6.2.59. Airtight access doors shall be provided to enable the adjustment,
inspection, and maintenance of regulating devices installed inside large pipes or
air chambers.
6.2.60. The regulating devices installed inside pipes shall be equipped, by
design, with indicators that help determine the adjustment position from outside
the pipe.
6.2.61. The mobile elements of regulating devices shall be strong, nondeformable, and suitable for easy movement, shall not have any play, and shall
enable them to be fixed in the position determined when regulating the system.
6.2.62. Opposite shutters which are required to be in the fully closed
position during operation shall ensure that the pipe is sealed.
6.2.63. The following can be used as fan regulating devices: suction control
devices or opposed shutters with simultaneous adjustment upon discharge (the
opposed shutters shall be installed so that their axes of rotation are perpendicular
to the vertical plane that passes through the rotor axis).
Counterbalance valves or other automatic closing devices.
56

6.2.64. Automatic closing devices shall be installed inside air pipes if it is


necessary to prevent the diffusion of harmful, flammable or explosive vapours
and gases present in the ventilation piping when the system is shut down.
Automatic closing devices shall also be installed to block air circulation when one
or more fans that operate in an alternating manner are installed in parallel.
6.2.65. Automatic closing devices shall be equipped with sealing gaskets
and must be designed so that they completely discontinue the circulation of air,
gases or vapours when in the closed position, and prevent any leaks or ingression
of false air.
6.2.66. The direction of the air flow shall be indicated on the body of the
automatic closing devices.
6.2.67. Automatic closing devices shall be equipped with elements that
indicate or signpost the fully closed position.
Frames fitted with overpressure shutters.
6.2.68. The frames fitted with overpressure shutters, which are installed in
outdoor construction elements and on outlet holes, shall be fitted with shutters
that oscillate freely on their axes, and will be designed and manufactured in a
way that would enable them to open under the forces created by an overpressure
of 5 Pa. They shall be provided with rubber gaskets.
Access covers
6.2.69. Ventilation and climate control systems shall be equipped with
access covers for inspection and cleaning.
6.2.70. The access covers shall be installed on straight pipe sections, in
accessible places, to allow for any possible interventions in the required sections
inside the pipe.
6.2.71. The access covers shall be designed and manufactured so that
they are airtight and strong, to prevent their deformation following their removal
and reassembling, and resist corrosive or erosive actions to the same extent as
the material of the air pipe on which they are mounted.
Elastic fittings
6.2.72. The air pipes shall be connected to the equipment with movable
components (fans, climate control units, etc.) by means of elastic elements that
prevent mechanical vibrations from being transmitted to the air pipes.
6.2.73. The elastic fittings shall be airtight and will be designed and
manufactured so that they can, if needed, withstand the action of hot gases, as
well as corrosive vapours and gases.
Fire and smoke dampers
6.2.74. Fire dampers shall be provided to prevent the propagation of fire
through the air pipes, and shall be installed in accordance with the requirements
stipulated in the specific technical regulations on fire safety in constructions and
this technical regulation.

57

6.2.75. Fire dampers can be activated by fusible elements, electromagnets


or electric motors.
6.2.76. Fire dampers activated by electromagnets or electric motors must
be used in buildings fitted with integrated fire signalling and fire extinguishing
systems. The position of the fire damper shall be indicated on its body. Fire
dampers shall be activated either automatically, from the rooms that house the
control and signalling equipment (signalling station), or manually, in accordance
with the fire safety scenario.
6.2.77. In buildings fitted with fire signalling and fire extinguishing systems
that are monitored from a central station, the fire dampers must be provided with
the possibility to transmit their position to the fire warning and fire extinguishing
centre.
6.2.78. Fire dampers activated by means of a fusible element shall be
installed inside the piping so that the fusible element is washed over by the air
current under the conditions and at a speed above the minimum value set when
the dampers were homologated. For this purpose, the rectilinear pipe lengths
upstream and downstream from the damper, as well as the shape of the
connecting pieces between the damper body and the piping shall be established
so that any air flow perturbations will not influence the way in which the fusible
element is washed over with air.
6.2.79. The technical data about the fusible elements or the material used
to make fusible elements used in fire dampers must be included in the
documents relating to the melting temperature, issued by the manufacturer.
6.2.80. The melting temperature of the fusible element of a fire damper
must be higher than the operating temperature inside the respective air pipe by
20 30C.
6.2.81. Fire dampers installed in systems that circulate particle-bearing air
shall be provided with equipment that periodically removes any impurities
deposited on the fusible element or the actuation device.
6.2.82. Whenever possible, fire dampers shall be installed behind the fireresistant wall, in the direction of the air flow, so that the electromagnets or
electric motors that activate them are located on the side of the damper that is
protected against fire.
6.2.83. Smoke dampers, smoke shutters, and valves shall be used to
construct smoke and hot gas discharge systems, in accordance with the specific
technical regulations on fire safety in constructions and this technical regulation.
6.2.84. In a building, these shall be provided with the same type of
activation as fire dampers, so that they can be integrated in the fire signalling
system.
6.2.85. (1) Smoke and hot gas discharge devices shall be installed in the
normal open position. These shall be located according to one of the situations:
met 1, 2, and 3, in accordance with the fire safety scenario. They shall be
activated similarly to fire dampers.
58

(2) If the building consists of several fire compartments and the alarm is
triggered in a differentiated manner to give priority to users inside the
compartment where fire is detected, the smoke detectors activate the fire or
smoke dampers located on the intake or outlet pipes, which are necessary in
order to separate the compartment from the other areas of the building. In this
case, the smoke detectors must be placed inside the pipes. Their location must
be chosen to ensure that the smoke will not pass through the fire-resistant
elements and the ventilation/climate control system.
6.2.86. Fire and smoke dampers shall be installed so that their movement
is not prevented by the ventilation pipe to which they are connected.
6.2.87. After the fire and smoke damper has been installed, before the
system is commissioned, the operation of the automatic closing devices shall be
checked by simulating the conditions that lead to the closure. It is recommended
that these simulations are carried out periodically via the fire signalling station.
6.2.88. Closing the fire damper activated by means of a fusible element
shall, via a locking system, turn off the fan that circulates air through the
ventilation pipe.
6.2.89. Fire dampers shall have the fire resistance stipulated in Article
6.2.37 of this technical regulation.
Air-tightness requirements for air pipes
6.2.90. For the air extracted from ventilation or climate control systems to
be recirculated or used in a heat recuperator, the following requirements must be
met:
- outlet air from categories ETA1 and ETA 2 can be collected in a shared pipe,
- air from category ETA 3 can be transported through individual pipes or collected
in shared pipes from several extraction points,
- air from category ETA 4 shall only be carried to the outside through individual
ducts.
- if outlet air from several categories is combined inside a shared pipe, the outlet
air in that pipe shall be classified according to the category that indicates the
highest level of pollution, if it exceeds 10 % of the total outlet air flow rate.
6.2.91. The air pipes must be made so that polluted air cannot be
reintroduced in the building through them.
6.2.92. Air pipes installed in visible places within the locations they
ventilate/climate control shall belong to class A of air-tightness, if the difference in
pressure between the inside and the outside of the pipe does not exceed 150 Pa.
6.2.93. Air pipes that are located outside of the ventilated areas, or pipes
that are located inside the ventilated areas and are separated from these areas
by panels, as well as pipes located inside the ventilated area in which the
difference in pressure between the inside and the outside of the pipe exceeds 150
Pa, shall belong to class B of air-tightness.
6.2.94. All air outlet pipes whose pressure is higher than inside the
building, except for ventilation stations, shall belong to at least class B of air59

tightness. Therefore, it is recommended that air outlet fans are located as close
as possible to the air outlet hole of the system.
6.2.95. If the difference in pressure on either side of the envelope is high,
or if any leak can jeopardise the indoor air quality, it is necessary for all air pipes
to belong to class C of air-tightness.
6.2.96. In special situations, the air pipes must belong to class D of airtightness. These situations can be determined by the technological conditions, or
can be stipulated by the investor or design engineer.
6.2.97. The maximum air losses admissible for the 4 classes of airtightness are given in Table 6.2.1 or Figure 6.2.1.

Air loss
[m3/h.m2]

Class
A
Class
B
Class
C
Class
D

0.5
4
1.9
4
0.1
8
0.6
5
0.0
6
0.2
2
0.0
2
0.0
7

0.8
4
3.0
4
0.2
8
1.0
1
0.0
9
0.3
4
0.0
3
0.1
1

1.1
0
3.9
6
0.3
7
1.3
2
0.1
2
0.4
4
0.0
4
0.1
5

1.3
2
4.7
8
0.4
4
1.5
9
0.1
5
0.5
3
0.0
5
0.1
8

1.5
3
5.5
2
0.5
1
1.8
4
0.1
7
0.6
1
0.0
6
0.2
0

1.7
3
6.2
2
0.5
8
2.0
7
0.1
9
0.6
9
0.0
6
0.2
3

1.9
1
6.8
7
0.6
4
2.2
9
0.2
1
0.7
6
0.0
7
0.2
5

2.0
8
7.4
9
0.6
9
2.5

2.2
5
8.0
9
0.7
5
2.7

0.2
3
0.8
3
0.0
8
0.2
8

0.2
5
0.9
0.0
8
0.3
0

2.4
1
8.6
6
0.8
0
2.8
9
0.2
7
0.9
6
0.0
9
0.3
2

2.5
6
9.7
5
0.8
5
3.2
5
0.3
0
1.0
8
0.0
1
0.3
6

3.1
3
11.
3
1.0
4
3.7
6
0.3
5
1.2
5
0.1
2
0.4
2

3.5
3
12.
7
1.1
8
4.2
3
0.3
9
1.4
1
0.1
3
0.4
7

2000

1800

1500

1200

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

[l/s .m2 ]

Static pressure
[Pa]

100

Table 6.2.1. Maximum air losses admissible for the 4 classes of air-tightness

3.7
7
13.
6
1.2
6
4.5
3
0.4
2
1.5
1
0.1
4
0.5
0

The air pipes in the shaded area are not recommended.

Specific flow rate (l/s,


m2)

Class of air-

Figure 6.2.1. Maximum air

Pressure difference
(PA)
losses admissible
for

the 4 classes of air-tightness

6.2.98. The class of air-tightness indicated in Articles 6.2.92 6.2.96 is the


minimum admissible class.
6.2.99. Outlet air from categories ETA 1 and ETA 2 can be carried in
pressurised pipes, as long as these belong to class C of air-tightness.
60

6.2.100. Outlet air from categories ETA 3 or ETA 4 shall not be carried
through the occupied area of the building using overpressure pipes. The only
exceptions are situations in which the air is evacuated from industrial kitchens
(with a suction hood placed above the cooking machine/cooker) and toilets
(equipped with a fan), providing that the air is not carried at overpressure through
any non-ventilated areas.
6.2.101. The outlet pipes used to extract air from mechanical ventilation
systems must be equipped with devices that close automatically when the
ventilation is turned off, to prevent air backflow and uncontrolled ventilation, at
least for pipes whose cross-section is larger than 0.06 m2.
6.2.102. The class of air-tightness must be certified by the manufacturer
and must be specified in the technical design documentation.

61

6.3. Fans
6.3.1. (1) Fans shall be chosen depending on the flow rate and pressure
specified in the design, the type and particulars of the system, the operating
mode, energy consumption, space available, noise level, cost of the fan, and the
operating conditions.
(2) When choosing a fan for a given situation, the following aspects must be
taken into consideration:
a) the fan operating point on the characteristic curves must be within
the area with minimum energy consumption;
b) axial fans are recommended for use in ventilation systems without
pipes, where the pressure created by the fan is low and the ventilated
room is not subject to any silence requirements and does not display
any discharges of flammable or corrosive substances;
c) in ventilation systems equipped with fresh air intake pipes, a
selection shall be made between a centrifugal fan and an encased
axial fan, depending on the requirements regarding pressure, space,
noise level, energy consumption, and cost; if they meet these
requirements, axial fans shall be the preferred choice;
d) centrifugal fans shall be preferred in ventilation systems equipped
with polluted air outlet pipes; if using axial fans installed inside pipes
carrying hot air or air bearing corrosive substances or dust, the fans
shall be activated by trapezoidal belts, with the motor outside of the
pipe;
e) centrifugal fans installed inside systems that contain many special
parts, for which the local resistance values cannot be accurately
determined, shall be rotor fans with backward-leaning blades;
f) Fans whose operating points correspond to lower efficiency values
can be used in systems with intermittent operation, if this creates
advantages of a different nature;
g) low-speed fans (500 750 rotations/minute) shall be preferred to
high-speed fans (1 000 1 500 rotations/minute) in order to reduce
the noise level.
6.3.2. It is recommended that fans with low specific energy consumption,
belonging to classes SFP1-SFP3, are used (see Table 6.3.1).
Table 6.3.1. Classification of fans depending on their specific power P SFP (power as
a function of the air flow rate)
Category

PSFP, in W/(m3/s)

SFP
SFP
SFP
SFP
SFP

<500
500 - 750
750 1 250
1 250- 2 000
> 2 000

1
2
3
4
5

62

6.3.3. In ventilation systems that serve variable production processes or


rooms with variable thermal loads, it is recommended that variable speed fans
are used.
6.3.4. Systems with variable aeraulic resistances, especially those
containing dust filters that can be clogged up, shall be equipped with a fan with
very reclined flow rate-pressure characteristics, so that small modifications of the
air flow rates will correspond to the pressure variations.
6.3.5. In line or pipe fans shall be used in systems with low flow rates.
6.3.6. In line or pipe fans can be installed inside the ventilated rooms if
their casings are sound insulated and the noise level does not exceed the
admissible value.
6.3.7. The flow rate and pressure inside a system are usually provided by a
single fan; installation of the fans in parallel should be avoided.
If the summer air flow rate is different from the winter air flow rate or if
different air flow rates are required during the production process, a fan activated
by a two-speed electric motor shall be provided, if possible, to ventilate the room.
However, if the situation requires fans installed in parallel to be chosen,
frames fitted with shutters that close at the same time as the fan or non-return
valves must be provided.
6.3.8. If the fans circulate air whose temperatures and pressures are
different from those used to draw up the selection catalogues (fans installed at
altitude, hot gas operation, etc.), the correction factors appropriate for these
specific situations shall be used to determine the real characteristics of the fans.
6.3.9. Fans that circulate air bearing corrosive substances or abrasive dust
shall be made of resistant materials that ensure an economical lifespan.
6.3.10. When choosing the fans and their related electrical equipment for
ventilation systems used in rooms with the risk of explosion, the provisions of the
normative document NEX 01-06 and standard SR EN 60079-10-1:2004 shall be
complied with.
6.3.11. The fans activated by electric motors by means of timing belts shall
be equipped with belt tensioners and devices for capturing and draining away
static electricity.
6.3.12. The following measures shall be taken to ensure safety at work and
correct operation of the fans:
a) the electric motor and the fan shall be grounded;
b) a protective device shall be installed near the pulleys and belts of the
timing belt system; large mesh wire netting (25-50 mm) shall be
installed at the inlet or outlet hole of the fan, if the fan performs air
intake and discharge operations freely in the room (regardless of the
height at which the fan is installed);
c) all the connections in the fuse box of the electric motor must be
made correctly to ensure that the fan rotor rotates in the correct
direction;
63

d) the timing belts must be tensioned (the tensioning of a trapezoidal


belt is correct if the sag of the belt when pressed manually does not
exceed its thickness for a length of 0.5 m); all trapezoidal belts
installed on the same timing belts shall have the same degree of
tensioning;
e) air flow regulating devices shall be installed.
6.3.13. Regardless of the way in which they are mounted (on the
foundation, platforms, brackets, etc.), the fans must be equipped with vibration
dampeners calculated and manufactured so that they ensure the appropriate
noise and vibration conditions in the buildings in which they are installed
(industrial buildings, theatre halls, hospitals, etc.).
6.3.14. The fans shall be connected to the air pipes by means of flexible
fittings.
6.3.15. It is recommended that the fans are connected to the pipes using
straight pipe sections with a length of (8-10 d) for both the intake and outlet
circuits (d is the diameter of circular pipes; for rectangular pipes with the sides
a and b, d=(a+b)/2). If this type of connection cannot be made, one of the
following solutions shall be adopted, in order of preference, to connect the fan to
the inlet hole:
a) an elbow piece with a rectangular cross-section and guide blades, or a
curve with circular cross-section and the radius of curvature larger
than two diameters;
b) a suction box with guide blades.
6.3.16. If the centrifugal fan discharges the air directly to the atmosphere
without the use of any piping, a straight section with a cross-section equal to the
cross-section of the air outlet hole (a x b) and a minimum length of 0.75 (a x b),
or an air diffuser with a vertex angle of 10 15 and a length of 1.00 - 1.5 m shall
be fitted at the outlet hole of the fan.
6.3.17. When using catalogues to choose fans to be connected to the
network by means of parts which are installed on the intake or outlet pipe and
disturb the flow, the respective correction factors shall be used.
6.3.18. Fans which are used to discharge smoke and hot gases in the event
of a fire must belong to class F400120 of fire resistance. In buildings equipped with
automatic fire extinguishing installations such as sprinklers, the fans used to
discharge smoke and hot gases in the event of a fire can belong to class F 200 120
of fire resistance.

