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INGENIERA BERNOULLI S.A.

FLUIDYNAMICS AND VACUUM


AGITATED THIN FILM TECHNOLOGY

DESUPERHEATERS

Eduardo Costa 1220

Tel. (54-11) 4792 - 0392

B1641AFP - Acassuso

Fax (54-11) 4792 - 0982

Buenos Aires Argentina


RI-9001-1299

e-mail : info@ibernoulli.com

web : www.ibernoulli.com

FM-0796-004 / Rev.:0 / 29-08-2014/JMP

INGENIERA BERNOULLI S.A.


To achieve their optimum efficiency, power turbines demand for high
temperature superheated steam. Consequently the medium pressure
E
steam extracted from an intermediate stage will be always extremely
superheated.( line E-B, Picture1) Likewise, every time steam expands
in a pressure regulator valve, it gets superheated, because of the
constant enthalpy evolution being produced. (A-B line, Picture1).During
B
A
Superheated
these processes, superheating degree (difference between actual and
steam
C
saturation temperature) increases alongside with expansion. In this case,
Sat
ura
D
and after having been reduced, pressure steam is to be used as a heater
tion
line
medium. Saturated or slightly superheated steam should be preferred.
p1
Wet
The easiest way to obtain it, is through cooling by injecting water and
steam
p2
then spraying it some way, in order to improve mass-heat interchange.
Water to be used must be clean and demineralized, better if obtained by
condensation, in order to avoid clogging or undesirable scaling.
S
Water evaporates (latent heat), and in so doing it takes in sensible steam
PICTURE 1: Cooling and expansion in H-S diagram.
heat, and so bringing temperature down in processes where pressure
is constant. (B-C line, Picture1).
The incorporated water does
not have to be more than the
TC
strictly necessary one to obtain
a temperature, over saturation
Desuperheated steam
Superheated steam
condition, of a few extra degrees.
This difference is known as
approach and it is necessary
Water
to control superheated steam
temperature, so that it will not fall
into the wet steam zone, where
PICTURE 2: Desuperheater and control loop.
the required feed back would be
ineffective, and steam <1 quality would be generated. Please note that saturated steam (point D) as in the case of all kinds of wet
steams (To the left of D on p2=cte. line) have the same temperature. That means that if the control were set at D point, it would
not be able to read if more water than the needed one were being sent. Approach ranges between 10C to 20c, depending
upon the type of desuperheater being employed, as well as on the control loop quality. (Picture 2).Very exceptionally, we can
go down to 5C, but then it is mostly important to remember that we have to operate within a line at the right of the saturation
curve. Required water is determined by the enthalpy balance:
H

H1- H2
H2- HL

H1
H2

=Superheated steam enthalpy, kJ/kg


=Desuperheated steam enthalpy, kJ/kg

HL

=Injected water enthalpy, kJ/kg

=kg of water per kg of superheated steam.

Example:
10 kg/s of steam of 1,7 Mpa(absolute) and 350C are to be desuperheated with and approach of 16C, using water at 130C.
In this case:
Steam saturation temperature 1,7 Mpa:
204C.
Desuperheated steam temperature:
204+16=220C.
H1 = 3.143 kJ/kg
=

314 3 - 2 8 39
2 8 39 - 5 46

= 0 ,133

H2 = 2.839 kJ/kg
HL = 546 kJ/kg
The necessary water mass flow is:

L = 0,133 x 10 = 1,33 kg/s

PP: FM-0796-004 / Rev.0

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INGENIERA BERNOULLI S.A.


VENTURI DESUPERHEATER (DSV)
The Venturi desuperheater is noted for
its atomized water getting mixed with
superheated steam at the throat of a
Venturi. This process is favoured by
Desuperheated
Superheated
the turbulence due to speed increase
Steam
Steam
caused by the narrowing of the device.
In our model, (Picture 3), the spray
nozzle is also of the Venturi type and
it works using part of the steam that
circulates as a dispersing fluid, this
Drain
way, avoiding high auxiliary steam that
PICTURE 3: VENTURI DESUPERHEATER (DSV)
otherwise, could be necessary to create a good spraying condition. Water
flows into the nozzle throat and passes through a series of conveniently placed and oriented openings, forming small jets. At the
same time, steam that goes through that section at a very high speed, gets atomized in such a way that, at the nozzle outlet, we
obtain a mist, made up of very fine mixture of tiny water drops and steam. This wet steam flows into the middle of the Venturi
throat, and mixes up with the rest of the superheated steam that is circulating in the cylinder. The mixing up of both streams is
completed at the diffuser, and then vaporization of suspended water ensued, accompanied with a natural desuperheating, at
the same time that the pressure drop caused by steam acceleration at the main interior Venturi throat, is recovered.
This set up avoids cooling water from affecting directly the walls of the equipment.
An approach of 10C over saturation temperature, corresponding to exhaust pressure and even a 5C one, in very good conditions, can be easily obtained with a right automatic control system. The desuperheater requires water at least at steam pressure,
because the injection point coincides with the most depressed Venturi area.
This model produces a very little pressure loss and has a turn down ratio (Quotient between the maximum flow and the minimum flow) of 12 for vertical mounting, and of 3, for horizontal mounting. It is suitable for significant and moderate flow changes,
depending upon the installation.
Water

