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APCBEE Procedia 3 (2012) 124 128

ICCCP 2012: 5-6 May


M 2012, Kuala Lum
mpur, Malaysia

P
Prelimin
ary Studdy: Kinettics of Oil
O Extraaction froom Citroonella
Grass by
b Ohmic Heatedd Hydro Distillaation
a
c
H.C. Mana,a *, M.H. Hamzah
H
, H.
H Jamaludiinb, Z.Z. Abidin
A
a

D
Department
of Bioological and Agricultural Engineerring cDepartmennt of Chemical En
ngineering, Facullty of Engineeringg, Universiti
Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
M
b
F
Food
Technology Section, Universsiti Kuala Lumpurr Malaysian Instiitute of Chemicall Engineering Tecchnology (MICET
T), Lot 1988,
Venndor City, Taboh Naning, 78000 Alor
A Gajah, Melakka, Malaysia.

Absttract
Citroonella grass is native
n
to India and Sri Lankaa; which the pllant found grow
wing wild in most
m
tropical Assian countries
incluuding Malaysia.. In Malaysia, itt is planted in the
t kitchen garddens. The oil haas been used in soap, perfumerry, cosmetics,
flavoouring industriees and health purposes.
p
The aim
a of this studdy is to know and verify the kinetics and m
mechanism of
ohmiic heated hydroo distillation of citronella graass based on a second order model. In this study, ohmic heated hydro
distilllation is used to
t extract essenntial oils from citronella
c
grass.. The extraction
n was carried out
o in eight extrraction cycles
of 155 minutes to 3 hours. The inittial extraction rate,
r
the saturatted extraction capacity
c
and thhe rate constant of extraction
weree calculated usinng the model. Kinetics
K
of oil extraction
e
from citronella grasss by ohmic heaated hydro distilllation proved
that the
t extraction process
p
was based on the secoond order extraaction model ass the extraction experimentallyy done in two
stagees. The initial extraction
e
rate, h, was 0.49653 gL-1 min-1; thhe extraction caapacity, Cs, waas 3.74251 gL-11 ; the second
orderr extraction connstant, k, was 0..03545 Lg-1minn-1 and coefficieent of determinaation, R2 was 0..99419.

PublisheddbybyElsevier
ElsevierB.V.
B Selection
B.V.
Selection
n and/or
r under
review
under
responsibility
y of Asia-Pacif
fic
2012
20012Published

and/or
peerpeer
review
responsibility
of Asia-Pacifi
c Chemical,
Chem
mical,&Biolog
ical & Enviro
onmental Society
Engiineering
Socieety
Biological
Environmental
Engineering
Open access
under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Keyw
words: citronella oil,
o ohmic heated hydro distillationn, kinetic study

1. In
ntroduction

* Corresponding author.
a
Tel.: +6033-89464340; fax: +603-89466425.
E
E-mail
address: haas@eng.upm.edu.my

2212-6708 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Asia-Pacific Chemical,
Biological & Environmental Engineering Society Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
doi:10.1016/j.apcbee.2012.06.057

