You are on page 1of 213

American

Petroleum Institute
682 Standard
2nd Edition
Introduction
Pumps-Shaft Sealing Systems for
Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps

EAA cust

API 2nd Edition Description


Written by select committee of:
End users
Pump manufacturers
Seal manufacturers

John Crane API 682 Committee Members


Gordon Buck
Chris Fone

API 682 strives to promote:


Best practices in selection and operation of mechanical seals
Extend seal life to (3) years service minimum
Built upon growing acceptance of API 682 1st Edition
Technically equivalent to ISO Draft International Standard 21049

API 682 Publication Dates


1st Edition issued 1994
2nd Edition July 2002
ISO 21049 target date is now late 2003

API 682 Mission Statement

This standard is designed to


default to the equipment types
most commonly supplied that have
a high probability of meeting the
objective of at least three years of
uninterrupted service while
complying with emissions
regulations.

API 682 Standard - Aims


Maximum reliability and availability of
equipment

Meet emissions legislation


Lower costs - standardisation & reliability
Improved safety - tested & proven sealing
systems

Consistent seal application based on


accumulation of best practices

Seal interchangeability

API 682 Summary


Only three arrangements
single
dual unpressurised
dual pressurised

Testing on five fluid groups,


Propane, water, caustic, cold oil, hot oil

Specifies materials of construction


Secondary containment on all single seals
Forced circulation on dual seals
Full interchangeability

Continued...

API 682 Summary


Guidelines for seal and hardware design based upon
user experience

Tested designs
Qualification type testing
Individual component & seal integrity testing

Defined guidelines for auxiliary equipment, pipework


.

& instrumentation

API 682 Taskforce


1st Edition Taskforce was refineries only
2nd Edition Taskforce

new chairman (Joe Thorp)


3 members from 1st edition
chemical plant representatives
input from PIP committees
European representatives

John Crane representatives


Gordon Buck
Chris Fone (ESA)

Development of Seal & Pump


Standards
API 676

API 610
Positive Displacement
7th Edition
Pumps
Pumps and Seals
API 610

API 682

8th Edition
Mainly Pumps

1st Edition
Seals Only

API 682
API 610
9th Edition/ISO 13709
Only Pumps

2nd Edition
Seals Only

ISO 21049
Seals Only

Development of Seal & Pump Standards


ANSI Strategy is to drive US Standards into ISO

API 610 (7th) - issued 1989


API 610 (8th) - issued 1995
API 682 (1st) - issued 1994
API 610 (9th) combined with ISO 13709 - DIS vote
2001-4, issued 2003-1?
API 682 (2nd) positive vote Sept 2001 - issued 2002-3
ISO 21049 - DIS vote 2002-2, issued 2003-3?
API 682 (3rd) - issued 2003-3?

DIN24960

EN12756
L1k/L1n
Seal dimensions

DIN24960
chambers
ISO3069 S
ASME B73
(Big Bore)

API610 8th

ISO3069
Chamber dims

DIN + 5mm
Cartridge

API682
Table 1

ISO3069C

ISO3069H

API682 Cat 1

API 610 9th


ISO13709

API682 Cat 2/3

Whats New in 2nd Edition


Replaces the long-standing mechanical seals specification
found in API 610 Pump Standard

Replaces and expands the scope of API 682 1st Edition:


Adds new seal types
Adds new piping plans
Establishes (3) seal categories
Adds seals for chemical plants (ANSI & ISO chemical
duty pumps)

Adds qualification tests for new seal types


Adds pass/fail criteria for qualification tests
To be ISO Standard 21049

API 2nd Edition Description

Specification now includes:


Dry-running secondary containment seals
Non-contacting wet seals
Gas lubricated seals
New piping arrangements for secondary containment
and non-contacting seals

API 2nd Edition Benefits


Consistency of approach
Proven practices
Qualification tested
International in scope
Results
Reliability
Low leakage
Long life
Cost effective

API-682 1st Ed. Significance?

1st Edition released in 1994.


Few US customers have specified seals as pure 682

1st Ed. compliant.


API-682 1st Ed. sales growing slowly primarily through

international projects.
Still generally limited understanding and use of the

specification.
Market unwilling to accept cost impact associated

with technical requirements of the specification.

Why Expect 2nd Ed. Significance?

2nd Ed. is broad based in scope versus 1st Ed. which


was a very narrow high end specification.

As a stand alone seal standard, 682 2nd Ed. is being


coordinated with the elimination of seal specification
criteria within API610.

Much less restrictive, allowing consistency with


current practices and ultimately less costly
arrangement alternatives.

API 682 Specification

Strongly encourage your customers to buy an official copy of the


specification or where appropriate offer a complimentary copy.

Pumps Shaft Sealing Systems for


Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps
American Petroleum Institute
1220 L Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20005 USA

Global Engineering Documents at (800) 854-7179


Product No. C682202

API 682
Product Line

EAA int

API 682 Seal Categories


Category 1
Chemical & Petrochemical Industry Pumps.
Heavy duty seals designed for ANSI and ISO
enlarged bore seal chambers.

API 682
2nd Edition
Category 2

Category 3

Oil & Gas Industry API Pumps.

Oil & Gas Industry API Pumps.

Handles services previously defined


as API-610 Applications.

Premium seals meeting highest


specification of API 682.

Same qualification tested


components as Cat. III Seals.

Require full qualification test


reports.

Standard Seal Types & Arrangements


Seal Types
Type A:

Rotating pusher seal using O-rings &


multiple springs.

Type B:

Rotating metal bellows using O-rings.

Type C:

Stationary metal bellows using flexible graphite


gaskets. Only applies to Cat. II & III for high
temperature service.

Seal Arrangements
Arrangement 1:

Single seal

Arrangement 2:

Unpressurised dual seal (Tandem)

Arrangement 3:

Pressurised dual (Double)

Category 1, 2, & 3 Operating Ranges


600

41 bar g

Cat. 2 & 3 Seals


34.5 bar g

500

psig

400

API 682 1st


edition
limits

20 bar g

300
200

Cat. 1 Seals

100
0
-100

100

200

300

400
F

500

260C

600

700

800

400C

API 682 (2nd Edition)


Seal Categories
FEATURE

CATEGORY 1

CATEGORY 2

CATEGORY 3

Seal chamber size

ISO 3069, ASME B73.1


and ASME B73.2

ISO 13709 / API 610

ISO 13709 / API 610

Temperature range

Pressure range

40 C (40 F) to 260 C 40 C (40 F) to 400 C 40 C (40 F) to 400 C


(500 F)
(750 F)
(750 F)

22 bar (315 psi).

