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Articles

Los Artículos
Artículos determinados (the) e indeterminados (a, an).
A diferencia del indeterminado, el artículo determinado se usa para personas o cosas concretas:
the (de / di) - el, la, lo, los, las.
• the boy - el niño
• the boys - los niños
• the apple - la manzana
• the girl - la niña
• the girls - las niñas
• the buses - los autobuses






a (éi / e) - un, una. (se usa cuando la palabra siguiente es una consonante)
a boy - un niño
a girl - una niña
a man - un hombre
a woman - una mujer
a factory - una fábrica
a house - una casa

an (an) - un, una. (se usa cuando la palabra siguiente comienza con vocal o con
consonantes mudas)
an apple - una manzana
an engineer - un ingeniero
an umbrella - un paraguas
an elephant - un elefante
an hour - una hora
an honor - un honor












La única excepción a esta regla son las palabras que empiezan con “u” y ésta se
pronuncia “iú”:
a university - una universidad
a union - un sindicato
a uniform - un uniforme
a universe - un universo

PRONOUMS

Los Pronombres
Los pronombres en inglés pueden clasificarse en: personales (o nominales), acusativos,
indefinidos, posesivos, relativos y recíprocos.

Pronombres Pronombres
Adjetivos
Pronombres
Personales Acusativos Posesivos Posesivos

Pronombres
Reflexivos

I

me

my

mine

myself

you

you

your

yours

yourself

he

him

his

his

himself

she

her

her

hers

herself

it

we

it

us

its
our

--

ours

itself
ourselves
English - Page 11

Pronombres Pronombres
Adjetivos
Pronombres
Personales Acusativos Posesivos Posesivos

Pronombres
Reflexivos

you

you

your

yours

yourselves

they

them

their

theirs

Pronombres Indefinidos

everybody

themselves

nobody

somebody

anybody

everyone

no one

someone

anyone

everything

nothing

something

anything

Pronombres Relativos

who which that whom whose

Pronombres Recíprocos

each other / one another

NOUNS

Los Sustantivos
En inglés la mayoría de las palabras que sirven indistintamente para masculino y femenino:
friend = amigo/a, writer = escritor/a, etc. Pero aquí veremos también cómo se pueden hacer
distinciones.
La mayoría de los sustantivos sirven indistintamente para masculino o femenino

• friend (frénd) - amigo / amiga
• writer (ráiter) - escritor / escritora
• teacher (tícher) - profesor / profesora
• pupil (piúpil) - alumno / alumna
• lawyer (lóier) - abogado / abogada
Algunos sustantivos cambian en su forma:
Masculine
Feminine
king (king) - rey

prince (prins) - príncipe
actor (áctor) - actor
waiter (wéiter) - camarero
host (jóust) - anfitrión
god (gód) - dios


heir (éer) - heredero
hero (jírou) - héroe
English - Page 12

queen (kuíin) - reina
princess (prínces) - princesa
actress (áctres) - actriz
waitress (wéitres) - camarera
hostess (jóustes) - anfitriona
goddess (gódes) - diosa
heiress (éeres) - heredera
heroine (jérouin) - heroína

Algunas personas que cambian:
Masculine
Feminine
man (man) - hombre

boy (bói) - niño


father (fáder) - padre

husband (jásband) - marido
son (san) - hijo



brother (bróder) - hermano
uncle (ánkl) - tío


nephew (néfiu) - sobrino

boyfriend (bóifrend) - novio

gentleman (yéntlman) - señor

woman (wúman) - mujer
girl (guérl) - niña
mother (máder) - madre
wife (wáif) - esposa
daughter (dóter) - hija
sister (síster) - hermana
aunt (ant) - tía
niece (níis) - sobrina
girlfriend (guérlfrend) - novia
lady (léidi) - señora

Algunos animales que cambian:
Masculine
Feminine
bull (búl) - toro

cock (cók) - gallo

lion (láion) - león

tiger (táiguer) - tigre
stallion (stálion) - semental
drake (dréik) - pato

ram (rám) - carnero

cow (cáu) - vaca

hen (jen) - gallina

lioness (láiones) - leona
tigress (táigres) - tigresa

mare (mér) - yegua

duck (dák) - pata

ewe (iú) - oveja

Podemos hacer una distinción agregando las palabras male (méil) -para masculinoo female (fiméil) -para femenino-. Para profesiones, podemos anteponer man o woman al
sustantivo.
Masculine
Feminine
A male pupil - un alumno

A male dancer - un bailarín


A male canary - un canario
A male baby - un bebé

A man doctor - un doctor


A man lawyer - un abogado

A female pupil - una alumna
A female dancer - una bailarina
A female canary - una canaria
A female baby - una bebé
A woman doctor - una doctora
A woman lawyer - una abogada

SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS
Los Sustantivos – Singular y Plural

En inglés, la mayoría de las palabras se pluralizan agregando una “s” al singular, pero
veremos que también hay otras formas.
English - Page 13

La mayoría agrega “s” al Singular
Singular Plural
boy (boi) - niño
girl (guérl) - niña
car (cáar) - auto
plane (pléin) - avión
boat (bóut) - barco

boys (bóis) - niños

girls (guérls) - niñas
cars (cáars) - autos

planes (pléins) - aviones

boats (bóuts) - barcos

Hay palabras con plurales irregulares
Singular Plural
man (man) - hombre
woman (wúman) - mujer
person (pérson) - persona
child (cháild) - niño

tooth (túz) - diente, muela
foot (fút) - pie

louse (láus) - piojo
mouse (máus) - ratón


ox (óks) - buey

goose (gússs) - ganso

men (men) - hombres
women (wuímen) - mujeres
people (pípl) - personas
children (chíldren) - niños
teeth (tíiz) - dientes, muelas
feet (fíit) - pies
lice (láis) - piojos
mice (máis) - ratones
oxen (óksen) - bueyes
geese (guíis) - gansos

