SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO BAR EXAMINATION

IN

POLITICAL LAW
ARRANGED BY TOPIC

(1987 – 2006)
Edited and Arranged by:

Atty. Janette Laggui-Icao and Atty. Alex Andrew P. Icao
(Silliman University College of Law) July 26, 2005 Updated by:

Romualdo L. Señeris II, LLB.
April 19, 2007

From the ANSWERS TO BAR EXAMINATION QUESTIONS in POLITICAL LAW by the UP LAW COMPLEX and PHILIPPINE ASSOCIATION OF LAW SCHOOLS

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006)

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We would like to seek the indulgence of the reader for some Bar Questions which are improperly classified under a topic and for some topics which are improperly or ignorantly phrased, for the authors are just Bar Reviewees who have prepared this work while reviewing for the Bar Exams under time constraints and within their limited knowledge of the law. We would like to seek the reader’s indulgence for a lot of typographical errors in this work.

The Authors

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINES ................................................................... 14 Phil Con 87; New Features (1991)..................................................................................... 14 Phil Con 87; People Power (1987)..................................................................................... 14 Phil Con 87; People Power (2000)..................................................................................... 15 Phil Con 87; People Power (2003)..................................................................................... 15 Nature of the Constitution: Constitutional Supremacy (2004) ....................................... 15 Government Presidential Form vs. Parliamentary Form (Q6-2006)............................. 15 ARTICLE I National Territory........................................................................................... 16 Archipelagic Doctrine (1989)............................................................................................... 16 Contiguous Zone vs. Exclusive Economic Zone (2004)................................................. 16 Exclusive Economic Zone; Rights of the Coastal State (1994)..................................... 16 Exclusive Economic Zone; Rights of the Coastal State (Q1-2005) .............................. 17 Flag State vs. Flag of Convenience (2004) ...................................................................... 17 Territory & Government (1996)........................................................................................... 17 Territorial Sea vs. Internal Waters (2004)......................................................................... 17 ARTICLE II Declaration of Principles and State Policies.......................................... 18 Armed Forces; Servant of the People (2003)................................................................... 18 Doctrine of Incorporation; Constitutional Law (1997)...................................................... 18 Doctrine of Incorporation; Pacta Sunt Servanda (2000)................................................. 18 Freedom from Nuclear Weapons; Foreign Military Bases (1988)................................. 18 Philippine Flag (Q4-2006).................................................................................................... 19 Principle of Civilian Supremacy (Q6-2006)....................................................................... 19 State Immunity from Suit (1991)......................................................................................... 19 State Immunity from Suit (1996)......................................................................................... 20 State Immunity from Suit (1989)........................................................................................ 20 State Immunity from Suit (1994)......................................................................................... 21 State Immunity from Suit (1992)......................................................................................... 21 State Immunity from Suit (1999)......................................................................................... 22 State Immunity from Suit (1999)......................................................................................... 22 State Immunity from Suit (1987)......................................................................................... 22 State Immunity vs. Waiver of Immunity (1997) ................................................................ 22 State Immunity from Suit (1993)......................................................................................... 23 State Principles & Policies (1994) ...................................................................................... 23 Transparency; Matters of Public Interest (1989).............................................................. 24 Transparency; Matters of Public Interest (2000).............................................................. 25 ARTICLE III Bill of Rights ................................................................................................... 25 Bill of Attainder (1987).......................................................................................................... 25 Bill of Attainder (1990).......................................................................................................... 26 Custodial Investigation; Extrajudicial Confession (2001) ............................................... 26 Custodial Investigation; Extrajudicial Confession; Police Line-Up (1994) ................... 26 Custodial Investigation; Police Line-Up (1997) ................................................................ 27 Custodial Investigation; Right to Counsel (1988) ............................................................ 27 Custodial Investigation; Right to Counsel (1993) ............................................................ 27 Custodial Investigation; Right to Counsel (2000) ............................................................ 28 Custodial Investigation; Right to Counsel; Receipt of Property Seized (2002)........... 28 Custodial Investigation; Rights (1990)............................................................................... 29 Custodial Investigation; Rights (1993)............................................................................... 29 Custodial Investigation; Rights (1996)............................................................................... 30
BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006)