42 bar (615 psi).

42 bar (615 psi).

API 682 (2nd Edition)


Seal Categories
FEATURE

CATEGORY 1

CATEGORY 2

CATEGORY 3

Face materials

Premium blister
resistant carbon vs.
self sintered silicon
carbide

Premium blister
resistant carbon vs.
reaction bonded
silicon carbide.

Premium blister
resistant carbon vs.
reaction bonded
silicon carbide.

When required for


vapor margin or
when specified.

When required for


vapor margin or
when specified.

Required.

Distributed inlet
flush requirements,
Arrangements 1 and
2 with rotating
flexible elements
Gland plate metal to
metal contact
requirement

Required

Required inside and Required inside and


outside of the bolt
outside of the bolt
circle diameter.
circle diameter.

API 682 (2nd Edition)


Seal Categories
FEATURE

CATEGORY 1

CATEGORY 2

CATEGORY 3

Cartridge seal
sleeve size
increments required.

None

10 mm increments

10 mm increments

Throttle bushing
design requirement
for Arrangement 1
seals

Fixed carbon.
Floating carbon
option.

Fixed, non-sparking
metal. Floating
carbon option

Floating carbon

Dual seal circulation


device head flow
curve provided.

Not applicable

When specified

Required.

Scope of vendor
qualification test

Test as Category 1
unless faces
interchangeable
with Category 3

Test as Category 2
unless faces
interchangeable
with Category 3

Test as Category 3,
entire seal assembly
as a unit

API 2nd Edition Category 1


Description
API version of our existing 5600
Adds secondary containment to the Type 5600
Product Definition
A heavy duty ANSI seal that fits ISO seal chambers

Large bore seal chambers (ISO 3069-C, ANSI/ASME B73.1, B73.2)


Temperatures from 40F to +500F (-40C to 260C)
Pressures to 300 psig (20 bar g)
Sizes to 4.5 (120 mm)
Mean face velocities less than 25 m/s (5000 feet/min.)

API 2nd Edition Category 1 Product Line


Type A
Arrangement
1

5610Q-1

Type C

5615Q-1

N/A

Contacting wet

N/A

Dual liquid buffer/barrier

Arrangement
2

5620P-1

5625P-1

Arrangement
2

5620D-1

Engineered
ECS

Arrangement
3

5620P-1

5625P-1

Arrangement
3

2800

Description

Type B

2800MB

Carbon bushings standard on single seals


Stationary inner seal option available

N/A
N/A
N/A

Contacting dry
secondary containment
Liquid barrier fluid
face-to-back
Gas barrier
(0-300 psig)

API 2nd Edition Category 2


Description
Same as Category III but with softer seal design options
Example: single-point flush with fixed bushing
Includes dry-sliding secondary containment
Includes non-contacting seals
Slightly less expensive than Category III seals due to lower options and

less documentation
Arrangement 1 seal design options including various flush and bushing
options, though JC has preferred standards

Product Definition
Temperatures from 40F to +750F (-40C to 400C)
Pressures to 600 psig (41 bar g)
Sizes 1.5 to 4.5 (30mm to 120mm)

API 2nd Edition Category 2 Product Line


Arrangement
1

Type A

Type B

Type C

1648-2

1670-2

1604-2

2670-2

2609-2

Description
Contacting wet single
RREL option

Arrangement
2

2648-2

Arrangement
2

2648-2C

2670-2C

2609-2C

Arrangement
2

2648-2N

2670-2N

2609-2N

Non-contacting
secondary containment

3609-2

Liquid barrier fluid

Arrangement
3
Arrangement
3
Arrangement
3

3648-2
2800
2800HP

3670-2
2800MB
N/A

Carbon bushing standard on single seals (JC EAA).

Liquid buffer
Contacting dry
secondary containment

N/A

Gas barrier
(0-300 psig)

N/A

Gas barrier
(300 600 psig)

API 2nd Edition Category 3

Description

Same as current API 682 1st edition seals

Sleeve hard coating optional, (standard on EAA designs)

Extensive documentation
Includes dry-sliding secondary containment
Includes non-contacting seals
Arrangement 1 design includes distributed flush with carbon floating
bushing standard

Product Definition

Temperatures from 40F to +750F (-40C to 400C)


Pressures to 600 psig (41 bar g)
Sizes to 1.5 to 4.5 / 30mm to 120mm

API 2nd Edition Category 3 Product Line


Type A

Type B

Type C

1648-3

1670-3

1604-3

Arrangement
2

2648-3

2670-3

2609-3

Arrangement
2
1

2648-3C

2670-3C

2609-3C

Arrangement
2

2648-3N

2670-3N

2609-3N

Non-contacting
secondary containment

Arrangement
3

3648-3

3609-3

Liquid barrier fluid

Arrangement
1

Arrangement
3

2800

Arrangement
3

2800HP

3670-3

Description
Contacting wet single
RREL Option
Liquid buffer
Contacting dry
secondary containment

2800MB

N/A

Gas barrier
(0-300 psig)

N/A

N/A

Gas barrier
(300 600 psig)

Cross Reference Chart


1st Edition seal type

2nd Edition seal type

1648

1648-2, 1648-3

1648O

RREL/R

1648RS

1648RS

2648

2648-2, 2648-3

3648

3648-2, 3648-3

1604

1604-2, 1604-3

2609

2609-2, 2609-3

3609

3609-2, 3609-3

1670

1670-2, 1670-3

API 682 Category 1

Specific to ANSI/ASME B73.1 & B73.2 and ISO 3069 Type C

Enlarged bore chemical process pumps

Qualification tested

Based from 5600 Universal Cartridge Series

Special features include:


Cartridge design, with register fit gland
Arrangements 1,2, and 3
Type A & B designs
Common adaptive hardware between Type A & B versions
Dry secondary containment option
Available with both rotating or stationary inner seal

Category 1 Seal Types


5610Q-1

Registered fit with confined O-ring & metalto-metal contact with pump seal chamber.

