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THEORIST

Sigmund Freud

PRINCIPLES OF THEORY

Freuds Psychoanalysis
explains the relation of past
experience to the in the present
life. It reveals the unconscious
state of mind being the
primary foundation of
personality. Freudian slips and
dreams are explains as
unconscious intentions.
Freud formulated defense
mechanisms as a response to
cope up with anxiety.
Free Association - Technique
or method for exploring the
mental processes.

DYNAMICS OF PERSONALITY
Sexual Drives are impulses that serve
as motivational forces. Freud uses the
term libido to define the underlying
drives of a person. It is the emotional
psychic energy derives from biological
drive.
Freuds psychosexual stages illustrate
his concept of childhood in relation
with the sexual drives

OBJECTIVES OF THE
THEORY
The psychoanalysis theory
brings forth the relation of
unconscious mind and past
experiences into
consciousness and present
life.
Freud engages to construct
the personality of a person.

Structure of Personality : Id, Ego, and


Super Ego
Levels of Mental Life: Conscious, Pre
Conscious, and Unconscious,
Anxiety, as by definition of Freud, is
sensations that warn a person against
impending danger.

Analytical Psychology of
Jung also take in account of
both the conscious and
unconscious level but unlike
Freud, the unconscious portion

Levels of Psyche Just like Freud,


Jung believed that that there are both
conscious and unconscious.
Attitudes - Introversion and

Yung take account of both


the conscious and the
unconscious. He defines
the unconscious factor as

springs from distant past of


human existence.
Transcendence - According to
Jung, Transcendence is the
acceptance of uniqueness as an
individual. It is also called
individuation.

Carl Gustav Jung

Extroversion
An introvert is a person whose interest
is generally directed inward toward his
own feelings and thoughts, in contrast
to an extravert, whose attention is
directed toward other people and the

the portion of the


existentialism of humanity.
He insists the connection of
human beings through the
rooted unconscious part.

outside world.
Personal Unconscious with its
Complexes
Collective Unconscious and its
Archetypes; archetypes are universal,
archaic patterns and images that derive
from the collective unconscious.
Functions of Attitude Thinking and
Feeling; Sensation and Intuition

Alfred Adler

Adlers individual
psychology presents an
optimistic view of people
while resting heavily on the
notion of social interest, that
is, a feeling of oneness with all
humankind. Freud saw all
human motivation reduced to
sex and aggression while Adler
saw people as being motivated
mostly by social influences
and the striving for superiority
or success. The subjective
perceptions of a person shape

Style of Life refers to the flavor of a


persons life. It its the attitude towards
the world.
Birth Order in Alderian, the rank
position in the family affects the social
life of the individual especially the
siblings.
Safe Guarding Mechanisms - Is a
process to defend us in reality, merely
unconscious to cope up with anxiety.-

Adlers Individual
Psychology explained the
drives of striving for
superiority and success as
the dynamic forces of
personality. He concluded
that every person has their
own final goal.

his/her personality. Fictional


Finalism creates the goal in
relation with the specific
causality. The individuals
creative power determines
his/.her goal
Social Interest-Adaptation of
an individual in their society in
accordance in their society.

Harry Stack Sullivan

Sullivans Interpersonal
Theory emphasizes positive
interpersonal relationships as
the primary concern for
healthy human development.
Furthermore, there are
tensions in an individual that
requires energy transformation
that will eventually become
covert or overt behavior.
Dynamisms He termed
dynamisms to refer to a typical
pattern of behavior

Stages of Development - just like


Freud, Sullivan develop Stages of
Development; however Sullivan
classified it as 7 stages this includes:
infancy, childhood, juvenile, preadolescence, early adolescence and late
adolescence.

Levels of Cognition He recognize


three ways of perceiving things; the
Prototaxic, Parataxic, and Syntaxic
level.

Security Operations according the


Sullivan, these are devices for reducing
or enhancing the anxiety

Sullivan insisted the factor


of interpersonal
relationship in the
development of the
individual and in shaping
the personality.