6.4 Air filters

6.4.1. (1) Outdoor air filtration is used to meet the requirements for indoor
air quality (see chapter 3.1) taking into account the outdoor air quality classes
defined in chapter 3.1. The air filters needed for air treatment stations shall be
chosen and sized following an optimisation process, depending on the specific
situation being analysed (the dust content of outdoor air, the indoor air quality
class, the operating time of the air treatment station, specific local situations
regarding pollution, whether recirculation is permitted or not, etc.).
(2) The filters, dampeners, and noise attenuators, as well as other
components of the ventilation/climate control system which are exposed to the
64

air flow, must be made of non-flammable materials or materials treated with


products that allow them to be included in the category of non-flammable
materials.
Table 6.4.1. Classes of filters recommended
Category of outdoor Indoor air quality (see Article 5.2.5)
air

IDA1
(High)

IDA 2
IDA 3
(Medium) (Moderat
e)
ODA 1 (pure air)
F9
F8
F7
ODA 2 (dust)
F7/F9
F6/F8
F6/F7
ODA 3 (gases)
F7/F9
F8
F7
ODA 4 (dust + gases)
F7/F9
F6/F8
F6/F7
ODA
5
(very
high F6/GF/F9* F6/GF/F9* F6/F7
concentration)
)
)
*) GF = Gas filter (carbon filter) and/or chemical filter

IDA 4
(Low)
F6
G4/F6
F6
G4/F6
G4/F6

6.4.2. To reduce the dust content of the air introduced in climate-controlled


rooms, a pre-filter shall be used at the entry to the ventilation unit, in the
following situations:
a) For hygiene reasons, the intake air must be filtered in two steps (at
least for IDA 1 and IDA 2).
b) The first inlet filter (pre-filter) shall belong at least to class F5, but
preferably to class F7. The second filtration step must be ensured by
a filter belonging at least to class F7, but preferably to class F9. If
there is only one filtration step, the minimum requirement is class F7.
c) When there are two or more filtration steps, the first set of filters
must be located before the air treatment station, and the second set
must be located after the air treatment station.
d) Gas filters (carbon filters) are recommended for the outdoor air
category ODA 5. These could also be a good solution for categories
ODA 3 and ODA 4. In general, gas filters must be combined with F8 or
F9 filters installed downstream.
e) For the outdoor air category ODA 5 (highly industrialised regions, near
airports, etc.), some applications may require electric filtration. In the
event of temporary pollution of the outdoor air, it is recommended
that these filters are equipped with a branch and the air quality is
permanently monitored.
6.4.3. For hygiene reasons, the filters in the first filtration step should not
be used for more than one year before being cleaned or replaced. The filters used
in the second or third step should not be used for longer than two years, under
the same conditions. Visual inspection and monitoring of the pressure drop in
these filters is also recommended, by installing differential pressure meters
equipped with inlet holes upstream and downstream from the filter; when the
maximum load loss recommended for cleaning is exceeded, an acoustic or visual
signalling method should be provided.

65

6.4.4. When designing and positioning the outdoor air inlet hole, care shall
be taken to avoid introducing any local impurities, rain or snow in the filter
section.
6.4.5. To minimise the risk of germs developing in the filter, the ventilation
station should be designed so that the relative humidity in the filter is always
below 90 %, and the average humidity over three consecutive days is lower than
80 % in all the components of the system, including the filter.
6.4.6. If a filter is installed on the recirculated air pipe going towards the
ventilation station, it must belong to at least the same filtration class as the filter
installed on the main outdoor air circuit.
6.4.7. To protect the polluted air outlet system and the outdoor
environment, a filter from at least class F5 should be used.
6.4.8. The air extracted from kitchens must always go through a first step
that uses a special filter for fat, which can be easily cleaned and replaced.
6.4.9. The filters shall not be installed in the immediate vicinity of the fan
outlet pipe, or where the distribution of the air flow through the cross-section is
not uniform (after elbows or other special parts that change the direction in which
the air flows).
6.4.10. The final pressure drop inside the filters shall be calculated and
chosen by the manufacturers by taking into account the admissible air flow
variation, the cost of the filters per life cycle, and an estimate of their life cycle.
Since filter tests carried out in laboratories use an artificial high-granulation test
dust, the performance of the filter under real operating conditions shall be
different depending on the efficiency, dust retaining capacity, and other
laboratory test results. It is recommended that efficiency under real operating
conditions does not drop below the catalogue values by more than 5 %.
6.4.11. The filters must be replaced when the pressure drop reaches the
final value stipulated in the catalogue (technical specification), or after the
following maximum period of time:
a) 2 000 hours of operation or a maximum of one year, for the filter that
ensures the first filtration step (pre-filter),
b) 4 000 hours of operation or a maximum of two years, for filters from
the second or third filtration step, as well as for filters in the air outlet
system and the air recirculation system (if it exists).
6.4.12. The filters shall be carefully replaced to avoid any leakage of the
impurities retained therein, using protective equipment.
6.4.13. The filters used in industrial ventilation systems shall be
incinerated in special ovens in order to burn the impurities retained therein, to
reduce the amount of residues and to recover the energy. The filters used in
normal ventilation systems used in the residential and tertiary environment can
be disposed of at the refuse dump.
6.4.14. Heat recovery installations shall always be protected by a filter
belonging to class F6 or a higher class. Rotating heat recovery units must be
equipped with elements that allow their cleaning.
66

6.4.15. Any air leaks around the air section shall significantly reduce
filtration efficiency; therefore, it is important to make sure that air-tightness
requirements are complied with.

6.5 Heating/cooling batteries


Sizing, choosing
6.5.1. The design thermal load for which cooling batteries are sized shall be
determined on the basis of the enthalpy difference between the intake air and the
outlet air of the battery, taking into consideration the average design
temperature of the coolant.
6.5.2. The design thermal load for which heating batteries are sized shall
be determined on the basis of the temperature or enthalpy difference between
the intake air and the outlet air of the battery, taking into consideration the
average design temperature of the heat carrier.
6.5.3. Cooling batteries with direct evaporation should not be used unless
the coolant flow variation can be ensured.
6.5.4. The head speed of the air passing through the heating/cooling
battery must be between 2 3.5 m/a.
6.5.5. If the return pipe of a heating battery is connected to the
condensation circuit of a condensing boiler, the battery must be sized for a water
temperature of 60/40C. When other types of boilers are used, the heating
battery shall be sized for the nominal temperature rating of the boilers (usually
80/60C or 90/70C).
6.5.6. It is recommended that the distance between the fins is at least 2.5
mm for cooling batteries with dehumidification, and at least 2.0 mm for the other
types of heating/cooling batteries.
6.5.7. The pressure drop in the air circuit of heating/cooling batteries must
be limited as much as possible. Therefore, the values stipulated in Table 6.5.1 are
recommended.
Table 6.5.1: Recommended values for the load loss in heating/cooling batteries
(in accordance with SR EN 13779/2007):
Component
Low load loss Medium load loss High load loss
(Pa)
(Pa)
(Pa)
Heating
40
80
120
battery
Cooling battery (100) 60
(140) 100
(180) 140
Installation, maintenance
6.5.8. Heating or cooling batteries should be connected to the ventilation
pipes in the following way: upstream from the battery, using a diffuser with the
vertex angle smaller than 30, and downstream from the battery, using a
confusor with the vertex angle smaller than 45.
67

6.5.9. If the battery is installed immediately after a direction-changing part,


it must be equipped with air guide walls or blades, which ensure that the air is
uniformly distributed on the front surface of the battery.
6.5.10. If the battery is installed immediately after a centrifugal fan, it shall
be connected to the air outlet hole of the fan by means of a symmetrical diffuser
with a maximum vertex angle of 30, or an asymmetrical diffuser, with a
maximum vertex angle of 15. In this case, it is recommended that an air flow
baffle plate is used, with a thickness of (0.25 0.45)d (in the direction of the flow)
and a square mesh size equal to (0.075 0.15)d, where d is the diameter of the
circular pipes; for rectangular pipes with the sides a and b, d=(a+b)/2.
6.5.11. If the battery is installed immediately after an axial fan, the
connection shall be made by means of a symmetrical direction-changing part with
a maximum vertex angle of 30. It is recommended that a straight cylindrical
section with a length equal to two diameters is installed between the directionchanging part and the battery, which shall have a cross inside designed to align
the air current (two plane walls, along the entire length of the section located in a
perpendicular position).
6.5.12. (1) Heating or cooling batteries shall be provided with means for
heat carrier circuit regulation.
(2) The air circuit regulation shall be carried out if there is any space
available; the regulating device must have the appropriate regulating capacity.
(3) The water circuit regulation shall be carried out using two or three-way
valves.
6.5.13. If the hot water is prepared in a condensing boiler, the heating
batteries cannot be adjusted by means of a by-pass three-way valve. It is
recommended that a two-way valve or a three-way mixing valve is used. A bypass valve can cause the hot water to return directly to the condenser, reducing
the performance of the battery.
6.5.14. Cooling batteries that operate in a dehumidification mode must not
be installed immediately before the filtration section or the noise attenuation
section.
6.5.15. The batteries can be cleaned directly in the location where they are
installed (for heights below 1.6 m), or can be removed for cleaning, in which case
the necessary space must be ensured.
6.5.16. Electric heating batteries must be equipped with special devices
that provide protection and safety when the access door of the treatment station
(if it exists) is opened, as well as during an overload.

6.6. Central air treatment units

6.6.1. Central air treatment units shall be used to treat the air needed for
one or more large rooms.
6.6.2. The central air treatment unit shall be chosen taking into
consideration the following:
a) the way in which it is positioned (inside or outside the building);
b) the air flow rate and the parameters of the treated air;
68

c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)

the electricity, heat, and cooling supply sources;


the type of climate control system used (air-only or air to water)
its energy recovery capacity;
the use of renewable energy sources;
the noise level accepted in the climate-controlled building;
the category of outdoor air and its filtration requirements;
the dimensions of the room in which the unit will be installed and the
access routes to the room;
j) various technological requirements.
6.6.3. Central air treatment units can be constructed in the following
versions:
a) monoblock or SPLIT system;
b) the free air is discharged through grilles, or by connecting to
ventilation piping;
c) for operation during the summer or all year around.
6.6.4. For large air flow rates (more than 1 m 3/s), treatment units made of
modules that are assembled on site can also be used. These modules can contain
one or more of the treatment unit components. They shall be assembled in a way
that would ensure air-tightness of the unit.
6.6.5. Air treatment units shall be made of sandwich-type panels with
thermal insulation made of mineral wool, glass wool or polyurethane, which
ensures a thermal resistance of 1.25 3.5 W/m2K and a sound insulation that
ensures a sound level of 40 db(A).
6.6.6. The equipment used shall be chosen so that their treatment
processes have good performance, which will ensure minimum energy
consumption of the unit.
6.6.7. The units shall be equipped with maintenance access doors in the
modules of the mixing chamber, filters, humidification chamber, and fans. These
shall open to the exterior to ensure good air-tightness of the unit. For large units
that people can enter, the access doors to the fan module shall be equipped with
systems that turn off the fan when the door is opened.
6.6.8. To reduce the energy consumption of the fan, the maximum load
losses of the unit components must not exceed the values given in Table 6.6.1.
Table 6.6.1. Pressure drops recommended for specific components of
the air supply system
Pressure drop, in Pa
Application

Pipe route
Heating battery
Cooling battery
Heat recovery device
Humidifier

Low
100
40
60
100
20

Normal
200
80
100
150
40

High
300
120
140
200
60
69

Air filter, per section*)


100
Noise dampener
30
Air outlet hole
30
Air inlet and outlet hole
20
*) Final pressure drop before replacement

150
50
50
50

250
80
100
70

6.6.9. Outdoor air filtration is used to meet the requirements for the indoor
air inside the building, taking into consideration the outdoor air category. The
filter equipment is indicated in Article 6.4, as a function of the outdoor air
category (degree of outdoor air pollution).
6.6.10. The fans used in air treatment units must belong to the SFP
category of specific energy consumption, which is indicated in Table 6.6.2.
Table 6.6.2. Recommended SFP values for various applications.
Application
SFP category for each fan

Typical range
Air supply fan:
- complex ventilation and
control system
- simple ventilation system
Air extraction fan:
- complex ventilation and
control system
- simple ventilation system
- air extraction system

Value
absence

climate SFP 1 up to SFP 5


SFP 1 up to SFP 4

SFP 3
SFP 2

climate SFP 1 up to SFP 4


SFP 1 up to SFP 3
SFP 1 up to SFP 3

SFP 3
SFP 2
SFP 2

by

6.6.11. To reduce the energy consumption in the ventilation or climate


control system, the air treatment unit shall be controlled depending on the needs
of the areas it supplies, by means of:
a) a manual switch,
b) movement sensors,
c) count sensors,
d) CO2 sensors (used especially in rooms where smoking is prohibited),
e) gas mixture detectors (also used in rooms where smoking is allowed).
In rooms with known discharges, the concentration of the most important
pollutants can be used as an entry signal (for example, the CO concentration for
car parks).
Space requirements for locating air treatment units
6.6.12. The system must be designed and constructed so that it allows for
easy cleaning, maintenance, and repairs. Enough space should be left next to the
equipment to allow for maintenance and cleaning operations. Enough space
should be allowed for dismantling and repairs, and the route used to transport
spare parts must be developed and signposted.
6.6.13. Equipment that requires maintenance or a service door should not
be located in areas with difficult access. If an air treatment unit is masked inside
70

a suspended ceiling, an access hatch should be installed next to the equipment,


which can be opened or removed without tools and is at least 500 x 500 mm in
size.
6.6.14. The air treatment units and engine rooms must be accessible to the
maintenance and repair personnel (including for moving the necessary materials
and spare parts) without having to pass through occupied areas.
6.6.15. Whenever possible, the walls and ducts of the air treatment unit
should not be located on either side of the supporting structure of the building.
6.6.16. The instructions given in Figure 6.6.1 must be followed in order to
position the equipment correctly. If the unit is divided into several smaller units,
or if using heat recuperators, a larger floor surface area may be required.

6.7. Ventilation/climate control station

6.7.1. The ventilation or climate control station shall be located in the


vicinity of the spaces being ventilated or climate-controlled; if possible, it shall be
fitted in the centre of mass of these spaces.
6.7.2. In civilian public buildings, when the ventilated and climatecontrolled rooms have restrictions regarding the noise level, the
ventilation/climate control station shall be installed in the basement, in annexes,
a separate building or on the roof.
6.7.3. The dimensions of the ventilation or climate control stations shall be
determined taking into consideration the sizes of the equipment and the free
spaces required to allow for their installation, connection, operation,
maintenance, and repair.
6.7.4. The room or space allocated for the ventilation station must be
easily accessible and must be fitted with access doors and stairs that enable
transportation of the machines, equipment, dismountable elements or modules.
The station shall be accessed directly from the outside or from rooms with a low
risk of fire, or through shared corridors that enable access to utility systems, in
accordance with the technical regulations on fire safety in constructions. The
access door shall open towards the outside of the station.
6.7.5. (1) The rooms in which the ventilation or climate control stations are
installed shall be functionally and constructively separated from the rest of the
building by separation elements belonging to class A 1 or A2 of reaction to fire and
belonging to at least fire resistance class EI60 for walls and REI60 for floors, or EI1
30 C and a self-locking device or automatic locking system for the doors,
respectively.
(2) For buildings with different heights, if the rooms of the ventilation or
climate control stations or the outdoor units are located on the roof of the lower
building, they must be positioned at least 4 m away from the exterior walls of the
taller building, if these have openings; If the abovementioned distance cannot be
complied with, measures shall be taken to make sure that the fire resistance of
the walls is at least REI 60 minutes and that the wall openings are protected with
EI-45-C elements in the spaces where the ventilation-climate control equipment is
installed or on the taller building; the roof of the rooms where ventilation or
climate control stations are installed must be provided with a fire resistance of at
71

least R 60 and a cover belonging to class A1, A2-s1,d0 or B-s1, d), if measures are
taken to limit fire propagation in these spaces.
(3) Smoke and hot gas discharge fans must be installed either on the
outside of the building, or in a technical space, separated from the rest of the
construction by walls and floors made of materials belonging to class A 1 or A2 of
reaction to fire and fire resistance REI 60. The access door shall belong to class
EI1 30-C of fire resistance and shall be equipped with a self-locking or automatic
locking device. The space shall be ventilated depending on the equipment
located in the room.
Requirements or positioning the fresh air inlet hole and the air
outlet hole
6.7.6. The outdoor air inlet hole shall be positioned so that the air
introduced in the system is, if possible: clean, dry, and shaded.
6.7.7. The air must be evacuated from ventilation/climate control systems
so that the risks to human health or the negative effects on the building, its
occupants or the environment are minimised.
6.7.8. The air inlet holes and air outlet holes must also be positioned in
accordance with the regulations and recommendations regarding the fire safety
of construction elements, as well as the regulations on sound insulation.