Type A
Arrangement 1

Fixed carbon
bushing
Stationary inner seal option

Category 1 Seal Types


5620P-1

Pumping ring

Type A
Arrangement 2

Reverse pressure balanced


Stationary inner seal option

Category 1 Seal Types


5620D-1

Secondary containment seal

Type A
Arrangement 2

Self-sintered Silicon Carbide


Stationary inner seal option

Category 1 Seal Types


5615Q-1

Alloy C-276 Sealol edge-welded metal bellows

Type B
Arrangement 1

Fixed
carbon
bushing

Stationary inner seal option

Category 1 Seal Types


5625P-1

Dual seals have radial inlet and tangential outlet


buffer/barrier fluid connections

Type B
Arrangement 2

Self-sintered Silicon Carbide


Stationary inner seal option

Pumping
ring

API 2nd Edition Category 2


Description
Specific to API boxes
Same as Category III but with softer seal design options
Example: single-point flush and lower bushing requirements
Includes dry-sliding secondary containment & non-contacting seals
Includes seal types A, B & C, arrangements 1, 2 & 3
Slightly less expensive than Category III seals due to lower options and

less documentation
Arrangement 1 seal design options including various flush and bushing
options, though JC has preferred standards

Product Definition
Temperatures from 40F to +750F (-40C to 400C)
Pressures to 600 psig (41 bar g)
Sizes 1.5 to 4.5 (30mm to 120mm)

Category 2 Seal Types


1648-2 Type A, Arrangement 1

Distributed flush

Pumping ring
(API Plan 23)

Based on successful Type 48 design


Standard bushing: Fixed
Standard flush: Single point
Optional bushing: Segmented or floating
Optional flush: Distributed

Floating bushing

Segmented
bushing (JC option)
(sleeve hard coating
optional)

Category 2 Seal Types


2648-2
Type A, Arrangement 2

Primary Face
Carbon - standard
Tungsten Carbide - optional

Hastelloy C
Springs

API flush plan 52


Same as Cat. III

316 SS Metal Parts

Fluoroelastomer Secondary Seals

Reaction- bonded Silicon Carbide


Hydraulically Retained Mating Ring

Category 2 Seal Types


3648-2 Type A, Arrangement 3

API flush plan 53 or 54


Same as Cat. III

Primary Face
Carbon - standard
Tungsten Carbide optional
316 SS
Metal Parts
Hastelloy
C Springs

Double-balanced to withstand
pressure reversal

Category 2 Seal Types


1670-2 Type B, Arrangement 1

Distributed flush

Pumping ring
(API Plan 23)

Floating bushing

Segmented
bushing (JC option)

Floating
Bushing
Shown

Sealol C-276 edge-welded


metal bellows
Standard bushing: Fixed
Standard flush: Single point
Optional bushing: Segmented or floating
Optional flush: Distributed

(sleeve hard coating


optional)

Category 2 Seal Types


2670-2 Type B, Arrangement 2
3670-2 Type B, Arrangement 3

2670 uses API flush plan 52


3670 uses API flush plan 53 or 54
Same as Cat. III

Axial flow (scroll) pumping ring

Category 2 Seal Types


1604-2 Type C, Arrangement 1
Inconel stationary bellows

Segmented
bushing
(sleeve hard coating
optional)

Steam deflector
Flexible graphite secondary seals

Floating bushing

Category 2 Seal Types


2609-2 Type C Arrangement 2
3609-2 Type C Arrangement 3

High temperature
rotating Inconel bellows

2609 uses API flush plan 52


3609 uses API flush plan 53 or 54
Same as Cat. III

Axial flow (scroll) pumping ring &


flow guide

Category 2 & 3 Secondary


Containment Seals
2648-2C

Isolation Bushing

Type A
Arrangement 2

Type 48SC

Category 2 & 3 Secondary Containment Seals


2670-2C
Type B, Arrangement 2

Isolation Bushing

Low-temperature
Type 670 seal head

ECS
Low-Temperature

Category 2 & 3 Secondary Containment Seals


2609-2C,
Type C, Arrangement 2

Isolation Bushing
High-Temperature
ECS

High-temperature Type 609

Category 2 & 3 Non-contacting


Secondary Containment Seals
2648-2N
Type A, Arrangement 2

Isolation Bushing

28LD
Type 48LP

API 2nd Edition Category 3


Description
Specific to API boxes
Same as 1st edition but with additional seal design options
Includes dry-sliding secondary containment
Includes non-contacting seals
Includes seal types A, B & C, arrangements 1, 2 & 3

Uses premium design options, distributed flush, floating bushes

Extensive documentation must be supplied

Product Definition
Temperatures from 40F to +750F (-40C to 400C)
Pressures to 600 psig (41 bar g)
Sizes 1.5 to 4.5 (30mm to 120mm)

Category 3 Seal Types


1648-3 Type A, Arrangement 1

Distributed
flush

Floating
bushing

Provided with appropriate documentation in


accordance with the API 682 Specification

Sleeve hard
coating
(optional)

Category 3 Seal Types


1648-3
Type A, Arrangement 1

316 SS
Metal parts

Fluoroelastomer secondary seals

Hastelloy C
Springs

Bushing retained
by bolted follower
plate

Distributed
flush

Floating bushing as
standard

Primary Face Carbon - standard


Tungsten Carbide - optional

Reaction bonded
Silicon Carbide
Mating Ring

Sleeve hard coating


(optional on API 682
seals)

Category 3 Seal Types


1670-3
Type B
Arrangement 1

Provided with appropriate documentation in


accordance with the API 682 Specification
Distributed flush standard
Segmented bushing standard
Sleeve hard coating optional

Category 1, 2, & 3 Non-contacting


Gas-lubricated Seals
2800 Type A, Arrangement 3

Dual mating ring design meets


API 682 design specifications

0 to 300 psig / 21 bar g

Patented
spiral groove

Category 1, 2, & 3 Non-contacting


Gas-lubricated Seals
2800HP Type A, Arrangement 3

Dual mating ring design conforms to API 682 design requirements


300 psig / 21 bar g to 600 psig / 41 bar g

Category 1, 2, & 3 Non-contacting


Gas-lubricated Seals
2800MB Type B, Arrangement 3

Patented
spiral groove

Dual mating ring design conforms


to API 682 design requirements
0 to 230 psig / 16 bar g

Sealol edge-welded
metal bellows

API 682, 2nd Edition


Design Requirements

API 682 Overview


A summary of API 682 was presented previously
Type A, B, C
Arrangements 1, 2, 3
Categories 1, 2, 3

