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University Libraries Home > Research Guides > Citation and Writing Guides
APA In-Text Citation Guide

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Citation Style
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APA In-Text
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In-Text Citation
current tab: Examples
Citing Websites
In-Text CitationExamples
Using the Author/Date System

Author's Name

Example of Usage

Author's name part of narrative Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most
important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Author's name in parentheses One study found that the most important element
in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis,
1984).
Multiple works (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that
listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in
general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote, author's name part of narrative Gass and Varonis (1984) found that
the listeners familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the
interpretation of the entire message (p. 85).
Direct quote, author's name in parentheses
One study found that the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly
facilitates the interpretation of the entire message (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented
block of text without quotation marks and include the authors names, date, and
page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly
not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That
is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the
reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)

Works by multiple authors


APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following
chart to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text.
Citing Works by Multiple Authors in Text
Type of citation
First citation
Subsequent citations
First citation,
parenthetical format

Subsequent citations, parenthetical format


One author Field (2005) Field (2005) (Field, 2005) (Field, 2005)
Two authors Gass and Varonis (1984) Gass and Varonis (1984) (Gass & Varonis,
1984) (Gass & Varonis, 1984)
Three authors
Munro, Derwing, and Sato (2006)
Munro et al. (2006)
(Munro, Derwing, & Sato, 2006) (Munro et al., 2006)
Four authors Tremblay, Richer, Lachance, and Cote (2010) Tremblay et al. (2010)
(Tremblay, Richer, Lachance, & Cote, 2010) (Tremblay et al., 2010)
Five authors Hay, Elias, Fielding-Barnsley, Homel, and Freiberg (2007)
(2007)
(Hay, Elias, Fielding-Barnsley, Homel, & Freiberg, 2007)
2007)

Hay et al.
(Hay et al.,

Six or more authors


Norris-Shortle et al. (2006)
Norris-Shortle et al.
(2006)
(Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)
(Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)

Example paragraph with in-text citation


A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed
to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing,
Rossiter, & Munro, 2002; Krech Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based
on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with
exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with
students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work
with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.
References
Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to
listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural
Development, 23(4), 245-259.

Krech Thomas, H. (2004). Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension


of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.
In-Text Citation | Citing Websites | Back to Guide Start
Citing Websites
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