Hay sustantivos que son siempre plurales


• trousers (tráusers) - pantalones

• pants (pánts) - pantalones

• pajamas (padchámas) - pijama

• drawers (dróers) - calzoncillos

• clothes (clóus) - ropa

• scissors (sísors) - tijeras

• glasess (gláses) - anteojos


• goods (gúds) - mercancías

• stairs (stérs) - escaleras
• thanks (zánks) - gracias

• savings (séivings) - ahorros
• scales (skéils) - balanza

• pincers (píncers) - pinzas

• shorts (shórts) - pantalones cortos

• shears (shíers) - tijeras para podar


• tweezers (tuíisers) - pinzas de depilar
• binoculars (binókiulars) - prismáticos

• measles (mísls) - sarampión

• mumps (mámps) - paperas
English - Page 14

Algunos sustantivos tienen la misma forma en el plural y en el singular





















sheep (shíip) - oveja / ovejas
fish (físh) - pez / peces
fowl (fául) - ave de corral / aves de corral
deer (díir) - ciervo / ciervos
moose (múus) - alce / alces
species (spíshis) - especie / especies
aircraft (éercraft) - avión / aviones
means (míins) - medio / medios

Cuando terminan en “ s/z/x/sh” o “ch”, agregan “es” para formar el plural
Singular Plural
dress (drés) - vestido
bus (bás) - autobús
buzz (báss) - zumbido
church (chérch) - iglesia
beach (bíich) - playa
dish (dish) - plato

brush (brásh) - cepillo
box (bóx) - caja



fox (fox) - zorro

dresses (drésis) - vestidos

buses (básis) - autobuses

buzzes (bássis) - zumbidos

churches (chérchis) - iglesias

beaches (bíichis) - playas

dishes (díshis) - platos
brushes (bráshis) - cepillos

boxes (bóxis) - cajas

foxes (fóxis) - zorros

Cuando los sustantivos terminan en “o” hay dos maneras:
Si la “o” es precedida por una consonante, las palabras agregan “es”.
(hay muchas excepciones a esta regla)
Singular Plural
potato (potéitou) - papa
potatoes (potéitous) - papas
tomato (toméitou) - tomate tomatoes (toméitous) - tomates
hero (jírou) - héroe
heroes (jírous) - héroes
echo (ékou) - eco

echoes (ékous) - ecos
torpedo (torpídou) - torpedo torpedoes (torpídous) - torpedos
-Si la “o” es precedida por una vocal, agregan “s”
Singular Plural
rodeos (róudios) - rodeos
rodeo (róudio) - rodeo
patio (pátio) - patio trasero patios (pátios) - patios
Cuando los sustantivos terminan en “y”, hay dos maneras:
-Si la “ y” es precedida por una consonante, la “ y” cambia por “ies”
Singular Plural

city (cíti) - ciudad

cities (cítis) - ciudades
lady (léidi) - señora
ladies (léidis) - señoras
story (stóri) - historia
stories (stóris) - historias
fly (flái) - mosca

flies (fláis) - moscas
country (cántri) - país
countries (cántris) - paises
English - Page 15

-Si la “y” es precedida por una vocal, agregan una “s”
Singular Plural
boy (bói) - chico
day (déi) - día

boys (bóis) - chicos
days (déis) - días

Algunos que con terminación en “f “ o “fe”, cambian por “ves”
Singular Plural
life (láif) - vida

wife (uáif) - esposa
knife (náif) - cuchillo
thief (zíif) - ladrón

half (jáf) - mitad

calf (cáf) - ternero
elf (élf) - duende

shelf (shélf) - estante

loaf (lóuf) - hogaza de pan
wolf (wúlf) - lobo

sheaf (shíif) - fajo

leaf (líif) - hoja

lives (láivs) - vidas

wives (uáivs) - esposas

knives (náivs) - cuchillos

thieves (zíivs) - ladrones

halves (jávs) - mitades

calves (cávs) - terneros

elves (élvs) - duendes

shelves (shélvs) - estantes

loaves (lóuvs) - hogazas de pan
wolves (wúlvs) - lobos

sheaves (shíivs) - fajos

leaves (líivs) - hojas

Cuando terminan en “is”, cambian por “es”
Singular Plural
thesis (zíses) - tesis

analysis (análises) - análisis
crisis (cráises) - crisis

oasis (ouéises) - oasis

hypothesis (jaipózeses) - hipótesis
diagnosis (daiagnóuses) - diagnósis

theses (zísíis) - tesis
analyses (análisíis) - análisis
crises (cráisíis) - crisis
oases (ouéisíis) - oasis
hypotheses (jaipózisíis) - hipótesis
diagnoses (daiagnóusíis) - diagnósis

Cuando terminan en “us”, cambian us por “i”
Singular Plural

cactus (cáctos) - cacto

cacti (cáctai) - cactos
nucleus (niúklios) - núcleo
nuclei (níukliái) - núcleos
focus (fóukes) - foco, centro
foci (fóusái) - focos, centros
stimulus (stímiulas) - estímulo
stimuli (stímiulái) - estímulos
syllabus (sílabas) - programa
syllabi (sílabai) - programas
de estudio de estudio
Cuando terminan en “on”, cambian por “a”
Singular Plural
criteria (craitíria) - criterios
criterion (craitírion) - criterio
phenomenon (fenómenon) - fenómeno phenomena (fenómena) - fenómenos
English - Page 16

NOUNS FROM ADJECTIVES
Sustantivos-adjetivos
Algunos sustantivos se obtienen a partir del uso de un adjetivo precedido por el artículo
determinado “the”: the rich, the poor.
the + adjective (para grupos de personas)
Podemos usar el artículo “the” con muchos adjetivos para referirnos a grupos de personas
(notar que es siempre plural)
the poor (de póor) - los pobres
the rich (de rích) - los ricos
the young (de iáng) - los jóvenes
the old (di óuld) - los viejos
the sick (de sík) - los enfermos
the elderly (di élderli) - los ancianos
the blind (de bláind) - los ciegos
the unemployed (di anemplóid) - los desempleados
the dead (di déd) - los muertos
the homeless (de jóumles) - los sin casa
the English - los ingleses
the French - los franceses
the Spanish - los españoles
the British - los británicos
the Irish - los irlandeses