JC Products for API 682 were presented previously

Type 48 variations
Type 670, 604, 609 variations
Type 5600 variations
Type 2800s

This presentation is about design details

Design Requirements
for
All Categories
All Types
All Arrangements

General and Default Requirements


Cartridge seals (6.1.1.1)

Studs are the


default (6.1.2.12.2)
Bolt Holes,
not slots
(6.1.2.8.1)
Rigid Setting Clips

Register Fit.
Concentric
to shaft &
0.125 mm
(.005) TIR
Maximum
(6.1.2.8.2)

8 Set
Screws
(Maximum)

Bushing
(single seals)
(floating or fixed)
O-Rings

One piece sleeve

General and Default Materials


Silicon Carbide

316SS Gland Plate

Premium Grade Carbon

Setscrews
harder than shaft

Hastelloy C
Springs

Viton O-Rings

316SS Sleeve

Rotating / Stationary Requirements


Type A & B default to rotating seals (6.1.1.2)

Type C defaults to stationary seal (6.1.1.3)

All stationary if speed >23 m/s (4,500 ft/min) (6.1.1.5)

Maximum Allowable Working


Pressure (MAWP)
Applies to pressure casing (6.1.1.6)
Pressure casing includes

Gland
Piping
Reservoirs
Heat exchangers

Does not apply to seal components


Equal to pump MAWP (6.1.2.8)
Glands shall have a corrosion allowance of 3 mm (1/8)

Axial Movement
Capable of handling axial movement (6.1.1.8)

Normal
Transient
Thermal growth
Thrust positioning (vertical pumps)
Where to get info?
Not on datasheet
Pump OEM

Sleeve Requirements
Optional Coating

Locating shoulder
2.5 mm
(0.100) min

Relief
See Table 3
2.5 to 5 mm
(0.100 to 0.200)
O-ring on process end

Relief

Sleeve Requirements

One piece sleeve


Must have a shoulder to locate rotating elements
Minimum 2.5 mm (0.100) thickness
Thickness under set screws per Table 3
Shafts < 57 mm (2.25) 2.5 mm (0.100)
Shafts 57 to 80 mm (2.25 to 3.25) 3.8 mm (0.150)
Shafts > 80 mm (3.25) 5 mm (0.200)

Setting plate that does not put load on seal faces during
installation or removal of cartridge (6.1.1.4)

Sealing requirements for sleeves


Normally uses O-rings to seal sleeve to shaft
O-ring close to impeller end of sleeve

Can use flexible graphite on OB end of sleeve


Captured between sleeve and shaft

Sleeve Clearance
Intent is to minimise sleeve runout
F7/h6 clearance per ISO 286-2
Minimum of 0.02 mm (0.0008) for small shafts
Maximum of 0.09 mm (0.0037) for large shafts

Relieved along the bore with fits at or near each end


Bore and OD concentric within 0.025 mm (0.001) TIR

F7/h6 Fit

F7/h6 Fit

Set Screws for Drive Collar


Maximum of eight (6.1.3.12)
Harder than shaft (6.1.3.11)
Spot drilling the shaft is acceptable but not
recommended

Can use split ring instead of drive collar for


thrust (6.1.3.13)

Set screws shall not pass through sleeve unless


sleeve bore is relieved [to avoid damage during
removal] (6.1.3.10)

Gland Plate Requirements


Minimum radial clearance is 3 mm (1/8) (6.1.2.6) except
pumping rings can be 1.5 mm (1/16) (8.6.2.3)

Glands machined from single piece wrought material or


bar stock DO NOT require hydrostatic testing (10.3.2.1)

3.0

1.5

Gland Plate Requirements:


Clearances
Isolation bushing for containment seals (7.2.5.1.1;
7.2.6.1.1) has 1.5 mm (1/16) radial clearance

Isolation Bushing

1.5 mm (1/16)

3 mm (1/8)

More Gland Plate Requirements


Flush is not same size
as quench, vent, drain

Connections plugged with


solid plug (6.1.2.18)

(6.1.2.17)

Confined gaskets
(6.2.1.2.2; 6.2.2.2.2)

Drill throughs at least 5 mm


(3/16) diameter (6.1.2.21)

3 mm (1/8) Shoulder
(6.1.2.8.3)

Gland Plate Connections

Mark with symbols from Table 1 (6.1.2.17)


Locate per Table 1
Sizes per Table 1
Some flexibility within Table 1
Small pumps
Limited space

Gland Plate Connections for


Single Seals
Table 1

Symbol Connection

Location

Size *

Flush

1/2

Drain

180

3/8

Quench

90

3/8

FI

Flush In (Plan 23 only)

180

1/2

FO

Flush Out (Plan 23 only)

1/2
* All sizes are NPT taper thread
connections

Location:
Horizontal Pumps: 0 degrees = Top Dead Centre
Vertical Pumps: F defines 0 degrees

Gland Plate Connections for


Dual Seals
Table 1

Symbol Connection
LBI

Liquid Buffer/Barrier In

LBO

Location

Size

180

1/2

Liquid Buffer/Barrier Out

1/2

CSV

Containment Seal Vent

1/2

CSD

Containment Seal Drain

180

1/2

GBI

Gas Barrier In

1/4

GBO

Gas Barrier Out

180

1/2

* All sizes are NPT taper thread


connections

Bushing Diametrical Clearances


Fixed bushings (6.1.2.22)
0.635 mm (0.025) max. up to 50 mm (2) shaft size
Add 0.127 mm (0.005) for each additional 25 mm

Floating bushings (6.1.2.23, Table 2)


Up to 50 mm (2) 0.18 mm (0.007) clearance
51 to 80 mm (2 to 3) 0.225 mm (0.009)
81 to 120 mm (3 to 4.75) 0.28 mm (0.011)

Segmented bushings per JC standards

Pumping Rings
Systems relying on thermosiphoning shall not be
used (8.2.2)

Systems with pumping rings inlet at bottom &


outlet at top (8.2.3)

Pumping rings shall properly align with


connections (8.6.2.4)

Radial clearance between pumping ring and


stationary component shall be 1.5 mm (1/16) or
greater (8.6.2.3)

O-Ring Requirements
Grooves sized for perfluoroelastomer (6.1.1.10)
(use JC Standards for Kalrez, Isolast, etc.)