125

H.C. Man et al. / APCBEE Procedia 3 (2012) 124 128

Citronella grass is native to India and Sri Lanka; which the plant found growing wild in most tropical
Asian countries including Malaysia. Citronella belongs to the genus Cymbopogon, which very closely
resembles and formerly was included in the genus Andropogon [1]. The plant also found growing wild in
most tropical Asian countries, America and Africa. Normally, the plant is planted in the kitchen gardens in
Malaysia. The plants are planted commercially by entrepreneurs for the extraction of essential oils [2]. The oil
has been used traditionally for antispasmodic, rubefacient, stimulant, insect repellant carminative, and
diaphoretic. It also widely used in the perfume industry and soap manufacturing.
Therefore, the technology used to extract the essential oil is very essential to produce essential oils at an
optimum output in terms of production rate, energy consumption, process minimization and others. In
citronella oil production, the technology of extracting citronella oil generally can be classified as agro-based
or clean technology [3]. The citronella oil has export potential besides utilization of rural sector participation.
Instead of using hydro distillation or others conventional method, ohmic heated hydro distillation was
introduced to accelerate the extraction process. The application of ohmic heated hydro distillation for essential
oils plant from extraction has not been reported much. A study regarding hydro distillation of caraway
(Carum Carvi L.) by direct induction heating assisted by a magnetic field process based on ohmic heating
showed that the extraction time is much shorter than conventional hydro distillation [4]. Besides that, ohmic
assisted hydro distillation of essential oils from Zataria multifora Boiss and Thymus vulgaris L. also proved
that this method reduced extraction time and saved energy rather than hydro distillation technique [5, 6].
Futrhermore, preliminary study of few plants oil extraction such as lemon grass and lemon myrtle indicated
that ohmic heated hydro distillation could be proposed as another method for essential oils plant extraction as
it had positive effect on amount of yield extracted [7]. In this research, the author attempted to know and
verify the kinetics and mechanism of ohmic heated hydro distillation of citronella grass based on a second
order model.
Thus, the theory of second-order mechanism model as follows [8]: The rate of dissolution for the oil
contained in the solid to solution can be described by Equation (1)
dCt /dt = k(Cs-Ct)2
where:
k = The second-order extraction rate constant (Lg-1min-1)
Cs = The concentration of oil at saturation (gL-1)
Ct = The concentration of oil in the solution at any time (gL-1), t (min)

(1)

The integrated rate law for a second-order extraction was obtained by considering the boundary condition t
= 0-t and Ct = 0-Ct:
Ct = Cs2kt / (1+ Cskt)
Linear form of the Equation (2) would be:

(2)

t/Ct = (1/kCs2) + (t/CS)

(3)

The extraction rate can be written as the following:


Ct /t = 1/[(1/kCs2) + (t/CS)]

(4)

The initial extraction rate, h, when t approaches 0 can be written as:


h = kCs2

(5)

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H.C. Man et al. / APCBEE Procedia 3 (2012) 124 128

R
Rearranging
eqquation (4), thhe concentratioon of oil at anny time can be obtained as:
Ct = t / [(1/h) + (t/CS)]
(6)
By plotting t/C
B
Ct versus t, thhe initial extrraction rate, h,
h the extractiion capacity, Cs and the second order
extraaction constannt, k, can be caalculated expeerimentally.
2. Materials
M
and methods
C
Citronella
grasss from Ceylonn type (Cymboopogon narduus) was used. Citronella graass samples were obtained
from
m MARDI Kuuala Linggi, Kuala
K
Sungai Baru,
B
Melakaa. 4 kg of citrronella grass was
w chopped into smaller
sizess by a EUMA
A Three-Phaase Asynchronnous Motor Y90L-2
Y
choppeer. The ohmicc heated hydroo distillation
unit consists of a central stainleess steel 316 electrode
e
withh 0.73 m long and 0.198 m diameters.
d
Ann electrically
t outer electrode. The eleectrodes were connected too a three-phasee alternating
insulated outer shhell serves as the
kVA. The volltage used in this study is
curreent step downn transformer 415/133/87 V power supplly rated at 10k
77V
V up to boilingg point tempeerature and 500V until the end
e of extracttion. The watter sample miixtures were
filledd into the disstiller by 1:6 solid to solveent ratio. Thee distillation unit
u is then connected
c
to a multi tube
conddenser made from stainless steel 304. The
T extractedd oil was colllected using the
t separator funnel. The
extraaction was caarried out in eight extractiion cycles off 15 min to 3 hours. Thee oil yield exxtracted was
calcuulated in voluume/weight (m
ml/kg). Each exxtraction cyclle was repeateed twice.
3. Results
R
and Diiscussion

Ct (gL-1)

A shown in Fig.
As
F 2, the ratee of extractionn was increaseed as the timee of extractionn increase unttil it reached
plateeau or constaant after 90 min
m of extracction. 0.36% extractable oil
o was obtaiined in the fi
first hour of
extraaction until it became plateeau (0.37%). The
T experimenntal result waas analyzed ussing a second order model
by plotting
p
t/Ct veersus time as shown
s
in Fig. 3.