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
Sustantivos Contables e Incontables
Los sustantivos contables se pueden contar (one car, two bees) y los incontables necesitan
un modificador para expresar cantidad (a glass of water).
¿Qué son los sustantivos incontables?
Las palabras como azúcar y dinero son incontables en español, puesto que no podemos
decir “dos azúcares”, “tres dineros”.
En inglés también existen y poseen las siguientes características:
No pueden usarse con los artículos a / an - Es incorrecto decir “a money” No pueden
pluralizarse. - Es incorrecto decir “3 electricities” Toman verbo en singular.
The sugar is. - Es incorrecto decir “The sugar are ...”
Otra ayuda podría ser pensar que los incontables llevan cuantificadores como
much y little, mientras que los sustantivos contables llevan cuantificadores como many y few.
English - Page 17

Incontables
Contables
How much? - ¿Cuánto?
much money - mucho dinero
much traffic - mucho tráfico
little food - poca comida



little fruit - poca fruta

How many? - ¿Cuántos?
many bills - muchos billetes
many cars - muchos autos
few cookies - pocas galletas
few apples - pocas manzanas

Aquí podemos ver un gráfico más extenso sobre los cuantificadores y los sustantivos:

Con sustantivos incontables

much (mách) - mucho



so much (sóu mách) - tanto


too much (tchú mách) - demasiado

little (lítl) - poco




a little (a lítl) - algo de


less (lés) - menos - menor cantidad de

the least (de líist) - la menor cantidad

Con contables
many (méni) - muchos
so many (sóu méni) - tantos
too many (tchú méni) - demasiados
few (fiú) - pocos
a few (a fiú) - algunos
fewer (fiúer) - menor número que
the fewest - el menor número de

a large amount of - una gran cantidad de a large number of - un gran número de

Aquí hay una lista de los sustantivos incontables más comunes:
Sustantivos incontables más comunes Ejemplos de cómo convertirlos en contables
accommodation - alojamiento
advice - consejo


baggage - equipaje

information - información
news - noticias


travel - viaje


work - trabajo

a place to stay - un lugar donde alojarse
a piece of advice - un consejo
a suitcase - una valija
a piece of information - un dato
a piece of news - una noticia
a journey, a trip - un viaje
a job - un trabajo

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES
Adjetivos comparativos y superlativos
Cuando establecemos una comparación utilizamos los adjetivos y sus tres grados: positivo,
comparativo y superlativo.
Grados de los Adjetivos
Los adjetivos tienen tres grados de comparación.
Grado positivo, grado comparativo, grado superlativo:

English - Page 18

positivo
comparativo
superlativo

tall taller the tallest

alto
más alto
el más alto




big bigger the biggest
grande
más grande
el más grande
intelligent
inteligente

more intelligent
más inteligente

the most intelligent
el más inteligente

expensive

caro

more expensive
más caro

the most expensive
el más caro

• John is tall, but Bill is taller than John.

John es alto pero Bill es más alto que John.

• Jack is very tall. He is the tallest man in the team.

Jack es muy alto. El es el hombre más alto del equipo.

Adjetivos Monosílabos - Formación del Comparativo y Superlativo

Monosílabos
Comparativo
adj + er

small smaller


pequeño
más pequeño
tall taller

alto
más alto
young younger

joven
más joven

old older

viejo
más viejo
new newer

nuevo
más nuevo
long longer

largo
más largo
short shorter

corto
más corto
big bigger

grande
más grande
fat fatter

gordo
más gordo

Superlativo
adj + est
the smallest
el más pequeño
the tallest
el más alto
the youngest
el más joven
the oldest
el más viejo
the newest
el más nuevo
the longest
el más largo
the shortest
el más corto
the biggest
el más grande
the fattest
el más gordo

Adjetivos Bisílabos - Formación del Comparativo y Superlativo
Bisílabos terminados en: -y, -er, -le, -ow, (y otros muy conocidos)

English - Page 19

Bisílabos Comparativo Superlativo
adj + er

adj + est
easy easier

fácil
más fácil

the easiest
el más fácil

happy happier

feliz
más feliz

the happiest
el más feliz

crazy crazier

loco
más loco

the craziest
el más loco

clever cleverer

inteligente
más inteligente

the cleverest
el más inteligente

tender tenderer

tierno
más tierno

the tenderest
el más tierno

humble humbler

humilde
más humilde

the humblest
más humilde

gentle gentler

suave
más suave

the gentlest
el más suave

narrow narrower

angosto
más angosto

the narrowest
el más angosto

polite politer

amable
más amable

the politest
el más amable

Adjetivos Largos - Formación del Comparativo y Superlativo
Adjetivos

Largos

Comparativo
more + adj

Superlativo
the most + adj

expensive more expensive

caro
más caro

the most expensive
el más caro

modern more modern

moderno
más moderno

the most modern
el más moderno

beautiful more beautiful

hermoso
más hermoso

the most beautiful
el más hermoso

elegant more elegant

elegante
más elegante

the most elegant
el más elegante

interesting more interesting

interesante
más interesante

the most interesting
el más interesante

dangerous more dangerous

peligroso
más peligroso

the most dangerous
el más peligroso

English - Page 20

Formación irregular de comparativos y superlativos
Adjetivo Comparativo Superlativo
o Adverbio
good
better
the best
bueno mejor el mejor
well

bien

better
mejor

the best
de la mejor forma

bad
worse
the worst
malo peor el peor
badly

mal

worse
peor

the worst
de la peor forma

much
more
the most
mucho más la mayor parte
many
more
the most
muchos más la mayoría
little
less
the least
poco menos el menos
far

lejos

farther
más lejos

the farthest
el más lejano

far

lejos

further*
más lejos

the furthest
el más lejano

*further también significa “adicional” > further information: información adicional

PREPOSITIONS
Preposiciones
Here is a short list of 70 of the more common one-word prepositions. Many of these prepositions
have more than one meaning.















aboard
about
above
across
after
against
along
amid
among
anti
around
as
at










behind
below
beneath
beside
besides
between
beyond
but
by





concerning
considering
despite
down
during

• except
• excepting
• excluding

English - Page 21

• following
• for
• from

• past
• per
• plus

• in
• inside
• into

• regarding
• round

• like
• minus
• near






of
off
on
onto
opposite
outside
over

• save
• since




than
through
to
toward
towards






under
underneath
unlike
until
up
upon

• versus
• via
• with
• within
• without

MODAL VERBS
Verbos Modales

Can

I can dance.

puedo

Could
podría / pude / podía / pudiera
I could dance if I could practice.
May
podría / quizás / puede que
It may rain today.
Might
podría / quizás / puede que
They might come tomorrow.
Must
debo / debo de
I must go. -
She must be crazy.
Should
debería / tendría que
I should study more.
Ought to
debería / tendría que
I ought to study more.