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Double Jeopardy (1988) ...................................................................................................... 30 Double Jeopardy (1993) ...................................................................................................... 31 Double Jeopardy (1997) ...................................................................................................... 31 Double Jeopardy (1999) ...................................................................................................... 32 Double Jeopardy (1999) ...................................................................................................... 32 Double Jeopardy (2000) ...................................................................................................... 32 Double Jeopardy (2001) ...................................................................................................... 32 Double Jeopardy (2002) ...................................................................................................... 33 Double Jeopardy; Requisites (1999) ................................................................................. 33 Due Process; Absence of Denial (1999)........................................................................... 33 Due Process; Deportation (1994)....................................................................................... 34 Due Process; Forfeiture Proceedings (1993)................................................................... 35 Due Process; Media Coverage during Hearing (1996)................................................... 35 Due Process; Meeting vs. Hearing (1999)........................................................................ 35 Due Process; Notice by Publication (1988) ...................................................................... 35 Due Process; Permit to Carry Firearm Outside Residence (Q6-2006) ........................ 36 Due Process; PPA-Pilots (2001) ........................................................................................ 36 Due Process; Procedural vs. Substantive (1999)............................................................ 37 Due Process; Provisional Order (1991) ............................................................................ 37 Due Process; Public School Teachers (2002) ................................................................. 37 Due Process; Radio Station (1987) ................................................................................... 38 Due Process; Represented by a Non-Lawyer (1988) ..................................................... 38 Due Process; Substantive (2003) ...................................................................................... 38 Due Process; Suspension of Driver's License (1992)..................................................... 38 Due Process; Urgent Public Need (1987)......................................................................... 39 Eminent Domain; Garnishment (1994).............................................................................. 39 Eminent Domain; Garnishment (1998).............................................................................. 40 Eminent Domain; immunity from suit (2001) .................................................................... 40 Eminent Domain; Indirect Public Benefit (1990) .............................................................. 40 Eminent Domain; Just Compensation (1988) .................................................................. 40 Eminent Domain; Just Compensation (1989) .................................................................. 41 Eminent Domain; Just Compensation (1998) .................................................................. 41 Eminent Domain; Legal Interest (1993) ............................................................................ 41 Eminent Domain; Non-observance of the policy of "all or none" (2000)...................... 42 Eminent Domain; Power to Exercise (2005) .................................................................... 42 Eminent Domain; Public Use (1987).................................................................................. 42 Eminent Domain; Socialized Housing (1996)................................................................... 43 Eminent Domain; Writ of Possession (1993).................................................................... 43 Equal Protection; Alien Employment (1989)..................................................................... 44 Equal Protection; Invidious Discrimination (1987)........................................................... 44 Equal Protection; Invidious Discrimination (1987)........................................................... 45 Equal Protection; Police Power (2000).............................................................................. 45 Equal Protection; Right to Education (1994) .................................................................... 45 Equal Protection; Subsidiary Imprisonment (1989)......................................................... 45 Freedom of Expression; Censorship (2003)..................................................................... 46 Freedom of Expression; Prior Restraint (1988) ............................................................... 46 Freedom of Religion; Convicted Prisoners (1989) .......................................................... 46 Freedom of Religion; Flag Salute (1997) .......................................................................... 47 Freedom of Religion; Flag Salute (2003) .......................................................................... 48 Freedom of Religion; Non-Establishment Clause (1988)............................................... 48 Freedom of Religion; Non-Establishment Clause (1992)............................................... 48 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 4

Freedom of Religion; Non-Establishment Clause (1997)............................................... 49 Freedom of Speech; Ban on Tobacco AD (1992) ........................................................... 49 Freedom of the Press; Actual Malice (2004) .................................................................... 50 Freedom of the Press; Wartime Censorship (1987)........................................................ 50 Impairment Clause; Basic Human Rights (1992) ............................................................ 51 Involuntary Servitude (1993)............................................................................................... 51 Liberty of Abode; Limitations (1998) .................................................................................. 51 Liberty of Abode; Temporary (1996).................................................................................. 52 Non-Imprisonment for Non-Payment of Debt (1993) ...................................................... 52 Police Power; Abatement of Nuisance (2004) ................................................................. 52 Police Power; Ban on Tobacco AD (1992) ....................................................................... 52 Police Power; Zoning Ordinance vs. Non-Impairment of Contracts (1989) ................ 53 Police Power; Zoning Ordinance vs. Non-Impairment of Contracts (2001) ................ 53 Privacy of Communication (2001) ...................................................................................... 53 Privacy of Correspondence (1998) .................................................................................... 54 Privacy of Correspondence; Jail (1989) ............................................................................ 54 Right to Assembly; Permit Application; Freedom Parks (Q2-2006).............................. 54 Right to Assembly; Permit Requirements (1992) ........................................................... 55 Right to Assembly; Public Teachers (2000) ..................................................................... 55 Right to Assembly; Public Teachers (2002) ..................................................................... 56 Right to Travel; Order of Arrest (1991).............................................................................. 56 Rights of the Accused; Counsel of his Choice (Q8-2005).............................................. 56 Rights of the Accused; Presumption of Innocence vs. Presumption of Theft (2004) 57 Rights of the Accused; Right to Bail (1993)...................................................................... 57 Rights of the Accused; Right to Bail; Capital Offense (Q4-2006) ................................. 58 Rights of the Accused; Right to Bail; Deportation Case (1989) .................................... 58 Rights of the Accused; Right to Bail; Matter of Right or a Matter of Discretion (Q72005)....................................................................................................................................... 58 Rights of the Accused; Right to Speedy Trial (2000) ...................................................... 59 Rights of the Accused; Self-Incrimination (1988) ............................................................ 59 Rights of the Accused; Self-Incrimination (1990) ............................................................ 59 Rights of the Accused; Self-Incrimination (1992) ............................................................ 60 Rights of the Accused; Self-Incrimination (2000) ............................................................ 60 Rights of the Accused; Self-Incrimination (Q7-2006)...................................................... 61 Searches and Seizure; Private Individuals (Q8-2005)................................................... 61 Searches and Seizures; Aliens (2001) .............................................................................. 61 Searches and Seizures; Breathalyzer Test (1992).......................................................... 62 Searches and Seizures; Immediate Control (1987) ........................................................ 62 Searches and Seizures; Incidental to Valid Search (1990) ........................................... 62 Searches and Seizures; Place of Search (2001)............................................................. 63 Searches and Seizures; search made by a private citizen (1993)................................ 63 Searches and Seizures; search made by a private citizen (2002)................................ 64 Searches and Seizures; Valid Warrantless Search (2000)............................................ 64 Searches and Seizures; Visual Search (1992) ................................................................ 65 Searches and Seizures; Waiver of Consent (1989) ........................................................ 65 Searches and Seizures; Warrantless Arrests (1993)...................................................... 66 Searches and Seizures; Warrants of Arrest (1991) ........................................................ 66 ARTICLE IV Citizenship ..................................................................................................... 66 Action for Cancellation; Prescription & Effect of Death (1994)...................................... 66 Citizenship; Elected Official (1993) .................................................................................... 67 Dual Allegiance vs. Dual Citizenship (1987) .................................................................... 67 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 5

