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PROJECT REPORT ON

NETWORKING AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEM


HELD IN

ONGC ASSAM ASSET, NAZIRA & SIVASAGAR


SUBMITTED FOR THE

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING PROGRAMME


UNDERTAKEN AT

INFOCOM SERVICES,
OIL AND NATURAL GAS CORPORATION LTD
ASSAM ASSET, SIVASAGAR & NAZIRA

SUBMITTED BY :
ABHISHEK NARAYAN
B.TECH. ( ECE 4th
semester )
JAYPEE INSTITUTE OF
INFORMATION
TECHINOLOGY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Many people have helped me in bringing out my training. I
extended my gratitude to them all for helping me in their own
individual ways in completing the training program.
I would like to express my gratitude to the management of
RTI ONGC, Sivasagar, Shri D. P. Singh, GM (E&T), Head Infocom,
Nazira, Mrs. Jharna Dutta Bora, Sr HR Executive, RTI, Sivasagar for
providing me the opportunity to undergo training at Assam Asset,
ONGC.
I would like to thank Mr. Amal Krishna, C.E. (E&T), Mr. B.S.
Bhatia, C.E. (E&T)

for providing me the opportunity to complete

my training at Infocom Services Nazira, a department of Oil and


Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. Assam Asset. Their valuable
guidance and encouraging support along with their friendly
approach has helped me tremendously during my training. I am
immensely grateful to them.
I would also like to thank all the engineers from CMC LTD,
BPL LTD & E.S LTD who helped me in completing my project.
I deliver a special note of thanks to all the employees of
ONGC, Assam Asset for their unforgettable cooperation.

NO OBJECTION CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. Abhishek Narayan has


undergone his summer training at Infocom Services,
Assam Asset, ONGC, Nazira. To the best of my knowledge
the report does not contain anything that can endanger
the secrecy and working of the organization.

Mentor

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. Abhsishek Narayan, 4 th semester,


B.TECH. in ECE has undergoing regular visit to Infocom Service
O.N.G.C Ltd Assam Asset, Sivasagar and Nazira and hence
completed his industrial training of 30 days (from 16 th June to 15th
July ) with our full satisfaction, he has prepared the study report
on operation & process in Infocom and support team, O.N.G.C.

This is to certify that Shri Sambit Jyoti Sarmah, student of 6 th


semester, Btech (Electronics & Communication) Engineering
student of Don Bosco College of Engineering and Technology,
Azara, Guwahati, has undergone summer industrial training at
Infocom Services, ONGC, Nazira from 15 th June 2012 to 16th July
2012. He has taken keen interest in all the activities and had
followed the training programs sincerely.

Mentor

LINE COMMUNICATION
VOICE CONNECTIVITY
ONGCs private exchange works on Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Its optimized
for transmission of voice over internet and packet-transfer networks.

T
Voice Signal Transmit

R
T

Voice Signal Receive


Current Detector
-48v

R
E lead

SG lead

Current Detector
SB

Telephone Exchange

-48v

Carrier System

EPABX based Telephone Exchange (E&M system) being operated in


ONGC

EPABX
Its an equipment thats made working in offices much simpler by fully
servicing the internal and external needs, allowing for various other features
to be added to the service.

EPABX is a telephone exchange operated within an organization, used for


switching calls between internal lines and the Public Service Telephone
Network (PSTN) lines.
EPABX technology is divided into roughly 4 parts
A trunk interface
A station interface
A switching fabric
A call control database

The user
is then
required
to put the
phone
down
Call
ended
tone is
sent to
the user

It waits till
someone
picks up
the phone
1

OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF
EPABX

The call is then ended by terminating


the control switch fabric.