CHART 1 : VENTURI DESUPERHEATER . General dimensions


SIZE

n1 n3

n2

n4

DSV 50

50

10

340

70

180

DSV 80

80

15

457

80

260

DSV 100

100

20

10

624

90

330

DSV 150

150

25

15

833

105

355

DSV 200

200

25

15

1039

115

380

DSV 250

250

40

20

1321

140

445

DSV 300

300

40

20

1514

145

495

DSV 350

350

50

25

1803

165

545

DSV 400

400

50

25

1858

175

570

DSV 450

450

80

25

2305

225

640

DSV 500

500

80

25

2535

230

665

DSV 600

600

100

25

2920

280

780

Water
Superheated
steam

n2 and n4 may be lower for medium or small superheating.

PARTIAL VENTURI DESUPERHEATER (DSVP)

Desuperheated
steam

It has a Venturi nozzle (picture 4), same as the one in VDS,


that discharges directly into the pipe, ignoring the main
Venturi. It works just as the previous model, but causing
less pressure loss, at the cost of smaller rangeability and
approach, though.

Drain
PICTURE 4: Partial Venturi desuperheater. (DSVP)

PP: FM-0796-004 / Rev.0

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INGENIERA BERNOULLI S.A.


CHART 2 : VENTURI DESUPERHEATER . GENERAL DIMENSIONS
n1 y n3

n2

192

70

180

DSVP 80

80

DSVP 100

100

15

239

80

260

20

10

290

90

330

DSVP 150

150

25

15

373

105

355

DSVP 200

200

25

15

431

115

380

DSVP 250

250

40

20

561

140

445

DSVP 300

300

40

20

611

145

495

DSVP 350

350

50

25

726

165

545

DSVP 400

400

50

25

735

175

570

DSVP 450

450

80

25

984

225

640

DSVP 500

500

80

25

1028

230

665

DSVP 600

600

100

25

1218

280

780

SIZE
DSVP 50

50

n4

10

n2 and n4 may be lower for medium or small superheating.

Desuperheater Steam

ANNULAR VENTURI DESUPERHEATER (DSVA)


This model as shown in picture 5, is different from the former ones, in the sense
that the reduced section is not achieved by giving the outer pipe a cone-like shape,
but by placing and insert that causes the narrowing of the cylinder area.
Water is injected by means of a nozzle, that is, by means of a hollow flanged ring,
with a slot or several opening for the water to run through, perpendicularly to the
steam jet.
The steam and the water clash together and an atomization action ensues, as in
the previous cases, except that now, all of the circulating steam is being used and
not only just a part of it.
The device should be preferably installed in an upwards vertical position. This way,
we get an even distribution of atomized water, even with very low steam flows,
and the problem of water accumulating at the bottom, as it is usually the case with
horizontal mountings, is eliminated. Horizontal mounting is possible when dealing
with low turn down ratio.
Larger water drops, not totally evaporated, that might fall, when reaching the narrowing section of the Venturi back, where speed increases significantly, are pushed
up again, on and on until they are completely evaporated.
This model is particularly advisable when great changes in the operating mode are
expected. Turn down ratios up to 50 and an approach of 10 can be accomplished,
even in not very good conditions.
CHART 3 : ANNULAR VENTURI DESUPERHEATERS. GENERAL DIMENSIONS
SIZE

n1 y n3

n2

n4

DSVA 50

50

10

376

163

200

DSVA 80

80

15

533

232

235

DSVA 100

100

20

10

803

349

260

DSVA 150

150

25

15

1220

530

300

DSVA 200

200

25

15

1518

660

335

DSVA 250

250

40

20

1801

785

370

DSVA 300

300

40

20

2342

1018

415

DSVA 350

350

50

25

2616

1079

450

DSVA 400

400

50

25

2923

1270

485

DSVA 450

450

80

25

3469

1507

520

DSVA 500

500

80

25

3808

1655

520

DSVA 600

600

80

25

4620

2008

630

Water

Drain

Superheater Steam

PICTURE 5: Anular Venturi


Desuperheater. (DSVA)

n2 and n4 may be lower for medium or small superheating.

PP: FM-0796-004 / Rev.0

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INGENIERA BERNOULLI S.A.