Dual Allegiance vs. Dual Citizenship (1988) .................................................................... 68 Dual Citizenship (1994)........................................................................................................ 68 Effect of Marriage; Filipino (1989)..................................................................................... 69 Effect of Oath of Allegiance (2004) .................................................................................... 69 Effect of Repatriation (1999) ............................................................................................... 70 Effect of Repatriation (2002) ............................................................................................... 70 Effect of Repatriation (2003) ............................................................................................... 70 Effects of Marriages (1999)................................................................................................. 70 Effects of Philippine Bill of 1902 (2001) ............................................................................ 71 Elected Official (1992).......................................................................................................... 71 Electing Philippine Citizenship (Q8-2006) ........................................................................ 71 Electing Philippine Citizenship; When Proper (Q8-2006)............................................... 72 Natural Born Filipino (1989) ................................................................................................ 72 Natural Born Filipino (1998) ................................................................................................ 72 Natural-Born Filipino(1993) ................................................................................................. 73 Naturalization; Cancellation of Citizenship (1998)........................................................... 73 Residency Requirements; Elective Official (Q9-2005).................................................... 73 Status; Illegitimate Child (1990).......................................................................................... 74 Status; Illegitimate Child; Dual Citizenship (1996) .......................................................... 74 Status; Legitimate Child (2003) .......................................................................................... 74 Ways of Reacquiring Citizenship (2000)........................................................................... 75 ARTICLE VI Legislative Department .............................................................................. 75 Appropriation of Public Funds (1988) ................................................................................ 75 Appropriation of Public Funds; Debt Servicing (1992).................................................... 75 Appropriation of Public Funds; Public Purposes (1988)................................................. 75 Commission on Appointments (2002) ............................................................................... 76 Delegation of Powers (2002) .............................................................................................. 76 Delegation of Powers; (Q6-2005)....................................................................................... 76 Delegation of Powers; Completeness Test; Sufficient Standard Test (Q6-2005) ...... 77 Discipline; Modes of Removal (1993)............................................................................... 77 Discipline; Suspension of a Member of the Congress (2002) ....................................... 77 Elected Official; De Facto Officer (2004) .......................................................................... 78 Electoral Tribunal; HRET Members’ Right & Responsibilities (2002) .......................... 78 Electoral Tribunal; Senate; Jurisdiction (1990) ................................................................ 79 Foreign Affairs; Role of House of Rep (1996) .................................................................. 79 Foreign Affairs; Role of Senate (1994).............................................................................. 79 Investigations in Aid of Legislation (1992) ........................................................................ 79 Law Making; Process & Publication (1993) ...................................................................... 80 Law-Making; Appropriation Bill (1996) .............................................................................. 80 Law-Making; Appropriation Law; Automatic Renewal & Power of Augmentation (1998)...................................................................................................................................... 80 Law-Making; Appropriation Law; Rider Provision (2001) ............................................... 81 Law-Making; Foreign Affairs; Treaties (1996) .................................................................. 81 Law-Making; Overriding the Presidential Veto (1991) .................................................... 81 Law-Making; Passage of a Law (1988)............................................................................. 82 Legislative Power; Pres. Aquino’s Time (1990) ............................................................... 82 Legislative Powers (1989) ................................................................................................... 82 Loans Extended to Members of Congress (1991)........................................................... 82 Multi-Party System (1999)................................................................................................... 83 Non-Legislative Powers (1988) .......................................................................................... 83 Non-Legislative Powers; Emergency Powers; Requisites (1997)................................. 83 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 6