The call
ends

If the user
inputs for
outside calls,
hes
connected to
the outside
line (paid
service),
otherwise
hes
connected to
the internal
network to
contact an
internal user
(free
service), else
an error tone
is sent to the

The dial
tone is
sent to
the user

The user
inputs a
number

INTERNAL WORKINGS OF THE ONGC ASSAM ASSET VoIP SYSTEM


In a normal scenario
Nazira, Sivasagar, Lakwa, Galeki work as a single system

Active server at Nazira takes handles the entire network while the others are
in sleep mode.
In case of a breakdown of the servers
Duplicated ESS (Enterprise Survival Server) placed at Sivasagar becomes live
in-case of failure of
Both IP links
Both servers at Nazira
Local Survivable Server at Lakwa and Galeki becomes live and serves the
internal requirements of the colonies in case of failure of IP links connecting
them to Nazira.

External ONGC
Networks

Main Gateway G650


system
Backup Gateway G650

Sivasagar
Sivasagar

Satellite
Communicatio
n

Main Gateway G650


system
Backup Gateway G650

ICNET
Nazira
Nazira
(mainfram
(mainfram
e)
e)

Main Gateway G650

Galeki
Galeki

Main
Gateway
G650

Lakhwa
Lakhwa

PSTN
External
Calls

(external
network)

CO/ Trunk
lines
External to Internal
Lines
Radio Link
Key: Telecom Line Linkages as a part of ONGC
OFC Lines
Satellite
Uplink/Downlink
ENM Trunk
Intercom Connection to
NOTE: here every intercom connection gets routed
NaZira
through the servers at Nazira
FAILOVER SCENARIOS
Primary server failure at Nazira
Secondary server at Nazira becomes active
The entire communication network remains up and running using the
secondary server of Nazira, without any disconnection of any ongoing
call (Hot-Standby)
Duplicate ESS servers at Galeki and Lakwa in sleep mode
Failure of both servers at Nazira
Both ESS servers at Sivasagar become live, one becomes active and
the other stays in stand-by mode
LSP servers at Galeki and Lakwa remain inactive
Failure of both servers at Nazira and one server at Sivasagar

Another backup ESS server becomes active


LSP servers at Galeki and Lakwa remain inactive
Failure of one IP link between Nazira and a location
The second IP link becomes active
The entire communication network between Nazira and that location
remains up and running using the second link without disconnecting
any ongoing calls
Duplicate ESS servers at Galeki and Lakwa remain inactive
Failure of both IP links between Nazira and another location
The location become totally isolated from the entire network
ESS/LSP of that location becomes active and handles the internal
network requirements
Users of the location can communicate with the outside network using
PSTN

EXCHANGE ROOM

SCADA: SUPERVISIORY CONROL AND DATA


ACQUISITION

COMMMON SYSTEM COMPONENTS


One or more field data interface devices (RTUs and PLCs) that interface to
field sensing devices and local control switch boxes and valve actuators.
A communication network system to transfer data between field data
interfaces and control units and SCADA central host.

Central host computer servers (SCADA centre or Master Terminal)


Human Machine Interface (HMI) for
Providing SCADA central host and operator terminal application
Supporting communication lines
Monitoring and controlling field data interface devices remotely

FIELD DATA INTERFACE DEVICES


Equipments such as
Electric valve actuators
Electronic chemical dosing facilities
Motor control switch boards
form hands of a SCADA system thatll allow it to automate the process its
handling.
Remote Telemetry Units (RTU) convert electric signals received from field
interface devices into language (communication protocol) thats used to
transmit data over communication channels.
They cannot handle sequential tasks, as theyre multi-task devices and
cannot finish a task without interrupting it first.
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) contains information that can automate
the working of system by bypassing SCADA centers, as there's a limited
bandwidth available.
PLCs were mainly used as a replacement for relay logic systems,
which were traditionally used in RTUs.
PLC does also have the capacity to transfer the state of operational
systems to a remote computer.
Theyre sequential circuits and cannot process serial tasks.

COMMUNICATION NETWORK
Its intended to provide the means by which data can be transferred between
the central host computer servers and the field-based RTUs via cables,
telephone lines and radio.

CENTRAL HOST COMPUTER


Its a computer or a network of computer servers that provide a man-machine
operator interface to the SCADA system. The computers process the information
received from, and sent to the RTU sites and present it to human operators in a form
that the operators can work with.