Surface finish (6.1.1.9)


1.6 m (63 in) Ra for static o-rings
0.8 m (32 in) Ra for dynamic o-rings

Runout and Tolerances


Wording is different but intent the same
seals must be designed for .

Seal chamber face runout of 0.5 m/mm


(0.0005 in/inch) of bore (6.1.2.13)

Primary Rings
Normally rotating
Can be pusher or non-pusher
Default is multiple spring (6.1.5.1)
Can be single spring
Can be bellows

No lapped joints (6.1.5.2)

Mating Rings

Normally stationary
Not clamped-in (6.1.4.1)
Anti-rotation pin is required (6.1.4.1)
Mounting to enhance heat transfer (6.1.4.2)
One mating ring for each primary ring
(7.3.1.3) (no common mating rings without
purchaser approval)

Material for Sleeve and Gland Plate


Equal or better than pump case material
316SS minimum (6.1.6.3; 6.1.6.7)

Material for Springs


Hastelloy C for (small) multiple springs (6.1.6.4)
316SS for single springs (6.1.6.4)

Material for Bellows


Type B bellows is Hastelloy C (6.1.6.6)
(Types 1670, 5615-1, etc.)

Type C bellows is Alloy 718 (6.1.6.6)


(Type 1604, 2609, 3609 for hot services)

Material for Primary Rings


Default is carbon
premium grade, blister-resistant
Must be tested in qualification tests

We use

Antimony filled for Type 48 family (8270)


Resin filled for Type 670 family
Resin filled for Type 609 family
Resin filled for Type 5600 family

Optional Materials
Resin filled for Type 48 family (if acids or caustic)
Antimony filled for 5610/5620 is optional and tested
Default for hard faces is SiC vs SiC (WC optional)

Material for Mating Rings


Defaults to SiC
Category 1 uses sintered SiC
Is usually for chemical duty seals

Category 2 and 3 use reaction bonded SiC


Is usually for refinery seals

Material for O-Rings

Default is Viton (6.1.6.5.1)


Perfluoroelastomer is optional (6.1.6.5.2)
Flexible graphite is used for Type C bellows seal
Temperature limits are (Annex C.3)

Viton (hydrocarbon)

-7 to 175 C (20 to 350 F)

Viton (water)

-7 to 120 C (20 to 250 F)

Perfluoroelastomer

-7 to 290 C (20 to 550 F)

Nitrile

-40 to 120 C (-40 to 250 F)

Flexible graphite

-240 to 480 C (-400 to 900 F)

Design Requirements
for
Category 1 Seals

Materials for Primary Rings


(Category 1)
Carbon is the default material (6.1.6.2.2)
We use resin filled carbon for Type 5600
family

Alternative for 5610 & 5620 on flashing


hydrocarbon services is Antimony filled
carbon

Material for Mating Rings


(Category 1)
Default is self-sintered silicon carbide (6.1.6.2.3)
Because of chemical resistance

Customer can specify the use of reaction


bonded silicon carbide

Gland Plate
(Category 1)
Default is single point injection
Distributed flush is optional (6.2.1.2.1; 6.1.2.14)
6.1.2.14 states Seal chamber pressure shall not
be less than a 30% margin to maximum VP or a
20 C (36 F) product temperature margin at
maximum process temperature
Remember
Register fit
Bolt holes, not slots
Confined gasket with metal-to-metal contact [gland to
pump] (6.2.1.2.2)

Design Requirements
for
Category 2 Seals

Materials for Primary Rings


(Category 2)
Carbon is the default material (6.1.6.2.2)
We use
Antimony filled carbon for Type x648 family
Resin filled carbon for Type 48s when sealing
acids & caustics

Resin filled carbon for Type x670 family


Resin filled carbon for Type x609 family

Material for Mating Rings


(Category 2)
Default is reaction bonded silicon carbide
(6.1.6.2.3)
Preferred by many refineries
Better toughness than self sintered SiC

Gland Plate
(Category 2)
Default is single point injection
Distributed flush is optional (6.2.2.2.1; 6.1.2.14)

Design Requirements
for
Category 3 Seals

Category 3 Seals
Same as API 682, 1st Edition

Materials for Primary Rings


(Category 3)
Carbon is the default material (6.1.6.2.2)
We use
antimony filled carbon for Type x648 family
Resin filled carbon for Type 48s when sealing
acids & caustics

Resin filled carbon for Type x670 family


Resin filled carbon for Type x609 family

Material for Mating Rings


(Category 3)
Default is reaction bonded silicon carbide
(6.1.6.2.3)
Preferred by many refineries
Better toughness than self sintered SiC

Gland Plate
(Category 3)
Default is distributed flush for single, rotating
seals (6.2.3.2.1)

Design Requirements
for
Arrangement 1 Seals

Throttle Bushings
(Arrangement 1)
Throttle bushing required (7.1.2.1)
Category 1 uses fixed, carbon bushing
Category 2 uses fixed, non-sparking metal
bushing

Category 3 uses floating, carbon bushing


Category 1 & 2 can be specified [by customer] to
be a floating bushing (7.1.2.2)

Design Requirements
for
Arrangement 2 Seals

General Requirements
for Arrangement 2 Seals
Inner (process) seal rated for 2.75 bar (40 psi)
reverse (ID to OD) pressure (7.2.1.1)

Outer seal can be a contacting liquid seal or a


contacting or non-contacting containment seal

The inboard seal can incorporate an auxiliary


sleeve under the seal utilising a locating step
and dog point set screws and not violate the one
piece sleeve requirement (7.2.2.1)

Throttle Bushings
(Arrangement 2)
Throttle bushing not required
Fixed throttle bushing optional (7.2.3.1)
Default for optional bushing is carbon (7.2.3.1)

Design Requirements
for
Arrangement 3 Seals

General Requirements
for Arrangement 3 Seals
Inner seal must have full reverse pressure rating
(7.3.1.2)

Cartridge shall utilise two primary rings and two mating


rings (7.3.1.3)

Contacting Wet Seals


Standard configuration is Face-to-Back
Optional configurations are Face-to-Face or Back-to-Back

Gas Barrier Seals


Standard configuration is Back-to-Back
Optional configurations are Face-to-Face or Face-to-Back