Prohibitions and Inhibitions of Public Office (2004)......................................................... 83 Qualifications; Congressmen (1988) ................................................................................. 84 Qualifications; Congressmen; (1993) ................................................................................ 84 Qualifications; Congressmen; (1999) ................................................................................ 85 Separation of Powers (1988) .............................................................................................. 85 Separation of Powers (2003) .............................................................................................. 85 Three-Term Limit: Congressmen (1996)........................................................................... 86 Three-Term Limit; Congressmen (2001)........................................................................... 86 ARTICLE VII Executive Department ................................................................................ 86 Appointing Power; Acting vs. Permanent Appointment (2003) ..................................... 86 Appointing Power; ad interim appointments (1991) ........................................................ 86 Appointing Power; Ad Interim Appointments (1994) ....................................................... 87 Appointing Power; Appointments Requiring Confirmation; RA 6975-Unconstitutional (2002)...................................................................................................................................... 87 Appointing Power; Categories of Officials (1999)............................................................ 88 Appointing Power; Kinds of Appointments (1994)........................................................... 88 Appointing Power; Limitations on Presidential Appointments (1997)........................... 89 Appointing Powers; Ad Interim Appointments (Q4-2005) .............................................. 90 Cabinet Members; limitation on accepting additional duties (1996) ............................. 90 Calling-out Power; President (Q1-2006) ........................................................................... 91 Declaration; State of Calamity; Legal Effects (Q1-2005)................................................ 91 Declaration; State of National Emergency (Q1-2006) .................................................... 91 Enter into Contract or Guarantee Foreign Loans (1994)................................................ 91 Enter into Contract or Guarantee Foreign Loans (1999)................................................ 92 Enter into Executive Agreements (2003) .......................................................................... 92 Impose Tariff Rates, Import and Export Quotas (1999).................................................. 92 Martial Law & Suspension of Writ of Habeas Corpus (1987) ........................................ 92 Martial Law; Limitations (2000).......................................................................................... 93 Martial Law; Sufficiency of the Factual Basis (Q3-2006)................................................ 94 Pardoning Power; Amnesty (1993) .................................................................................... 95 Pardoning Power; Amnesty (1995) .................................................................................... 95 Pardoning Power; Breach of Condition; Revocation (Q5-2005).................................... 95 Pardoning Power; Exec Clemency; Pardon (1995)......................................................... 95 Pardoning Power; Executive Clemency (1997) ............................................................... 96 Pardoning Power; Executive Clemency (1999) ............................................................... 96 Pardoning Power; Kinds (1988).......................................................................................... 96 Pardoning Power; Pardon, Conditional (1997) ................................................................ 97 President; Participation; Legislative Process (1996)....................................................... 97 Presidential Immunity from Suit (1997) ............................................................................. 97 Prohibition Against Multiple Positions & Additional Compensation (2002) ................. 97 Prohibition against Multiple Positions by Gov’t Officials (1987) .................................... 98 Suspension of Writ of Habeas Corpus (1997).................................................................. 99 ARTICLE VIII Judicial Department .................................................................................... 99 Cases to be Heard En Banc; Supreme Court (1999)...................................................... 99 Contempt Powers (1996)..................................................................................................... 99 Finality of Void Judgments (1993)...................................................................................... 99 Fiscal Autonomy (1999)..................................................................................................... 100 Function; Continuing Constitutional Convention (2000) ............................................... 100 Issuance of Restraining Orders and Injunctions (1992) ............................................... 100 Judicial & Bar Council (1988)............................................................................................ 101 Judicial & Bar Council (1999)............................................................................................ 101 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 7