English - Page 22

CONDITIONALS
Oraciones condicionales
Conditional Type 0
Este condicional refiere a verdades universales o situaciones de causa y consecuencia:
If you freeze water, it turns into ice.
If clause

Main clause

If + Present tense

Present tense

If you freeze water

it turns into ice.







If you freeze water, it turns into ice.
Si congelas el agua, se convierte en hielo.
If I work too much, I get tired.
Si trabajo demasiado, me canso.
If I have time, I usually go to the movies.
Si tengo tiempo, generalmente voy al cine.
If she eats hamburgers, she gets an allergy.
Si ella come hamburguesas, le da alergia.
If they come here, they always bring a present.
Si ellos vienen aquí, siempre traen un regalo.
If she doesn’t know the answer, she keeps silent.
Si ella no sabe la respuesta, se mantiene en silencio.
If we don’t go out on Saturdays, we rent a video and stay home.
Si no salimos los sábados, alquilamos un video y nos quedamos en casa.

Conditional Type 1
If + simple present + simple future. Se emplea cuando una situación es real o posible: If it
rains today, I’ll stay at home.
If clause

Main clause

If + Present tense

will / can / may / must + verb

If it rains today,

I’ll stay at home


If it rains today, I’ll stay at home.
Si llueve hoy, me quedaré en casa.

If he is busy now, I will come back tomorrow.
Si está ocupado ahora, regresaré mañana.

If I have time, I’ll visit my parents this afternoon.
Si tengo tiempo, visitaré a mis padres esta tarde.

If it is warm tomorrow, we’ll go to the beach.
Si está caluroso mañana, iremos a la playa.

If it is cold, you must wear warm clothes.
Si está frío, debes usar ropa abrigada.
English - Page 23

If he doesn’t do his homework, he can not go to the party.

Si él no hace su tarea, no puede ir a la fiesta.

If she doesn’t call you, you can call her.
Si ella no te llama, tú puedes llamarla.

If you work hard, you may become a millonaire someday.
Si trabajas duro, puede que te conviertas en un millonario algún día.

If you spend more than you earn, you’ll become a poor man.
Si gastas más de lo que ganas, te convertirás en un hombre pobre.

If they don’t invite you, you must not go.
Si ellos no te invitan, no debes ir.

If we don’t hurry, we’ll miss our bus.
Si no nos apuramos, perderemos nuestro autobus.

If you pay now, you’ll get a discount.
Si pagas ahora, obtendrás un descuento.

If they don’t want to go out, they can stay home.
Si no quieren salir, se pueden quedar en casa.

If you drink too much, you’ll get drunk.
Si bebes demasiado, te emborracharás.

If you feel sick, you must stay in bed.
Si te sientes enfermo, debes quedarte en cama.

If they don’t come here, we’ll have to go there.
Si ellos no vienen aquí, tendremos que ir allí.

Conditional type 2
Refiere a una situación hipotética y se forma según la estructur if + simple past + simple
condicional.
If clause

Main clause

If + Past Simple

would / could / might + verb

If I won the lottery,

I would travel around the world.

If I won the lottery, I would travel around the world.
Si ganara la lotería, viajaría por todo el mundo.

If I were in Brazil, I would go to Rio de Janeiro.
Si yo estuviese en Brasil, iría a Río de Janeiro.

If I were you, I would buy that car.
Si yo fuese tú, compraría ese auto.

If he were in my place, he wouldn’t do this.
Si él estuviese en mi lugar, no haría esto.

If I had more money, I would buy a nice apartment.
Si yo tuviese más dinero, me compraría un lindo apartamento.

English - Page 24

If she had more time, she would travel more often.
Si ella tuviera más tiempo, viajaría más a menudo.

If it were not raining, we could go out.
Si no estuviese lloviendo, podríamos salir.

If we didn’t have to work today, we could have a picnic.
Si no tuviésemos que trabajar hoy, podríamos tener un picnic.

If they won the lottery, they wouldn’t work any more.
Si ellos ganaran la lotería, no trabajarían más.

If I saw her, I would ask her out.
Si la viera, la invitaría a salir.

If you went to Brazil, you wouldn’t want to come back.
Si fueras a Brazil, no querrías regresar.

If they spoke Spanish, we would understand them.
Si ellos hablasen español, los entenderíamos.

If he didn’t live by the river, he couldn’t go fishing.
Si el no viviera cerca del río, no podría ir a pescar.

If I didn’t want to go, I would tell you.
Si no quisiera ir, te lo diría.

If they worked for that company, they might have better salaries.
Si ellos trabajaran para esa compañía, podrían tener mejores sueldos.

If she wrote a book, it would be a best-seller.
Si ella escribiese un libro, sería un best-seller.

English - Page 25

VERBAL TENSES
Tiempos verbales
Tenses in brief
Present Tense
I do
Present Continuous Tense
I am doing, I am doing tomorrow
Present Perfect Tense
I have done
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
I have been doing
Past Tense
I did
Past Continuous Tense
I was doing
Past Perfect Tense
I had done
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
I had been doing
Future Tense
I will do
Future Continuous Tense
I will be doing
Future Perfect Tense
I will have done
Future Perfect Continuous Tense
I will have been doing

Simple Present Tense
I sing
How do we make the Simple Present Tense?
subject
+

auxiliary verb
+
do

main verb
base

There are three important exceptions:

1. For positive sentences, we do not normally use the auxiliary.

2. For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add s to the main verb or es to
the auxiliary.

3. For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questions and negatives.
English - Page 26

Look at these examples with the main verb like:

subject

+

auxiliary verb

main verb

I, you, we, they

like

coffee.

