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Semiconductor Lasers

Direct-Gap vs.

Indirect-Gap

E(energy)

k (momentum)

A Brief Introduction to Semiconductors

Energy Bands

Conduction band
(empty)

Eg (bandgap energy)

f FD

1
E Ef
1 exp

kT

Valance band
(full)

Equilibrium

Fermi-Dirac Statistics

http://britneyspears.ac/lasers.htm !!!???

Conduction band

Eg

Valance band

Nonequilibrium Electron-Hole Injection

104 cm-1
Gain

Example

Absorption or

GaAs
Eg=1.4 eV
(g=850 nm)

hw
g

Section 12.1 p.2

p-n junctions
Doping with Impurities
n-type

p-type

Ef
Eg

Eg
Ef

Examples: GaAs doped with Br


Si doped with P

Examples: GaAs doped with Zn


Si doped with Al

Semiconductor junction lasers


Forward-Biased p-n Junction (LED)
n+-GaAs

p+-GaAs

+V

d
Inversion (Gain) Layer
Current Density Threshold

J th

N e,h ed

Recombination time

Section 12.2 p.2

Edge-Emitting Homojunction Laser Diodes


+v

Polished
facets

p-GaAs

J th

n-GaAs
Lg100 m

N e,h ed

Waveguide Modes

Homojunction Lasers have very high current threshold mainly because.


Electrons and holes are free to diffuse and therefore dilute the gain (no carrier confinement)
Optical mode has poor overlap with gain (no optical confinement or guiding)

12.3 Heterojunction Lasers Diodes


A fortunate coincidence:

when

Eg

electrons

n+
AlGaAs

GaAs

p+
AlGaAs

Energy

Carrier confinement

holes
holes
100 nm

Index of
Refraction

Mode confinement

Section 12.3 p.2

Edge-Emitting Heterojunction Laser Diodes

Edge-Emitting Buried Heterojunction Laser Diodes

Cleaved reflecting surface


W

Stripe electrode
Oxide insulator
p-GaAs (Contacting lay er)
p-AlxGa1-xAs (Confining lay er)
p-GaAs (Active lay er)
n-AlxGa1-xAs (Confining lay er)
n-GaAs (Substrate)

Elliptic al
laser
be am

2
1
Current
pa ths
Subst rate

Substrate
Electrode

Cleaved reflecting surface


Active region where J > Jth.
(Emission region)

Schematic illustratio n of the the st ruct ure of a double heterojunction st ripe


contact laser diode
1999 S.O. K asap,Optoelectronics(P rentice H all)

12.4 Quantum Well Lasers


Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) Lasers

+v

n+
AlGaAs

10 nm

p+
AlGaAs

p+-AlGaAs

n+-AlGaAs
n-GaAs Substrate

mode confinement

Epitaxial Growth

Section 12.4 p.2

High Power Diode Bars

P>100 W (cw)
Diode-pumping solid-state lasers (DPSS)
Material Processing

Section 12.4 p.3

Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL)

Mirror

MQW (gain)

Mirror

Good mode quality couples to fiber efficiently for telecom applications


Single mode operation
2-D structures cam be made
Low power

Section 12.4 p.4

Laser Diodes Cover the Spectrum


Compound

Spectral Region

Notes

AlxGa1-xN
GaN
InxGa1-xN

uv
uv (350 nm)
blue (480-400 nm)

data storage, display

GaxI1-xP (x=0.5)
GaxAl1-xAs (x=0-0.45)

670 nm
620-895 nm

display

GaAs
InxGa1-xAs (x=0.2)

904 nm
980 nm

diode pumping solid-state and


fiber lasers.

InxGa1-xAsyP1-y
(x=0.73, y=0.58)
(x=0.58, y=0.9)

1100-1650
1310 nm
1550 nm

Telecom

PbSSe

4200-8000 nm

cryogenic

PbSnTe

6300-29,000 nm

cryogenic

12.5 Recent Advances: Quantum Cascade Lasers

Section 12.5 p.2

THE END !

Final Exam
Thursday, Dec. 16
Comprehensive, Closed Book
Review Session
Thursday, Dec. 9