Judicial Department; Writ of Amparo (1991) .................................................................. 101 Judicial Independence; Safeguard (2000) ...................................................................... 101 Judicial Power (1989)......................................................................................................... 102 Judicial Power (1992)......................................................................................................... 102 Judicial Power (1998)......................................................................................................... 103 Judicial Power; Scope (1994) ........................................................................................... 103 Judicial Review; Locus Standi (1992).............................................................................. 104 Judicial Review; Requisites (1994) .................................................................................. 104 Jurisdiction of HLURB (1993) ........................................................................................... 104 Mandatory Period For Deciding Cases (1989)............................................................... 105 Political Question (1995).................................................................................................... 105 Political Question Doctrine (1997).................................................................................... 105 Political Question: Separation of Powers (2004) ........................................................... 106 Political Question; To Settle Actual Controversies (2004) ........................................... 106 Political Questions (1988).................................................................................................. 106 Pro Hac Vice Cases (1999)............................................................................................... 107 Removal of Lower Court Judges (1993) ......................................................................... 107 Review Executive Acts (1996) .......................................................................................... 107 Supervision; Courts & its Personnel (Q5-2005)............................................................. 108 Taxpayer's Suit; Locus Standi (1995).............................................................................. 108 Term of Office; Justices (1996) ........................................................................................ 108 Votes required for declaring a law unconstitutional (1996) .......................................... 109 ARTICLE IX Constitutional Commissions .................................................................. 109 Rotational Scheme (1999)................................................................................................. 109 Constitutional Commissions & Council (Q7-2006) ........................................................ 109 ARTICLE IX Civil Service Commission........................................................................ 109 Career Service; Characteristics (1999) ........................................................................... 109 Civil Service Commission vs. COA (2004) ..................................................................... 109 Function of CSC (1994) ..................................................................................................... 110 GOCCs Without Original Charter vs. GOCCs With Original Charter (1998)............. 110 Jurisdiction over the GOCCs (1999)................................................................................ 111 Jurisdiction over the GOCCs (2003)................................................................................ 111 Modes of Removal from Office (1993) ............................................................................ 111 Receiving of Indirect Compensation (1997) ................................................................... 111 Security of Tenure (1988).................................................................................................. 112 Security of Tenure (Q5-2005) ........................................................................................... 112 Security of Tenure; Meaning (1999) ................................................................................ 113 ARTICLE IX COMELEC .................................................................................................... 113 Electoral Tribunal; Functions & Composition (Q5-2006) .............................................. 113 Fair Election; Equal Space & Time in Media (1989) ..................................................... 113 Grant of Pardon in Election Offenses (1991) ................................................................. 114 Judicial Review of Decisions (2001) ................................................................................ 114 Removal from Office; Commissioners (1998) ................................................................ 114 Right to Vote; Jurisdiction (2001) ..................................................................................... 114 Election Laws ........................................................................................................................ 114 2nd Placer Rule (2003)..................................................................................................... 114 2nd Placer Rule (1990) ...................................................................................................... 115 2nd Placer Rule; in Quo Warranto Cases (1992) .......................................................... 115 2nd Placer Rule; Rule of Succession (1996) ................................................................ 115 Appreciation of Ballots (1994)........................................................................................... 116 Disqualification; Grounds (1991) ...................................................................................... 116 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 8

Disualifications (1999)........................................................................................................ 116 Effect of Filing of Certificate of Candidacy; Appointive Officer vs Elective Officer (2002).................................................................................................................................... 116 Effect of Filing of Certificate of Candidacy; Fair Election Act (2003).......................... 117 Election Offenses; Conspiracy to Bribe Voters (1991) ................................................. 117 Election Protest (1990) ...................................................................................................... 117 Election Protest vs. Quo Warranto (2001) ...................................................................... 118 Election Protest vs. Quo Warranto (Q5-2006) ............................................................... 118 Election Protest; Jurisdiction (1996) ................................................................................ 118 Expiration of term bars service thereof (2000)............................................................... 118 Petition to Declare Failure of Elections; Requisites & Effects (1995)......................... 118 Pre-Proclamation Contest (1987)..................................................................................... 119 Pre-Proclamation Contest (1988)..................................................................................... 119 Pre-Proclamation Contest vs. Election Contests (1997) .............................................. 120 Pre-Proclamation Contest; Proper Issues (1996).......................................................... 121 Process; Illiterate Voters (1987) ....................................................................................... 121 Process; Principle of Idem Sonans (1994) ..................................................................... 121 Process; Stray Ballot (1994) ............................................................................................. 121 Recall (2002) ....................................................................................................................... 122 Three-Term Limit Rule (2001) .......................................................................................... 122 Three-Term Limit; from Municipality to Newly-Created City (Q9-2005).................... 122 Vacancy; Effect of Vice-Mayor Acting As Mayor (2002)............................................... 123 Vacancy; Rule of Succession (1995)............................................................................... 123 Vacancy; SB; Rule on Succession (2002) ...................................................................... 124 ARTICLE IX Commission on Audit ............................................................................... 124 COA; Jurisdiction (2001).................................................................................................... 124 COA; Money Claims (1998) .............................................................................................. 124 ARTICLE X Local Government ..................................................................................... 125 Appointment of Budget Officer; control vs supervision (1999) .................................... 125 Boundary Dispute Resolution; LGU; RTC’s Jurisdiction (Q10-2005)........................ 126 Boundary Dispute Settlement; Authority; Jurisdiction (1999) ...................................... 126 Creation of New Local Government Units; Plebiscite Requirement (2004) .............. 126 De Facto Public Corporations; Effect (2004).................................................................. 126 Devolution of Power (1999)............................................................................................... 126 Franchise; prior approval of LGU necessary (1988) ..................................................... 126 Law fixing the terms of local elective officials (Q4-2006) ............................................. 127 Ordinance; Use & Lease of Properties; Public Use (1997).......................................... 127 Ordinance; Validity; Closure or Lease of Properties for Public Use (2003) .............. 127 Ordinance; Validity; Compensation; Tortuous Act of an Employee (1994) ............... 127 Ordinance; Validity; Local Taxation vs. Special Assessment (1987) ......................... 128 Ordinance; Validity; Preventing Immorality (1987) ........................................................ 128 Ordinance; Validity; Utilization & Development; National Wealth (1991) .................. 128 Ordinances; Validity; Amending Nat’l Laws (1988) ....................................................... 128 Ordinances; Validity; Gambling Prohibition (1995)........................................................ 129 Ordinances; Validity; Limitation of Penalties (1991) ..................................................... 129 Ordinances; Veto Power (1996) ....................................................................................... 129 Police Power; LLDA (1995)............................................................................................... 130 Power to Issue Subpoena & Cite For Contempt (1993) ............................................... 130 Power; Eminent Domain; LGU; Right to Exercise (Q10-2005).................................... 131 Powers of Barangay Assembly (2003) ............................................................................ 131 Powers; Liga ng mga Barangay (2003)........................................................................... 131 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 9