-20

4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
30

80
Time (m
min)

130

180

Fig. 2.
2 The concentratiion of oil in the solution
s
at any tim
me, Ct (gL-1) versuus time (min)

A
According
to Fig.
F 3, the ratee of extractionn was fast at thhe beginning and
a slow untill the end of thhe extraction
proccess. Changes of solute conncentration in the liquid phhase affected the
t mass transfer of extracction process
[9]. At the first stage,
s
oil conccentration waas low. Thus, oil diffuses rapidly
r
from solute
s
to liquuid phase. In
d when the sollute was expoosed to fresh
addiition, the free oil on the surrface of citronnella grass waas solubilised

127

H.C. Man et al. / APCBEE Procedia 3 (2012) 124 128

t/Ct (min Lg-1 )

solvent [8]. Diffussion rate decreeased as the tiime of extracttion increased


d due to the higgh solute conccentration in
liquiid at the secoond stage. Eveen though thee extraction time increased after the maxximum citronnella oil was
extraacted, it did not show any changes
c
or siggnificant in am
mount of oil ex
xtracted. The trend of oil reecovery is as
undeer distillation time of first hour
h
(80%), seecond hour (199%) and third hour (1%) [10].
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

-20

y = 0.26672x + 2.0139
9
R = 0.99419

30

80
Time (m
min)

130

1800

Fig. 3.
3 Second order extraction kineticss of citronella

T initial exttraction rate, h, the extracction capacityy, Cs, the second order exxtraction consstant, k, and
The
coeffficient of dettermination, R2 were calcuulated experim
mentally by reeferring to thee linear curvees in Fig. 3.
From
m graph t/Ct versus
v
time, sloope is equal too 1/Cs and inteercept is equal to 1/kCs2. Thhe data showeed in Table 1.
Tablee 1. Linearizationn of second order kinetic model of ohmic heated hydro distillation off citronella

Cs (gL-1)
3.774251

k (Lg-1min-1)
0.03545

h (gL-1 min-1)
0.49653

R2
0.99419

F this study, the maximum


For
m yield oil exttracted is 0.377% which is lo
ow compared to 9.40% obtained by the
studyy of citronellaa oil extractioon by hydro diistillation in terms of the efffect of dryingg at different temperature
on thhe compositioon of oil extrracted [11]. Inn addition, exxtraction study
y of Cymbopoogon nardus essential oil
using supercriticaal CO2, the best yield wass 2.06% at 353.13K and 18.0 MPa off pressure [122]. Different
mic study shoould be conduucted in term
methhods of extracction will givee different of oil yield extracted. Econom
of coosting such ass labour, totall operating cost and total coost of producttion to choosee the best and economical
methhod of oil extrraction.
4. Conclusion
C
K
Kinetics
of oil extraction froom citronella grass
g
by ohmiic heated hydrro distillation proved that thhe extraction
proccess was basedd on the seconnd order extraaction model as
a the extractiion experimenntally done inn two stages.
The initial extraction rate, h, was
w 0.49653 gL-1 min-1; thhe extraction capacity, Cs, was 3.74251 gL-1 ; the
secoond order extraaction constannt, k, was 0.033545 Lg-1min-1 and coefficieent of determiination, R2 waas 0.99419.
Ack
knowledgemen
nts

128

H.C. Man et al. / APCBEE Procedia 3 (2012) 124 128

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support for this work from Mr. Hishamuddin Jamaludin
and from Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia under Research University Grant Scheme (RUGS) of project
number RUGS/05-01-12-1633RU.
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