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EE163A Introductory Microwave

Circuits
Fall, 2015
Prof. Y. Ethan Wang
Electrical Engineering Dept.
UCLA

Lesson 1
Course info.
Course organization
TEM waveguides
Non-TEM waveguides
Equivalent Voltage & Currents

EE163A Course Information


Instructor: Y. Ethan Wang
Office address: EN IV 56-147K
Office hour: Tuesday, 3:30pm to 5:30pm
Textbook: David Pozar, Microwave Engineering, Ed. 4
7 Homeworks (30%), distributed on Wed. and due on next Wed.
1 Midterm (25%),
1 Final (45%), The finals week
No late submission of homework will be accepted !!!
No copy of homeworks and exams in any form!!!

EE163A Syllabus
1. Review of transmission line& waveguides (4 hours)
2. Microwave network theory (Z/Y/S parameters, ABCD matrices) (4 hours)
3. Smith Chart and CAD design tools (4 hours)
4. Impedance matching and matching network (4 hours)
5. Microwave resonators, power splitters & couplers (6 hours)
6. Equivalent circuits of microwave devices (4 hours)
7. Noise and gain transfer in two-port networks (4 hours)
8. Amplifier gain, stability, VSWR requirements and design methods (4
hours)
9. Transistor amplifier design (6 hours)

Organization of EE163A
Transmission line theory
Network parameters & Smith Charts
Impedance Matching
Passive components
Active components
Microwave Transistor Amplifier Design

Microwave Network Theory

Microwave Passive Components

Microwave Filters

Designs of Microwave Circuits


An example of Microwave Monolithic Integrated
Circuits (MMIC)

Block Diagram of T/R Module

X-band T/R Module


64.5 x 13.5 x 4.5mm

Flow of Microwave Circuit Development

Waveguides
Definition: Guiding structures for Electromagnetics Waves
Features: Infinitely long, transverse cross-sections are the same

Methodology of Analysis:
-Assuming longitudinal variation of the field is known as exponential
and solve for the transverse variation of the field for given B.C.
-Separate different field components and solve for one of them
(longitudinal one) first
-Solve for other field components based on transverse-longitudinal
relationship

Waveguide Solutions
General waveguide field solutions are propagating in z direction can be written as:
transverse variation
longitudinal
variation
transverse component

TEM waves:
TE waves:
TM waves:
Other hybrid waves

longitudinal component

TEM Waveguides

TEM Waves (1)


TEM waves is defined for the possibility of solution that satisfies:
The above assumption of the field direction determines that the wave has only
z-propagating components
One can either guess or prove from Maxwells equations that:
Wave Eq.:

(Laplaces equations,
classical electrostatic
problems)

Full solution:

Conclusion: The field distribution of TEM waves imitate those (1) of


electrostatic problems in the cross-section (2) of plane waves in the
waveguide direction

TEM Waves (2)


Like in electrostatic problem, we can define potential function

, so that

(conservative field)
(Gausss law)

(Laplaces equation)

From previously,

For TEM waves, this means:


One can thus define wave Impedance:

Voltage:
Voltage & current can also be
defined like the electrostatic
Current:
case,
The ratio between voltage & current is called characteristic impedance,

Parallel Plate Waveguides (1)


Dominant mode: TEM
Laplaces equation:

PEC
PMC

d
d

which gives,

W
Boundary conditions:
z

Substitute the boundary conditions in the above,

The electric field is thus given by,

The fields are,

Assume no variation in x, thus,

Parallel Plate Waveguides (2)


TEM
wave

X-Y plane

Y-Z plane

PEC
PMC

d
d

W
z

The voltage is defined as,


The current is,

Then the characteristic impedance


of the line is,

The phase velocity is also a constant,


(for TEM wave
)

Microstrip Line
Most popular type among planar transmission lines
Pros:

Compact, light weight


Can be fabricated by photolithography
Easily Integrated with other passive and active microwave
devices

Cons:
Low power capacity
High loss

Microstrip Line
Compact, light weight
Can be fabricated by photolithography
Easily Integrated with other passive
and active microwave devices
Low power capacity
High loss
Define effective dielectric constant

to represent the fringe field effect,


(why? Half air, half dielectric )

Approximately

is given by:

Characteristic
impedance

Coplanar Waveguides (CPW)


An uni-planar transmission line
Support multiple quasi-TEM modes
Coplanar Waveguide mode

Coplanar Slotline mode

Suited for Monolithic Microwave


Integrated Circuit (MMIC) applications
where vias and through holes to ground
are difficult to make
Empirical formulas can be used to find
out the characteristic impedance and
phase velocity