Throttle Bushings
(Arrangement 3)
Throttle bushing not required
Fixed throttle bushing optional (7.3.3.1)
Default for optional bushing is carbon (7.3.3.1)

Design Requirements
for
Containment Seals

Containment Seal Specifics

Containment seals are Arrangement 2


Can be contacting or non-contacting
Buffer gas (purge) is optional
Uses Plan 7x series flush plans
Isolation bushing between containment seal and
vent/drain port (7.2.5.1.1; 7.2.6.1.1))

API 682, 2nd Edition


Testing Requirements

Testing Requirements
Testing
Type testing
Qualification

Fluids
Sizes
Steady state /Cyclic
Seal types
Seal arrangements

Individual seal testing


Component
integrity

Seal
integrity

Hydrostatic testing
- Seal chambers
- Gland plates
- Reservoirs
- Heat exchangers

Air test
- Single
- Dual (each chamber)

OEM

Pump
performance
test

Pump Performance Test Logic

Seal Operated
(Standard)

Modified Seal

(Standard)

(Optional)

Seal Not Operated


(Optional)

Perform Pump Performance


Test with Modified
Seal Faces

Perform Pump Performance


Test with Shop Seal

Pump Performance Test


IF

Job Seal

If Leak
Replace Modified Seal
Faces with Job Seal Faces

OK
Ship Pump with
Job Seal

Install Job Seal and


air pressure test

Repair, retest with air


IF

If Leak

If Leak

OK

Repair

IF

Air Pressure Test

OK

Ship Pump with


Job Seal

IF OK

Standard

Option

If Leak
IF

If Leak

OK
(OR)

Ship Pump with


Job Seal Installed

Ship Pump with


Job Seal Separate

Ship Pump with


Job Seal Installed

Repair

Typical Integrity Test Rig

Technology Testing Center

Test Cell Specifications

Most fluids (except extreme explosives)


Pressures to 103.5 barg (1500 psig)
Temperatures to >316C (>600F)
Sizes to 150 mm (6) (speed dependent for
larger sizes)

Speeds to 4500 rpm


Computerised controls and data acquisition

View Inside a Test Cell

TTC Operations Area

Qualification Test Summary


Dynamic
3600 rpm
Base point pressure and temperature
Steady state for 100 hours minimum

Static
4 hours minimum

Cyclic
5 simulated upset cycles
Pressure, temperature swings
Start/stop
Loss of flush
Approx 8 hours

Final Static Test

Wet Seals Qualification Test

Gas Barrier Cyclic Test

9
"

Containment Seals Test

999 999

9
9

Typical TTC Testing Arrangement

Inboard (Rig) Side Single Seal

Outboard Side Single or Dual Seal

Results of Qualification
Tests

2 Type 1648LP Test Results


Dynamic (Steady State) Test

2 Type 1648LP Test Results


Dynamic (Steady State) Test

2 Type 1648LP Test Results


Dynamic (Steady State) Test

2 Type 1648LP Test Results


Dynamic (Steady State) Test

2 Type 1648LP Test Results


Dynamic (Steady State) Test

2 Type 1648LP Test Results


Cyclic (Simulated Upset) Test

2 Type 1648LP Test Results


Cyclic (Simulated Upset) Test

2 Type 1648LP Test Results


Cyclic (Simulated Upset) Test

Qualification Test Summary

Certification of Test
AP I 682 T est C e rtificate
S eal T ested:

John C ran e S e alol 160 4

A P I T yp e:

T yp e C - A rran gem e nt I

A P I C od e:

C / 1 1 - 62 / S / 20 0

Fac e M aterials :

C arb on vs S ilico n C arbide

T est Fluid:

N on-Fla shin g H yd roca rb on

B ase P ress ure:

100 psig (7 b ar g)

B ase T em p eratu re:

500 F (260 C )

S pee d:

360 0 rpm

T his is to certify th a t th e seal n oted a b ove h a s b e en te sted in accord an ce w ith


A P I 68 2 re q uire m en ts.

D avid Casucci
_ __ __ _ ___ __ __ __ ___ _ __ ___ _ ___ __ _ ___ _
D a vid C a succi E ngine erin g M a na ger - S ealo l B ello ws P rod u cts

API 2nd Edition Testing


2nd Edition Testing Completed :
Type 5610-1 in Propane
Type 5620P-1 in Propane (Arrangement 2)
Type 48LP/S48SC
Type 2800 & Type 2800HP
Type 48LP/ECS

Containment Seals to be Tested:


Type S28LD -- SBOP Type 5620D-1

API 682, 2nd Edition


Seal Codes

EAA cust

Annex J: Codes

Informative
Four segment code
Different from 1st Edition
Different from API 610
Different from Seal Configurations
Example 2CW-CS (Arrangement 2 with Contacting
Wet Inboard Seal with a Containment Seal)

API 682 (2nd Edition)


Annex J (Seal Codes)

New coding structure

First letter = Category


second letter = Arrangement
Third letter = Seal Type
Fourth letter(s) = Flush arrangement

Example is C3A2C1152 is Category 3 Type C seal in


an arrangement 2 using Plans 11 and 52

Annex J: Codes

Informative
Four segment code
Different from 1st Edition
Different from API 610

C1 A1 A 11

Annex J: Codes

Informative
Four segment code
Different from 1st Edition
Different from API 610

flush

arrangement

C1 A1 A 11
category

type

API 682 (2nd Edition)


Arrangement 1, Single Seals
One seal per cartridge assembly
1CW-FX Contacting single wet seal with a
fixed throttle bushing
1CW-FL Contacting single wet seal with a
floating throttle bushing

API 682 (2nd Edition) Arrangement


2, Dual Non-pressurized
Two seals per cartridge assembly with a containment seal chamber
which is at a pressure less than the seal chamber pressure

2CW-CW Dual contacting wet seals with a


liquid buffer fluid
2CW-CS Contacting wet inner seal with a
dry-running containment seal
2NC-CS Non-contacting inner seal with a
dry-running containment seal

API 682 (2nd Edition)


Arrangement 3, Dual Pressurized
Two seals per cartridge assembly that utilizes an
externally supplied barrier fluid

3CW-FB Dual contacting wet, face-to-back


3CW-BB Dual contacting wet, back-to-back
3CW-FF Dual contacting wet, face-to-face
3NC-BB
3NC-FF
3NC-FB