Key: 1 b = 0.4 x height of the unit, minimum 0.5 m, 2 Service space


Figure 6.6.1. Positioning of air treatment systems (plan view)
6.7.9. The air inlet holes shall be positioned horizontally, at least 8 metres
from a waste collection point, a parking area that is frequently used for three or
more cars, an alley, loading areas, sewage ventilation systems, chimney heads,
and other similar sources of pollution.
6.7.10. To avoid the risk of impurities from the cooling towers spreading
into the supply air, the air inlet holes shall be positioned in the dominant wind
direction, before the cooling towers. Care must be taken to ensure that cooling
tower systems are accompanied by appropriate maintenance procedures that
reduce their hazardous emissions.
6.7.11. It is advisable for the air inlet holes to be positioned on facades
facing quiet streets. When this is not possible, the air inlet hole must be
positioned as high from the ground as possible.

72

6.7.12. The air inlet holes shall not be positioned where recirculation of the
outlet air or disturbances due to other pollutants or odour emissions are expected
to occur.
6.7.13. It is recommended that the air inlet holes are positioned 3 m away
from the ground. This distance can be reduced to a minimum of 1.5 m, plus the
maximum predicted thickness of the snow.
6.7.14. On the terrace of the building or if the concentrations are similar on
both sides of the building, the air inlet hole must be positioned on the faade of
the building that is exposed to wind.
6.7.15. If the air inlet hole is adjacent to non-shaded areas, roofs or walls,
it must be located and protected so that the air is warmed by the sun as little as
possible in the summer.
6.7.16. An unprotected air inlet hole should be sized for a maximum air
speed of 2 m/s if there is the potential risk of ingression of water in any form
(snow, rain, vapours, etc.) or dust (including leaves).
6.7.17. The lower part of an air inlet hole located on a roof must be at least
1.5 away from the roof level plus the maximum predictable thickness of the snow.
The distance can be smaller if the formation of a snow layer is prevented, for
example by using a snow shield.
6.7.18. The air inlet holes must be positioned so that they can be accessed
for replacement and daily maintenance.
6.7.19. It is acceptable to discharge outlet air belonging to category EHA 1
to the outside via an outlet hole located on the wall of the building, provided that
the following requirements are complied with:
a) the distance between the outlet hole and any neighbouring building is
at least 8 m
b) the distance between the outlet hole and an air inlet hole located on
the same wall must be at least 2 m (if possible, the fresh air inlet hole
must be located under the air outlet hole);
c) the air speed inside the outlet hole must be at least 5 m/s
d) in any other situation, the outlet hole must be located on the roof.
6.7.20. The air shall be discharged vertically, in an upward direction, above
the roof of the highest section of the building. The lower part of the outlet hole
must be at least 1.5 m high from the roof plus the maximum predictable
thickness of the snow. The distance can be smaller if the formation of a snow
layer is prevented, for example by using a snow shield.
6.7.21. The minimum distances between the air inlet hole and the air
outlet hole are given in Figure 6.6.2. These depend mainly on the category of air
being discharged.
a) For EHA 4, the distances are the largest and, also, depend on the air
flow rate.
b) For categories EHA 1 to EHA 3, the distances depend solely on the
category of air being discharged. The values given in Figure 6.6.2 are
73

valid for an outlet air speed up to 6 m/s; for higher speeds, the
distances can be smaller.
6.7.22. For tall buildings, the air inlet and outlet holes must be positioned
so that the effect of the wind and the draught effect are minimised.

Minimum horizontal distance


[m]

Figure 6.6.2. Minimum distances between the air outlet hole and the air inlet
hole
1 Vertical distance Outlet hole above the inlet hole (upper part of the graph);
Vertical distance Outlet hole below the inlet hole (lower part of the graph); 2Distance between the holes; 3 EHA category; 4 Air flow rate in the hole, in
m3/s

7. General provisions for the equipment of


ventilation/climate control systems
7.1. Ventilation/climate control equipment can only be used if they bear a
CE marking or technical agreement, or have equivalent performances and are
legally sold in a Member State of the European Union or Turkey, or are legally
manufactured in an EFTA state that is a party to the agreement on the European
Economic Area.
7.2. All equipment that holds Eurovent certification or other equivalent
certifications shall be labelled accordingly; this label shall be placed in a visible
place, either in the ventilation/climate control station or on the air treatment unit.
7.3. It is recommended that the components of ventilation and climate
control systems comply with the provisions of standard SR EN 15423:2008
74

Ventilation in buildings. Fire prevention measures for air distribution systems in


buildings.
7.4. If the equipment performances lead to energy saving during operation,
these performances, which are technically and economically justified, shall be
included in the public tender books.

75

8. Ventilation-climate control solutions for buildings used


for various purposes
8.1. Dwellings

Design hypotheses
8.1.1. The organised ventilation of dwellings must be general and
permanent at least during the period in which the outdoor temperature does not
permit windows to be opened frequently.
8.1.2. The air circulation must be ensured by introducing air in the main
rooms (living room, bedrooms, office) and extracting (evacuating) air from the
service rooms (kitchen, bathrooms, toilets).
8.1.3. The ventilation system must include at least the following: air inlet
holes in all main rooms, representing holes in the facades, outlet holes for
extracting air from the service rooms, at least in kitchens, bathrooms or shower
rooms, as well as toilets and vertical pipes with natural draught or mechanical
devices.
8.1.4. In shared ventilation systems, if a service room is equipped with a
mechanical air outlet hole, all the other service rooms must also be equipped with
an outlet hole. In more complex systems, other equipment and devices can also
be installed.
8.1.5. The air must be able to circulate freely from the main rooms to the
service rooms (through the spaces underneath the doors, or through grilles).
8.1.6. (1) Mechanical or natural ventilation systems shall be sized so that
the air outlet flow rates given in Table 8.1.1 are reached in winter conditions.
These flow rates must be provided by the system either simultaneously or
individually.
Table 8.1.1. Air flow rates for ventilation in dwellings
Number of main Air outlet flow rates expressed in m3/h
rooms in the
Kitchen Bathroom
or
shower Anothe Toilet
dwelling
room, with or without a r
single
toilet
showe
r room

multipl
e

75

15

90

15

15

15

15

105

30

15

15

15

120

30

15

30

15

5 or more

135

30

15

30

15

(2) The air outlet flow rates must be compensated by air intake devices and
the permeability of the faade.

76

(3) If there is no separation wall between the living room and another room,
the single room created this way shall be considered equivalent to two main
rooms.
(4) If the kitchen extraction hood is connected, by design, to its own
permanent air outlet, a smaller air flow through the outlet holes is permitted.
Toilets shall be considered to be multiple if there are at least two of them in the
dwelling, even if one of them is located in the bathroom/shower room.
(5)
The extraction hood located in the kitchen shall be taken into consideration in
terms of its flow rate and noise level, similar to any other air hole.
8.1.7. In shared extraction systems, kitchen hoods cannot be connected to
the shared pipe.
8.1.8. Individual boilers/equipment used to heat and prepare hot water for
domestic consumption cannot be connected to the outlet pipes provided for
ventilation.
8.1.9. Each main room must be equipped with at least an air intake device,
which must comply with the requirements stipulated in 8.1.6.
8.1.10. Individual regulating devices may allow for the flow rates defined in
Article 8.1.6 of this technical regulation to be reduced, provided that the total
outlet air flow rate and the reduced flow rate in the kitchen are at least equal to
the values given in Table 8.1.2.
Table 8.1.2. Minimum air flow rates for ventilation in dwellings
Number of main rooms
1
2
3
4
35
60
75
90

minimum
total flow rate
[m3/h]
minimum
20
flow rate in
the
kitchen
3
[m /h]

30

45

45

5
105

6
120

7
135

45

45

45

8.1.11. For individual houses which are detached, semi-detached or


terraced, the construction and the equipment therein must meet the following
minimum requirements:
a) the kitchen is provided with an outlet hole equipped with a vertical
pipe with natural draught, or a mechanical device;
b) service rooms shall be equipped with:
1. either an outlet hole equipped with a vertical pipe with
mechanical extraction or natural draught
2. - or an outer opening that can be blocked;
c) each main room shall be equipped with an air inlet hole representing
an orifice in the faade, a pipe with natural draught or a mechanical
device, which shall be sized so that, together with the flow rate
through the permeability of the faade, they ensure a total flow rate
that corresponds to the number of rooms, equivalent to the one given
in Table 8.1.1.
77

8.1.12. If combustion equipment is installed inside the dwelling, the


ventilation system must be able to provide the air flow rates required for the good
operation of this equipment.
8.1.13. The systems must not exceed the noise level admitted in dwellings;
therefore, the maximum air circulation speed is 5 m/s for vertical pipes and 6 m/s
for horizontal pipes.
Types of ventilation systems
8.1.14. Depending on the type of the building, the level of comfort
requested by the beneficiary, and the energy saving requirements, the ventilation
systems for use in dwellings can be:
a) in shared buildings:
1. naturally-organised ventilation
2. hybrid ventilation (with induction-assisted extraction or
suction fan)
3. single-circuit (mono-flow) mechanical ventilation:
4. double-circuit (double-flow) mechanical ventilation.
b) in individual buildings:
5. naturally-organised ventilation
6. single-circuit (mono-flow) mechanical ventilation:
7. double-circuit (double-flow) mechanical ventilation.
8.1.15. Ventilation systems shall be designed in accordance with the
provisions of Article 8.1.1 8.1.12 of this technical regulation.
8.1.16. Static or thermodynamic heat recuperators shall be installed in
double-circuit mechanical systems.
8.1.17. Residential buildings can be equipped with local or general climate
control systems; in this case, the ventilation must be ensured by bringing fresh
air into the climate control system or by using a ventilation system independent
of the climate control system.
System components
8.1.18. (1) Air intake devices used in rooms shall have self-adjusting or
hygro-regulating slots, preferably installed in the window frames. Grilles or valves
fitted in the exterior wall can also be used. For double windows, these devices
can be mounted in series, taking into consideration the reduction in the air flow
rate obtained this way.
(2) The devices can be provided with sound protection or not, and must:
a) be adjustable by the user, up to a position that ensures the minimum
flow rate required,
b) be easily dismountable for maintenance,
c) be designed so that they do not create disturbing air currents.
(3) Any such device must be technically approved.
8.1.19. (1) The air extraction devices used in rooms can be normal grilles
or hygro-regulating or self-adjusting grilles. The devices must:
a) be adjustable by the user, up to a position that ensures the minimum
flow rate required,
b) be easily disassembled for maintenance.
78

(2) These devices can be activated automatically (controlled by light or


presence sensors), but must ensure the minimum flow rate required in any
conditions.
8.1.20. The air can be extracted from the system either directly from the
fan, or via an outlet pipe; the air outlet hole must be located so that it would not
allow the outlet air to be recirculated through the exterior, and would not exceed
the admissible noise level.
8.1.21. Extraction fans can have fixed or variable speed.
8.1.22. (1) The air outlet ducts using natural draught can be individual or
shared (serve several rooms). The shared pipe consists of a collecting pipe and
individual fittings that connect it to the ceiling level, which serve only one room;
an exception are bathrooms and toilets located next to each other.
(2) A shared pipe that connects kitchens cannot serve any other types of
rooms.
8.1.23. The air pipes must be sealed so that less than 5 % of the flow rate
is lost.
8.1.24. The system shall be designed so that it can be easily inspected and
maintained. For this purpose:
a) an access cover shall be fitted at the base of the vertical pipes,
b) all shared system components that require maintenance (mechanical
devices, condensation outlet holes, etc.) shall be accessible from the
shared parts of the building.

8.2. Offices

8.2.1. The indoor design parameters (thermal environment category,


indoor air quality requirements, and comfort requirements) shall be determined in
accordance with sub-chapters 3.1 and 4.1 of this technical regulation.
8.2.2. Indoor air parameters shall be chosen depending on the category of
environment required by the design theme (Table 4.1) for the building/office area
to be built.
8.2.3. The design theme shall stipulate the sources of harmful emissions.
These must be clearly specified in the technical documentation.
8.2.4. The design engineer and beneficiary can agree for the comfort
parameter values to be exceeded for a given period of time (hours, days).
8.2.5.
The thermal load shall be determined in accordance with subchapter 5.3 of this technical regulation. The sources of heat shall be taken into
consideration when calculating the thermal load, also taking into account their
simultaneous operation.
8.2.6.
The fresh air flow rate for office buildings shall be determined in
accordance with sub-chapter 5.4 of this technical regulation.
8.2.7. The average air speed must be correlated with the other comfort
parameters, in accordance with the provisions stipulated in sub-chapter 4.1 of
79

this technical regulation. The values given in Table 4.5 shall be used, which
correspond to the design temperature, for an air current index between 10-20 %
and assuming that the turbulence intensity is 40 % (ventilation by mixing).
8.2.8. The following climate control systems can be used to control the
climate of office buildings:
a) air-only, with a constant or variable air flow rate (VAV);
b) air to water, with fan convectors, ejector-convectors, cooling
ceilings or cooling beams;
c) VRV refrigerant systems.
8.2.9. Climate control systems shall be used in accordance with the
provisions stipulated in sub-chapter 4.2 of this technical regulation.
8.2.10. When using air to water climate control systems or VRV systems, if
these only operate in recirculation mode, air intake systems must be used to
introduce the required volume of fresh air.
8.2.11. It is recommended that fresh air intake systems are used which can
recover the heat contained in the outlet air; in this case, the recovery system
must not allow for any pollutants to be transferred from the outlet air into the
fresh air.
8.2.12. The fresh or mixed air shall be introduced (depending on the
climate control system used) through air holes directly into the climate-controlled
rooms. The chosen air holes shall comply with the requirements stipulated in subchapter 6.1 of this technical regulation. Air flow regulating elements shall be
installed at the air holes, in accordance with Article 6.2.39 6.2.57 of this
technical regulation.
8.2.13. The fresh air shall be extracted through holes located in the
climate-controlled rooms. Some of the air flow can be transferred to toilets,
through transfer grilles.
8.2.14. Air treatment units shall be positioned so that the pipe routes are
as short as possible.
8.2.15. The ventilation or climate control systems should be designed so
that they can also be used to discharge smoke and hot gases in the event of a
fire.
8.2.16. The air treatment unit can be located outside or in especially
designated technical rooms. Care shall be taken to ensure that the noise level in
the rooms does not exceed the admissible level.
8.2.17. Toilets shall be ventilated by suction. Compensation air shall be
extracted from the office area through transfer grilles. In large toilets, air can also
be introduced in the buffer rooms.
8.2.18. Extraction fans shall be installed on the roof or in technical rooms
located on the top level. They shall meet the noise level requirements for the
climate-controlled building and the neighbouring buildings.
80

8.3 Hotels

8.3.1.
The ventilation/climate control system for hotel buildings shall
be chosen depending on the hotel category and the level of comfort that needs to
be provided.
8.3.2. In 1 and 2-star hotels, the accommodation spaces and the annexes
shall be ventilated using one of the following systems:
a) single-circuit (single flow) mechanical ventilation with hygroregulating air holes or constant flow rate and mechanical discharge,
without intake air treatment;
b) double-circuit (double-flow) mechanical ventilation, with intake air
heating. For double flow ventilation, it is recommended that heat
recovery systems are used; in this case, the recovery system should
not allow for pollutants to be transferred from the outlet air into the
fresh air.
8.3.3. (1) The controlled ventilation of accommodation spaces shall be
organised according to the following general principle: fresh air is introduced in
the hotel room and the vitiated air is extracted through the bathroom and
discharged to the outdoor environment.
(2) The reception areas shall be ventilated at higher pressure than the
neighbouring rooms.
8.3.4. In 3-star hotels or higher, the accommodation spaces, reception
areas, circulation routes, commercial spaces, and services, as well as all sports
and entertainment spaces, shall be climate-controlled.
3-star hotels which are located in mountain regions and are equipped with a
winter heating system can be exempt from this requirement. In this case, the
ventilation shall provided by one of the systems stipulated in Article 8.3.2 of this
technical regulation.
8.3.5. (1) Hotel spaces shall be climate-controlled using one of the
following climate control systems:
a) variable-flow air-only climate control system;
b) Multi-Split or VRV air-refrigerant climate control system;
c) air to water climate control system using fan convectors or water
loop heat pumps.
(2) The climate control systems used shall comply with the manufacturing
requirements stipulated in subchapter 4.2 of this technical regulation.
8.3.6. The indoor units of an air-refrigerant system and the terminal units
of an air to water system can be installed in a visible place or in the false
ceiling. In this case, it is recommended that these are connected to the air intake
and suction holes by means of plenums and air pipes.
8.3.7. Ceiling units shall be located, as much as possible, outside of the
climate-controlled spaces; in the case of accommodation rooms, these units shall
be located in the corridors. Access spaces shall be provided for inspection and
maintenance.
8.3.8. A ventilation installation shall be provided for air-refrigerant and
air to water systems. The method used to introduce ventilation air depends on
the climate control system chosen:
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a) For air-refrigerant climate control systems with Multi-Split or VRV


indoor units that cannot be channelled, as well as for air to water
systems with visible terminal units, the ventilation air shall be
introduced in the climate-controlled rooms.
b) For air-refrigerant climate control systems with VRV units that can
be channelled, or for air to water systems with terminal units that
can be channelled, the ventilation air shall be introduced in the
vicinity of their suction plenum, or directly into the plenum.
8.3.9. For all categories of hotels and all spaces, the ventilation air flow
that must be introduced shall be determined in accordance with Article 5.4.3 of
this technical regulation.
8.3.10. The ventilation air shall be extracted through bathrooms or
annexes, such as locker rooms or shared toilets, using installations equipped with
a single fan or local fans fitted with a non-return valve.