Erich Fromm

Humanistic Psychoanalysis
of Fromm refers to the
separation of humanity from
the natural world provides the
feeling of loneliness and
isolation; the root of basic
anxiety.

Character Orientation - Pattern of


energy transformation between of
interacting people on person.

Fromm integrated his


definition of Freedom
without Isolation.

Escape Mechanisms these are


devices for escaping a problem and
avoiding isolation.

Basic Needs Fromm


believed that we have needs
beyond basic. And this needs
pursue to find the answer on
the existence.

Objects Relations Theory Infants desires are directed to


one object.

Melanie Klein

Karen Horney

Infant -Klein believed that


infants begin life with an
inherited predisposition to
reduce the anxiety that they
experience as a consequence
of the clash between the life
instinct and the death instinct.

Good Breast - The infant is well


nurtured.
Bad Breast - The infant is neglected.
Psychic Defense Mechanism- Is a
process to defend ourselves in reality,
merely unconscious to cope up with
anxiety.

Psychoanalytic Social Theory


Neurotic Needs-Way to combat the

Klein emphasized the


significance of motherchild relationship in the
construction of personality.
She insisted the infancy as
the main arena of
conflicting predispositions.

Horney explained basis of


shaping personality as the

Culture-Basis of neurotic and


normal development; modern
culture is based on
competition.
If parents do not satisfy the
childs needs for safety and
satisfaction, the child develops
feelings of Basic Hostility
toward the parent.

basic anxiety.
Feelings of Loneliness-Needs of
affection- overvaluing love- people see
love and affection as an answer to their
problems.
Neurotic Trends includes:

basic hostility and anxiety;


both formulated by the
satisfaction given by the
parents of the child. She
define love and affection as
the answer for eliminating
feelings of loneliness.

Moving toward people, moving against


people and moving away from people.

Basic Anxiety described by


Horney as a feeling of being
isolated and helpless in a
world conceives as potentially
hostile

Erik Homburger
Erikson

Psychosocial Development
Theory-Best known theory
theories of personality in
Psychology. Personality
develops in a series of stages.
Concept of Ego-Erikson
classified the three concept of
ego:
- Body Ego-A way of seeing
our physical self as different
for other people.
- Ego Ideal-Represents the
image of our self rather than

Psychosocial Stages in each stage is


concerned with becoming
COMPETENT in an area of life.

Erikson concluded that in


every stages of life there is
a conflict. If that conflict
handled well it may
referred as Ego Strength,
and if not, it may refer as
Inadequacy. There are
virtues that are somehow
became social expectations
and can be instruments for
pursuing satisfactory.

existing.
- Ego Identity-Image we have
of ourselves in the variety of
social roles we play.

Henry Murray

Personology-Study of
personality that is rooted in the
brain. The individuals cerebral
physiology guides and governs
every aspect of the personality.
Everything on which
personality depends exists in
the brain, including feeling
states, conscious and
unconscious memories,
beliefs, attitudes, fears and
values

Divisions of Personality Murray


divided personality using Freudian
terms; the Id, Ego, and Superego
Needs - Murrays most important
contribution to theory and research in
personality is his use of the concept of
needs to explain the motivation and
direction of behavior. A need involves a
physicochemical force in the brain that
organizes and directs intellectual and
perceptual abilities. Needs may arise
either from internal processes such as
hunger or thirst, or from events in the
environment.
Personality Development in
Childhood - Drawing on Freuds work,
Murray divided childhood into five
stages, each characterized by a
pleasurable condition that is inevitably
terminated by societys demands. Each
stage leaves its mark on our personality
in the form of an unconscious complex
that directs our later development.
According to Murray, everyone
experiences these five complexes.

Murray insisted the


physiological aspect of
personality he considers
factors rooted from the
biology of the individual
and thus control the
personality.