Dual non-contacting, back-to-back


Dual non-contacting, face-to-face
Dual non-contacting, face-to-back

API 682 (2nd Edition)


- Summary of Seal Arrangements

API 682 Second Edition


Piping Plans

29

API 682 Second Edition

Changes to Existing Plans

Heat exchangers (8.5.3)


0.50 x 0.065 wall tubing for shaft sizes 60 mm
(2.5) and smaller (8.5.3.1.5)
0.75 x 0.095 wall tubing for shaft sizes larger
than 60 mm (2.5) (8.5.3.1.5)

Barrier/ buffer fluid reservoirs (8.5.4)


12 litre (3 gal) capacity for shaft sizes 60 mm
(2.5) and smaller (8.5.4.3.1)
20 litre (5 gal) capacity for shaft sizes larger
than 60 mm (2.5) (8.5.4.3.1)

12 litre reservoir design


DN 150 (NPS 6) sch. 40 pipe (8.5.4.4.3 a)

316L construction (8.5.4.4.6)


12 mm (0.50 NPT) seal connections (8.5.4.4.8 a)
Seamless tubing is the default
Sch. 80 pipe is optional
12 mm x 1.6 (0.50 x 0.065) wall, 316SS cooling

coil (8.5.4.5.3)
6

12 Litre Reservoir

20 litre reservoir design


DN 200 (NPS 8) sch. 40 pipe (8.5.4.4.3 b)
316L construction (8.5.4.4.6)
18 mm (0.75) seal connections (8.5.4.4.8 b)
Seamless tubing is the default
Sch. 80 pipe is optional

12 mm x 1.6 (0.50 x 0.065) wall, 316SS


cooling coil (8.5.4.5.3)
8

20 Litre Reservoir

Barrier/ buffer fluid reservoirs (8.5.4)


Pressure gauge and switch required (8.5.4.2.7)
Low level switch required (8.5.4.2.8)
High level switch optional (8.5.4.2.8)
Hermetically sealed switches not required (9.1)

10

API 682 Second Edition

New Piping Plans

11

New Piping Plans


Plan 53s - Arrangement 3, Contacting Wet (CW) Seals
53a traditional configuration
53b bladder accumulator
53c piston pot/ accumulator

Plan 72 Arrangement 2 w/ Containment Seal (CS)


Plan 74 Arrangement 3, Non-Contacting (NC) Seals
Plan 75 Arrangement 2 w/ Containment Seal (CS)
Plan 76 Arrangement 2 w/ Containment Seal (CS)

12

Plan 53a

(A.4.12)

Arrangement 3, Contacting Wet (CW) Seals


Dual Pressurised (Double) Seals
Utilises direct nitrogen blanket for pressure
Limits the maximum pressure due to nitrogen
entrainment in the barrier liquid

13

Plan 53b

(A.4.12)

Arrangement 3, Contacting Wet (CW) Seals


Dual Pressurised (Double) Seals
Utilizes bladder accumulator for pressure

14

Plan 53b

(A.4.12)

Bladder eliminates nitrogen contact


with barrier liquid

Allows for higher pressure


applications

Configuration Includes:

Accumulator
Pressure Indicator
Pressure Switch
Heat Exchanger

15

Plan 53b

(A.4.12)

16

Plan 53c

(A.4.12)

Arrangement 3, Contacting Wet (CW) Seals


Dual Pressurised (Double) Seals
Utilises piston pot for pressure

17

Plan 53c

(A.4.12)
Piston pot eliminates nitrogen contact
with barrier liquid

Allows for higher pressure applications


Piston provides constant pressure ratio
to seals (1.1:1)

Configuration includes:

Piston pot
Pressure indicator
Pressure switch
Heat exchanger
Level switch

18

Plan 53c

(A.4.12)

19

Plan 72

(A.4.16)

Arrangement 2, w/ Containment Seal (CS)


Dual Un-Pressurised (Tandem) Seals
Dry-running secondary

Low pressure nitrogen sweep


Sweeps primary leakage to collection system
Dilutes primary leakage to lower emission levels

Used in conjunction with Plan 75 or 76

20

Plan 72

(A.4.16)

21

Plan 74

(A.4.17)

Arrangement 3, Non-contacting Seals (NC)


Dual Pressurised (Double) Seals
Nitrogen barrier
1.75 - 2 bar (25-30 psi) above seal chamber
pressure

Zero emissions

Essentially a T2800 panel

22

Plan 74

(A.4.17)

23

Plan 75

(A.4.18)

Arrangement 2, w/ Containment Seal (CS)


Dual Un-Pressurised (Tandem) Seals
Dry-running secondary

Condensate collection reservoir (8.6.5.2)


Used when primary seal leakage may condense

May be used in conjunction with Plan 72

24

Plan 75

(A.4.18)

25

Plan 75

(A.4.18)

26

Plan 76

(A.4.19)

Arrangement 2, w/ Containment Seal (CS)


Dual Un-Pressurised (Tandem) Seals
Dry-running secondary

Primary leakage routed to flare or vent


Used when primary seal leakage will not condense
Essentially a 48SC panel

May be used in conjunction with Plan 72

27

Plan 76

(A.4.19)

28

API 682 2nd Edition


Questions and Answers

EAA cust

What is API 682?

Seal standard issued by: American Petroleum


Institute
Scope includes: Seals for centrifugal and
rotary pumps
API 610
API 670

1st edition 1994


2nd edition May, 2002

How do 2nd Edition & 1st Edition differ?

Categories
Category1 is for chemical duty
Category 2 is for refinery duty
Old 682 Light
Traditional API 610 seals

Category 3 is same as 1st edition API 682

Gas barrier seals


Containment seals

Who wrote API 682?

An industry Task Force comprising of:


End Users
Chemical plants
Refineries

Pump OEM
Seal OEM

API Committees

Who must use API 682?

No one is required to use API 682 but many


industries adopt the standard in full or as part of
their operating specification in an editit format
(Shell PI for instance)

Refineries will be the biggest users


Chemical plants are now covered in the
standard

When does API 682 Take Effect?

After publication (July, 2002)


Or when invoked by the customer or contractor

What are the advantages of using API 682?