8.4. Commercial centres

8.4.1. Commercial centres shall be climate controlled in all sales areas


accessible to the public. Their annexes shall be ventilated naturally or
mechanically, depending on their specific conditions.
8.4.2. These spaces can be climate controlled using a single type of
climate control system, or by combining several types of systems.
8.4.3. It is recommended that sales spaces are climate controlled using
mono-zone air-only climate control systems. The circulated air can be treated
using ROOF TOP units or units located in special rooms or even in the space they
serve.
The same climate control system that is used in the large spaces shall also be
used in the spaces that are accessible to the public.
8.4.4. Small commercial spaces shall be climate-controlled using
decentralised systems such as VRV systems, multi-split systems or water loop
heat pumps. A ventilation system shall be provided to supply the fresh air
needed. The method used to introduce ventilation air depends on the climate
control system chosen.
8.4.5. The chosen climate control systems shall comply with the
requirements stipulated in sub-chapter 5 of this technical regulation.
8.4.6. Air-only climate control systems can also be used to discharge
smoke and hot gases in the event of a fire, provided that they meet the
requirements stipulated for smoke discharge systems.
8.4.7. Measures shall be taken to make sure that the climate control
systems being used do not interact with or disturb the operation of any smoke
and hot gas discharge systems of the commercial centre.
8.4.8. All commercial spaces shall be supplied with fresh air for ventilation.
This air can be treated using a central system, or locally. The minimum fresh air
flow rate shall be established based on a surface area index or based on an
estimated number of visitors, using the specific flow rate.
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8.4.9. To save energy, the fresh air flow rate should be variable, depending
on the concentration of CO2 in the outlet air.
8.4.10. Vitiated air shall be fully evacuated from small commercial spaces
through the toilets, or some of it shall be evacuated through the toilets and the
rest through holes that transfer it to the circulation areas, from where it shall be
evacuated in a centralised way, using the climate control system of the access
areas.
8.4.11. Fresh air inlet holes and air outlet holes shall be located in
accordance with the requirements stipulated in subchapter 6.6 of this technical
regulation.

8.5. Education buildings

8.5.1. Education buildings must be ventilated/climate-controlled so that the


air quality and comfort requirements stipulated in subchapters 3.1 and 4.1 of this
technical regulation are complied with.
8.5.2. Education buildings shall be equipped with mechanical or natural
ventilation systems that ensure the required indoor air quality, in order to prevent
decreased alertness, tiredness, and, therefore, educational failure of the students.
8.5.3. The minimum fresh air flow rates per occupant are as follows:
a) 15 m3/h/person for kindergartens, schools or colleges;
b) 18 m3/h/person for rooms in secondary schools, seminars,
accommodation rooms, offices, reunion halls,
c) 22 m3/h/person for dining halls,
d) 30 m3/h/person for isolated toilets;
e) 10 to 20 m3/h/table for shared kitchens, depending on the number of
tables served at the same time.
8.5.4. A mechanical ventilation system can be designed for the entire
building or only certain areas of the building, using the systems described in
subchapter 3.2 of this technical regulation.
8.5.5. In the case of double flow mechanical ventilation, the air is usually
introduced and extracted so that the heat can be recovered from the outlet air. In
this situation:
a) the intake air shall be filtered and treated; the minimum process shall
consist in heating the air in winter conditions, at an outlet
temperature equal to the design indoor temperature.
b) The heat is recovered using plate, thermal tube or rotating heat
recuperators. The air treatment units shall be manufactured in
accordance with the requirements stipulated in sub-chapter 6.6 of
this technical regulation.
c) where units equipped with heat recuperators cannot be installed, the
mechanical ventilation system can be designed without outlet pipes.
In this case, the air shall be discharged by overpressure towards the
corridors, where it will be evacuated into the outdoor environment
using fans.
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8.5.6. The mechanical ventilation system should be designed so that it can


also be used to discharge smoke and hot gases in the event of a fire.
8.5.7. Air pipes used in shared spaces shall be made of non-combustible
materials and shall meet the requirements stipulated in sub-chapter 6.2 of this
technical regulation. A mixing or displacement ventilation system, equipped with
air holes specific to the ventilation system chosen, can be used to ensure air
distribution within halls occupied by pupils. Textile air pipes with uniform air
distribution can also be used.
8.5.8. The dimensions of the air holes shall be determined so that the air
speed in the occupied area does not exceed the limit values given in Table 4.5.
8.5.9. For single-flow mechanical ventilation, it is recommended that:
a) fresh air is introduced naturally through hygro-adjustable holes
located in the window joinery in rooms occupied by pupils and/or the
walls of the room;
b) air is discharged by overpressure towards the corridors, from where it
shall be evacuated to the outdoor environment using fans.
8.5.10. Ventilation by opening the windows shall only be used in existing
buildings, if these cannot be equipped with mechanical ventilation systems.
8.5.11. In the situations mentioned in Article 8.5.9 and 8.5.10, the thermal
power of the heating system must also ensure that the intake air flow is heated in
each individual room.
8.5.12. Measures shall be drawn up for ventilation by opening the
windows, to teach the users how to ensure satisfactory efficiency, such as
ventilation during break time, in the period between study cycles, etc.

8.6. Swimming pools

8.6.1. The indoor air parameters for indoor swimming pools are:
a) for normal swimming pools:
- water temperature in the pool twater = 26C;
- indoor air temperature ti = 28C;
- relative humidity i = 60 %;
b) if the beneficiary wants the temperature to be higher:
- water temperature in the pool twater = 30;
- indoor air temperature shall be: ti = 32 ;
- maximum relative humidity i = 45 %
c) for medical swimming pools:
- water temperature in the pool twater = 36;
- indoor air temperature ti = 28C;
- maximum relative humidity i = 50 %.
8.6.2. Indoor swimming pools shall be equipped with climate control and/or
dehumidification systems that are capable of maintaining the indoor parameters
within the desired limits. Dehumidification of swimming pools using warm air
systems that use fresh air should be avoided as much as possible.

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8.6.3. The dehumidification systems of small pools shall be independent,


mobile or fixed, and shall incorporate refrigeration systems.
8.6.4. (1) For large swimming pools, the air treatment units shall have
incorporated refrigeration machines which shall be used both for dehumidification
and to reheat the treated air.
(2) The units shall use fresh air and shall be equipped with heat
recuperators for efficient energy use.
(3) The heat recuperators of the air treatment units, independent systems
or solar panels shall be used to heat the water in the pool.
8.6.5. The dehumidification air flow shall be calculated for average winter
conditions.
8.6.6. In swimming pools, the air distribution is usually of the bottom-top
type:
a) Air is introduced through the lower part of the room and, if possible,
under the windows, in order to counteract the cold air currents in
front of the windows.
b) Air is extracted through the upper part of the room and, whenever
possible, air will also be extracted from the vicinity of the pools to
eliminate unpleasant odours.
c) An exception is small fixed or mobile dehumidifiers in which the air is
introduced at the bottom and discharged at the top.
8.6.7. (1) The air pipes shall be made of humidity-resistant materials (zinccoated metal sheet, coated metal sheet, stainless steel sheet, PVC, aluminiumcoated polyurethane, etc.):
(2) The air outlet pipes must be thermally insulated to prevent water
vapours from condensing inside the pipe.
(3) Air intake pipes shall be installed near the pool, so that the air outlet
holes are located in the work area, as near to the surface of the pool water as
possible.
8.6.8. When refurbishing swimming pools, a top-bottom system can be
used if the existing air pipes cannot be reused due to wear and tear or access
difficulties. The air jet provided by the outlet holes must reach the work area at a
speed that ensures comfort. In this situation, pipes made of textile materials can
also be used, if they are appropriately sized.
8.6.9. The pool shall be covered with a plastic sheet during the rest
periods, to reduce evaporation and energy consumption.
8.6.10. The air holes located in the work area shall be resistant to
mechanical knocks.
8.6.11. An independent heating system shall be used to reduce the
thermal load of the units in winter conditions. Electrical heating is prohibited.
8.6.12. To provide a superior level of comfort, it is recommended that
heating is carried out through the floor, in both the pool entry and exit areas, to
prevent the feeling of cold and enable the floor to dry quicker.
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8.6.13. The following requirements must be complied with in order to build


swimming pools with lower energy consumption and high system efficiency:
a) the construction elements shall have low thermal transmittance;
b) the construction elements shall be fitted with vapour diffusion
retarders, and thermal insulation shall be installed on the outside.

8.7. Restaurants

8.7.1. For the ventilation/climate control of restaurants, independent


systems shall be used in both the dining room and the kitchen.
8.7.2. Dining rooms shall be climate-controlled using:
a) constant or variable-flow air-only climate control systems;
b) air to water climate control systems;
c) air-refrigerant climate control systems.
8.7.3. The dining room shall be ventilated/climate-controlled at a higher
pressure than the kitchen and lavatories, but at lower pressure than the entrance
hall. The overpressure regimen shall be correlated to the one in the neighbouring
annexes, so that the air flow rates are balanced throughout the restaurant. If the
dining room is compartmented into smoking areas and non-smoking areas, the
non-smoking area must have higher pressure than the smoking area.
8.7.4. When using an air-only climate control system, it is recommended
that a bottom-top mixing or displacement distribution system is used. If these
distribution systems cannot be used, a top-bottom-top or top-top mixing
distribution system shall be used.
8.7.5. In all systems, the air intake and air outlet devices shall be chosen
and positioned so that the intake air cannot be short-circuited.
8.7.6. If the air flow required to absorb heat and humidity is higher than
the fresh air flow, the additional air flow shall not be recirculated.
8.7.7. When using air to water or refrigerant climate control systems,
an air-only system shall be provided in order to introduce the fresh (ventilation)
air required, which shall comply with the requirements stipulated in Article 8.2.11
8.2.14.
8.7.8. The climate control air treatment units shall be equipped with twospeed fans for when the thermal load is low.
8.7.9. Toilets shall be ventilated by extraction (suction).
8.7.10. Extraction fans shall be installed on the roof or in technical rooms
located on the last level. They shall meet the noise level requirements for the
climate-controlled building and the neighbouring buildings.
8.7.11. The ventilation or climate control systems should be designed so
that they can also be used to discharge smoke and hot gases in the event of a
fire.
8.7.12. A low pressure regimen or a balanced pressure regimen shall be
used to ventilate kitchens.
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8.7.13. To reduce energy consumption, the kitchen shall be equipped so


that any equipment with significant heat discharge is grouped and sized to meet
the actual needs of the restaurant.
8.7.14. Natural ventilation can be used in small kitchens.
8.7.15. (1) Large kitchens shall be ventilated using extraction hoods
located above the food preparation equipment. It is recommended that induction
hoods are used in order to reduce energy consumption.
(2) The hoods, outlet pipes, and other capture devices must be made of
materials belonging to class A1 of reaction to fire.
(3) The hoods and outlet pipes shall be positioned at least 0.5 m away from
any elements and materials made of combustible materials.
(4) The hoods, outlet pipes and other capture devices shall be isolated from
the combustible elements and materials located less than 1.00 m away.
(5) When passing through walls and floors, as well as inside rooms with
other intended uses, the outlet pipes must be made of materials belonging to
class A1 of reaction to fire and make sure that the fire resistance is equal to the
fire resistance of the elements they go through, but no less than EI 60 h0 io or EI
60 ve io, depending on the way in which they are installed, either vertically or
horizontally.
(6) Outlet fans must be provided with fire resistance F 300 60. The fittings
between the outlet fans and the pipes must belong to class A 2-s1,d0 of reaction to
fire.
(7) The cables/electrical conductors that supply the electric motors of outlet fans
must be equipped with flame propagation delay, in accordance with the
applicable regulations.
8.7.16. If this type of hoods cannot be used, warmed air shall be used for
compensation when the outdoor air temperature is lower than the indoor air
temperature. In large kitchens, it is recommended that air intake systems
equipped with a cooling feature are used in the summer.
8.7.17. The air discharged from kitchens must always go through a first
step that uses a special filter for fat, which can be easily cleaned and replaced.
The air extraction process shall take into account the provisions of Article 6.2.30 6.2.32.
8.7.18. The air pipes shall comply with the air-tightness requirements
stipulated in Article 6.2.86 6.2.90.
8.7.19. It is recommended that the heat is recovered from the outlet air
using thermal tube or intermediary fluid recuperators. The use of rotating
recuperators is not permitted due to the risk of transferring pollutants.