There is nothing abnormal about them


except when they are manifested in the
extreme, a condition that leaves the
person fixated at that stage

Abraham Maslow

The Holistic Dynamic


Theory of Maslow assumes
that the whole person is
constantly motivated by one
need or another and that
people have the potential to
grow toward psychological
growth, that is, self
actualization

The Hierarchy of Human Needs a


concept of Maslow that explains that
lower level needs must be satisfied or at
least relatively satisfied before higher
level needs become motivators.
- Physiological Needs
- Safety Needs
- Love and Belongingness
- Esteem Needs
- Self Actualization

View of Motivation- Maslow


said that, the whole person, not
any single part or function, is
motivated. Motivations are
complex and may spring from
separate motives.

Carl Rogers

Carl Rogers Person


Centered Theory agreed with
the main assumptions
of Abraham Maslow, but
added that for a person to
"grow", they need an
environment that provides
them with genuineness
(openness and self-disclosure),

Self-actualization - self-actualization
occurs when a persons ideal self (i.e.
who they would like to be) is congruent
with their actual behavior (self-image).
Rogers describes an individual who is
actualizing as a fully functioning
person. The main determinant of
whether we will become self-actualized
is childhood experience.

In his theory, Maslow


explained the consistency
of motivators in the
environment; in the
continuum; influencing the
individuals personality.
This motivators are not
generalized and spring
form different aspect of an
individual.

Carl Rogers integrated the


need of developing to
have a healthy personality.
He examined the true
self and the ideal self as
a factor for concluding the
state of the personality of
an individual.

acceptance (being seen with


unconditional positive regard),
and empathy (being listened to
and understood).
Without these, relationships
and healthy personalities will
not develop as they should,
much like a tree will not grow
without sunlight and water.

The humanistic approach states that the


self is composed of concepts unique to
us. The self-concept includes three
components:
Self worth (or self-esteem) what we
think about ourselves.
Self-image How we see ourselves,
which is important to good
psychological health.
Ideal self This is the person who we
would like to be.

Roller May

In Rollo Mays Existential


Psychology, May believed that
may people lack the courage to
face their destiny and while in
the process of fleeing from it,
they give up much of their
freedom. Having negated their
freedom, they likewise run
away from responsibility. Not
being willing to make choices,
they lose sight of who they are
and develop a sense of
insignificance and alienation.
In contrast, healthy people
challenge their destiny, cherish
their freedom, and live

Anxiety
When we become aware of our
existence or some value identified with
it might be destroyed
- Normal anxiety occurs when it
is proportionate to the threat
- Neurotic anxiety occurs when it
is disproportionate to the threat.
Guilt - Arises when people deny their
potential, fail to accurately perceive the
needs of fellow human, or remain
oblivious to their dependence on the
natural world.

May emphasized the role


of anxiety in the process of
developing personality. He
insisted the difference of
the courageous ones to the
people who prefer to play
safe. He regarded
development under this
circumstances.

authentically with other people


and themselves. They
recognize the inevitability of
death and have the courage to
live life in the present.

Gordon Allport

Eynsenck, McCrae,
and Costa

Gordon Allports Trait


Theory (Psychology of the
Individual) Unlike many
other theories of personality,
such
as psychoanalytic or humanisti
c theories, the trait approach to
personality is focused on
differences between
individuals. The combination
and interaction of various traits
forms a personality that is
unique to each
individual. Trait theory is
focused on identifying and
measuring these individual
personality characteristics.
Trait and Factor TheoryFactor Theory
psychometric sophistication
cannot measure the personality
alone.

Cardinal Traits: These are traits that


dominate an individuals whole life,
often to the point that the person
becomes known specifically for these
traits.
Central Traits: These are the general
characteristics that form the basic
foundations of personality.

Allport theory emphasized


on the pre-existing traits
and developing traits as the
pillars of personality.

Secondary Traits: These are the traits


that are sometimes related to attitudes
or preferences and often appear only in
certain situations or under specific
circumstances.

Dimensions of Personality
Hans Eysenck developed a model of
personality based upon just three
universal trails:
- Introversion/Extraversion:
- Neuroticism/Emotional
Stability
- Psychoticism:

The theory concluded that


traits are linked to different
aspects such as physical
health.