OPERATOR WORKSTATIONS AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS


Software products typically used within a SCADA system are as follows:
Central host computer operating system: Software used to control the central
host
computer hardware.
Operator terminal operating system: Software used to control the central host
computer hardware and contributes to the networking of the central host and
the operator terminals.
Central host computer application: Software that handles the transmittal and
reception
of data to and from the RTUs and the central host. The software also provides
the
graphical user interface that offers site mimic screens, alarm pages, trend
pages,
and control functions.
Operator terminal application: Application that enables users to access
information
available on the central host computer application.
Communications protocol drivers: Software that is usually based within the
central
host and the RTUs, and is required to control the translation and
interpretation of the
data between ends of the communications links in the system
Communications network management software: Software required to control
the
communications network and to allow the communications networks
themselves to be
monitored for performance and failures.
RTU automation software: Software that allows engineering staff to configure
and
maintain the application housed within the RTUs (or PLCs).

SCADA PROTOCOLS

An RTU accepts commands to be able to:


Control output levels
Set analogue output levels
Respond to requests
Provides data to central SCADA mainframe
Every bit of data is correlated to SCADA mainframe in terms of unique addressing of
the variables being recorded that imply certain conditions and factors prevalent in
the on-site operating system.
Every protocol comprises of two message sets:
Master protocol, comprising of valid statements for master stations response
initiation.
RTUs protocol, comprising of valid statements for on-site response to various
conditions identified by interpreting data obtained via on-field interface
devices and limitations set by the automation software.

EVOLUTION OF SCADA IN ONGC


ONGC implemented SCADA in1979 for five high platform remote locations in
Mumbai high offshore. As technology advanced, the PDP 8-but single user system
and non-intelligent RTU without remote control changed to a state of art fully
intelligent system. This network now comprises of 11 master stations, 11 process
platforms and around 135 well platforms.
ONGCs SCADA parameters comprise of ~500 factors some of which are:
Flowing status for a high producing well flow line
Pressure of HP group header
Pressure of PP group header
Temperature at inlet and outlet of bath header

TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS


Multiple access is and extended form of multiplexing that is used in satellite
communication systems as it offers connectivity in highly dispersed and remote
locations and user requirements are able to vary the dynamic channel allocation.

MULTIPLE ACCESS PROTOCOLS

Dynamic Resolution takes


advantage of tracking
system changes and
allocates bandwidth to users
based on:

Time of arrival

Probabilistic
selection if user
being allowed to
transfer data from a

Static resolution allows for


data transmission by users.
Its dependent upon:

User ID

Selection of user for


bandwidth allocation
from a random
distribution

Various methods like FDMA, TDMA, SDMA, CDMA are employed to ensure
minimum interference error between users in a multiple access system.
(key to diagrams : x-time, y-frequency)
SDMA: allows for bandwidth allocation by exploiting spatial distribution
of users requiring use of multi-beam antennas to separate out radio
signals by pointing at different directions at different times.

TDMA

FDMA

CDM
A

INSTALLED SYSTEM PARAMETERS OF ONGC TDMA SYSTEM


Multi Access System

Demand Pre-Assignment

Number of Access Channels

60

Maximum subscriber capacity

1024

Service

Ordinary telephone, FAX, Data


communication with MODEM and
coin telephone(excluded base station)

Number of subscriber lines in a


subscriber radio station

Upto 30 lines in a cabinet and


upto 10 lines in an outdoor cabinet

Maximum Range

Upto 500 km.

Delay time Adjustment

Automatically adjusted

Coding/Decoding for VHF

PCM (64 kbps)

Type of Emission

Downlink CW

Modulation for RF

QPSK
Bit Rate of 4Mbps via 2 lines

RF Bandwidth of 2.4GHz
RF band

1.445-1.4935GHz

Frequency Separation

48.5Hz

Power Supply

Base: -48 DC
Repeater and Remote: 24/-48 DC
with a +15/-10% error approximation

Operation Controller

Network Management Services

Operating System

WINDOWS 2000

Power Supply

Float Cum Boast Charger charged by 12


batteries of 2 volts each

The field communication in Assam Asset of ONGC comprises of TDAM, MFTDMA,


WLL.
The base station has a capacity to connect 1024 telephone users in the system
using low-loss cables.
Network Management Services allows for:
Establishing new connections
Trouble-shooting telephone lines
Maintenance functions
Programming port number, channel number and card number to the new
connections
Physical Components of the Radio TDMA system:
Omni directional Antenna: receives and transmits the RF signals
Duplexer: determines the nature of the signal to be transmitted and the
received signal for its encoding and decoding purposes
1
2
3
4
5
6