8.8. Industrial halls

8.8.1.
The design of ventilation systems for industrial halls shall take
into consideration the technical, economic, energetic, and human factors that
occur, which requires good knowledge of the building, work places, and
technologies.
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8.8.2.
The design of a ventilation system shall take into account the
following aspects:
a) defining the building and work places, with a full data inventory about
the industrial processes, people, environmental conditions, etc.;
b) determination and classification of the level of risk posed by the
pollution sources; establishing the physico-chemical and toxicological
characteristics of the pollutants;
c) determination of the technical capture and ventilation solutions,
taking into account the industrial process, its possible evolution, and
changes it causes to the ventilation devices, as well as any potential
incompatibilities between the pollutants (dust, humidity, cyanides,
and acids) which require separation of the circuits;
d) determination of the parameters (flow rates, air speeds,
temperatures, etc.) and calculation of the systems (diameters, load
losses, installed capacity, etc.);
e) choosing the system components (terminal devices, pipes, materials,
fans, etc.);
f) determining and providing the components that must be activated or
controlled during operation;
g) reception and commissioning of the ventilation system and
determination of the reference values.
Risks to the human body
8.8.3. The substances used or manufactured in industry can have various
negative effects on the human body; therefore, a minimum objective is to
maintain the necessary atmosphere to prevent the personnel from getting ill. For
this purpose, the reference limit values for the concentrations of harmful
substances and a limit exposure value shall be used (Annex No 31 of the General
workplace protection standards, approved by Order No 508/933/2002).
8.8.4. Due to its nature, whether it is irritant, corrosive, fibrous, toxic,
allergenic or pathogenic, or simply due to its presence, dust has pulmonary
effects even if it is not harmful (Annex No 32 of the General workplace protection
standards).
8.8.5. Gases are aggressive to human health if they are toxic, irritant or
corrosive. Also, regardless of whether they are aggressive or not, they pose the
risk of asphyxiation and lack of breathable oxygen (Annex No 33 of the General
workplace protection standards).
Risks of explosion
8.8.6. The atmosphere of a work place is explosive if, after flammable
substances in gas, vapour, mist or powder format have ignited in the air mixture
at atmospheric conditions, the combustion propagates throughout the entire
unburned mixture (in accordance with Article 2B of Government Decision No
752/2004).
8.8.7. A potentially explosive atmosphere is an atmosphere which could
become explosive due to local and operations conditions (in accordance with
Article 2C of Government Decision No 752/2004).
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8.8.8. An explosive atmosphere can form during normal operation in rooms


that are either closed or insufficiently ventilated, in the vicinity of rooms where
combustible liquid pumps, recipients with surfaces that are free of flammable
liquids, uncovered containers, etc. are deposited.
8.8.9. An explosive atmosphere can also form accidentally due to leaks
from recipients located inside stocked, closed or insufficiently ventilated storage
rooms, leaks from any pipes carrying liquids, flammable gases or pollutants, or
leaks from the combustion installations.
8.8.10. When mixed with air, most flammable vapours and gases pose the
risk of explosion; the dangerous concentration range is between the lower and
upper explosion limits. The ventilation must ensure that the lower explosion limit
values are not exceeded.
8.8.11. Dust and combustible powders do not normally form explosive
concentrations in workplace atmospheres. However, everyday operations
repairs, loading or unloading of powdery products, can create dangerous clouds;
powders with fine granulometry (<200m) deposited in layers, their suspension
by the air currents, or powders emitted by non-airtight devices can create
explosive clouds: carbon or sulphur dust, as well as powdery organic materials
such as flour, sugar, milk, starch, cereals, wood, plastics or metallic powders.
8.8.12. The minimum explosion concentration of a powder depends on
several parameters: granulometry, power of the ignition source in particular. The
minimum explosion concentration of a powder ranges between 20 and 100 g/m 3.
In general, the maximum explosion concentration is higher than 1 kg/m3.
8.8.13. To avoid the explosion of flammable powders, the following shall be
ensured:
a) good leak-tightness of all apparatus and machines (except for those
which experience technological leaks: mills, sieves, elevator, belt
conveyer, mixer, etc.);
b) capture of the powders produced by the machines at the source,
using a dry or a wet method (grinder, polisher, etc.);
c) all surfaces inside the storage rooms are kept clean.
Risks due to heat and cold exposure
8.8.14. To limit heat and cold exposure, ventilation systems can be used
which ensure the air speeds and temperatures needed in order to provide
acceptable working conditions, due to a convection effect.
Ventilation systems
8.8.15. The systems used to ventilate industrial halls shall be as follows:
a) local ventilation (by local suction),
b) general ventilation by mixing,
c) combined ventilation (local and general).
8.8.16. Local ventilation shall capture the pollutants as close to the
emission source as possible, to limit their dispersion in the entire atmosphere of
the room; this system should be used where there are significant and
concentrated sources of pollutant emissions.
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8.8.17. General ventilation shall dilute the pollutants using the fresh air
flow, in order to reduce the concentration of pollutant substances up to the
minimum admissible concentration value.
Suction ventilation
8.8.18. Suction ventilation must comply with the following principles:
a) the maximum possible coverage of the area where pollutants are
produced;
b) the capture must take place as close to the emission area as possible;
c) the capture device must be placed so that the operator is not located
between the device and the source of pollution;
d) the natural movements of the pollutants should be used;
e) the air speed should be sufficient to drive the pollutants;
f) the air speeds should be uniformly distributed within the capture
area;
g) the air must be compensated depending on the flow rate extracted by
the local suction devices;
h) air currents and a sensation of thermal discomfort should be avoided;
i) the polluted air must be discharged outside of the fresh air intake
area;
j) if applicable, the outlet air must be treated to retain the pollutants so
that admissible emission concentrations are complied with.
8.8.19. Three types of capture devices shall be used: emission source
cover devices, inductor devices, and receiver devices.
8.8.20. The emission source cover devices can be closed (cases, enclosed
cabins), semi-closed (semi-enclosed cabins, recesses) or open (hoods, lateral
suction in industrial baths, collection holes, etc.). Devices with the best closure
shall be chosen, depending on the technological process.
8.8.21. The air flow rates extracted shall be those specified for the
technological process. If the air flow rate is not specified, it shall be calculated as
a function of the air speed through the opening of the device; this speed shall be
chosen depending on the toxicity of the pollutant being extracted, making sure
that the process is not disturbed.
8.8.22. The design of the suction device shall ensure the speed is
uniformly distributed through the opening; for this purpose, compartments,
screens or guide plates can be provided, making sure to not create any areas of
turbulence due to obstacles, sharp edges, etc.
8.8.23. Inductor capture devices, located near the source, shall generate
an air current in the emission area in order to drive the pollutant to the suction
device and carrier pipes; the air current thus generated shall also act as an air
curtain that prevents dispersion of the pollutant towards the room.
8.8.24. When designing capture devices, care shall be taken to create a
thorough aeraulic conformation, as well as to ensure the mechanical resistance,
stability, and corrosion resistance of the material depending on the pollutant
being carried.
General ventilation for diluting the pollutants
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8.8.25. The general ventilation in industrial halls must meet the following
requirements:
a) to only be designed as a single system if local ventilation is
technically impossible;
b) to ensure that the air evacuated through the local outlet systems is
compensated; the compensation air shall be heated;
c) in addition, to ensure that any pollutant leaks from the local outlet
systems are diluted;
d) to preferably use a mechanical intake and extraction process. Natural
extraction is possible in high halls and places with large heat sources;
e) The polluted air must be discharged away from the fresh air intake
(hole) area.
f) the air intake and outlet devices shall be located so that:
1.
the air circulates in a general movement from the clean
areas to the polluted areas,
2.
to prevent the formation of non-ventilated areas,
3.
to prevent the formation of air currents that cause a
sensation of thermal discomfort;
4.
work places should not be located between the source
and the extraction system;
5.
the air movement created must have the same direction
as the natural movement of the pollutants and, in particular,
the ascending effect of warm gases should be followed.
8.8.26. Low pressure ventilation shall be carried out in rooms where toxic
or asphyxiating products are discharged.
8.8.27. In adjacent rooms with different specific pollution, the
independence of the fans shall also be investigated, by placing lock chambers
with a permanent fresh air overpressure between them. When, for reasons
specific to the industrial process, the room must be kept at overpressure, the lock
chambers shall be kept at low pressure.

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9. Measures and solutions for increasing the energy


efficiency of ventilation/climate control systems.
9.1. Thermal insulation of the systems

9.1.1. The components of the ventilation/climate control systems must be


thermally insulated whenever there is a need to limit energy losses by the liquids
that carry or store energy; therefore, the thickness of this thermal insulation shall
be determined based on technical and economical criteria, taking into
consideration the specific data of the respective design.
9.1.2. The air pipes shall be thermally insulated in the following situations:
a) they are installed outside the building
b) they pass through spaces that are not climate-controlled or heated
c) there is the risk of condensation forming on the surface of the air
pipes (they pass through spaces with a high level of humidity)
d) they carry high temperature air and there is a risk of injury upon
touching
e) they carry high temperature air or gases and pass through spaces
that pose a fire hazard
f) they carry flammable gases, vapours or dust and pass through high
temperature areas; in this case, it must be made sure that the
temperatures on the surface on the air pipes are not dangerous.
9.1.3. Heat carrier or refrigerant pipes shall be thermally insulated along
the entire length of their routes, regardless of the spaces that they pass through.
9.1.4. The equipment of ventilation/climate control systems shall be
thermally insulated in an adequate manner, especially when installed outdoors.
9.1.5. The materials used for the thermal insulation of ventilation/climate
control systems must meet the following requirements:
a) to be non-combustible or hardly combustible (classes A1, A2 of
reaction to fire), or hardly flammable (classes B, C, D of reaction to
fire),
b) to not be susceptible to rotting,
c) to have insulating properties that are stable over time,
d) to stay rigid at high temperatures,
e) to be able to be used appropriately for low temperatures, wherever
needed (refrigerant pipes, cooled water pipes, cooled water storage
equipment),
f) to not be toxic or lead to toxic emissions at high temperatures.
9.1.6. Measures shall be taken to protect the outer surface of the thermal
insulation in an appropriate manner, taking into consideration the humidity
exposure conditions, mechanical knocks, and fire and explosion hazards in the
spaces where it is located.

9.2 Heat recovery and storage, and use of renewable


sources

9.2.1. To create ventilation/climate control systems with low energy


consumption, a heat recovery function must be used within the system. The heat
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shall be recovered from the outlet air by recirculation, transfer, recuperative or


regenerative heat exchangers, or thermodynamic processes (heat pumps,
thermal tube heat exchangers, etc.).
9.2.2. It is also recommended that any economical solution is analysed and
applied to recover heat from heat sources external to the ventilation/climate
control system (sun, ground, outdoor air, residual heat from industrial processes,
etc.).
9.2.3. Air recirculation is permitted depending on the outlet air quality.
Therefore:
a) Outlet air belonging to category ETA 1 can be recirculated or
transferred,
b) Outlet air belonging to category ETA 2 cannot be recirculated but can
be transferred to toilets, garages or other similar spaces,
c) Outlet air belonging to categories ETA 3 and ETA 4 cannot be
recirculated or transferred.
9.2.4. The following provisions shall be complied with when recovering
heat from the outlet air:
a) The type and air-tightness tests of the heat recovery installations
shall comply with the provisions of standard SR EN 308:2000.
b) When the outlet air belongs to category ETA 2, the fresh air supply
circuit of the heat recuperator must operate at high pressure.
c) When air-air heat recovery is used for outlet air belonging to category
ETA 3, the entire fresh air supply route must operate at higher
pressure than the outlet air circuit. This requirement must be
complied with in all operating conditions of the system.
d) When the air from which heat is recovered comes from outlet air of
different categories, this air should not contain more than 5 % of air
belonging to category ETA3, if the type of heat recovery unit being
used enables the transfer of any odours, humidity or other impurities
(e.g. rotating recuperator). Increased attention should be paid to the
internal air-tightness of the recuperator-type heat exchanger.
e) For outlet air belonging to category ETA4, heat recovery installations
which use intermediary liquid should be used.
9.2.5. For climate control systems with a refrigeration capacity higher than
300 kW, it is necessary to carry out a reliability study that contains cold/heat
storage solutions for the system, in order to reduce the load peak value and the
installed capacity of the refrigeration system. This study shall be included in the
technical design documentation.
9.2.6. For climate control systems with a refrigeration capacity higher than
100 kW, it is necessary to carry out a reliability study that contains solutions for
using renewable energy sources. Solutions that use geothermal energy or solar
energy can be considered, depending on the particularities of the design, the
space available, and the investors options. The aim is to reduce the primary
energy consumption.

10. Carrying out works related to ventilation and climate


control systems
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General aspects
10.1. The works for installing ventilation-climate control systems shall be
coordinated and correlated with the actual construction works. The coordination
between different subject fields with regard to the routes and spaces designated
for each type of system and the chronological order in which these shall be
installed, stipulated in the design, shall be complied with.
10.2. The following shall be taken into consideration when correlating
works for installing ventilation - climate control systems with construction works:
a) The construction shall be equipped with the elements needed in order
to install the lifting installations and machines used to bring the
system equipment into position;
b) the architectural and resistance design shall stipulate free spaces and
gaps so that there will be not need to break any built elements;
c) installing, at the time agreed with the constructor, the retaining
devices for fixing the system components onto the construction
elements;
d) the ventilation-climate control equipment shall only be brought into
the designated rooms and installed in position after all construction
works have been completed, in order to avoid their deterioration by
knocking, splashing, dust deposits or being used as scaffolding.
10.3. All works for installing ventilation - climate control systems shall be
carried out in accordance with the provisions of the Specifications and the
workplace protection standards.
Inspection of materials and equipment
10.4. When carrying out works for the installation of ventilation-climate
control systems, only materials, equipment, and procedures shall be used which
bear the Technical Agreement or CE marking or have equivalent performances
and are legally sold in a Member State of the European Union or Turkey, or are
legally manufactured in an EFTA state that is a party to the Agreement on the
European Economic Area and comply with the provisions of the design.
10.5. All equipment arriving on site shall be accompanied by certificates of
conformity.
10.6. Before the systems can be used, all materials and equipment shall be
inspected, in order to determine whether they have suffered any damage during
transportation and storage which could affect their integrity and operation. The
systems shall only be able to be used after any damage has been remedied or, if
applicable, after the faulty equipment has been replaced.
10.7. Measuring and control instruments shall be inspected to confirm the
presence of a seal and metrology report.
Transportation, storage, and manipulation
10.8. The materials and equipment for the systems shall be transported
using adequate means that are ensured against any sources of damage
(vibrations, shocks, solar radiation, dust, weather phenomena, theft, etc.).
94

10.9. During the period between being supplied and being installed, all
equipment and materials shall be stored in warehouses especially set up to
ensure their correct management, in accordance with the instructions issued by
the suppliers, the regulations in force with regard to fire protection and fire
extinguishing, and the workplace protection standards, taking into consideration
the following:
a) during the storage period, materials which are not negatively
influenced by the atmospheric conditions can be stored outdoors, in
stacks or on racks, pallets or platforms, in accordance with the
manipulation-transportation and anti-theft requirements;
b) equipment and materials that could be damaged by climatic factors,
especially humidity and solar radiation, can be stored under shelters
that are also fenced in to prevent theft;
c) equipment and materials that could be damaged by humidity,
excessive cold, solar radiation, wind, dust or even negligent
manipulation, shall be stored in enclosed warehouses.

Manufacture of ventilation climate control pipes (ducts)


10.10. The air circulation pipes of ventilation climate control systems
shall consist of straight pipe sections and special parts, and shall be
manufactured in accordance with the basic technical design and the engineering
details in workshops equipped with the required technical equipment, following
the manufacturing procedures stipulated in the technical agreement. These shall
be installed in position on site, also in accordance with the basic technical design
for the system. An exception is masonry or plasterboard ducts, which shall be
made directly on site.
10.11. The basic technical design shall specify the type of pipes to be used
and the requirements that these must meet.
10.12. The method used to join together the semi-finished materials from
which the pipes are made, and reinforce them in order to prevent the occurrence
of any deformations and noise due to pressure variations shall be stipulated in
the technical agreement for the manufacturing procedure. The design engineer
shall also be consulted when analysing the bids for the manufacture-installation
works.
Installation of air pipes
10.13. When installing the air pipes, the instructions given in the drawings
and the Specifications, as well as the provisions of the Plan for coordination
between the specialist fields that collaborated to design the investment shall be
strictly complied with. These documents shall stipulate:
a) the pipe routes and the exact position of the equipment, air inlet
holes, and air outlet holes, as well as the space reserved for the
ventilation system equipment;
b) the geometrical shape of the pipes, dimensions, air flow rates, and
speeds in all points subject to change, and potentially the installation
slopes;
c) the distance between the supporting points on the construction
elements, and the type of support used;
95

d) the exact position of the regulating valves, fire dampers, and


measuring points, making sure that these can be accessed.
Thermal insulation of air pipes
10.14. Ventilation pipes shall be insulated in accordance with the
requirements stipulated in Article 9.1.2, 9.1.3.
10.15. The materials and procedures for thermal insulation are subject to
technical agreement. The design engineer must specify the material to be used
and its thickness and, if applicable, the mechanical protection required for the
insulation.
Installation of the equipment
10.16. The components of modern ventilation-climate control equipment
(fans, heating/cooling batteries, filters, heat recuperators, etc.) are usually
incorporated in complex air treatment units in the form of modules, which are
sometimes dismountable in order to ease their manipulation during
transportation and installation.
10.17. Before beginning installation, the equipment shall undergo the
following inspections:
a) presence of the CE marking and correspondence between the
characteristics entered on the identification plate and those
stipulated in the design and the Certificate of Conformity;
b) b) external general inspection of the condition of the equipment, to
identify any potential damages suffered during transportation and
manipulation in order to bring it to the installation position
(deformations, degradation of fittings, degradation of the measuring
instruments and automation apparatus, etc.);
c) inspection of the free movement, without any friction, of the fan
rotors, as well as the presence and condition of the thermal and
sound insulation of the unit;
d) the technical condition and mobility of the shutters and dust filters;
e) the technical condition of the batteries and heat recuperators;
f) the presence and technical condition of the elastic supports provided
in order to prevent any vibrations of the unit from being transmitted
to the construction elements.
10.18. Any irregularities found shall be remedied and mentioned in a
written document; if these irregularities prove to be serious, replacement of the
equipment shall be requested.
10.19. The air treatment unit and, potentially, the independent fan, shall
be placed in position in strict compliance with the installation levels stipulated in
the design; any inconsistency with the on-site situation shall be notified to the
design engineer, so that they can order, by means of Site Instructions, for the
technical design to be amended.
10.20. Before fixing the unit in position, in accordance with the design
provisions for ensuring safety and stability during operation, its horizontality in
two directions shall be checked.