ASSISTED VENTURI DESUPERHEATER.( DSVS)
Here, water atomization is produced with the help of an outer and extra injected driving steam. It has an ejector steam nozzle,
that uses the assistance of steam energy to suck in, preheat and finally atomize cooling water. This avoids cold water drops
from falling on the superheated equipment walls, which is a common problem with the some of the apparatuses.
The drops produced by the spray nozzle goes directly into the heart of the Venturi throat, where it mixes up with the superheated
steam circulating in through the cylinder.
As it is the case with Venturi
type equipment described in this
booklet, turbulence in the area
Desuperheating
Superheating
ensures water evaporation and
steam
steam
the diffuser minimizes pressure
loss. Minimum atomized steam
required pressure (absolute
one) is of approximately 1.5
Water
times main steam, and consumption, which happens to be
Steam
constant, is about one tenth of
the required demineralized waPICTURE 6: Assisted Venturi Desuperheater.(DSVS)
ter at its full load capacity, which
can be injected at the same or
lower pressure than that of the superheated steam.
These models are particularly advisable when a large turn down ratios ( 20 to 30, for instance) and approach of at least 5C are
required, but, because of the piping arrangement, they can only be mounted horizontally. When dealing with large turn down
ratios (from 50 onwards) unevaporated water will accumulate at the bottom of the exhaust pipe. In these cases, you can install
a counterflowing circuit to trap the leftovers down the stream and suck it, alongside the fresh water, with the jet-sprayer. (Picture 7).The control device must be complemented with a device to prevent water from coning in, when motive steam is not on.

TC
Desuperheating steam

Superheating steam

Water

Steam
PICTURE 7: Assisted Venturi Desuperheater with water recycling.

CHART 4 : ASSISTED VENTURI DESUPERHEATER . GENERAL DIMENSIONS


SIZE
DSVS 50
DSVS 80
DSVS 100
DSVS 150
DSVS 200
DSVS 250
DSVS 300
DSVS 350
DSVS 400
DSVS 450
DSVS 500
DSVS 600

n1 y n3
50
80
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600

PP: FM-0796-004 / Rev.0

n2 y n4
10
15
20
25
25
40
40
50
50
80
80
100

a
340
457
624
833
1039
1321
1514
1803
1857
984
1028
1218

b
70
80
90
105
115
140
145
165
175
225
230
280

c
245
260
325
355
380
445
495
545
570
640
665
780

d
142
146
154
170
170
235
235
295
295
250
250
320

e
200
215
265
295
320
365
415
460
485
535
560
642

n2 and n4 may be lower for medium


or small superheating

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INGENIERA BERNOULLI S.A.


ASSISTED DESUPERHEATER (DSS)
Simpler than the Assisted Venturi Desuperheater, it is suitable to work when approach to saturation temperature required is
25C or more, and when turn down ratio goes from 10 to 15. In order to get a higher approach and rangeability, it is necessary
to install a pot to collect condensed water, at 4 to 5 m from the outlet. Condensed water has to be recycled and sent over into
the cooling water inlet pipe.
The spraying device is a jet-ejector nozzle that sucks in fresh and recycled water, if any, similar to the Assisted Ventury one.
The only difference is that it does not discharge into a Venturi throat but directly in the middle of the pipe.
When we want to reach an approach of 10C, operating with a very low flow as compared to the maximum flow (rangeability
of more than 15), part of the drops deposit in a collecting pot, wherefrom they are vacuumed. Under less stringent conditions,
with very little turn down ratio and approach, evaporation is complete, and recycling is not necessary. In this case, it can be
installed, vertically, too.
We are offering two models of it. The DSS, Picture 8 mounted directly at the main pipe, and the DSRS one, Picture 9, fit for
being mounted laterally to the pipe.

Superheater
Steam

Desuperheater
Steam

Water

Water

Steam

Steam

PICTURE 8: Assisted Desuperheater.(DSS)

PICTURE 9: Assisted lateral desuperheater.(DSRS)

CHART 5 : ASSISTED DESUPERHEATERS. General Dimensions.


n1 = n3
50

n2 = n4
10

RS
10

a
192

b
70

c
245

d
100

e
200

DSS 80

80

15

15

239

80

260

100

215

DSS 100

100

20

20

290

90

325

100

265

DSS 150

150

25

25 S

373

105

355

100

295

DSS 200

200

25

25 L

431

115

380

100

320

DSS 250

250

40

40 S

561

140

445

135

365

DSS 300

300

40

40 L

611

145

495

135

415

DSS 350

350

50

50 S

726

165

545

175

460

DSS 400

400

50

50 L

735

175

570

175

485

DSS 450

450

80

80 S

984

225

640

250

535

DSS 500

500

80

80 L

1028

230

665

250

560

DSS 600

600

100

100

1218

280

780

320

642

SIZE
DSS 50

n2 and n4 may be lower for medium or


small superheating

CHART 6 : ASSISTED LATERAL DESUPERHEATER . General Dimensions.