Block diagram of the transmission and receiving of signal through the


Duplexer
5 port channel per card
30 channel
connecting 5 users to voice
controller
access system
card
Voice
channel
cards

5 port channel per card out of


which only half are utilized
due to low bandwidth
requirement

Data
channel
card

Programmed to send
data as per its IP
address

Route
r

Route
r

Data
Card

USER

Block diagram of Data Transmission


1

2-

Block diagram of Voice Transmission

Telephone
Exchange

TDMA

Programmed to assign
users a link to the 4-

USER

MUX

SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

INTRODUCTION

In a geo-stationary satellite system, a message signal is transmitted via an


uplink to a satellite, amplified in a transponder circuit on board the satellite
thats transmitted to earth stations.
Frequency bands thatre in frequent use:

In Sat-Comm., uplink frequency is greater than the downlink frequency


because:
Higher frequency uplink implies low attenuation due to rainfall.
Signal is required to penetrate through the atmosphere to reach the
satellite. This process involves for high power generation which is not
possible on satellite.
The downlink frequency is lower cause of the low power generated in a
satellite and also due to the small size of antennas in homes that
require a direct link to the satellite.
Satellites main purpose is to communicate information and the type of
information being transmitted determines the satellites design and orbit.
Communication satellites are primarily used in space as repeaters.

An earth station transmits Radio Frequency carriers to the satellite that


the satellite receives and transmits it back to an earth station onto a
specific footprint where the signal is received and demodulated.
Bus: its the platform that supports the payload from launch through
the end of its life.

The bus control subsystem includes

Thermal control

Orbital control

Altitude control

Power system

Tracking, telemetry and command system

Payload:

Its the specialized equipment required to perform its designed fuction.


And includes
Antenna: Each payload has a specific operating frequency
determined by its on-board components. Satellites use the same
antenna to receive and transmit RF signals. This is made
possible by the polarization of these signals being of opposite
nature to prevent any distortion.
Wide Base Receivers: receives the full 500MHz RF uplink signal
of the assigned band and the polarization. It uses a Local
Oscillator to convert a signal to a downlink frequency and send it
to the input Multiplexer.
Input Multiplexers: takes 500MHz set of frequencies and
separates them into individual transponders that send the
signals through a programmable attenuation device on its way
to its assigned amplifier.

Programmable Attenuation Devices: adjusts the power of the


prior to sending it to the amplifier.
Amplifiers: increases the power of the signals sent to the
satellite and routes it to and output multiplexer
Output Multiplexers: recombines all transponders into a single
500 MHz wide-band configuration which is then routed through a
wave guide to the antennas feed horn.
Basic components of a transponder on-board a satellite

Uplink Signal

Signal

Downlink

Local
Oscillat

Transponder is a transmitter responder

It describes a single RF channel created by the input multiplexer and


separates it into frequency channels.
Travelling Wave Tube Amplifier:

It mainly provides a high gain over a wide frequency range.

Uplink signal is usually converted to an intermediate frequency


and is then converted to the desired downlink frequency

EM signal travels along


there is an energy
TWT in a helix pathway
transfer from the

e-beam travels at
the same speed approx.

e-beam to the signal


Propagation delay of a satellite channel becomes evident over long distances
(570ms)
With vice signals, this propagation delay allows for and echo of the
users voice to be heard at the receivers end which is reduced by and
echo canceller
Echo Canceller subtracts an estimate of the echo from the signal on its
return path
This is done by a filter that adapts itself by changing the channel
characteristics.
Function Block Diagram of Pass-band Transmission Model

Message Signal

Si

transmitt
er

Si(t

X(t)