Requisites; Contracts Involving LGU (1991) .................................................................. 131 Requisites; Contracts involving LGU (1995) .................................................................. 132 Taxation; GOCC Liability For Real Estate Tax (1999).................................................. 132 Taxation; Sources of Revenue (1999)............................................................................. 132 Withdrawal of Public Property from Public Use (1990)................................................. 132 ARTICLE XI Accountability of Public Officers........................................................... 133 Abandonment of Office (2000).......................................................................................... 133 Discipline; Clemency; Doctrine of Condonation (2000) ................................................ 133 Discipline; Effect of Pardon Granted in Favor of Public Officers (1999) .................... 134 Discipline; Preventive Suspension & Appeal; entitlement to salary pendente (2001) ............................................................................................................................................... 134 Discipline; Preventive Suspension (1990) ...................................................................... 134 Discipline; Preventive Suspension (2002) ...................................................................... 135 Elective and Appointive Officials: disciplinary authority (2004) ................................... 135 Elective Public Officer; De Facto Officer (2000) ............................................................ 135 Elective Public Officers; De Facto Officer; effects (2004) ............................................ 136 Graft and Corruption; Prescription of Crime (2002) ...................................................... 136 Impeachment; Cronyism (2000) ....................................................................................... 137 Impeachment; Grounds (1999)......................................................................................... 137 Impeachment; Nature; Grounds; PD 1606 (1988)......................................................... 137 Law of Public Officers; Next-in-Rank Rule (1994)......................................................... 137 Liability For Damages in Performance of Official Functions (1990) ........................... 138 Local Elective Officials; Limitations On Additional Duties (1995) ............................... 139 Ombudsman: Power to Suspend; Preventive Suspension (2004) ............................. 139 Ombudsman; Power to Investigate (2003) ..................................................................... 139 Ombudsman; Power to Suspend; Preventive Suspension (1996) ............................. 140 Power to Issue Subpoena; validity of delegation (1989) .............................................. 140 Prohibition On Elective Officer to Hold Public Office (2002)........................................ 140 Public Office; Public Trust (1998)..................................................................................... 140 Retirement Benefits (1996) ............................................................................................... 141 ARTICLE XII National Economy and Patrimony......................................................... 142 Acquisition and Lease of Public Lands (1998)............................................................... 142 Acquisition of Lands (1987)............................................................................................... 142 Acquisition of Lands (2000)............................................................................................... 143 Acquisition of Lands by Hereditary Succession (2002) ................................................ 143 Acquisition of Lands; Citizenship issue (1989) .............................................................. 143 Acquisition of Lands; Citizenship issue (1994) .............................................................. 144 Acquisition of Lands; Citizenship issue (1995) .............................................................. 144 Acquisition of Lands; Prohibition; acquisition of private lands by aliens (1994) ....... 145 Citizenship Requirement in Management of Advertising Industry (1989) ................. 145 Engagement in Business & Exercise of Profession (1987).......................................... 145 Exploration and Development of Minerals (1994) ......................................................... 146 Expropriation of Public Utilities (1992) ............................................................................ 146 Lease of Private Agricultural Lands (2001) .................................................................... 146 National Economy & Patrimony; Constitutional Prohibition (2004)............................. 147 National Patrimony; definition (1999) .............................................................................. 147 Nationalized Activities (1994)............................................................................................ 147 Ownership Requirement of Mass Media (1989) ............................................................ 148 Chinese citizens; engaging in retail trade (Q4-2006).................................................... 148 Exploration, development, and utilization of natural resources (Q4-2006) ............... 148 ARTICLE XIII Social Justice and Human Rights ......................................................... 148 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 10

