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Oct 02, 2015

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Math tutoril 1 solutions

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Math tutoril 1 solutions

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Tutorial 1 Solutions

Discussion Questions

1. Express the following complex numbers in the form rei ; with r

p

2

(a) 1 +

3

1+i

(b)

1 i

Solution (a)

q

p 2

p 2

p 2

12 + 3

r = 1 + 3i

= 1 + 3i =

p

p

arg 1 + 3i = tan 1 13 = 3

p 2

p

Thus, arg 1 + 3i = 2 arg 1 + 3i = 23 .

p 2

Therefore 1 + 3i = 4ei2 =3 .

Alternative Solution

p

Note that 1 +

3

0; and

<

=4

p

2

3i = 2 + 2 3, which lies in second quadrant.

q

p

Thus the required modulus is ( 2)2 + (2 (3)3 ) = 4, and

p

2

, where tan 1 3 = 3 .

the principal argument is

3

2

= 1+

(b)

1+i1+i

(1 + i)2

1 + 2i

1+i

=

=

=

1 i

1 i1+i

1+1

2

Alternative Solution

p

p

1 + i = 2e 4 i and 1 i = 2e 4 i .p

2

1+i

j1 + ij

Thus, we have

=

= p = 1, and

1 i

j1 ij

2

1+i

arg(

) = arg(1 + i) arg(1 i) = 4 ( 4 ) = 2 .

1 i

1+i

Therefore,

= i.

1 i

= i = ei

=2

Show that if a complex number z is a solution of p(x) = 0, then the conjugate z of z is

also a solution of p(x) = 0:

Proof. Recall that z is a solution of p(x) = 0means that p(z) = 0.

Our aim is to prove that p(z) = 0.

We apply the following properties of taking conjugation:

z1 + z2 = z 1 + z 2 ; z1 z 2 = z 1

z 2 ; z k = (z)k

a = a; for a 2 R

p(z) = a0 + a1 z + a2 z 2 + ::: + an z n

+ an z n

= a0 + a1 z + a2 z 2 +

= a0 + a1 z + a2 z 2 +

= a0 + a1 z + a2

z2

+ an z n

+ an

zn

+ an z n

= a0 + a1 z + a2 z 2 +

= p (z)

= 0: (given p (z) = 0)

=0

(z k = z k )

(ak s are real)

(ak z k = ak z k )

(z + w = z + w)

3. If z1 = r1 (cos

+ i sin

1)

and z2 = r2 (cos

r1

z1

=

(cos (

z2

r2

+ i sin

2)

2) ;

+ i sin (

2 )) :

Proof.

z1

r1 (cos 1 + i sin 1 )

=

z2

r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 )

r1 (cos 1 + i sin 1 ) cos 2 i sin 2

=

r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 ) cos 2 i sin 2

r1 (cos 1 cos 2 + sin 1 sin 2 ) + i (sin 1 cos

=

r2

cos2 2 + sin2 2

r1

=

(cos ( 1

2 ) + i sin ( 1

2 )) (Proved)

r2

sin

2 cos 1 )

cos2 + sin2 = 1

cos

1 cos 2

+ sin

1 sin 2

= cos (

2)

sin

1 cos 2

sin

2 cos 1

= sin (

2)

sin :

and

(a) cos 4

(b) sin 4

Solution By De Moivres Theorem, we have cos 4 + i sin 4 = (cos + i sin )4 .

We can obtain an expression of cos and sin by comparing the real parts and the

imaginary parts of the two complex numbers.

cos 4 + i sin 4 = (cos + i sin )4

= cos4 + 4 cos3 (i sin ) + 6 cos2 (i sin )2 + 4 cos (i sin )3 + (i sin )4

= cos4

4 cos sin3

cos 4 = cos4

4 cos sin3

5. Suppose

n

sin n + 12

1 X

+

cos k =

2

2 sin 2

k=1

Proof. Note that cos k is the real part of (cos k + i sin k ) = (cos + i sin )k , for

k = 1; 2; 3 : : : ; n. This suggests that we look at the real part of

(cos + i sin ) + (cos 2 + i sin 2 ) +

+ (cos n + i sin n )

ei

(1):

zk

eik

. By De Moivres Theorem, we have

=

, where k =

2

3

n

1; 2; 3; : : : ; n. Then the above expression (1) is z + z + z +

+ z . We shall look

at the geometric sum 1 + z + z 2 + z 3 +

+ z n . Recall the geometric sum formula

1 z n+1

1 + z + z2 +

+ zn =

.

1 z

n

X

1 + z + z2 + z3 +

+ zn =

(cos k + i sin k )

=

k=0

n

X

(cos + i sin )k =

k=0

=

=

ei(n+1=2)

e i =2 ei =2

cos

2 + i sin

z n+1

1 z

( )

i =2

cos

n+

1

2

+ i sin

n+

1

2

2i sin 2

sin

n+

1

2

+ sin 2

2 sin 2

n

X

sin

cos k =

n+

1

2

+ sin 2

2 sin 2

k=0

Thus

zk =

k=0

ei(n+1)

=

1 ei

e i =2 1 ei(n+1)

=

e i =2 (1 ei )

1

n

X

+i

cos 2

sin

cos

n+

1

2

2 sin 2

n+

1

2

2 sin 2

1

+ :

2

sin n + 12

1 X

+

cos k =

2

2 sin 2

k=1

Remarks

(*) The denominator of the expression on the right is 2 sin 2 which is obtainable from

e i =2 ei =2 = 2i sin 2 . Thus we multiply both numerator and denominator by

e i =2 .