Receive
r

Carrier Wave

Assumptions made about the transmitted signal:

There exists a message source that emits one symbol every T seconds
The symbols belong to elements of M symbols denoted by m 1, m 2, m 3,
m n
Priori Probability elements P (m1), P(m 2) , P(m 3), P(m n) specify the
output message
This message output is sent to the to the signal transmission encoder
producing vector Si made up of N real elements for each M symbol.
Dimensions of N are always equal or less than that of M
Modulator then combines Si with carrier wave to produce Si(t) of
duration T
Si(t) is the representation of symbol m generated by the message
source

Ei =

for all i = 1,2,.M

Si(t) is then transmitted every T seconds


Priori Probability is used in distinguishing the ways in which values for
probabilities can be obtained. Its selected as per

Deductive reasoning

Principle of indifference

Assumptions made for the transmitting channel

Linear

Band-width is wide enough for signal transmission channel

There is low noise distortion

Footprint:
The satellite antennas are designed to cover a specific region of earth
at a time to allow for

Concentration of power radiated from the satellite to the desired


regions.

Increases the sensitivity of its receiving antenna minimizing


interface with other adjacent satellite signals

The part of the earth covered by the satellite is the satellites footprint.
Orbit:
There are various levels of altitude that determines the functioning and
maneuverability of satellites:

Synchronous Orbit: satellite moves at same speed as that of


Earth and remains fixed over spot on Earth

Asynchronous Orbit: satellite doesnt move at the same speed


as that of the earth.

Polar Orbit: satellite remains fixed along its path on the latitudes
and passes over polar caps.

The satellite is put into its desired orbital level by:

ground tracking

command functions

satellites altitude control

telemetry

orbital control systems

Once the satellite is in orbit, its maintained at the level throughout its
lifetime by making periodic adjustments to maintain its centre of box.
Satellites have a limited fuel supply and have to be sent off into the
super-sync orbit as space junk after exhausting all its fuel supply.

RADIO LINK ANALYSIS


Link analysis totals all the gains and losses incurred in operating a communication
link. A communication link is dependent upon the line of sight for their operations
and requires repeater stations in the path if is interrupted.
Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) affects the working of any digital
communication system

AWGN is a channel model whose


communication is impaired by white
noise with a constant spectral
density and a Gaussian distribution
of amplitude and can be caused by
various factors such as:

Thermal vibration

Shot noise

Black body radiation

Probability OF Error

Properties of AWGN

Additive

Has a flat power spectral density

Have a Gaussian distribution

Link Margins
(Eb/No)required

(Eb/No)receiv

Waterfall curve of
Probability Error to (Eb/No)
ratio due to
AWGN

(Eb/No)received = M * (Eb/No)required = this is done to ensure a margin of


link error
providing protection against change and the
unexpected distortions

Free Space Propagation Model

In radio communication system, propagation of modulated signal is


made [possible by transmitting antenna

Functions of transmitting antenna

Convert electric modulated signal into EM wave

Antenna acts as an impedence transforming transducer

The transducer matches impedence of antenna to that of the


free space

To radiate energy in desired directions

Functions of receiving antenna

To convert EM field into an Electric Signal

Suppress radiation from unwanted directions

The transmitting antenna is viewed as point source due to spatial


distance that separates it from the receiver

A complete description for field characteristics of far field


characteristics of point sourcell involve EM field as function of space
and time.

Gain

Directive gain = G(,) = (,)


P/4

Gmax = D = (,)optimized
P/4

Power gain = radiation * D

radiation = Radiation Efficiency of the antenna

All these formulae are valid for transmission of data and if the
transmission media is linear, passive and isotropic, then these
variables are valid for the receiving antenna as per the RECIPROCITY
PRINCIPLE

The power density at a receiver needs to be concentrated to a smaller


region as compared to the 4 radians

Antenna bandwidth is planar measure of its solid angle of view

Beam-width is the angle subtended on two points on the main lobe of


the field power pattern at which the peak-field power is reduced by
3dBs.\

Power gain of antenna (Antenna Bandwidth) -1

Sidelobes of the physical antenna are able to absorb unwanted


radiation.