He, she, it

likes

coffee.

not like

coffee.

not like

coffee.

I, you, we, they
do


He, she, it does


Do


?
Does

I, you, we, they

like

coffee?

he, she, it

like

coffee?

Look at these examples with the main verb be. Notice that there is no auxiliary:

subject

main verb

+

I

am

French.

You, we, they

are

French.

He, she, it

is

French.

-

I

am

not

old.

You, we, they

are

not

old.

?


He, she, it

is

not

old.

Am

I

late?

Are

you, we, they

late?

Is

he, she, it

late?

How do we use the Simple Present Tense?
We use the simple present tense when:



the action is general


the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future


the action is not only happening now


the statement is always true
John drives a taxi.

past

present

future

English - Page 27

It is John’s job to drive a taxi. He does it every day. Past, present and future.

Look at these examples:












I live in New York.
The Moon goes round the Earth.
John drives a taxi.
He does not drive a bus.
We meet every Thursday.
We do not work at night.
Do you play football?

Note that with the verb to be, we can also use the simple present tense for situations that are
not general. We can use the simple present tense to talk about now. Look at these examples
of the verb “to be” in the simple present tense - some of them are general, some of them are
now:
Am I right?
Tara is not at home.
You are happy.
past

present

future

The situation is now.

I am not fat.
Why are you so beautiful?
Ram is tall.
past

present

future

The situation is general. Past, present and future.

Present Continuous Tense
I am singing
We often use the present continuous tense in English. It is very different from the simple
present tense, both in structure and in use.

English - Page 28

How do we make the Present Continuous Tense?
The structure of the present continuous tense is:

subject

+

auxiliary verb
be

+

main verb
base + ing

Look at these examples:

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

+

I

am

speaking

to you.

+

You

are

reading

this.

-

She

is

not

staying

in London.

-

We

are

not

playing

football.

?

Is

he

watching

TV?

?

Are

they

waiting

for John?

How do we use the Present Continuous Tense?
We use the present continuous tense to talk about:


action happening now
action in the future

Present continuous tense for action happening now
a) for action happening exactly now


I am eating my lunch.

past



present

future

The action is happening now.

Look at these examples. Right now you are looking at this screen and at the same time...

...the pages are turning.

...the candle is burning....

the numbers are spinning.

b) for action happening around now
English - Page 29

The action may not be happening exactly now, but it is happening just before and just after
now, and it is not permanent or habitual.

John is going out with Mary.

past



present



future

The action is happening around now.

Look at these examples:


Muriel is learning to drive.
I am living with my sister until I find an apartment.

Present continuous tense for the future
We can also use the present continuous tense to talk about the future - if we add a future
word!! We must add (or understand from the context) a future word. “Future words” include,
for example,tomorrow, next year, in June, at Christmas etc. We only use the present continuous tense to talk about the future when we have planned to do something before we speak.
We have already made a decision and a plan before speaking.
I am taking my exam next month.


past
present

future

!!!




A firm plan or programme
The action is in

exists now.
the future.

Look at these examples:




We’re eating in a restaurant tonight. We’ve already booked the table..
They can play tennis with you tomorrow. They’re not working.
When are you starting your new job?

In these examples, we have a firm plan or programme before speaking. The decision and
plan were made before speaking.
How do we spell the Present Continuous Tense?
We make the present continuous tense by adding -ing to the base verb. Normally it’s simple we just add -ing. But sometimes we have to change the word a little. Perhaps we double the
last letter, or we drop a letter. Here are the rules to help you know how to spell the present
continuous tense.

English - Page 30

Basic rule

Just add -ing to the base verb:

work

>

working

play

>

playing

assist

>

assisting

see

>

seeing

be

>

being

Exception 1 If the base verb ends in consonant + stressed vowel + consonant,

double the last letter:
t

s

consonant

o
stressed

p
consonant

vowel

(vowels = a, e, i, o, u)

stop

>

stopping

run

>

running

begin

>

beginning

Note that this exception does not apply when the last syllable of the
base verb is not stressed:
open

>

opening

Exception 2 If the base verb ends in ie, change the ie to y:

lie

>

lying

die

>

dying

Exception 3 If the base verb ends in vowel + consonant + e, omit the e:

come

>

coming

mistake

>

mistaking

Present Perfect Tense
I have sung
The present perfect tense is a rather important tense in English, but it gives speakers of
some languages a difficult time. That is because it uses concepts or ideas that do not exist
in those languages. In fact, the structure of the present perfect tense is very simple. The
problems come with the use of the tense. In addition, there are some differences in usage
between British and American English.
English - Page 31

How do we make the Present Perfect Tense?
The structure of the present perfect tense is:

subject

+

auxiliary verb

+

have

main verb
past participle

Here are some examples of the present perfect tense:

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

+

I

have

seen

ET.

+

You

have

eaten

mine.

-

She

has

not

been

to Rome.

-

We

have

not

played

football.

?

Have

you

finished?

?

Have

they

done

it?

Contractions with the present perfect tense
When we use the present perfect tense in speaking, we usually contract the subject and auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this when we write.
I have
I’ve
You have
You’ve
He has He’s
She has She’s
It has It’s
John has
John’s
The car has
The car’s
We have
We’ve
They have
They’ve
Here are some examples:




English - Page 32

I’ve finished my work.
John’s seen ET.
They’ve gone home.

Tip
He’s or he’s??? Be careful! The ‘s contraction is used for the auxiliary verbs have and be. For
example, “It’s eaten” can mean:


It has eaten. [present perfect tense, active voice]
It is eaten. [present tense, passive voice]

It is usually clear from the context.
How do we use the Present Perfect Tense?
This tense is called the present perfect tense. There is always a connection with the past and
with the present. There are basically three uses for the present perfect tense:
1. experience
2. change

3.
continuing situation
1. Present perfect tense for experience
We often use the present perfect tense to talk about experience from the past. We are not
interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you did it:
I have seen ET.
He has lived in Bangkok.
Have you been there?
We have never eaten caviar.
past
present

!!!