96

10.21. Before fixing the independent fans in their final position, their
horizontality shall be checked and ensured as follows:
a) The horizontality of radial fans whose rotor is installed directly on the
axis of the electric motor shall be checked using a spirit level, which
is successively placed in two perpendicular directions, on the base
frame of the fan and on the upper generatrix of the motor;
b) The horizontality of radial fans that are coupled directly to the motor
by means of an elastic coupler or belts shall be checked by placing a
spirit level on the upper generatrices of the motor and fan axes; the
alignment of the two axes shall be checked and, if needed, corrected;
c) For axial fans, which are normally installed on the pipes, the
horizontality or verticality of the cylindrical housing shall be checked,
as applicable.
d) Once the horizontality of the fan has been ensured, the static
balancing of the rotor shall be checked by manually inducing a
rotating movement; the rotor shall be considered to be balanced if it
stops in different positions after 3-4 rotations. At this point, it shall
also be checked that the rotor does not rub onto the housing.
10.22. When fixing the equipment in position, the instructions issued by
the manufacturer and stipulated in the Technical File of the product shall be
complied with.
10.23. After installation, a note regarding the interdiction to use any
equipment installed on the floor as scaffolding for carrying out other works shall
be displayed in a visible place, and measures shall be taken to make sure that
this requirement is complied with.
10.24. The equipment that is not part of a complex unit (heating batteries
for correcting the temperature, fans, indoor and outdoor units of local climate
control systems, etc.) shall also be installed in accordance with the instructions
given in the technical files of the products.
10.25. When installing equipment located on terraces, the aim shall be to
retain the integrity of the waterproof insulation and prevent the transmission of
any noise and vibrations to the building floor.
Air-tightness of ventilation/climate control systems
10.26. (1) When installing the system components, the necessary
measures shall be taken to ensure that the joints connecting the pipe elements,
as well as the fittings between the pipes and the equipment are air-tight around
the perimeter of the access doors to the air chambers, the measuring and access
covers, etc., so that the air suction/losses are limited in relation to the pipe class,
established in accordance with Figure 6.2.1 or Table 10.1.
Table 10.1. Air pipe classes and limit values for air losses in pipes
Class of
air-tightness
Class A
Low pressure

Static pressure
limit [Pa]
Positive
Negative
500

500

Maximum
speed
[m/s]
10

limit values
for air
losses
[l/sm2]
0.027 p
0.65

97

Class B
Medium
pressure
Class C
High
pressure
Class D
(special)
High
pressure

1 000

750

20

0.65

2 000

750

40

0.65

2 000

750

40

0.65

0.009 p
0.003 p

0.001 p

(2) The admissible values for the air losses are given in Table 6.2.1 for
various pipe diameters and classes of air-tightness.
10.27. (1) The following steps shall be taken to test the degree of airtightness of the air pipes:
a) air pipes belonging to class A do not require testing;
b) air pipes belonging to class B shall be tested within the limit of 10 %
of the parts within a network, chosen at random. If these parts do not
comply with the limit values given in Table 6.2.1, the tests shall be
repeated using another 10 % of the parts within the network;
c) pipes belonging to classes C and D shall be 100 % tested.
(2) The design engineer can request that pipes belonging to class B are also
tested at pressures higher than 100 Pa, or that pipes belonging to class C are
tested at pressures lower than 500 Pa. Depending on the importance of the
building, they can also enforce the requirement for a smaller air loss, specifying a
percentage of losses from the value required for the class that the respective
pipes belong to, or enforcing a certain class of air-tightness.

98

11. SETTING
COMMISSIONING.

INTO

OPERATION,

ACCEPTANCE,

AND

11.1 The setting into operation, acceptance, and commissioning of


ventilation and climate control systems form the set of activities based on which
the completed systems are entrusted for use to the beneficiary.
11.2 (1) The setting into operation of a ventilation and climate control
system represents a set of technical operations aiming to verify and ensure the
correspondence between the system and the design with regard to its functions
and performance.
(2) The following steps shall be carried out in order to set the system into
operation:
a)
Preparation operations
b)
Inspection of the system
c)
Starting the system
d)
Adjusting the system
e)
Tests
a) Preparation operations
The following preparation operations shall be carried out in order to set a
ventilation and climate control into operation:
1. the personnel responsible for setting the system into operation shall
study and become familiar with the design,
2. the completed system shall be inspected, and the accessibility of the
measuring points and regulating equipment shall be confirmed,
3. a schedule shall be drawn up for the operations required in order to
set the system into operation,
4. preparation of the measuring instruments and control apparatus
required for system inspection operations,
5. preparation of the sheets for collecting evidence data during the
inspection operations.
b) Inspection of the system
The following categories of inspection operations shall be carried out
1. good performance inspection of the system,
2. inspections of the system components.
The good performance inspection includes:
1. checking correspondence with the design
2. checking the quality of the completed works,
3. checking conformity with the technical regulations,
4. checking conformity with the workplace protection and fire safety
standards,
5. checking that all documents required for operation are available.
Checking correspondence with the design refers to
1. structure of the system, checking the presence and position of the
elements within the system,
2. geometry of the system, checking the dimensions of the air pipes, air
holes, and regulating devices,
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3. functional characteristics of the system (flow rates, pressures, air


speeds, thermal capacities, etc.),
4. thermal insulation of pipes and equipment,
5. anti-corrosion protection of the system elements,
6. presence of fittings for connection to utilities (electricity, heat
carriers, water, sewage),
7. presence of the automation elements stipulated by design.
The quality of the completed works shall be inspected in accordance with
the normative documents on quality checking and acceptance of installation
works for constructions, checking that the following essential quality
requirements are complied with:
1. mechanical resistance and stability,
2. fire safety,
3. hygiene, health, and the environment,
4. operational safety,
5. noise protection,
6. energy saving and thermal insulation.
To check conformity with the technical regulations, the specific normative
documents in force regarding the design, manufacture, and operation of
ventilation and climate control systems shall be used
The compliance of the system with the provisions regarding protection,
safety, and hygiene in the workplace shall be checked on the basis of the
following regulations:
1. Law No 319/2006 on health and safety at work;
2. Government Decision No 1425/2006 for approval of the
Methodological guidelines for applying the provisions of Law No
319/2006 on health and safety at work, with its subsequent
modifications and supplementation;
3. The General workplace protection standards, approved by Joint Order
No 508/933 of 2002 of the Ministry of Labour and Social Solidarity and
the Ministry of Health and Family.
The compliance of the system with the provisions on fire safety shall be
checked on the basis of the specific technical regulations in force and the
following documents:
1. General fire protection standards approved by Order No 163/2007 of
the Ministry of Administration and Interior,
2. Regulation on classification of construction products on the basis of
their fire behaviour performance, approved by Order No
1822/394/2004 of the Ministry of Transport, Constructions, and
Tourism and the Ministry of Administration and Interior, with its
subsequent modifications and supplementation,
3. General provisions on reducing fire risks generated by electrostatic
loads.
(1) The inspection of the components of ventilation/climate control
systems aims to determine whether they have been correctly installed and if they
are efficient.
(2) The following components shall be inspected:
1. fans,
100

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

filters,
heating/cooling batteries,
humidification chambers,
air holes,
regulating devices,
air pipes,
the automation system.
other components of the ventilation and climate control system, as
applicable.
(3) The procedures for inspecting the quality of the completed works, per
each type of element, are specified in the specific normative documents
regarding quality checks and acceptance of installation works in constructions.
Inspection of the fans
For fans, the following shall be inspected:
1. identification plate on which the functional characteristics of the
equipment are entered (flow rate, pressure, speed),
2. the way the fan is fixed on the stand, and the vibration damping
system,
3. the horizontality or verticality of the motor and fan axes, as
applicable
4. the static balancing of the rotor,
5. the way in which the rotor rotates (without any abnormal friction,
play, noise or trepidation),
6. the correct rotating direction of the rotor,
7. the degree of heating of the bearings after one normal operation
cycle of the system,
8. the number of trapezoidal timing belts and their correct tensioning,
9. the fan and motor speed according to the identification plate,
10.
the condition of the fan accessories: flow regulating elements,
elastic fittings installed on the intake and outlet circuit, drive belt
protection system, etc.
11.
the quality of the electrical connections of the drive motor,
12.
intensity of the electricity absorbed and of the voltage in the
drive motor of the fan.
Inspection of the filters
For filters, the following shall be inspected:
1. the quality and integrity of the filtering material, in accordance with
the technical sheet of the product;
2. correct installation of the filtering material in the filter housing,
3. that the air circuit is airtight,
4. the pressure difference between the upstream and downstream air
passage sections of the filter,
5. the degree of dirtiness of the filtering material,
6. operation of the mechanical actuation elements of the filter.
Inspection of heating/cooling batteries
For heating/cooling batteries, the following shall be inspected:
1. identification plate on which the functional characteristics of the
equipment are entered (thermal capacity, flow rates, temperatures),
2. air-tightness of the housing,
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3. condition of the plates (to not be warped, flattened or blocked by


foreign bodies),
4. the intake/outlet direction of fittings on the heat pipes,
5. operation of the shut off and regulating valves installed on the water
and air circuits,
6. the presence of a frost protection device, as applicable.
Inspection of humidification chambers
For humidification chambers, the following shall be inspected:
1. identification plate on which the functional characteristics of the
equipment are entered,
2. dimensions of the humidification chamber, in accordance with the
design,
3. presence of the components and accessories,
4. correct installation of the humidification chamber components,
5. water and air-tightness,
6. the way in which the water distribution is controlled,
7. anti-corrosion protection.
Inspection of air holes
For air holes, the following shall be inspected:
1. correspondence with the design with regard to the type of hole used
and its position in the system and the ventilated room,
2. dimensions of the hole,
3. presence of air flow regulating/guiding devices, and their operation,
4. absence of any obstacles that could disturb the air flow through the
pipe and in the room.
Inspection of regulating devices
For frames fitted with shutters and regulating valves, the following shall be
inspected:
1. that they are tightly installed;
2. absence of any deformation of the mobile elements
3. the easy movement, without any play, of the dampers, shutters, and
actuation elements,
4. operation in accordance with the intended use (for example, shutters
with simultaneous adjustment, as well as parallel or opposed
shutters)
5. accessibility,
6. the possibility to block them in the adjustment positions, and the
presence of elements that indicate the position of the adjusting
element
Inspection of air pipes
For air pipes, the following shall be inspected:
1. integrity of the pipe network,
2. air-tightness of the joints between the pipe sections,
3. the supports, supporting elements, and the elements providing
protection against the transmission of vibrations
4. quality of the thermal insulation and anti-corrosion protection
5. presence of access and cleaning covers, as well as their air-tightness
and ease of assembling/disassembling,
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6. Absence of critical points which lead to additional load losses or


sources of noise (strangling of the flow section, foreign bodies in the
air current, small radiuses of curvature at the bends, large angles of
the diffusors and confusors, etc.)
Inspection of the automation system
For automation systems, the following shall be inspected:
1. correctness of the electrical connections,
2. correct positioning of transducer and execution elements, as well as
their operation,
3. the electrical panels, to assess:
- their location and accessibility,
- position of the components,
- presence of protection and grounding systems,
- the types of cables used,
- marking and air-tightness of the circuits,
- ventilation for cooling the panel.
4. interface with other systems (technical management of the building,
fire safety, etc.).

c) Starting the system


The following measures shall be taken before starting the system:
1. the automation elements that are susceptible to malfunctioning due
to contamination with dust shall be protected or removed from the air
route;
2. the filtration elements shall be removed,
3. the water system shall be emptied to avoid freezing of the heating
batteries and spraying chambers (in the cold season).
The system shall be started in three steps:
1. first start-up,
2. starting at normal load,
3. test operation.
The first start-up of the fan shall take place at reduced load, by partially
closing the regulating device or by making sure that the fan motor operates at
low speed (for variable-speed fans). The following shall be checked:
1. if the rotor rotates in the normal direction,
2. the level of vibration and noise,
3. the degree of heating of the motor and bearings, and the correct
tensioning of the timing belts.
(1) The system shall be started at normal load after observing its start-up
at reduced load and remedying any potential deficiencies.
(2) The same tests shall be performed for a start-up at normal load as for
the start-up at reduced load; the entire system shall also be tested to check its
air-tightness. Operation during start-up at normal load shall last as long as it is
necessary to examine the entire system.

103

The test operation shall take place with all the system components
assembled in their final position (filters, automation elements, regulating devices,
etc.). During the test operation, the inspections carried out during the start-up of
the system shall be repeated, paying particular attention to the operation of the
fan. The test operation shall last for at least 8 hours. Once the test operation has
been completed, the system adjustment operations can begin.
d) Adjusting the system.
The aeraulic adjustment of the system is a process by which a quantitative
adjustment of the air flow through the system components is performed in order
to reach the air flow rates stipulated in the design.
The following requirements must be met before beginning the adjustment
operation:
1. the building must be completed and the door and windows must be in
the position stipulated in the design, avoiding the disturbing influence
of the wind or natural draught.
2. the indoor temperature must be kept as constant as possible,
3. the prescribed high pressure/low pressure operating conditions for the
rooms must be ensured (transfer grilles),
4. the pipe network must be completed, as well as the test operation
and any air-tightness tests,
5. the central heating and/or cooling batteries must be installed in the
system,
6. the air flow regulating devices located at branching points and air
holes must be switched to the open position, the automatic regulating
controls must be disconnected, and the fan must be in operation at
an initial air flow rate 10-15 % higher than the flow rate stipulated in
the design.
The order of the system aeraulic adjustment operations is as follows:
1. the air flow rates at the ventilation holes of the system are measured
2. The measured air flow rates are compared with the flow rates
stipulated in the design, and the percentage of the design flow rate
that is achieved is calculated:
Dmeasur
Pd =

ed

Ddesign

x 100 %

3. the branches and air holes are proportionally adjusted, aiming to


obtain the same percentage of the design flow rate achieved for all
branches and air holes; the process will start with the branch with the
highest Pd percentage, by gradually closing the air hole adjusting
elements, especially since the respective hole has a higher Pd
percentage, and will continue with the other branches, in decreasing
order of the Pd percentage.
4. the flow rates are set to the 100 % value (design value) by a final
adjustment of the air flow rate of the fan.

104

The adjustment process shall start with the regulating valves of the room in
the fully open position and the (intake and outlet) fans operating at maximum
rate. The (fresh and recirculated) air flow shall be regulated by activating the
shutter frames of the room, based on measuring the fresh, recirculated, and
mixed air temperatures.
During aeraulic adjustment of ventilation and climate control systems, the
following tolerances from the design flow rate are admissible:
1. during balancing of the ventilation holes: 0.....+ 10 %
2. during balancing of the branches: 0... + 5 %
3. during regulation of the fan flow rate: 0....+5 %
The results of the operations for controlling and regulating the ventilation
and climate control systems shall be recorded in ascertainment reports.
e) Tests
The following tests shall be performed when setting ventilation and climate
control systems into operation:
1. tests for checking the functional characteristics of the equipment
(fans, heating/cooling batteries, filters, humidification chambers, fan
convectors, terminal units)
2. tests for the entire system
(1) Fans shall be tested by determining the following values, on the basis
of measurements:
1. air flow rate,
2. total pressure,
3. noise level,
4. intensity of the electric current during normal operation of the fan
motor.
(2) It shall be checked whether the flow rate/pressure operating point
obtained is on the fan curve specified in the technical manual of the fan; it shall
also be checked whether the noise level is the one stipulated in the technical
manual.
(1) Heating/cooling batteries shall be tested by determining the following:
1. the thermal performance of the battery, expressed by means of the
thermal capacity and, implicitly, the global heat transfer coefficient of
the battery (the intake and outlet temperatures, as well as the flow
rates through the air and water circuits shall be measured),
2. the load losses in the battery, through the air circuit (the static
pressure shall be measured, before and after the battery)
(2) It shall be checked whether the values obtained match the values
specified in the technical manual of the battery.
Testing of the air filters consists of deterioration of the dust retaining
efficiency; this can be determined either by measuring the dust concentration
upon entering and exiting the filter, or by measuring the load loss in the
unclogged filter and using the efficiency-load loss diagram given in the catalogue.