Effective Aperture

Effective aperture = power available at the antenna terminals


Power/area of approx. polarized incident
EM wave

A = 2G
4

For reflector antennas;


effective aperture
physical aperture

; = c/f= wavelength of the carrier wave

aperture total efficiency

Frii Free Space Equation

Propagation Equation of the radio communication link will be


P r = P t * G t * Gr * 2 G
4

Path loss: is the signal attenuation across the entire communication


link
OR
difference between the transmitted power signal and the received
power signal

Block Diagram for Earth Terminal Receiver

Transmitting
Antenna

Receiver
Antenna

Low
Noise

Frequency
Down

Local
Oscillat

Power radiated:

Intermediate
Frequency Amplifier

(W/m2)

Poynting Vector = rate of energy flow


Area

Power Density = Poynting Vector

Power density only has a radial component as per assumptions

Power density = (d) =

Radiation intensity = = d2 * (d)

Power radiated inside an infinitesimally small solid angle d is given by


(,) such that
d = sin . d . d steradians

Power radiated = P =

Average power radiated =

Pt
4d2

(,).d watts
P

watts
4

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

OSI SPECIFICATIONS
OSI specifications allow for data transfer between disparate hosts. Its not a physical
model but rather a set of guidelines that application developers can use to create
and implement applications on a network by providing a framework for creating and
implementing networking standards, devices, and internetworking schemes.
Provides the user an interface

OSI
LAYERS
Application
Presentati
on
Session
Transport
Network
Data
Physical

Presents data and handles processes such as


encryption
Determines how
applications within
the end stations
communicate with
each other and the

Determines how
data is transmitted
from one to another
end

Keeps different applications data separate

Provides data delivery and performs error


correction before retransmission
Provides logical addressing which routers use for
path determination
combines packets into bytes and bytes into
frames, provides access to media using MAC
address,
performs error detection not correction

The following
network devices
operate on all
seven layers of
OSI:
Network
Management
Stations,
Web and
application

Application layer:
Is the spot where users communicate with the system and becomes
active when the system is about to be connected to the network
Its responsible for identifying and establishing the availability of the
intended communication partner and determines whether sufficient
resources fo the intended communication exist.
The application layer acts as an interface between the actual
application programs.
Presentation Layer:
It presents data to the application layer and is responsible for data
translation and code formatting.

Its a translator that provides coding and conversation functions

A successful data-transfer technique is to adapt the data into a


standard format before transmission.
Computers are configured to receive this information and convert it
into its native format for actual reading by the system.

The OSI defines how the data should be formatted.


Session Layer:
Its responsible for setting up, managing and tearing down sessions
between Presentation layer entities.
It provides dialog control between devices
It coordinates communication by offering three different modes

Simple

Half duplex

Full duplex

It basically separates applications data


Transport Layer:
It segments and reassembles data into data steam
Services located in the transport layer segment and reassemble data
from upper-layer applications, and unite it into the same data stream.
They provide an end-to-end data transport service and establish logical
connections between the sending host and destination host on an
internetwork.
It provides a mechanism for multiplexing upper-layer applications,
establishing sessions, and tearing down virtual circuits.
It hides details of any network-dependent information from higher
layers by providing transparent data transfer.
Network Layer:
It manages device addressing, tracking location of devices on the
network, and determines the best way to move data.
It may have to transport traffic between devices that arent locally
attached.
It checks the IP address of the packet received on the router interface
and looks up the destination network address in the routing table to
select an exit route.

If the router cannot find an entry for the packets destination network
in the routing table, the router drops the packet.
Physical Layer:
It sends and receives bits.

DATA ENCAPSULATION

SERVER ROOM
Servers
Additive
Directory
Server (ADC)
server

Purpose
ADC is a text protocol for a client-server network to create a
simple protocol that doesn't require much effort in neither hub
nor client, and is yet extensible.