Agrarian Reform Law; Coverage (1992) ......................................................................... 148 Commission on Human Rights; Power to investigate (1992) ...................................... 149 Commission on Human Rights; Power to issue TRO (1997) ...................................... 149 Commission on Human Rights; Power to issue TRO (2001) ...................................... 149 Commission on Human Rights; Power; Limitations (Q4-2005)................................... 150 Labor; Right to Self-Organization (1988) ........................................................................ 151 Labor; Right to Strike (1988)............................................................................................. 151 Labor; Right to Strike (1993)............................................................................................. 151 Social Justice under the Present Constitution (1995)................................................... 152 Women (2000)..................................................................................................................... 152 ARTICLE XIV Education, Science and Technology, Arts ......................................... 153 Education; Academic Freedom (1987)............................................................................ 153 Education; Academic Freedom (1989)............................................................................ 153 Education; Academic Freedom (1993)............................................................................ 153 Education; Academic Freedom; Extent (1999) .............................................................. 154 Education; Alien Enrollees & Donors (1999) .................................................................. 154 Education; Duties of State in Re Education (1999)....................................................... 154 Education; Flag Salute (1987) .......................................................................................... 155 Education; Right to Choose Profession (2000).............................................................. 155 Education; Right to Quality Education (2003) ................................................................ 156 Education; Teaching of Religion (1999) .......................................................................... 156 Education; Validity of Academic Requirements (1994) ................................................ 156 ARTICLE XVI General Provisions .................................................................................. 156 General Provisions; Local Dialect (1987)........................................................................ 156 AFP; limitation on accepting additional duties (1996)................................................... 157 ARTICLE XVII Amendments or Revisions .................................................................... 157 People’s Initiative (2004) ................................................................................................... 157 Amendments and Revisions; Modes (1997) .................................................................. 157 REFERENDUM vs. INITIATIVE (Q1-2005) .................................................................... 157 ARTICLE XVIII Transitory Provisions.............................................................................. 158 Transitory Provisions; Foreign Military Bases (1996) ................................................... 158 Transitory Provisions; Foreign Military Bases (1988) ................................................... 158 PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW ........................................................................................ 158 Basic Principles in Public Int’l Law (1991) ...................................................................... 158 Constitutive Theory vs. Declaratory Theory (2004)....................................................... 160 Contiguous Zone vs. Exclusive Economic Zone (2004).............................................. 160 Diplomatic Immunity (2000) .............................................................................................. 160 Diplomatic Immunity (2001) .............................................................................................. 160 Diplomatic Immunity (2003) .............................................................................................. 161 Diplomatic Immunity (2004) .............................................................................................. 161 Diplomatic Immunity; Ambassador (Q3-2005) ............................................................... 162 Diplomatic Immunity; Ambassadors (1990).................................................................... 162 Diplomatic Immunity; Coverage (Q3-2005) .................................................................... 163 Diplomatic Immunity; Diplomatic Envoy and Consular Officers (1995)...................... 164 Diplomatic Immunity; Diplomatic Envoy and Consular Officers (1997)...................... 165 Exclusive Economic Zone (2000)..................................................................................... 165 Executive Agreements; Binding Effect (2003)................................................................ 165 Extradition vs. Deportation (1993).................................................................................... 166 Extradition; Doctrine of Specialty (1993)......................................................................... 166 Extradition; Effectivity of treaty (1996)............................................................................. 166 Extradition; Grounds (2002) .............................................................................................. 167 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 11

Extradition; Retroactive Application (Q2-2005).............................................................. 167 Flag State vs. Flag of Convenience (2004) .................................................................. 168 Genocide (1988) ................................................................................................................. 168 Human Rights (1999) ......................................................................................................... 168 Human Rights; Civil and Political Rights (1992) ............................................................ 168 Human Rights; Civil and Political Rights (1996) ............................................................ 169 Int’l Court of Justice; Jurisdiction Over States................................................................ 170 Int’l Court of Justice; Jurisdiction Over States (1994)................................................... 170 Int’l Court of Justice; Limitations On Jurisdiction (1999) .............................................. 170 Int’l Court of Justice; Parties; Pleadings and Oral Argument (1994) .......................... 170 International Convention; Law of the Sea (2004) .......................................................... 171 International Court of Justice (Q9-2006)......................................................................... 171 International Law vs. Municipal Law; Territorial Principle; International Crimes (Q22005)..................................................................................................................................... 171 Mandates and Trust Territories (2003)............................................................................ 172 Municipal Law vs. International Law (2003) ................................................................... 173 Neutrality of States (1988)................................................................................................. 173 Outer Space; Jurisdiction (2003)...................................................................................... 174 Principle of Auto-Limitation (Q10-2006) .......................................................................... 174 Reciprocity v. Principle of Auto-Limitation (Q10-2006)................................................. 174 Recognition of States; De Facto vs. De Jure Recognition (1998) .............................. 174 Reparations Agreement; Validity (1992) ......................................................................... 175 Right to Innocent Passage (1999).................................................................................... 175 Right to Transit and Innocent Passage (2004) .............................................................. 176 Rights and Obligation under UN Charter (1991)............................................................ 176 Sources of International Law; Primary & Subsidiary Sources (2003) ........................ 177 Sovereign Immunity of States; Absolute vs. Restrictive (1998) .................................. 177 Sovereignty of States; Natural Use of Territory (1989)................................................. 178 Sovereignty; Definition; Nature (Q10-2006) ................................................................... 178 State Liabilities (1995)........................................................................................................ 179 State Sovereignty; Effective Occupation; Terra Nullius (2000) ................................... 179 Stateless Persons; Effects; Status; Rights (1995)......................................................... 179 Territorial Sea vs. Internal Waters (2004)....................................................................... 180 Use of Force; Exceptions (2003)...................................................................................... 180 Use of Force; Principle of Non-Intervention (1994)....................................................... 181 Use of Force; Right of Self-defense (2002) .................................................................... 182 Use of Force; Self-Defense; Waging War (1998) .......................................................... 182 Use of Force; When allowed (1988) ................................................................................ 183 War; Combatants/ Prisoners of War vs. Mercenaries (1993) ...................................... 183 Wilson doctrine vs. Estrada doctrine (2004)................................................................... 184 ADMINISTRATIVE LAW....................................................................................................... 184 Admin Law; Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies (1991)....................................... 184 Admin Law; Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies (2000)....................................... 184 Admin Law; Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies vs Doctrine of Primary Jurisdiction (1996) .............................................................................................................. 185 Admin Law; Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies; Exceptions (1991) ................. 185 Admin Law; Judicial Review of Administrative Action (2001) ...................................... 186 Admin Law; Judicial Review of Administrative Decisions (1988)................................ 186 Admin Law; Meaning of “Government of the Philippines” (1997) ............................... 187 Admin Law; Power of the President to Reorganize Administrative Structure (2003) ............................................................................................................................................... 187 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) – POLITICAL LAW (1987-2006) 12