SIZE
DSRS 10
DSRS 15
DSRS 20
DSRS 25 S
DSRS 25 L
DSRS 40 S
DSRS 40 L
DSRS 50 S
DSRS 50 L
DSRS 80 S
DSRS 80 L
DSRS 100

n2 = n4
10
15
20
25
25
40
40
50
50
80
80
100

PP: FM-0796-004 / Rev.0

RS

10
15
20
25 S
25 L
40 S
40 L
50 S
50 L
80 S
80 L
100

n b
125
150
200
250
300
400
450
500
600
700
800
900

215
215
270
280
280
306
306
315
315
330
330
780

142
146
154
170
170
235
235
295
295
330
330
550

170
170
210
215
215
228
228
233
233
255
255
423

(*) the length of this measure depends upon the main pipe diameter
and the kind of DSRS chosen.

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INGENIERA BERNOULLI S.A.


MECHANICAL ATOMIZING DESUPERHEATER. (DSM)
When there is demineralized or condensed water available at a pressure significantly higher than that of the steam, so as to
favour an efficient atomization of it that is, the water in the stream- through an adequate nozzle, the alternative is to use a
mechanical atomizing desuperheater. It consists of (Picture 10) a lateral access spray nozzle which atomizes water because
of the pressure difference between the water to be atomized and the one in the main stream. This beak-like piece has been
designed to produce a narrow full cone, finely divided, so as to create a large contact surface with the superheated steam.
Turbulence chamber protects the superheated walls of the device, from the effect of the cold water drops falling upon them.
Most of the water evaporation takes place here, by the conversion of sensible heat into latent heat. Part of the superheated
steam circulates, through the annular space between the above mentioned chamber and the body of the device. The steam
saturates when it gets in touch with the mist that comes out of the inner chamber. Heat transferred through the turbulence
chamber walls evaporates the inside drops that happen to fall upon them. Approach saturation temperature obtained by means of
this apparatus is about 20C, which is quite
Water
enough in most of the cases.
As to rangeability, it depends upon the
relation between available pressure and
Desuperheater the minimun admissible pressure drop for
Superheater
a good atomizing process (approximately
steam
steam
2 Bar), but in general, the maximum obtainable is 1,5. Vertical mounting favours
rangeability because, if atomization is
not good enough, the drops tend to float,
instead of depositing inside the tube.
PICTURE 10: Mechanical atomizing desuperheater.(DSM)

CHART 7 : MECHANICAL ATOMIZING DESUPERHEATER. General dimensions.


SIZE

n1 = n3

n2

DSM 80
DSM 100

80
100

15
20

670
800

150
150

370
390

DSM 150

150

25

1200

170

410

DSM 200

200

25

1600

180

440

DSM 250

250

40

2000

200

470

DSM 300

300

40

2400

200

500

DSM 350

350

50

2800

250

530

DSM 400

400

50

3200

250

550

DSM 450

450

80

3600

300

600

DSM 500

500

80

4000

300

660

DSM 600

600

100

5400

350

750

n2 may be lower for medium or small superheating

CHART 8 : MECHANICAL ATOMIZING LATERAL DESUPERHEATER. General Dimensions.


c

50

150

150

10

50

150

150

15

50

150

150

20

20

80

150

170

DSRM 25

25

25

80

150

180

DSRM 40

40

40

100

150

200

DSRM 50

50

50

150

150

220

DSRM 80
DSRM 100

80
100

80
100

200
250

150
170

256
275

SIZE

n2

DSRM 8

DSRM 10

10

DSRM 15

15

DSRM 20

PP: FM-0796-004 / Rev.0

n b

(*) the length of this measure depends upon the main pipe
diameter and the kind of DSRM chosen.

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INGENIERA BERNOULLI S.A.


VARIABLE AREA DESUPERHEATER (DSAV)
Variable Area Desuperheaters eliminate the need for a separate water control valve. A Variable Area Desuperheater is a simple,
compact and low cost unit. Essentially, it is a constant pressure mechanical atomizing device (Picture 11), usually mounted on
the main steam pipe by means of a DN80 (3) flange. The steam is admitted into the middle of the pipe in order to produce a
uniform water distribution. Cooling water at a pressure of at least 4 bar higher than steam, usually enters in through a DN 25
flange, flows down into the cylinder-seat devices and leaves the jacket through several nozzles, as conical jets. The seat position is regulated by the closed loop temperature control: When a reduction of steam temperature is needed, the actuator forces
the disc assembly downwards, uncovering new water inlets for the water to come into the nozzles. As less desuperheating is
required, the disc moves upwards bringing less nozzles into service. With and adequate control and velocity, rangeability of 10
and an approach of nearly 15C are obtained.

WATER

STEAM

PICTURE 11: Variable Area Desuperheater.(DSAV)

PP: FM-0796-004 / Rev.0

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