Dynamic Host

DATA INFORMATION ON ADC LEVEL


Event
Timestamp
Buffer number
Location
Channel property
Data type
Data status
Conversion information (polypara)
Value
TASKS
Collecting data from ADC modules
Managing ADC modules
Provide functionality for different ADC subsevers
Converting data into physical units
Storing data into the DOOCS archive
Responding to the DOOCS request
Sending data to the collector (multicast) with data
conversion
Its basic task is to replicate directory information between
Exchange 5.5 directory and the Active Directory and relies on the
administrator to define connection agreements. These
agreements name the servers involved in the replication cycle
which directly replicates the objects into data
It enables a server to automatically assign an IP address to a

Configuration
Protocol
(DHCP) server

Firewall

Windows
Server Update
Services
(WSUS) server

computer from a defined range of numbers configured for a


network.
WORKING
The user with a DHCP client sends a broadcast request
(DISCOVER/DHCPDISCOVER) looking or the DHCP server to
answer which is redirected by the router to the server.
The server receives a DISCOVER packet and sends a
reserved address to the client as a DHCPOFFER packet.
The server also configures the clients DNS servers, WINS
servers, NTP servers, etc.
The client then sends a REQUEST packet letting the server
know that it intends to use the address to which the server
replies with a DHCPACK packet confirming a lease on the
server for the user for a specified period of time.
A firewall is a protective service that protects the computer
system from the network and internet. It prevents unauthorized
use and access to the internal network by analyzing the data
entering and exiting the network based upon the configuration.
Hardware firewall is used in Nazira as theyre effective with little
or no configuration and they can protect every machine on the
network.
A hardware firewall can uses packet filtering to examine the
header of a packet to determine its source and location and to
determine if the packet can be forwarded or needs to be
dropped.
Its a program developed by Microsoft CO. enabling admins to
manage the distribution of updates and hotfixes released for the
Windows OS.
Instead of each workstation to manually connect to Microsoft
Update, testing the updates and then deploying updates using
traditional methods, admins can use WSUS to download and
updates to a central internal server that can dispatch the
updates to all the systems connected to the server, allowing
admins of full control over the types of updates available to users
on the network.

Proxy Server

A proxy server is a server that acts as an intermediary for


requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. The
proxy server evaluates the request as a way to simplify and

InterScan Web
Security Suite
(IWSS) server

Websense
Server
Active
Directory (AD)
Server

NNM Server

control their complexity.


USES OF PROXY SERVERS
To keep machines behind it anonymous for security
To speed up the access to resources
To apply company access policies to network services
To provide company internet usage report
To scan transmitted content for malware before delivery
To scan outbound content for data loss prevention.
VARIOUS PROBLEMS DUE TO AND INCREASED WEB BROWSING
Phishing
Viruses, worms, Trojans, spywares
Loss of productivity
Excessive bandwidth usage
Legal liability
To implement a url filtering at the web proxy and scan for
malicious code content at the client is done at a single point at
the application gateway in ONGC by the Trend Micros InterScan
Web Security Suite v2.0 or the IWSS.
IWSS is available for Solaris, Windows and Linux. The one at
ONGC employs the Linux due t its enhanced security offerings.
There are two processes for filtering traffic available
Internet Content Adaptation Protocol (ICAP) allows for
seamless coupling of caching and virus protection.
Standard HTTP proxy can configure IWSS in
standalone/chained proxy configuration.
IWSS offers two approaches for malware scanning:
Traditional content scanning via scan engines and pattern
files
URL blocking via PhishTrap that lists websites regularly
updated by Trend-Micro known to host malware and
phishing attempts.
It prevents networks from spyware, prevent users from viewing
inappropriate websites, discourage employees from browsing
aimlessly, filtering urls and tracking internet usage via 2 servers
installed in Nazira.
Active Directory provides a central location for network
administration and security. It authenticates and authorizes all
users and computers in a Windows domain type network
assigning and enforcing security policies for all computers and
installing or updating software by asking for User IDs and
passwords when users log in.
It allows the network admin to view any problems in the working
of the systems of the users logged into the network. When a
device fails, the NNM servers analyze events associated with the
failed systems and show their relative locations and status. It can
also provide some predictive information that allows to identify
potential failures in the system before they can occur.