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MINOLOGY

PROBLEMS

43
1.8

For the circuit in Fig. Pl.S:

(a) Identify and label all distinct nodes.

source

(b) Which of those nodes are extraordinary nodes?

(c) Identify all combinations of2 or more circuit elements that


are connected in series.

1sion
Figure Pl.S: Circuit for Problem 1.5.

e-throw
,Je-throw

(d) Identify pairs of circuit elements that are connected in


parallel.

1.6 For the circuit in Fig. P1.6:


25

(a) Identify and label all distinct nodes.

(b) Which of those nodes are extraordinary nodes?

)City

60Q

(c) Identify all combinations of2 or more circuit elements that


are connected in series.

(d) Identify pairs of circuit elements that are connected in


parallel.

15

Figure Pl.8: Circuit for Problem 1.8.

1.9

For the circuit in Fig. P1.9:

(a) Identify and label all distinct nodes.


Figure P1.6: Circuit for Problem 1.6.

(b) Which of those nodes are extraordinary nodes?

(c) Identify all combinations of2 or more circuit elements that


are connected in series.

1.7 For the circuit in Fig. P1.7:

(d) Identify pairs of circuit elements that are connected in

parallel.

(a) Identify and label all distinct nodes.


(b) Which of those nodes are extraordinary nodes?

4A

(c) Identify all combinations of 2 or more circuit elements that


are connected in series.
(d) Identify pairs of circuit elements that are connected in

parallel.
2Q

4Q

lQ

Figure Pl.9: Circuit for Problem 1.9.

4V +
1.10

For the circuit in Fig. PLIO:

(a) Identify and label all distinct nodes .

ments that

(b) Which of those nodes are extraordinary nodes?

mected in
Figure P1.7: Circuit for Problem 1.7.

(c) Identify all combinations of2 or more circuit elements that


are connected in series.

CHAPTER 1 CIRCUIT TERMINOLOGY

44
(d) Identify pairs of circuit elements that are connected in

parallel.

*(c)
""'-16Q~

pC

(d) q(t) = 0.2t sin(l207rt) nC

8Q
4Q~

1.21
given

(a) q(t)

(b)

12V ( T }

= 3.6t mC
q(t) = 5 sin(377t) p.,C
q(t) = 0.3[1- e- 0 .41 ]

6Q

Figure Pl.lO: Circuit for Problem 1.10.

1.15 Determine the current i (t) flowing through a certain


device if the cumulative charge that has flowed through it up to
time t is given by
(a) q (t)

-0.45t 3 p.,C

For the circuit in Fig. Pl.ll:

(a) Identify and label all distinct nodes.

(b) Which of those nodes are extraordinary nodes?

(c) Identify all combinations of 2 or more circuit elements that

are connected in series.


(d) Identify pairs of circuit elements that are connected in

parallel.

= -3.2 sin(377t) cos(377t) pC


q(t) = 1.7t[l- e-1. 21 ] nC

(c) q(t)

*(d)

1.16 Determine the net charge 11 Q that flowed through a


resistor over the specified time interval for each of the following
currents:

= 0.36 A, from t = 0 tot = 3 s


i(t) = [40t + 8] rnA, from t = 1 s tot=

(a) i (t)

*(b)

12 s

(c) i(t)

= 5 sin(47rt) nA, from t = 0 tot= 0.05 s

(d) i(t)

12e-0 31 rnA, from t

= 0 tot= oo

1.17 Determine the net charge 11 Q that flowed through a


certain device over the specified time intervals for each of the
following currents:
(a) i (t)

[3t

+ 6t 3 ] rnA, from t = 0 tot = 4 s

*(b) i (t) = 4 sin(407rt) cos(407rt)


t = 0.05 s

p.,A,

from

t = 0

to

= [4e-t- 3e- 21 ] A, from t = 0 tot= oo


i(t) = 12e- 31 cos(407rt) nA, from t = 0 tot= 0.05 s

(c) i(t)

(d)

Figure Pl.ll: Circuit for Problem 1.11.

1.12 The total charge contained in a certain region of space


is -1 C. If that region contains only electrons, how many does
it contain?
*1.13 A certain cross section lies in the x-y plane. If 3 x 1020
electrons go through the cross section in the z direction in 4
seconds, and simultaneously 1.5 x 1020 protons go through
the same cross section in the negative z direction, what is the
magnitude and direction of the current flowing through the cross
section?
1.14 Determine the current i (t) flowing through a resistor if
the cumulative charge that has flowed through it up to time t is
given by

1.18 If the current flowing through a wire is given by


i (t) = 3e- 0 11 rnA, how many electrons pass through the wire's
cross section over the time interval from t = 0 to t = 0.3 ms?
1.19 The cumulative charge in mC that entered a certain
device is given by

q(t)

~~t

60- t

(a)

(b)

1.22
of ch

(b) q(t) = 12 sin 2 (800m) mC

1.11

PRO

fort < 0,

for 0 :::: t :::: 10 s,


for 10 s :::: t :::: 60 s

(a) Plot q (t) versus t from t = 0 to t = 60 s.