The action or state
was in the past.

future

In my head, I have
a memory now.

Connection with past: the event was in the past.
Connection with present: in my head, now, I have a memory of the event; I know something
about the event; I have experience of it.
2. Present perfect tense for change
We also use the present perfect tense to talk about a change or new information:
I have bought a car.

past

present

future

- +

Last week I didn’t

Now I have a car.
have a car.

English - Page 33

John has broken his leg.
present

past

+

Yesterday John had
a good leg.

future

-

Now he has a bad leg.

Has the price gone up?
present

past

+

-

Was the price $1.50 Is the price $1.70 today?
yesterday?

future

The police have arrested the killer.
present

past

-

Yesterday the killer
was free.

future

+

Now he is in prison.

Connection with past: the past is the opposite of the present.
Connection with present: the present is the opposite of the past.
Americans do not use the present perfect tense so much as British speakers. Americans often
use the past tense instead. An American might say “Did you have lunch?”, where a British
person would say “Have you had lunch?”
3. Present perfect tense for continuing situation
We often use the present perfect tense to talk about a continuing situation. This is a state
that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). This is astate (not an action). We usually use for or since with this structure.
I have worked here since June.
He has been ill for 2 days.
How long have you known Tara?

past


present

The situation started in
It continues up to now.
the past.

English - Page 34

future

(It will probably continue
into the future.)

Connection with past: the situation started in the past.
Connection with present: the situation continues in the present.
For & Since with Present Perfect Tense
We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.


We use for to talk about a period of time - 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.


We use since to talk about a point in past time - 9 o’clock, 1st January,
Monday.
for since
a period of time











20 minutes

a point in past time
x-----------

6:15 pm

three days

Monday

6 months

January

4 years

1994

2 centuries

1800

a long time

ever

etc

I left school
the beginning of time
etc

Here are some examples:










I have been here for 20 minutes.
I have been here since 9 o’clock.
John hasn’t called for 6 months.
John hasn’t called since February.
He has worked in New York for a long time.
He has worked in New York since he left school.

For can be used with all tenses. Since is usually used with perfect tenses only.
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
I have been singing
The structure:
subject + auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb + main verb



have
has

been

base + ing

English - Page 35

Some examples:

subject auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb main verb

+ I

have

- It

has not

?

Have they

been waiting

been

raining.

been

doing

for one hour.

their homework?

Contractions


I’ve been reading.


The car’s been giving trouble.


We’ve been playing tennis for two hours.
There are basically two uses for the present perfect continuous tense:
1. An action that has just stopped or recently stopped
We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past
and stopped recently.
There is usually a result now: I’m tired because I’ve been running.
2. An action continuing up to now
We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past
and is continuing now. This is often used with for or since.


I have been reading for 2 hours. [I am still reading now.]
We’ve been studying since 9 o’clock. [We’re still studying now.]

Past simple Tense
How do we make the Past Simple Tense?
To make the past simple tense, we use: past form only or auxiliary did + base form
Here you can see examples of the past form and base form for irregular verbs and regular
verbs:

V1 V2 V3
base
past
past participle

regular
work
verb
explode
like

worked
exploded
liked

worked
exploded
liked

The past form forall
regular verbs ends in -ed.

The past form for irregular
irregular go see
went saw
gone
verbs is variable. You need
verb
sing
sang
seen
sung to learn it by heart.
You do not need
the past participle






form to make the
past simple tense.
It is shown here for
completeness only.
English - Page 36

The structure for positive sentences in the past simple tense is:

subject +

main verb

-

past

-

The structure for negative sentences in the past simple tense is:

subject +

auxiliary verb +

not

- -

did

base

+

main verb

The structure for question sentences in the past simple tense is:

auxiliary verb +

did

subject +

- -

main verb
base

The auxiliary verb did is not conjugated. It is the same for all persons (I did, you did, he did
etc). And the base form and past form do not change. Look at these examples with the main
verbs go and work:

subject auxiliary verb

-

main verb

+

I

You

-

She

-

went

to school.

-

worked

very hard

go

with me.

did not

We

did not work

yesterday.

Did

you

-

go

to London?

Did

they

-

work

?

at home?

Exception! The verb to be is different. We conjugate the verb to be (I was, you were, he/she/it
was, we were, they were); and we do not use an auxiliary for negative and question sentences.
To make a question, we exchange the subject and verb. Look at these examples:

English - Page 37

subject

-+

main verb

I, he/she/it

was here.

You, we, they

were

in London.

=
I, he/she/it

was

not

there.

You, we, they

were

not

happy.

I, he/she/it

?

Was

Were

you, we, they

right?
late?

Past Continuous Tense
I was singing
We use it to say what we were in the middle of doing at a particular moment in the past.
The structure:
subject

+

auxiliary verb BE +

conjugated in simple
past tense

was
were

main verb
present participle
base + ing

For negative sentences in the past continuous tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb
and main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look
at these example sentences with the past continuous tense:

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

+

I

was

watching

TV.

+

You

were

working

hard.

-

He, she, it

was

not

helping

Mary.

-

We

were

not

joking.

?

Were

you

being

?

Were

they

playing

English - Page 38

silly?
football?

The spelling rules for adding ing to make the past continuous tense are the same as for the
present continuous tense.
The past continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the past. The action
started before that moment but has not finished at that moment. For example, yesterday I
watched a film on TV. The film started at 7pm and finished at 9pm.
At 8pm yesterday, I was watching TV.

When we use the past continuous tense, our listener usually knows or understands what time
we are talking about. Look at these examples:

I was working at 10pm last night.

They were not playing football at 9am this morning.

What were you doing at 10pm last night?

Past Perfect Tense
I had sung
This tense talks about the “past in the past”.
The structure:

subject +

auxiliary verb HAVE

conjugated in simple

+

main verb
past participle

past tense
had

V3

For negative sentences in the past perfect tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and
main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look at these
example sentences with the past perfect tense:

English - Page 39

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

+

I

had

finished

my work.