105

(1) Testing of the adiabatic humidification chambers consists of


determining the room humidification efficiency, defined as the ratio between the
difference between the air intake temperature and air outlet temperature, and
the difference between the air intake temperature and sprayed water
temperature.
(2) It shall be checked whether the humidification chamber efficiency,
obtained by measurements whilst the system is operating at the designed
parameters, matches the one stipulated in the design.
(1) Testing of the fan convectors consists of:
1. determining the air flow rate,
2. determining the thermal capacity,
3. determining the noise level.
(2) For this purpose, the following parameters shall be determined by
measurement:
1. air temperatures upon entering and exiting the fan convector,
2. average speed of the outlet air,
3. flow rate and temperature in the warm water circuit and the cooled
water circuit, respectively,
4. noise level.
The tests that must be carried out for the entire ventilation and climate
control system upon its being set into operation are:
1. air-tightness test for the air pipe network
2. test for the global efficacy of the system
- (1) The air-tightness test carried out for the air pipe network aims to
determine the air losses/false air intake of the system.
(2) The air-tightness test shall be carried out using the following methods:
1. measuring the air flow rate in the fan and comparing it with the sum
of the air flow rates measured at the ventilation holes
2. using a portable test system consisting of a test fan and a measuring
pipe, which is used to place the pipe network of the system under
high pressure, whilst the air holes are blocked and the fan is turned
off; the test pressure is 25 % higher than the operating pressure.
(3) It shall be checked whether the air flow rate obtained through the nonairtight areas matches the values stipulated by the technical regulations.
The global efficacy test shall be carried out to enable acceptance of the
system and aims to determine whether the ventilation and climate control system
creates, in the rooms that it serves, the hygiene, sanitary, and comfort conditions
stipulated in the design with regard to:
1. air temperature, humidity, and speed
2. air purity
3. the noise produced by the system

106

Measurements shall be taken in all rooms served by the system, as part of


the global efficacy test; the determinations carried out with the system in
operation shall be compared to those carried out with the system turned off. The
results of the tests carried out to determine the global efficacy of the system shall
be considered to be satisfactory if the indoor air parameters (temperature,
humidity, speed, pollutants) and the noise level comply with the provisions of the
design and the standards for health and safety at work.
If the ventilation/climate control system has several operating modes
depending on the season or the technological process carried out, the following
operations shall be performed:
1. the global efficacy shall be checked with the system operating in the
appropriate mode for the season during which the acceptance
procedures take place,
2. the global efficacy shall be checked for the modes corresponding to
the stages of the technological process being carried out during the
acceptance period.
The global efficacy of the system during other seasons and technological stages
than those present during the acceptance period shall be determined by
calculation and partial measurements; if these results are not convincing, the
global efficacy of the ventilation system during various stages of the
technological process shall be estimated, by calculation, by adopting scenarios
regarding the harmful emissions, heat discharges, etc.
The duration of the global efficacy test is 12 uninterrupted hours for
ventilation systems, and 24 uninterrupted hours for climate control systems.
Measurements shall be taken throughout the duration of the test, at a maximum
of 30 minutes intervals.
The testing procedures, measurement instruments, and methods used to
measure the parameters of ventilation and climate control systems during
acceptance tests shall comply with the specific provisions stipulated in SR EN
12599:2002.
The results of the tests carried out on the equipment and the overall
system shall be recorded in ascertainment reports.
(1) Acceptance is the activity by which the beneficiary/investor declares
that they accept the system and take it over, with or without any reservations, in
order to set it into operation. An acceptance process shall be carried out both for
new systems and for any interventions carried out over time on existing
constructions (modernisation, extension, major repairs), and shall be carried out
in two stages:
1. acceptance upon completion of the works
2. final acceptance, when the guarantee period expires
(2) The acceptance of ventilation and climate control systems is an
integrated part of the acceptance of the entire construction, and shall be carried
out in accordance with the Regulation for the acceptance of constructions and
their related systems, approved by Government Decision No 273/1994, with its
subsequent modifications and supplementation.

107

The acceptance process carried out upon completion of the ventilation and
climate control systems must determine whether the works have been finalised
and the systems operate at the designed parameters. Therefore, the Acceptance
Commission shall examine:
1. the systems created, by visual examination,
2. the execution quality control programme and the related documents,
3. the reports drawn up during testing of the system, with regard to:
adjusting the system,
the system air-tightness test
tests for checking the functional characteristics of the
equipment (fans, heating/cooling batteries, humidification
chambers, filter, etc.)
the global efficacy test,
4. a report containing the design engineers opinion about the way in
which the works were carried out,
5. the technical manual of the construction, with regard to the
ventilation and climate control systems.
When the examination is complete, the Commission shall record their
comments and conclusions in the acceptance report, recommending the
beneficiary/investor to accept the system, with or without objections, to delay the
acceptance or to reject the system, as applicable.
The final acceptance of the ventilation and climate control systems shall
take place when the system guarantee period (usually 1-3 years) expires. The
Acceptance Commission shall examine:
1. the reception reports concluded upon completion of the works,
2. the systems, by visual examination, to determine whether the works
required during the acceptance process carried out upon
completion of the works have been finalised,
3. the technical documents and reports regarding operation of the
systems,
4. the report drawn up by the beneficiary/investor with regard to the
behaviour of the systems during operation throughout the guarantee
period,
5. the technical manual of the construction, with regard to the
ventilation and climate control systems.
When the examination is complete, the Commission shall record their
comments and conclusions in the final acceptance report, recommending the
beneficiary/investor to admit the final acceptance of the system, with or without
objections, to delay the final acceptance or to reject the system, as applicable.
The ventilation and climate control systems shall be commissioned after the
acceptance upon completion of the works has been admitted.
The documents required for commissioning are:
1. Operating instructions (manual)
2. Timetable for monitoring during operation
3. Event diary
4. The operating contract
108

12. OPERATION OF VENTILATION AND CLIMATE CONTROL SYSTEMS


12.1 The operation of ventilation and climate control systems must ensure
that the systems operate normally at all times and comply with the design
performance parameters. This can be achieved by performing the following
activities:
a) monitoring and periodic inspection of the systems,
b) interventions for modifying and correcting the operating mode of the
systems,
c) maintaining the systems,
d) repairing the systems.
12.2 Ventilation and climate control systems shall be operated by
personnel specialising in this type of activity, who provide these services in
accordance with the law.
12.3 The monitoring and periodic inspection of the ventilation and climate
control systems are part of the general activity for monitoring the behaviour of
the constructions in time, in accordance with the legislation in force.
Monitoring of the systems
12.4 Ventilation and climate control systems shall be permanently
monitored, in accordance with the operating instructions, through the dispatch
system or by direct monitoring.
12.5 Monitoring through a dispatch system involves the following
activities:
a) programming the operating mode of the system,
b) determining and checking the parameters of the air inside the rooms
served by the system,
c) commanding the activation of the system components, for the
operational management of the system.
d) intervening in order to prevent any dangerous operational situations,
e) registering and recording data regarding operation; drawing up
operational reports.
12.6 (1) The direct monitoring of the operation of ventilation and climate
control systems involves the systems being checked and inspected by the
operating personnel. This activity consists of:
a) observing the parameters displayed by the measurement and
recording devices installed in the rooms and in the system
b) keeping the regulating devices in their predetermined position,
c) observing the normal operation of the equipment and components of
the system.
(2) Periodic inspections of the system shall be carried out, on a monthly or
quarterly basis, as part of direct monitoring.
Periodic inspection
12.7 The periodic inspection of ventilation and climate control systems
consists of:
a) preparation of the periodic inspection;
b) the actual periodic inspection;
109

c)

the technical report and measures plan.

12.8 (1) The preparation of the periodic inspection has the role to collect
all the necessary information and documents regarding the building and the
ventilation and climate control systems installed therein, namely:
a) information about the areas of the building that are ventilated/climate
controlled: design indoor air parameters, air flow rates, the conditions
in which the room is used, the degree of occupancy, the heat gains and
losses, etc.
b) the plans for the system,
c) the technical documentation for the equipment,
d) the operating instructions,
e) the event diary,
f)
the technical report for the previous periodic inspection.
(2) During this stage, the measurement and control instruments that are
going to be used during the inspection operations must be prepared. The
minimum inventory of measurement and control instruments consists of:
a) a
digital
thermo-hygro-anemometer
(or
thermometer
and
psychrometer),
b) a digital anemometer (with blades or hot wire),
c) A Pitot - Prandtl tube,
d) a U-tube pressure meter,
e) a timer, measuring tape, torch,
f)
a speedometer,
g) an amp meter.
(3) The information collected during the preparation stage of the periodic
inspection shall be summarised in the Technical Sheet of the system.
12.9 (1) The periodic inspection of ventilation and climate control systems
consists of:
a) inspection of the technical condition of the system components (see
Article 11.12 - 11.19).
b) checking the normal operation of the equipment
c) measuring the air flow rates
d) measuring the air parameters in the rooms served by the system
(temperature, humidity, speed).
(2) The following measures shall be taken to prevent the occurrence of fire
and limit the effects and consequences of fire during the operation of ventilation
and climate control systems:
a) the air filters, electric fan motors, fire dampers, and their actuation
elements, and smoke detectors installed inside the pipes, which are
used to activate the dampers, shall be periodically maintained and
operated;
b) The air filters shall be replaced and maintained periodically, in
accordance with the periodicity stipulated by this technical regulation
and the manufacturer;
c) An annual inspection shall be carried out to check that the flow rate,
speed, and pressure requirements for the ventilation/climate control
systems used to discharge smoke in the event of a fire are complied
with;
d) The backup electrical sources used to supply the smoke discharge
fans, fire-resistance dampers, and smoke dampers shall be inspected
110

e)
f)

g)
h)

i)
j)
k)
l)

in accordance with the periodicity stipulated by the specific


regulation;
The operation of smoke discharge fans shall be inspected on a
quarterly basis;
The operation of the fire-resistance dampers (fire dampers, shutters),
smoke dampers, and their actuation elements shall be subject to an
annual inspection; should any malfunctions be identified, measures
shall be taken to repair or replace the faulty parts;
The manual and automatic controls of the ventilation/climate control
systems used to discharge smoke in the event of a fire shall be
subject to an annual inspection;
The operation of the smoke detectors installed inside the pipes shall
be periodically inspected and shall be tested after installation to
check whether the requirement with regard to detecting the design
smoke density is complied with; should any malfunctions be
identified, measures shall be taken to repair or replace the faulty
parts;
The transmission and signalling devices, as well as the fire detectors
of the fire detection, signalling, and alarm system shall be subject to
an annual inspection;
Smoking inside the ventilation ducts is prohibited during the
maintenance and repair operations;
It is prohibited to store combustible materials and substances inside
the ventilation pipes;
The access and cleaning covers of the ventilation ducts shall be
permanently inspected, as well as the ease of their assemblingdisassembling without using special devices or equipment, in order to
enable intervention in the event of a fire.

12.10
A functional performance test shall be carried out as part of the
periodic inspection of ventilation and climate control systems, in order to detect
and diagnose any malfunctions. The test shall be carried out in accordance with
IEA ECBS Annex 40 and consists of 6 steps:
1. Testing in the manual operating mode
checking the controls and starters
2. Testing in the manual shut down mode
checking the controls and starters
checking the sensors
checking the controllers
3) Testing in the normal operating mode
checking the performance of the fan
4) Testing at the maximum flow rate
checking the sensors,
checking the starters,
checking the settings of the controllers,
checking the air flow rate in the mixing chamber and the reference
rooms,
checking the load losses and air-tightness of the air pipe network.
5) Testing at the minimum flow rate
checking the operation with a minimum fresh air flow rate,
checking the air flow rate in the reference rooms
111

6) Automatic shut down test


checking the condition of the system in the event of an automatic
shut down; in this case, it shall be checked whether the fans are
turned off and the closing/regulating devices, shutters, dampers,
etc. are in the correct position.
12.11
The results obtained following a periodic inspection of the
system shall be recorded in a Technical Report which must also include a
Measures Plan for improving the operation of the system.
Correcting the operating mode
12.12
The operating mode of the system shall be corrected in order to
meet the needs of the rooms served by the system, taking into consideration the
changes in the outdoor weather conditions, the indoor conditions, and the way in
which the rooms are used.
12.13
The operating mode shall be corrected by performing the
following operations:
a) measuring the parameters of the air and heat carrier or refrigerant,
b) comparing the measured parameters with the parameters stipulated in
the design or the operating instructions,
c) commanding the actuation elements so that the necessary corrections
can be made.
12.14
The manoeuvres for correcting the operating mode of the
system shall be performed in two stages:
a) bringing the system to the initial operating mode, which comes after
starting the system
b) switching the system to the current operating mode and maintaining
the indoor air parameters at the prescribed values, by carrying out
adjustment operations.
12.15
The aeraulic adjustment of the ventilation and climate control
system shall be carried out in accordance with Article 11.26 11.29.
12.16
(1) The air heating function shall be adjusted by acting upon
the heat carrier of the heating battery and performing a quantitative, qualitative
or mixed adjustment.
(2) The air heating function shall be adjusted at the same time as the air
mixture (fresh and recirculated), in accordance with the functional diagram of the
system.
12.17
Depending on the cooling solution chosen, the air cooling
function shall be adjusted as follows:
a) for cooled water batteries, by acting upon the refrigerant and
performing a quantitative, qualitative or mixed adjustment
b) for cooling batteries with direct evaporation, by operating the
compressor in load steps or at variable speed.
12.18
In systems where humidification is carried out by spraying the
air, the air humidification shall be adjusted by adjusting the spray water flow rate
whilst adjusting the heating battery.
112

Maintenance.
12.19
Maintenance of ventilation and climate control systems is a
continuous operational activity, which involves carrying out operations that aim
to ensure the continuous operation, in good conditions, of the systems.
12.20
The main maintenance operations are:
a) for fans:
lubrication of bearings,
uniform tensioning of the timing belts,
balancing of the rotors so that they can rotate without touching the
housing,
tightening the screws and nuts on the fan support,
b) for air filters:
replacing any damaged filters,
checking the operation of the filter clogging warning system,
replacing or cleaning (by washing or shaking) any clogged filters,
inspection of the self-cleaning system,
lubrication of the moving mechanical elements,
c) for heating/cooling batteries:
sealing the battery fittings along the air and water circuits,
checking operation of the valves installed on the battery fittings,
cleaning any dust and foreign bodies off the fins,
de-aeration of the hydraulic circuit,
washing the inside of the batteries to remove any deposits of sludge
or stones.
d) for humidification chambers:
checking the spraying method; cleaning the blocked nozzles and
replacing faulty ones,
cleaning any sludge deposits from the basin,
checking that the overflow is operational,
cleaning the filter,
cleaning the drop separators,
water pump maintenance operations,
checking the air-tightness of the humidification chamber along the
air and water circuits,
painting and coating the elements subject to corrosion,
e) for closing and regulating devices:
lubrication of the bearings,
replacing any damaged bushes and bearings,
correcting warped blades and shutters,
restoring the seals,
f) for air holes:
removing any dust and foreign bodies from the hole section,
restoring the seals against the piping,
checking that the mobile elements are operational,
correcting the deformed mobile elements,
g) for air pipes:
restoring the seals,
113

removing any dust and foreign bodies from inside the air pipes,
checking the access/cleaning holes and measurement points (also
refer to standard SR EN 12097:2007),
remedying the thermal insulation and anti-corrosion protection,
checking the supports and bracing elements,
replacing any damaged elements that ensure protection against the
transmission of vibrations.
h) for measurement and control instruments:
checking that the sensors are operational
periodic calibration of the measurement and control instrument
Repairs
12.21
There are two types of repairs that can be carried out on
ventilation and climate control systems:
1. planned repairs, carried out on the basis of a schedule drawn up by the
system beneficiary
2. accidental repairs
12.22
(1) The planned repairs are:
a) Revision of the system; it is carried out periodically, during the periods
when the system is not in use.
The revision of the system aims to assess the technical condition of the system
components and identify any possible malfunctions that need to be remedied in
order to return the system to its initial condition; the main aim of this revision is
to check the leak-tightness of the air pipe network, the operation of the
equipment, as well as the manual and automatic adjustment of the system.
The results of all inspections and findings recorded during the revision stage shall
form the basis for repairing the system.
b) Daily repairs; these are usually carried out without discontinuing
operation of the system.
Daily repairs are mainly carried out for those system elements whose
malfunctioning could affect the good operation of the entire system; all worn
parts are replaced, any damages are remedied, and the normal operation of the
mechanisms and units is restored.
c) Major repairs; these are carried out at intervals stipulated by
regulations, depending on the service life of the system.
(2) Major repairs are carried out in order to replace certain equipment or
parts of the system to make sure that the system operates at a high level of
performance and, implicitly, to modernise them.
12.23
Accidental repairs are carried out in the event of any incidents,
damage or malfunctions; they shall be carried out by intervention teams, under
the supervision of the beneficiary.
12.24
(1) All repairs carried out shall be entered in the Event diary of
the ventilation and climate control system.
(2) If necessary, the Technical Sheet of the system and the Operating
Instructions shall be modified following repair works.
12.25
A list of the incidents and malfunctions that could occur in
ventilation and climate control systems is given below, also highlighting the
possible causes and remedies:
114