Consistency of approach to seal selection and


application

Qualification testing
Air integrity test prior to shipment
Provides high degree of probability in providing
(3) years of uninterrupted service while
complying with emission regulations

What are the disadvantages of using API 682?

Heavy Duty
Cost: Some features specified may result in a higher
expense to the purchaser than seals and systems
previously used.

Require more radial and axial space

Paper work

Is API 682 a metric standard?

Yes though imperial is the default units


Imperial units are typical in USA

Can the purchaser modify or make additions to


API 682?

Yes
Strong set of defaults in API 682
Allows for user choices
Users will write their own exceptions and
clarifications to API 682

How are Materials Specified?

Specified through detailed coding


Default materials are completely specified
Limited optional materials available that comply
Materials have not changed from 1st edition, but
codes used will not match old API 610 material
codes

Are there substitutes for face materials?

No, must be a tested material


Rules for tested material relaxed somewhat
John Crane will have additional tested materials,
ie, materials that have been tested and meet the
test requirements of API, even though they may
not be defined options in the standard

What Testing is Required?


Qualification
Specific liquids
Nominal 2 and 4 seals
Publication of results, with pass or fail criteria

Hydrotest
Glands not required to be hydrotested unless cast (previously all
glands needed testing)

Integrity (air test) on assembly


25 psig

Must a seal be tested on all fluids?


Seals should be tested on the fluids they are expected to
work on

5 test fluids

Water
Propane
Caustic
Hot Oil
Cold oil

Qualification testing on representative fluid

How do we retrofit seals into older pumps?

It is expected that there will sometimes


dimensional problems, due to minimum
specification:
1/8 (3.175mm) minimum sleeve thickness
1/8 (3.175mm) general radial clearances
1/16 (1.587mm) radial clearance for pumping rings

Old pumps, or equipment with minimum space


may have to take design exceptions

What is the equivalent code for BSTFL?

There is no exact equivalent in 682


New set of codes for API 682 2nd edition
2nd edition codes not same as 1st edition
682 codes not same as 610 codes

If customer references an old 610 code


Probably wants a Category II seal as this is the
closest definition of a historical 610 seal
There is no direct cross reference possible

How are ANSI / ISO (DIN) Pumps catered for?

Category I seals are designed for ANSI / ISO


(DIN) large bore

Special features include


Register fit
Throttle bushing
Drilled bolt holes in gland

Does API 682 include Rotary Pumps?

Yes but:
Seal chamber specified for rotary pumps / PD
pumps do not match those in API682 (API676)

Can a customer purchase dry gas seals per


API 682?

Yes, where it is a dry gas seal for pumps not


compressors, it falls into the following
categories:
Gas barrier seals
Containment seals
New piping plans cover these arrangements
71, 72, 75, 76 for containment seals
74 for gas barrier seals

What arrangement are dry running


containment seals and dry gas seals?

Gas barrier seals are Arrangement 3


Containment seals are Arrangement 2

Must barrier pressure for dual pressurized seals be


constantly controlled versus seal chamber pressure?

Barrier pressure does not have to track process


pressure

Plan 53C is an option that tracks process


pressure

What reference is there in API 610 for Seals?

Whilst API 610, 8th Ed. edition did include limited


seal information, 9th Ed. will not have seal specs;
instead refers to API 682

If API 610 is referenced, you must now assume


9th Ed. unless otherwise another edition is
specified

Must Data Sheets be Completed?

Too comply with the requirements of 2nd Ed Yes


seal data sheets must be filled out

2nd Edition uses a two page datasheet


1st Edition was five pages

But smaller print in 2nd Edition

Data sheet is initiated by purchaser, not JC, and


is different between category 1 & 2, and
category 3

Who Completes the Data Sheet?

Data sheet is initiated by purchaser


O
Seal vendor info added to info by purchaser
Some items by either vendor or purchaser
Defaults marked with shading
The seal vendor cannot begin with a blank
data sheet!
John Crane CSelect682 will complete the application
part of the data sheet automatically, and will allow you to
complete the rest electronically.

What is an Engineered Seal?


Seal Types are really just A, B, C
Part of Totally Engineered Sealing System
Outside the scope of API 682
Temperature, pressure, speed, fluids, etc.
Optional testing per Clause 10.3.1.1.2

Design features
Conceivably anything
Probably based on API 682

API 682 2nd Edition

CSelect 682
Seal selection software for API
682 Applications

17

Annex A: Selection
Informative
Summaries of
Categories 1, 2, 3
Arrangements 1, 2, 3
Seal types A, B, C

Seal selection
Tutorial
Tables
Logic diagrams

Piping Plans
Tutorial
Logic diagrams
2

Seal Selection Procedure

Select category (1, 2, 3)


Select fluid group
Type A, B, C
Arrangement 1, 2, 3
Piping plan

Select Arrangement

Expanded from 1st Edition


An interview based on
Leakage
Safety

Start

Yes

Is product hazardous

Do project/national/local standards

by regulation

permit a restricted vapor leakage

or other local criteria?

No

under all operating conditions?

No

Does product have high

Yes

Yes

H2S content by
national/local criteria?
Will a single seal with special

No

features mitigate the hazard,


emission, or other difficulties?
Is product under
No

Yes

regulated emission rate


for hydrocarbons?

Is pumping
No

temperature

No

<260C (500F)?

Arrangement 1

Yes

Yes

Go to Sheets
7, 8, or 9

Is pumping

No

temperature
<150C (300F)?
Arrangement 3
Yes

Go to Sheets
Yes

Is pumped

7, 8, or 9

fluid dirty?

No

Arrangement 2
Go to Sheets
7, 8, or 9

CSelect682

John Crane computer program


Can be given to customers
Should be used internally for defining
preferences

Available April, 2003

Opening Screen
Change
language
Set program
for SI or
Imperial
units
Help

Start a New Project

Project item

Project name

Select an Existing Project


Add new
items
Modify
selections

Existing Selection Routine

View
or
Modify

Select a Seal - Fluid Properties

Selection
data
summarised
at bottom of
screen
10

Selection in Progress

11

Selection Complete

Preferred
selection
highlighted
Option to
select
alternative
seal

12

Flush Plans and Materials

Selections
can be
changed or
locked where
no change
allowed

13

Seal and Piping Plan

14

Create Report

15

View Data Sheet

16

Product Literature

Available to
view or
download
from Internet

17