+

You

had

stopped

before me.

-

She

had

not

gone

to school.

-

We

had not

left.

?

Had

you

arrived?

?

Had

they

eaten

dinner?

Look at some more examples:


I wasn’t hungry. I had just eaten.
They were hungry. They had not eaten for five hours.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense
I had been singing
The structure:
subject

+ auxiliary verb HAVE +

auxiliary verb BE

+ main verb

conjugated in simple
past participle
past tense

had
been

present
participle
base + ing

For negative sentences in the past perfect continuous tense, we insert not after the first auxiliary verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and first auxiliary verb. Look at
these example sentences with the past perfect continuous tense:

subject auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb

main verb

+

+

-

I

had

been

working.

You

had

been

playing

tennis.

It

had

not

been

working

well.

-

We

had

not

been

expecting

her.

?

Had

you

been

drinking?

?

Had

they

been

waiting

English - Page 40

long?

The past perfect continuous tense is like the past perfect tense, but it expresses longer actions
in the past before another action in the past. For example:



Ram started waiting at 9am. I arrived at 11am. When I arrived, Ram had been

waiting for two hours.
Simple Future Tense
I will sing
The simple future tense is often called will, because we make the simple future tense with
the modal auxiliary will.

The structure:
subject

+

auxiliary verb WILL + main verb

invariable base
V1

will

For negative sentences in the simple future tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and
main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look at these
example sentences with the simple future tense:
subject auxiliary verb

main verb

+

I

will

open

the door.

+

You

will

finish

before me.

-

She

will

not

be

at school tomorrow.

-

We

will

not

leave

yet.

?

Will

you

arrive

on time?

?

Will

they

want

dinner?

How do we use the Simple Future Tense?

No Plan

We use the simple future tense when there is no plan or decision to do something before we
speak. We make the decision spontaneously at the time of speaking. Look at these examples:


Hold on. I’ll get a pen.


We will see what we can do to help you.


Maybe we’ll stay in and watch television tonight.
In these examples, we had no firm plan before speaking. The decision is made at the time of
speaking.
English - Page 41

We often use the simple future tense with the verb to think before it:




I think I’ll go to the gym tomorrow.
I think I will have a holiday next year.
I don’t think I’ll buy that car.

Prediction

We often use the simple future tense to make a prediction about the future. Again, there is no
firm plan. We are saying what we think will happen. Here are some examples:




It will rain tomorrow.
People won’t go to Jupiter before the 22nd century.
Who do you think will get the job?

Be

When the main verb is be, we can use the simple future tense even if we have a firm plan or
decision before speaking. Examples:



I’ll be in London tomorrow.


I’m going shopping. I won’t be very long.


Will you be at work tomorrow?
Note that when we have a plan or intention to do something in the future, we usually use other
tenses or expressions, such as the present continuous tense or going to.
Future Continuous Tense
I will be singing
The estructure:

subject + auxiliary verb WILL

+ auxiliary verb BE + main verb

invariable
invariable

will

present
participle

be

base + ing

For negative sentences in the future continuous tense, we insert not between will and be. For
question sentences, we exchange the subject and will. Look at these example sentences with
the future continuous tense:

subject auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb main verb

I

will

be

working

+

You

will

be

lying

on a beach tomorrow.

-

She

will

not

be

using

the car.

-

We

will

not

be

having dinner at home.

?

Will

you

be

playing football?

?

Will

they

be

watching

+

English - Page 42

at 10am.

TV?

The future continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the future. The action will start before that moment but it will not have finished at that moment. For example,
tomorrow I will start work at 2pm and stop work at 6pm:
At 4pm tomorrow, I will be working.
When we use the future continuous tense, our listener usually knows or understands what
time we are talking about. Look at these examples:






I will be playing tennis at 10am tomorrow.
They won’t be watching TV at 9pm tonight.
What will you be doing at 10pm tonight?
Take your umbrella. It will be raining when you return.

Future Perfect Tense
I will have sung
The future perfect tense talks about the past in the future.
The structure:

subject + auxiliary verb WILL + auxiliary verb HAVE + main verb

invariable

invariable

will

have

past participle
V3

Look at these example sentences in the future perfect tense:

subject auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb main verb

+

I

will

have

finished

+

You will

have

forgotten me by then.

-

She will

not

have

gone to school.

-

We

will

not

have

eft.

?

Will

you

have

arrived?

?

Will

they

have

received

by 10 am.

it?

In speaking with the future perfect tense, we often contract the subject and will. Sometimes,
we contract the subject, will and have all together:

English - Page 43

I will have I’ll have I’ll’ve

you will have you’ll have you’ll’ve
he will have it’ll have he’ll’ve
she will have she’ll have she’ll’ve
it will have he’ll have it’ll’ve
we will have we’ll have we’ll’ve
they will have they’ll have they’ll’ve

The future perfect tense expresses action in the future before another action in the future.
This is the past in the future. For example:

The train will leave the station at 9am. You will arrive at the station at 9.15am.
When you arrive, the train will have left.

Look at some more examples:

You can call me at work at 8am. I will have arrived at the office by 8.

They will be tired when they arrive. They will not have slept for a long time.

“Mary won’t be at home when you arrive.”

“Really? Where will she have gone?”

Future Perfect Continuous Tense
I will have been singing
The structure:

subject + auxiliary verb WILL + auxiliary verb HAVE + auxiliary verb BE + main verb


invariable
invariable
past participle
present

participle

will

have

been

base + ing

For negative sentences in the future perfect continuous tense, we insert not between will and
have. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and will. Look at these example sentences with the future perfect continuous tense:

English - Page 44

subject auxiliary

verb

auxiliary
verb

auxiliary
verb

main
verb

+

I

will

have

been

working for four hours.

+

You

will

have

been

travelling for two days.

-

She

will

not have

been

using the car.

-

We

will

not have

been

waiting l ong.

?

Will

you

have

been

playing football?

?

Will

they

have

been

watching TV?