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

The system does not receive enough air. Causes for malfunctions:
1. the rotating direction of the fan is incorrect;
2. the fan speed is reduced due to weak tensioning of the belts;
3. the motor is blocked, the bearings are not sufficiently lubricated, the
blades are warped or the rotor is not fixed on the axle;
4. the filters are clogged up (this situation is identified by measuring the
pressure difference downstream and upstream from the filter and
comparing it with the normal values);
5. the air circuit of the heating/cooling batteries is clogged up;
6. the air pipe route is constricted;
7. incorrect positioning of the adjustment and closing devices of the
system;
8. the cross-section of the air inlets is reduced;
9. the system is not air-tight.
The malfunctions shall be remedied as follows:
1. re-establish the normal direction by correctly connecting the motor to
the electrical installation
2. tighten (or replace) the belts, lubricate the bearings, and replace any
warped blades
3. replace or clean the clogged filters
4. determine the constriction place by measuring the flow rates and
pressures along the circuit in which the malfunction occurred; check
and adjust the positions of the separation elements (valves, vanes,
shutter frames); remove any foreign bodies from the air pipes
5. clean any deposits from the air inlets
6. make sure that the entire circuit of the system is air-tight
The system receives too much air. Causes for malfunctions:
1. the fan speed is too high
2. there are no filtration cells; pierced filters; leaks around the filters;
3. absence of other elements of the ventilation/climate control
station: heating or cooling batteries, drop separators, etc.
4. the automation systems are mismatched.
These malfunctions can be remedied as follows:
1. check the diameter of the fan pulleys and replace those whose
diameter is smaller than required;
2. add filtration cells or replace the faulty filters, restoring airtightness;
3. check if all system elements are installed, and replace the missing
ones;
4. adjust the automation systems.
The system has a pulsating or fluctuating flow rate. Causes for
malfunctions:
1. the fan rotor is unbalanced;
2. play of the blade or shutter axes;
3. influence of the wind on the air inlet;
4. wrong choice of fan;
5. the pipe walls are not reinforced;
These malfunctions can be remedied as follows:
1. balance the fan rotor and remove any impurities or other foreign
bodies;
2. remove the play of the blade or shutter axes;
3. protect the air inlets against the effects of the wind;
4. reinforce the pipe walls.
115

g)

The system makes too much noise. Causes for malfunctions:


1. the air speed is too high;
2. the noise dampeners and elastic bellows are damaged;
3. the elastic supports of the fans, pumps or compressors are
damaged or unbalanced;
4. the screws of the shutter frames have come loose; the mobile
elements of the air holes or of other system components are not
reinforced.
h) These malfunctions can be remedied as follows:
1. reduce the air speed within the acceptable limits;
2. restore and repair the noise dampeners and elastic bellows;
3. replace the elastic elements of the fan supports;
4. tighten the loose screws and restore the welds.
i)
The air discharged by the system is too cold. Causes for malfunctions:
1. the heat regulating system does not operate correctly;
2. the temperature measuring instruments are faulty or give incorrect
readings;
3. circulation of the heat carrier through the heating batteries is
obstructed (deposits of sludge and stones, blocked valves);
4. the heat carrier parameters are too low;
5. the air flow rate is higher than the prescribed value.
j)
These malfunctions can be remedied as follows:
1. check the heat regulating system;
2. recalibrate the measurement instruments or replace the faulty
instruments;
3. clean the deposits of sludge or stones from the batteries; replace
the blocked valves;
4. clean the plates and heat exchange surfaces by washing or blowing
with air;
5. bring the heat carrier parameters and the air flow rate to the
prescribed values.
k) The air discharged by the system is too hot. Causes for malfunctions:
1. the air flow rate is lower than the prescribed value;
2. the regulating system does not operate correctly;
3. the sensitive elements of the thermometers or temperature
transducers are dirty;
4. the heat carrier parameters are too high,
5. the readings given by the transducers or thermal resistance
elements are incorrect.
l)
These malfunctions can be remedied as follows:
1. adjust the air flow rate and the heat carrier parameters;
2. check the regulating system;
3. clean the sensitive elements of the thermometers or temperature
transducers;
m) The relative humidity of the air discharged by the system is lower than
required. Causes for malfunctions:
1. the system is disturbed,
2. the nozzles are blocked,
3. the flow rate and pressure of the spray water circulation pump are
reduced;
4. the steam flow rate (when using steam dehumidification) is
reduced.
n) These malfunctions can be remedied as follows:
116

o)

p)

1. adjust the humidification system;


2. clean the nozzles;
3. repair the pump;
4. increase the steam flow rate;
The relative humidity of the air discharged by the system is higher than
required. Causes for malfunctions:
1. the system is disturbed;
2. parts of the drop separators are missing
These malfunctions can be remedied as follows:
1. adjust the humidification system
2. add the missing parts to the drop separators.

117

Annex 1. Reference documents for the design, manufacture, and operation of ventilation and
climate control systems in buildings.
Normative documents:
1 Law No 10/1995
regarding quality in constructions, with its subsequent
modifications, published in the Official Gazette, Part I issue
No 12 of 24 January 1995
2 Law No 372/2005
regarding the energy performance of buildings, with its
subsequent modifications, published in the Official Gazette,
Part I issue No 1144 of 19 December 2005
3 Law No 319/2006
Law on health and safety at work, published in the Official
Gazette, Part I issue No 646 of 26 July 2006
4 Government
with regard to establishing the conditions for introducing
Decision No
protection equipment and systems designed to be used in
752/2004
potentially explosive atmospheres to the market, with its
subsequent modifications, published in the Official Gazette,
Part I issue No 499 of 03 June 2004
5 Order No
for approval of the General Workplace Protection Standards,
508/933/2002 of the with its subsequent modifications, published in the Official
Ministry of Labour
Gazette, Part I issue No 880 of 06 December 2002
and Social Solidarity
6 Order No 163/2007
for approval of the General fire protection norms,
of the Ministry of
published in the Official Gazette, Part I, issue No 216 of 29
Administration and
March 2007
Interior
7 Order No
for approval of the Regulation on the classification and
1822/394/2004 of
grouping of construction products based on their fire
the Ministry of
behaviour performance, with its subsequent modifications
Transport,
and supplementation, published in the Official Gazette, Part
Constructions, and
I issue No 90 of 27 January 2005
Tourism
Technical regulations:
1 MC 001/2006

2 NEx 01-2006

Methodology for calculating the energy performance of


buildings, approved by Order No 157/2007 of the Ministry
of Transport, Constructions, and Tourism, with its
subsequent
modifications
and
supplementation,
published in the Official Gazette No 126 of 21 February
2007
Normative document on explosion prevention for the
design, installation, commissioning, usage, repair, and
maintenance of technical installations that operate in
potentially explosive atmospheres, code NEx 01-06,
approved by Order No 392/2007 of the Ministry of Labour,
Family, and Equal Opportunities, published in the Official
Gazette No 411 of 19 June 2007

Standards:
1. SR EN 1886:2008
2. SR 1907-1:1997

Ventilation in buildings. Air treatment units. Mechanical


performances
Heating systems. Design heat demand. Calculation
requirements

118

3. SR 6724-1:1995
4. SR 6724-2:1995
5. SR 6724-3:1996
6. SR CR 1752:2002
7. SR EN ISO
7730:2006
8. SR EN ISO
8996:2005
9. SR EN
12097:2007
10. SR CEN/TR
12101-5:2007
11. SR EN 121016:2005
12. SR EN
12237:2004
13. SR EN
12599:2002
14. SR EN
12792:2004
15. SR EN
12831:2004
16. SR EN
13053:2007
17. SR EN 131415:2005
18. SR EN
13142:2004
19. SR EN ISO
13790:2008
20. SR EN
13779:2007
21. SR EN ISO
13791:2006
22. SR EN ISO
13792:2004

23. CEN/TR

14788:2006
24. SR EN

Ventilation of Annexes in residential buildings. Natural


ventilation. Design requirements
Ventilation of Annexes in residential buildings. Mechanical
ventilation using a central outlet fan. Design requirements
Ventilation of Annexes in residential buildings. Mechanical
ventilation using individual outlet fans. Design requirements
Ventilation systems for buildings. Design criteria for ensuring
indoor thermal comfort
Moderate thermal environments. Analytical determination and
interpretation of thermal comfort by calculating the PMV and
PPD indices and specifying the criteria for local thermal
comfort
Ergonomics of thermal environments. Determination of the
metabolic heat rate
Ventilation in buildings. Air ducts. Requirements for air duct
components in order to ease the maintenance of air duct
networks
Smoke and hot gas control systems. Part 5: Guide of functional
recommendations and calculation methods for ventilation
systems used to discharge smoke and hot gases
Smoke and hot gas control systems. Part 6: Specifications for
differential pressure systems Kits
Ventilation in buildings. Air duct networks. Resistance and
tightness of circular metal sheet air ducts
Ventilation in buildings. Test procedures and measurement
methods for the acceptance of ventilation and air-conditioning
systems
Ventilation in buildings. Symbols, terminology, and graphic
symbols
Heating systems for buildings. Method for calculating the
design thermal load
Ventilation in buildings. Air treatment chambers. Classification
and performance of chambers, components and sections
Ventilation in buildings. Testing the performance of
components/products used for the ventilation of residential
buildings. Part 5: Ventilation cowls and roof outlet terminal
devices
Ventilation in buildings. Components/products for residential
ventilation. Compulsory and optional performance
characteristics
Energy performance of buildings. Calculation of the energy
demand for heating and cooling spaces
Ventilation of non-residential buildings. Performance
requirements for ventilation and air-conditioning of rooms
Thermal performance of buildings. Calculation of the indoor
temperature in a room without climate control during the
summer. General criteria and validation procedures
Thermal performance of buildings. Calculation of the indoor
temperature in a room without climate control during the
summer. Simplified calculation methods
Ventilation for buildings - Design and dimensioning of
residential ventilation systems
Ventilation in buildings. Energy performance of buildings.

119

15239:2007
25. SR EN
15240:2007
26. SR EN
15241:2007
27. SR EN
15242:2007
28. SR EN
15243:2008
29. SR EN
15423:2008

Guide for the inspection of ventilation systems


Ventilation in buildings. Energy performance of buildings.
Guide for the inspection of climate control systems
Ventilation in buildings. Methods for calculating energy losses
due to ventilation and infiltration in commercial buildings
Ventilation in buildings. Calculation methods for determining
air flow rates in buildings, including infiltrations
Ventilation in buildings. Calculation of room temperatures,
thermal load, and energy for buildings equipped with airconditioning systems
Ventilation in buildings. Fire prevention measures for air
distribution systems in buildings

120

Annex 2. Design climatic data for climate control summer


Item
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

Town/City

Temperature
[0C]

Relative
humidity [%]

Alba-Iulia
Alexandria
Arad
Bacau
Baia Mare
Bistrita
Botosani
Braila
Brasov
Bucharest
Buzau
Calarasi
Cluj
Craiova
Constanta
Deva
Drobeta Turnu Severin
Focsani
Galati
Giurgiu
Iasi
Miercurea Ciuc
Oradea
Pitesti
Ploiesti
Piatra Neamt
Resita
Ramnicu Valcea
Slatina
Slobozia
Satu Mare
Sfantu Gheorghe
Sibiu
Suceava
Targu Jiu
Targu Mures
Timisoara
Targoviste
Tulcea
Vaslui
Zalau

34.3
38
36.7
36.4
34.3
32.7
35
36.3
32.8
35.3
35.4
37.5
31.5
36.5
30.6
33.1
36
34.2
33.2
38.6
36
34.7
36.6
31.8
34.3
33.1
35
36.3
32.2
32.8
34.7
33
34
32.5
33.3
34.1
36.4
33.5
35.4
35
34.5

28
25
23
22
37
36
27
26
35
35
26
23
35
35
53
27
23
44
41
24
37
39
32
27
23
38
23
37
39
41
41
34
33
23
43
41
25
36
33
43
31

121

Annex 3. Values for the intensity of direct solar radiation ID and diffuse solar radiation Id [W/m2]
T i m e

ID

Id

N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Or
z

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

53
333
383
188
-

3
402
568
370
-

301
575
468
41
-

130
498
514
159
-

4
338
485
316
-

144
393
354
58
-

241
394
241
-

58
354
393
144
-

316
485
338
8

159
514
498
130

41
468
575
301

3
370
568
402

53
188
383
333

averag
e
5
49
105
113
89
113
105
49

89

241

381

523

647

711

734

711

647

532

381

241

89

247

53

80

103

123

136

146

147

146

136

123

103

80

53

59

122

Annex 4. Useful floor area for a person, used to determine the degree of room occupancy (in
accordance with SR EN 13779:2005)
floor area per person [m2/person]
Intended use of the room
typical range
values by absence
Large office
Small office
Meeting room
Store
Classroom
Hospital room
Hotel room
Restaurant

from 7 to 20
from 8 to 12
from 2 to 5
from 3 to 8
from 2 to 5
from 5 to 15
from 5 to 20
from 1.2 to 5

12
10
3.0
4.0
2.5
10
10
1.5

123

Annex 5. Heat discharge of one person (for an indoor air temperature of 24C and average human
body surface area of 1.8 m2 (in accordance with SR EN 13779:2005)
Activity
Resting
Seated, relaxed
Sedentary activity (office, school, laboratory)
Standing, easy activity (stores, laboratories, light
industry)
Standing, medium activity (seller, machine operation)
Fast walking at:
2 km/h
3 km/h
4 km/h
5 km/h

total heat
[met]*

[W/person]
80

sensitive
heat
[W/person]
55

0.8
1.0
1.2
1.6

100
125
170

70
75
85

2.0

210

105

1.9
2.4
2.8
3.4

200
250
300
360

100
105
110
120

* 1 met = 58 W/m2

124

Annex 6. Design values for the installed capacity of the lighting system
Table 1. Design values for the level of lighting (in accordance with SR EN 13779:2005)
level of lighting [lux]
Intended use
typical range
values by absence
Office with window
Office without a window
Store
Classroom
Hospital room
Hotel room
Restaurant
Uninhabited room

from 300 to 500


from 400 to 600

400
500

from 300 to 500

400

from 300 to 500


from 200 to 300
from 200 to 300
from 200 to 300
from 50 to 100

400
200
200
200
50

Table 2. Design values for the capacity of the lighting system (efficient systems)
specific capacity of the lighting system [W/m2]
Level of lighting [lux]
typical range
values by absence
50
from 2.5 to 3.2
3
4
from 3.5 to 4.5
100
6
from 5.5 to 7.0
200
300
8
from 7.5 to 8.5
400
10
from 9.0 to 12.5
500
12
from 11.0 to 15.0

125

Annex 7. Number of hourly air changes, n


Intended use of the building/room
Theatres
Stores:
- small
- medium-sized
- general
Cinemas:
- audience room
- projection room
Libraries
Dance halls:
- smoking allowed
- smoking prohibited
Restaurants, dining halls:
- smoking allowed
- smoking prohibited
Cloak rooms
Commercial kitchens (restaurants, canteens, hospitals, schools, military
units):
- small (3 4 m high)
- medium-sized (4 6 m high)
- large (more than 6 m high)
- peeling vegetables, washing dishes
Laundry rooms, ironing rooms
Public baths (steam or warm air)
Public toilets:
- urinal
- toilet seat
Home kitchens
Hospitals:
- with special requirements regarding the absence of pathogenic germs

operating theatres
annexes of the operating theatres
patient rooms
- with high requirements regarding the absence of
pathogenic germs

operating theatres
annexes of the operating theatres
emergency operating theatres
resuscitation rooms
intensive care
delivery room
stationary room for premature babies
stationary room for newborn babies
stationary room for infants

n [h-1]
46
68
46
4-6
46
58
45
68
12 16
5 10
8 12
4-6
20
15
10
58
10 - 15
4
25 m3/h
50 m3/h
15 20
60
45
45
60
30
45
20
30
30
25
25
15
10

126

- with normal requirements regarding the absence of pathogenic germs

patient rooms
living rooms
corridors
intervention and treatment rooms
X-Ray diagnosis rooms
Radiotherapy rooms
massage rooms
exercise rooms
rest rooms
central sterilisation station
morgue

Dentist rooms
Swimming pools:
- pool room: 10m3/(h, m2 water surface)
- shower room (maximum)
- dressing rooms
Sports halls
Offices, meeting rooms
Schools
Auditoriums
Laboratories:
- small
- large
Garages

15
10
18
18
18
15
10
10
20
30
30
6
34
25 30
8 10
2-3
48
68
8 - 10
8 12
68
4-5

127

Annex 8. Usual air speeds through the pipes


Type of pipe
Air inlet
Fresh air pipe
Main supply or collector pipe
Secondary pipes

Type of ventilation/climate control system


systems used in civilian
systems used in industrial
buildings [m/s]
buildings [m/s]
24
46
46
68
48
8 - 12
2-5
5-8

128