(b) Plot the corresponding current i(t) entering the device.

*1.20 A steady flow resulted in 3 x 10 15 electrons entering a


device in 0.1 ms . What is the current?

OGY

PROBLEMS

45

1.21 Given that the current in (rnA) flowing through a wire is


given by:

1.24 The plot in Fig. P1.24 displays the cumulative charge


q (t) that has entered a certain device up to timet. Sketch a plot
of the corresponding current i (t).

i (t)

rtain
up to

fort < 0

6t

for 0 _:::: t _:::: 5 s


fort :::: 5 s,

30e- 0 6 <t-S)

(a) Sketch i (t) versus t.


(b) Sketch q (t) versus t.

1.22 The plot in Fig. P1.22 displays the cumulative amount


of charge q (t) that has entered a certain device up to time t.
What is the current at

= 1s
=3s
t =6s

(a) t

~h

1ing

*(b) t
(c)

Figure P1.24: q(t) for Problem 1.24.

q(t)

Sections 1-5 and 1-6: Voltage, Power, and Circuit Elements

1.25 In the circuit of Fig. Pl.25, node V1 was selected as the


ground node.

a
the

*(a) What is the voltage at node V2?


(b) What is the voltage difference V32 = V3 - V2?

(c) What are the voltages at nodes 1, 3, 4, and 5 if node 2 is


selected as the ground node instead of node 1?

to

Figure P1.22: q(t) for Problem 1.22.

1.23 The plot in Fig. P1.23 displays the cumulative amount


of charge q (t) that has exited a certain device up to timet. What

'Y
's
?
n

V5 = 20V

is the current at

=2s
t =6s

*(a) t

(b)

(c) t

Rs

= 12 s
q(t)
4C

0000000000000000000000

Figure P1.25: q(t) for Problem 1.25.

2 C t--- - - '

1.26 In the circuit of Fig. P1.26, node V1 was selected as the


ground node.

4s

8s

Figure P1.23: q(t) for Problem 1.23.

*(a) What is the voltage difference across R6?


(b) What are the voltages at nodes 1, 3, and 4 if node 2 is
selected as the ground node instead of node 1?

46

CHAPTER 1 CIRCUIT TERMINOLOGY

v3 =6V

+6VI

10 v { : )

2ov {)

R2

I
~

R,

V2 =4 V

R3

sA t
+
24 v

v4 = 12 v

/"_X

X~'\

I~

Figure P1.28: Circuit for Problem 1.28.

Figure P1.26: q(t) for Problem 1.26.

(b) How much energy in joules is contained in the battery?


1.27 For each of the eight devices in the circuit of Fig. P1.27,
determine whether the device is a supplier or a recipient of
power and how much power it is supplying or receiving.

(c) What is the battery's rating in ampere-hours?

1.31 The voltage across and current through a certain device


are given by
v(t)

= 5 cos(4nt) V,

i (t) = 0.1 cos(4nt) A.

Determine:
+6V2

*(a) The instantaneous power p(t) at t

6
+12V-

3A +

lOY 13

-7V+
8

9VI7

Figure P1.27: Circuit for Problem 1.27.

= 0 and t = 0.25 s.

(b) The average power Pav. defined as the average value of


p(t) over a full time period of the cosine function (0 to
0.5 s).

1.32 The voltage across and current through a certain device


are given by
v(t) = 100(1 - e- 0 -21 ) V,

i(t)

= 30e- 021

rnA.

Determine:
(a) The instantaneous power p(t) at t

1.28 For each of the seven devices in the circuit of Fig. P1.28,
determine whether the device is a supplier or a recipient of
power and how much power it is supplying or receiving.
*1.29 An electric oven operates at 120 V. If its power rating is
0.6 kW, what amount of current does it draw, and how much
energy does it consume in 12 minutes of operation?
1.30 A 9 V flashlight battery has a rating of 1.8 kWh. If
the bulb draws a current of 100 rnA when lit; determine the
following:
(a) For how long will the flashlight provide illumination?

= 0 and t = 3 s.

(b) The cumulative energy delivered to the device from t


tot= oo.

=0

1.33 The voltage across a device and the current through it


are shown graphically in Fig. P1.33. Sketch the corresponding
power delivered to the device and calculate the energy absorbed
by it.
1.34 The voltage across a device and the current through it
are shown graphically in Fig. P1.34. Sketch the corresponding
power delivered to the device and calculate the energy absorbed
by it.

IVE CIRCUITS

PROBLEMS

103

what fraction of the power generated by the generating station


is used by the city.

*2.15 Determine Ix in the circuit of Fig. P2.15.

ill

10 em

RL

(city)

Figure P2.15: Circuit for Problem 2.15 .