For negative sentences in the future perfect continuous tense, we contract with won’t, like
this:
We use the future perfect continuous tense to talk about a long action before some point in the
future. Look at these examples:



I will have been working here for ten years next week.


He will be tired when he arrives. He will have been travelling for 24 hours.
Future Perfect Continuous Tense
I will have been singing
The structure:
subject + auxiliary verb WILL + auxiliary verb HAVE + auxiliary verb BE + main verb

invariable
invariable
past participle
present
participle

will

have

been

base + ing

For negative sentences in the future perfect continuous tense, we insert not between will and
have. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and will. Look at these example
sentences with the future perfect continuous tense:
subject auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb auxiliary verb main verb

+

I

will

have been working for four hours.

+

You

will

-

She

will not

have

been travelling for two days.

have

been using

the car.
English - Page 45

subject auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb auxiliary verb main verb

- We

will not

have

? Will

you

have

been playing football?

? Will

they

been watching TV?

have

been waiting long.

For negative sentences in the future perfect continuous tense, we contract with won’t, like this:
We use the future perfect continuous tense to talk about a long action before some point in the
future. Look at these examples:
• I will have been working here for ten years next week.
• He will be tired when he arrives. He will have been travelling for 24 hours.

Irregular Verbs
Infinitive Past tense Past participle

Meaning

to be

ser, estar

was / were

been

to beat beat beaten golpear, batir
to become

became

become

convertirse, llegar a ser

to begin began begun empezar

to bet bet bet apostar

to bite bit bitten morder

to bleed bled bled sangrar, desangrarse
to blow
to break

blew

blown

soplar

broke

broken

romper

to breed bred bred criar, reproducirse

to bring brought brought traer
to burn

burnt / burned

burn / burned

quemar

to burst burst burst reventar, explotar

to buy bought bought comprar

to catch caught caught coger

to choose chose chosen elegir

to come came come venir

to cost cost cost costar

to cut cut cut cortar

to dig
dug dug cavar

to do did done hacer

to draw drew drawn dibujar

to dream dreamt dreamt soñar
to drink

drank

drunk

beber

to drive drove driven conducir

to eat ate eaten comer

to fall fell fallen caer

to feed fed fed alimentar
English
- Page 46

Irregular Verbs
Infinitive Past tense Past participle

Meaning

to feel felt felt sentir
to fight

fought

fought

luchar

to find

found

found

encontrar

to fly

flew

flown

volar

to forbid forbade forbidden prohibir

to forget forgot forgotten olvidar

to forgive forgave forgiven perdonar

to freeze froze frozen congelar

to get got got (also US gotten)
obtener

to give gave given dar

to go went gone ir

to grow grew grown crecer

to hang hung hung colgar

to have had had tener, haber

to hear heard heard oir

to hide hid hidden esconder

to hit hit hit pegar, golpear

to hold held held sujetar, mantener

to hurt hurt hurt herir
to keep

kept

to kneel

knelt / kneeled

knelt / kneeled

arrodillarse

to know

knew

known

saber

kept

conservar, guardar

to lay laid laid poner, situar, colocar

to lead led led dirigir, liderar
to learn

learnt / learned

learnt / learned

aprender

to leave left left salir, dejar

to let let let dejar

to lie lay lain tumbarse, yacer

to light lit lit encender

to lose lost lost perder
to make

made

made

hacer

to mean

meant

meant

significar

to meet met met encontrarse

to pay paid paid pagar
to plead

pled / pleaded

pled / pleaded

suplicar, abogar

to put put put poner

to read read read leer

to ride rode ridden montar

to ring rang rung sonar

to rise rose risen levantarse, ascender
English - Page 47

Irregular Verbs
Infinitive Past tense Past participle

Meaning

to sell sold sold vender
to send

sent

sent

enviar

to set

set

set

establecer, poner

shaken

temblar, sacudir

to shake

shook

to shine

shone

shone

brillar, dar brillo

to shoot

shot

shot

disparar, tirar

to show

showed

shown

enseñar

to shut

shut

shut

cerrar

to sing

sang

sung

cantar

to sit sat sat sentarse
to sleep

slept

slept

dormir

to smell

smelt / smelled

smelt / smelled

oler, olfatear

to sow

sowed

sown

sembrar, plantar

spoke

spoken

hablar

to speak

to spell

spelt / spelled

spelt / spelled

deletrear

to spend

spent

spent

gastar

to stand

stood

stood

estar de pie

to steal

stole

stolen

robar

stuck

stuck

encolar, pegar

to stick

to swear

swore

sworn

jurar

to sweep

swept

swept

barrer

to swim

swam

swum

nadar

to swing

swung

swung

columpiar

took

taken

coger

to take

to teach

taught

taught

enseñar

to tear

tore

torn

desgarrar, derramar lágrimas

to tell

told

told

decir

thought

thought

pensar

to think

to throw

threw

thrown

lanzar, echar

to understand

understood

understood

entender, comprender

to undo

undid

undone

deshacer

woke

woken

despertar

to wake

to wear

wore

worn

llevar puesto, calzar

to win

won

won

ganar

to wind

wound

wound

bobinar, airear, ventilar

to wring

wrung

wrung

estrujar, retrocer

to write

wrote

written

escribir

English - Page 48

PASSIVE VOICE
Voz pasiva
Present


he car is washed

What is done?T

Present Perfect What has been done?

The car has been washed
Past



The car was washed

Past Perfect


The car had been washed

What was done?

Future



The car will be washed

What will be done?

What had been done?

Future Perfect

What will have been done?

The car will have been washed

Future (going to)

What is going to be done?
The car is going to be washed

Future Perfect (going to) What is going to have been done?

The car is going to have been washed
Future in Past

What was going to be done?

The car was going to be washed
Future Perfect in Past
What was going to have been done?

The car was going to have been washed
Conditional


The car would be washed

What would be done?

Conditional Perfect
What would have been done?

The car would have been washed
Modals


What (could, must, should …) be done?

The car (could, must, should …) be washed
Modals + Have
What (could, must, should …) have been






done?

The car (could, must, should, …) have been washed

English - Page 49