Individuals who are high on


this trait tend to have difficulty
dealing with reality and may be
antisocial, hostile, nonempathetic and manipulative.
The Five-Factor Theory of
Personality
- Extraversion
- Agreeableness
- Conscientiousness
- Neuroticism
- Openness

B.F. Skinner

Behavioral Analysis - Skinner


believed that human behavior,
like any other natural
phenomena, is
subject to the laws of science,
and that psychologists should
not attribute inner motivations
to it.
A further important
contribution made by Skinner
(1951) is the notion of
behaviour shaping through
successive approximation.
Skinner argues that the
principles of operant
conditioning can be used to
produce extremely complex

B.F. Skinner coined the term operant


conditioning; it means roughly
changing of behavior by the use of
reinforcement which is given after the
desired response. Skinner identified
three types of responses or operant that
can follow behavior.
Neutral operants: responses from the
environment that neither increase nor
decrease the probability of a behavior
being repeated.
Reinforcers: Responses from the
environment that increase the
probability of a behavior being
repeated. Reinforcers can be either
positive or negative.
Punishers: Responses from the
environment that decrease the

Skinners conditioning
signifies the role of the
stimuli and the responses
for influencing the
personality of an
individual.

behaviour if rewards and


punishments are delivered in
such a way as to encourage
move an organism closer and
closer to the desired behaviour
each time.

likelihood of a behavior being repeated.


Punishment weakens behavior.

Behavior modification is a set


of therapies / techniques based
on operant conditioning

Albert Bandura

Rotter and Mischel

Social Learning Theory - In


social learning theory Albert
Bandura states behavior is
learned from the environment
through the process of
observational learning.
Unlike Skinner, Bandura
believes that humans are
active information processors
and think about the
relationship between their
behavior and its consequences.
Observational learning could
not occur unless cognitive
processes were at work.

Cognitive Social Learning


Theory - that human behavior
is based largely on the
interaction of people with their

Reciprocal Determinism - that human


functioning is molded by the reciprocal
interaction.
Primary Drives-Much of our behavior
is due to such primary (or innate)
drives as hunger, thirst, sex etc

Predicting Specific Behaviors Human behavior is most accurately


predicted by an understanding of
four variables: behavior potential,

Banduras theory insisted


the learning of people
through the society. The
environments greatly
affects the individual
cognitive processes.

The theory took regards of


the potentiality of the
environment to take effect
to the personality of an
individual.

expectancy, reinforcement value, and


the psychological situation.

George Kelly

meaningful environments.

Predicting General Behaviors The basic prediction is too specific to


give clues about how a person
will generally behave.

Psychology of Personal
Constructs-Designed for the
specific realm of clinical
psychology, with emphasis in
helping people overcomes
problems in their interpersonal
relationship.

Characteristics of Personal
Constructs:

Fundamental Postulate-The
psychological processes that
comprise our personality is
naturally active, and are
molded customary patterns by
the ways in which we
anticipate the future.

Fundamental Postulate-A persons


processes are psychologically
channelized by the ways in which he
anticipates events. This includes:
1. Construction Corollary- A person
anticipates events by construing their
replications.
2. Individuality Corollary-Persons
differ from each other in their
construction of events.
3. Organization Corollary-Each
person characteristically evolves, for
his convenience in anticipating events
etc.
4. Dichotomy Corollary-A persons
construction system is composed of a
finite number of dichotomous

Kellys theory explained


people as anticipating the
future and living their lives
in accordance with those
anticipations. His concept
of elaborative choice
suggests that people
increase their range of
future choices by the
present choices they freely
make. He made a fine
interacting bridge for the
birth different responses.

constructs.
5. Choice Corollary-A person chooses
for himself that alternative in a
dichotomized construct through which
he anticipates the greater possibility for
extension and definition.
6. Range Corollary-Range of
convenience that may be relatively
narrow or wide.
7. Experience Corollary-Ability to
anticipate events.
8. Modulation Corollary-Limiting the
extent to which the system can be
revised.
9. Fragmentation-May be used at
different times of an individual.

Neil Isaac Perez


BS-Psychology 2C

Theories of

Personality

Submitted to: Ms. Kathleen Cortez


Submitted by: Neil Isaac T. Perez
BS-Psychology 2C