2.16 Determine currents It to I4 in the circuit of Fig. P2.16.


Figure P2.12: Diagram for Problem 2.12.

:50

2.13 Determine the current I in the circuit of Fig. P2.13 given


that Io

= 0.

5V

3Q

Figure P2.16: Circuit for Problem 2.16.

50

24

*2.17 Determine currents I 1 to !4 in the circuit of Fig. P2.17.

Figure P2.13: Circuit for Problem 2.13.


6A

2.14 Determine currents I 1 to I3 in the circuit of Fig. P2.14.


Figure P2.17: Circuit for Problem 2.17.
IA

2.18 Determine the amount of power dissipated in the 3 kQ


resistor in the circuit of Fig. P2.18.

2Q

70

Figure P2.14: Circuit for Problem 2.14.

Figure P2,18: Circuit for Pro~lem 2.18.

CHAPTER 2 RESISTIVE CIRCUITS

104
Determine

*2.19

fx

and

fy

2Q

.---~NV'

wve!)

in the circuit of Fig. P2.19.

1x
~

fn

6n
NV'

Iy

.........

~ 4I,

02A~

~~ ~:~

PROBLEMS

f~l

VJEI

90
Figure P2.23: Circuit for Problem 2.23.

Figure P2.19: Circuit for Problem 2.19.

2.20

2.24 Given that in the circuit of Fig. P2.24, / 1 = 4 A


/2 = I A, and /3 = 1 A, determine node voltages v,, V2, and VJ

Find Vab in the circuit of Fig. P2.20.

power.

2Q

+
Vab

1
..1..-

R, = 18

--

v3

18 n

!3

Figure P2.20: Circuit for Problem 2.20.

Figure P2.24: Circuit for Problem 2.24.


2.21

Section 2-3:

Find / 1 to f) in the circuit of Fig. P2.21 .


*2.25 After assigning node V4 in the circuit of Fig. P2.25 ill
the ground node, determine node voltages v,, V2, and V3.

8V
3kQ
-+
~
!1

!3

~h

4kQ

2kQ

Figure P2.21: Circuit for Problem 2.21.

v, ;
2.22

--

3A

Find I in the circuit of Fig. P2.22.

lA

lOV e!)

~~----~

12 v

Io

_ __

NV'

, L

'

V4

6Q

NV'

! V3
6

lA

a
2.26 After assigning node V1 in the circuit of Fig. P2.25 a'
the ground node, determine node voltages V2, V3, and V4.

In the circuit of Fig. P2.27, /1 = 42/81 A


/2 = 42/81 A, and /3 = 24/81 A. Determine node voltag~
V2, V3, and V4 after assigning node v, as the ground node.

2.27
*2.23 Determine the amount of power supplied by the
independent current source in the circuit of Fig. P2.23.

What
Req = 4 Q?

2.30

Figure P2.25: Circuit for Problems 2.25 and 2.26.

~30

Figure P2.22: Circuit for Problem 2.22.

2.29 Given l
determine Io.

Req

Iill

CHAPTER 2

106
If R

2.35

12 r.! in the circuit of Fig. P2.3S, find I.

2.39

RESISTIVE CIRCUI

Find R eq at terminals (c, d) in the circuit of Fig. P2

2.43
the c

2.40 Simplify the circuit to the right of terminals (a, b)


Fig. P2.40 to find Req. and then determine the amount ofpo~
supplied by the voltage source. All resistances are in ohms.

b
Figure P2.40: Circuit for Problem 2.40.
Figure P2.35: Circuit for Problem 2.35.

2.41
*2.36 Use resistance reduction and source transformation to
find Vx in the circuit of Fig. P2.36. All resistance values are in
ohms.

2.44
to
into

For the circuit in Fig. P2.41 , determine Req at

*(a) Terminals (a, b)


(b) Terminals (a, c)
(c) Terminals (a, d)
(d) Terminals (a, f)

+ V:y -

~. . - - 16----..Fv i 12

(!) 1oA i 6~'---r6i-----,16}

Figure P2.36: Circuit for Problem 2.36.

2.37

do

Determine A if Vout! V5 = 9 in the circuit of Fig. P2.37.

20

20

-AN

20

20

co

-AN

-AN

-AN

20
30

p,
12 Q

120

30

6 0 Vout

Figure P2.41: Circuit for Problem 2.41.


(a,

Figure P2.37: Circuit for Problem 2.37.

2.42 Find Req for the circuit in Fig. P2.42. All resistances arc
in ohms.

For the circuit in Fig. P2.38, find Req at terminals (a, b).

*2.38

30

50

~0-------r---NV------;----vvv-~ c

be

60

30

Figure P2.38: Circuit for Problems 2.38 and 2.39.

R,q -:

~ 10~
5

10

Figure P2.42: Circuit for Problem 2.42.