Comparing the imaginary parts, we have

n

X

cos 2 cos n + 12

sin k =

:

2 sin 2

k=1

4

8i. Then z 3 =

arg ( 8i) = 2 . Therefore

z 3 = 8e

i =2

8i = 8e

i =2

= 23 ei(

=2+2k )

; k 2 Z:

It follows that

z = 2ei(

=2+2k )=3

5

= 2 cos

6

p

p

=

3 i; 3

; k=

1; 0; 1

+ i sin

5

6

h

; 2 cos

i; 2i

+ i sin

h

; 2 cos

+ i sin

( 1)3 z 3 p

= 8i. Therefore, each ( z) is a cube root of 8i,

i.e., distinct cube roots of 8i are 3 + i;

3 + i; 2i.

7. Solve the following equations.

(a) z 4 + 4z 2 + 16 = 0

(b) z 4 + 1 = 0

(c) z 3 + z 2 + z + 1 = 0,

Solution Recall that:

az 2

b2

2a

+ bz + c = 0 ) z =

4ac

w = z2.

Using the formula for quadratic root, we obtain

p

p

4

42 4 (16)

2

w=z =

= 2 2 3i = 4ei(2 =3+2k ) or 4ei( 2 =3+2k )

2

Therefore, we have

z = 2ei(

= 2e

=

=3+k );

i2 =3

k=

i =3

1; 0 or 2ei(

i =3

; 2e

; 2e

p

p

i 3; 1 + i 3; 1

=3+k )

; k = 0; 1

i2 =3

; 2e

p

p

i 3; 1 + i 3

(b)

z4 =

1=e

p

p

p

1 1

1 1

= 2

+ i ; 2

+ i ; 2

2 2

2 2

1

2

p

1

i ;

2

2

1 1

+ i

2 2

(c)

[Solution 1] Note that

z4

z

1

= z 3 + z 2 + z + 1 = 0:

1

Therefore

z4

1 = 0; z 6= 1:

Thus

z = ei2k

=

=4

; k = 0; 1; 2; 3; and z 6= 1

1; i; i:

Thus z 3 + z 2 + z + 1 = 0 () z 2 + 1 = 0 or z + 1 = 0.

Solving z 2 + 1 = 0 gives z 2 = 1 = ei so that z = ei =2 = i or z = ei( +2

ei(3 =2) = i.

Therefore, we have z = i; i; 1.

z 4i 3

2i

the equation in an Argand diagram.

Solution jij = 1; arg (i) =

cube roots of i are ei ; =

5

2 ; 6 or 6 :

4i

2i

2:

)=2

=2+2k ) ; k

1; 0; 1: I.e.,

= ei(

=2+2k )

; k=

1; 0; 1

Therefore

z

4i

2i

= ei ; =

2 6

or

1; 0; 1

5

6

5

; or

2 6

6

p

= 2 + 4i; 1 + 4 + 3 i; 1 + 4

z = 4i + 2iei ; =

3 i

Challenging Problems

1. FConsider a regular n-sided polygon circumscribed by the unit circle. Prove that the

product of the length of line segments formed by joining one vertex of the regular polygon

to the rest of the vertices equals to n: (Hint: Consider the nth roots of 1):

Solution: http://www.physics.harvard.edu/academics/undergrad/probweek/sol10.pdf

and sin4

1

i sin n . Apply De

k = 1; 2; 3. (Hint: Consider z n = cos n + i sin n and n = cos n

z

Moivres Theorem and Binomial expansion.)

Solution

Note that z n +

1

zn

1

2

cos n =

zn +

1

zn

Thus we have

1

1

(z + )

2

z

cos4 = (cos )4 =

=

1

1

1

1

z 4 + 4(z 3 )( ) + 6(z 2 )( )2 + 4(z)( )3 + ( )4

z

z

z

z

1

24

1

24

1

zn

(z 4 +

1

1

) + 4(z 2 + 2 ) + 6

4

z

z

1

(2 cos 4 + 4(2 cos 2 ) + 6)

24

1

= 3 (cos 4 + 4 cos 2 + 3)

2

Similarly we have z n

sin n =

1

2i

zn

1

zn

4

sin

=

1

(2i)4

= (sin ) =

1

(z

2i

1

1

4(z 3 )( ) + 6(z 2 )( )2

z

z

z4

=

1

24

=

(z 4 +

1

)

z4

1

(2 cos 4

24

1

= 3 (cos 4

2

4(z 2 +

1

)

z

1

1

4(z)( )3 + ( )4

z

z

1

)+6

z2

4(2 cos 2 ) + 6)

4 cos 2 + 3)

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