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MATRIX ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES (CE854)

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Matrix Analysis of Structures


Assignment No. 1 (Matrix Algebra)
Introduction:
Analysis of statically indeterminate (in some cases determinate) structures
generally requires the solution of linear simultaneous equations, the number of
which depends on the method of analysis. Some methods avoid simultaneous
equations by using iterative or successive correction techniques in order to
reduce the amount of computation, (e.g. moment distribution method) and are
suitable when the calculations are made by hand or by a hand-held or small
desk calculator.
For large and complicated structures hand computations is often
impracticable, and a digital computer has to be used. Its advent has shifted the
emphasis from easy problem solution to efficient problem formulation: using
matrices and matrix algebra, a large quantity of information can be organized
and manipulated in a compact form.
In this course we will study the basic computer methods but not the details
of programming.
It is emphasized that the hand methods of solution must not be neglected.
They are of value not only when a computer is not available but also for
preliminary calculations and for checking of computer results.
Course Content:

Course Concept
Capability to Understand the Behavior of Framed Structures
Understanding of Fundamental Concepts in Matrix (Computer) Analysis of
Structures
Analysis of Three Dimensional Structures
Ability to Analyse Complex Framed Structures Using a Computer

MATRIX ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES (CE854)


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Review of Fundamentals in Structural Analysis


Structure, Types of Framed Structures
Structural Modeling or Structural Idealization
Supports and Reactions
Loads and Load Paths
Sign Convention of Forces & Displacements and Direction Cosines
Equilibrium of a Body
Statically Determinate Structures
Example Problems

Structure, Types of Framed Structures


Any body that retains its physical form can be designated as a structure.
Types of Framed Structures
o Continuous Beam

o Plane Truss

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o Plane Frame

o Horizontal Grid Subjected to Vertical Loads

o Space Truss

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o Space Frame

Examples of 3D Structures

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Structural Modeling or Structural Idealization


Prismatic members are modeled as wire frames with lines passing through
the centerline of members.

Some shell and plate structures can be modeled as frames.


o Culverts

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o Retaining Walls

o Building Structures etc.

Supports and Reactions


Plane Frames
o Hinge Support

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o Roller Support

o Fixed Support

o Encastre Roller

o Spring Supports

Space Frames
o Hinge or Roller Support
y
x
z

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o Fixed Support
y
x
z

o Spring Support
y
x
z

Loads and Load Paths


Loads
o Point loads

o Distributed Loads

q/unit length

o Couples or Moments

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o Temperature Gradients
T

o Construction Deficiencies and Miss-fits

o Shrinkage and Creep

o Support Settlement etc.

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Load Paths

Sign Convention for Forces & Displacements


Reference Axis
o Plane Structures
y
z

o Space Structures
y
x
z

Force/Displacement Direction in Plane Frames


y
2D Space
z

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Force/Displacement Direction in Space Frames

y
3D Space
x
z

Equilibrium of a Body
A body is said to be in equilibrium if the resultant of acting forces and
moments is zero in all directions.

Equations of Equilibrium
o Fx = 0
o Fy = 0
o Fz = 0
o Mx = 0
o My = 0
o Mz = 0

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MATRIX ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES (CE854)


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Statically Determinate Structures


A structure is said to be statically determinate if the forces can be found
from the equations of equilibrium alone
Examples
o Simply Supported Beam

o Simply Supported Plane Frame etc.

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Problem No. L1-1


Find member forces and reaction components of the following truss.

3b
P

P/5
B

5b
D

5b

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Problem No. L1-2


Find member forces and reaction components of the following truss.

Top View

Elevation

5P
2P

3c

2P

5b
2c

3P
D
2b 2b

D B C
2b 2b

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Problem No. L1-3


Find member forces and reaction components of the following beam.

qL

0.5qL
q/unit length

A
B
0.4L

C
0.6L

0.2L

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Problem No. L1-4


Find member forces and reaction components of the following frame.

P
P
B

90o

L
D

A
L

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Problem No. L1-5


Find member forces and reaction components of the following frame.

q per unit length of


horizontal projection
D
B
3
A

0.15L

1
3