Admin Law; Rules and Regulations; Due Process (2000) ........................................... 187 Government Agency vs. Government Instrumentality (Q7-2005)............................... 188 Quasi-Judicial Body or Agency (Q5-2006) ..................................................................... 188

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1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINES
Phil Con 87; New Features (1991) No 1: How is the Bill of Rights strengthened in the 1987 Constitution? SUGGESTED ANSWER: There are several ways in which the Bill of Rights is strengthened in the 1987 Constitution. 1. New rights are given explicit recognition such as, the prohibition against detention by reason of political beliefs and aspirations. The waiver of Miranda rights is now required to be made in writing with the assistance of counsel. The use of solitary, incommunicado and secret detention places is prohibited, while the existence of substandard and inadequate penal facilities is made the concern of legislation. 2. There is also recognition of the right of expression, an express prohibition against the use of torture, a mandate to the State to provide compensation and rehabilitation for victims of torture and their families. 3. Some rights have been expanded. For instance, free access to courts now includes access to quasi-judicial bodies and to adequate legal assistance. 4. The requirements for interfering with some rights have been made more strict. For instance, only judges can now issue search warrants or warrants of arrest. There must be a law authorizing the Executive Department to interfere with the privacy of communication, the liberty of abode, and the right to travel before these rights may be impaired or curtailed. 5. The Constitution now provides that the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus does not suspend the right to bail, thus resolving a doctrinal dispute of long standing. 6. The suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus and the proclamation of martial law have been limited to sixty (60) days and are now subject to the power of Congress to revoke. In addition, the Supreme Court is given the jurisdiction, upon the petition of any citizen to determine the sufficiency of the factual basis of the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus and the proclamation of martial law.

7. The Supreme Court is empowered to adopt rules for the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights. 8. Art. II. Sec. 11 commits the State to a policy which places value on the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. 9. A Commission on Human Rights is created. 10. Under Article XVI. Sec. 5(2) the State is mandated to promote respect for the people's rights among the members of the military in the performance of their duty. Phil Con 87; People Power (1987) No. XVIII: The framers of the 1987 Constitution and the people who ratified it made sure that provisions institutionalizing people power were incorporated in the fundamental law, Briefly discuss at least two such provisions. SUGGESTED ANSWER: Art. VI, Sec. 1, while vesting in Congress the legislative power, nonetheless states that such conferment of power shall be subject to the reservation made in favor of the people by provisions on initiatives and referendum. For this purpose, Congress is required, as early as possible, to provide for a system of initiative of referendum whereby the people can directly propose and enact laws or approve or reject an act or law or part thereof passed by the Congress or the legislative bodies after the registration of a petition therefor, signed by at least 10% of the total number of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least 3% of the registered voters. (Id., sec. 32) The Constitution also provides that through initiative, upon a petition of at least 12% of the total numbers of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least 3% of the registered voters therein, amendments to the Constitution may be directly proposed by the people. Art, XIII, sec. 15 states that the state shall respect the role of independent people's organization to enable them to pursue and protect, within the democratic framework, their legitimate and collective interests and aspirations through peaceful lawful means. For this purpose, the Constitution guarantees to such organizations the right to participate at all levels of social, political and economic decisionmaking and the state is required to validate the

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establishment of adequate mechanism for this purpose. (Id., sec, 16) Phil Con 87; People Power (2000) No IX. Is the concept of People Power recognized in the Constitution? Discuss briefly. (3%) SUGGESTED ANSWER: Yes, the concept of People Power is recognized in the Constitution. Under Section 32. Article VI of the Constitution, through initiative and referendum, the people can directly propose and enact laws or approve or reject any act or law or part thereof passed by the Congress or local legislative body after the registration of a petition therefor signed by at least ten per centum of the total number of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters thereof. Under Section 16, Article XIII of the Constitution, the right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels

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