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CM4310: Chapter 5

Copyright 2012 D. A. Crowl

Chemical Process Safety

Learning Objectives:

Chapter 5: Dispersion Models

Chapter 5: Dispersion Models

<--Mixing with fresh air-->

Wind--->

1. Understand air dispersion.


2. Perform calculations using plume and puff
models. Calculate iospleths.
3. Couple dispersion model with source model
(Chapter 4).
4. Understand various toxic effect criteria.

Source Model for


Discharge thru hole

Dispersion Models

Selection of
Release Incident

Selection of
Source Model
to Describe
Release Incident

Figure 4-1

What? Describe how vapors are transported


downwind of a release. Valid between 100 m to 10
km.

Chapter 4

Selection of
Dispersion Model

Below 100 m use ventilation equations Chapt. 3.

Chapter 5

Above 10 km almost unpredictable.


Flammable

Chapter 6

Flammable
and/or Toxic?

Selection of
Fire and
Explosion Model

Toxic

Selection of
Effect Model

Why?
Chapter 2

Results:

Downwind concentrations (x,y,z)


Area affected

Mitigation
Factors

Downwind evacuation distances

Consequence
Model

Dispersion
PLUME

wind

PUFF

Atmospheric stability
MAINLY DETERMINED BY VERTICAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENT
+ heat & radiation balance troposphere and surface
- convective air flows

Figure 5-3

700

LOWER TROPOSPHERE
600

time & place

Instantaneous release

DOWNWIND DILUTION BY MIXING WITH FRESH AIR

season
time of day
night

500
400

neutral
300
200

ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION
- Wind speed
- Atmospheric stability: vertical temp. profile
- Roughness ground: buildings, structures, trees, water
- Height of release above ground level
- Momentum and buoyancy: effective height

incident sunlight
cloud coverage
wind speed

Height (meter)

place

Continuous release

day
night

100
0

difficult

-2

10

12

Temperature (Centigrade)

Adiabatic temperature gradient


humid air: 0.5 oC / 100 m

CM4310: Chapter 5

Copyright 2012 D. A. Crowl

Atmospheric stability

Atmospheric stability

Unstable: Sun heats ground faster than heat can be removed


so that air temperature near the ground is higher than the air
temperature at higher elevations.
Neutral: The air above the ground warms and the wind speed
increases, reducing the effect of solar input.
Stable: The sun cannot heat the ground as fast as the ground
cools - temperature at ground is lower.

STABILITY CLASSES A - F
A
B
C
D
E
F

Extremely unstable
Moderately unstable
Slightly unstable
Neutral
Slightly stable
Moderately stable

Table 5-1

See qualifying notes below table!

Release Height Effect

Coordinate systems
Plume

Figure 5-5
High stack
ground level
concentration

Wind-->

z
Coordinate system

Reflected plume
As release height increases,
downwind concentration
decreases.

wind

Hr = Release Height

Release Momentum and Buoyancy

Hr

Origin at ground level:


(x,y,z) = (0,0,0)

Dispersion Models
Dispersion models are based on a mass balance.

MW>29 --> Most hydrocarbons

Two approaches:
1. Use eddy diffusivities, K, to represent turbulence.
Advantage: nice tidy theoretical model.
Disadvantage: K = K(x,y,z), and impossible to
measure.
See text.

Jet
Release

Heavier than air. Gas


becomes neutral
downwind as it mixes
with air.

2. Use dispersion coefficients which represent the


standard
deviations in the concentration profiles.
Advantage: easy to measure and correlate.

CM4310: Chapter 5

Copyright 2012 D. A. Crowl

Equation 5-49

Atmospheric stability

2 y zu

10

y2 ( z Hr )2
( z Hr )2
exp
exp
exp

2
2 2

2
2 z 2
y
z

A
B
C
D
E
F

(m)

10

Top View of plume


Wind
C ( x, y, z ) Ave. conc. (20-30 min ave)

10

u Wind speed (length/time)


y, z Coordinates (length)
H r Release height (length)

10

A
B

Fig. 5-10

C
2

10

10

10

10

D
E
F

0.1

1
10
0.1
Distance Downwind, km

Qm Release rate (mass/time)

y , z Dispersion coefficients = f(stability class, downwind distance)

10

10

C ( x, y, z)

Qm

(m)

Gaussian form of plume equation

10

Distance Downwind, km

Dispersion coefficients for plume model for rural


releases. See Figure 5-11 for urban releases, and
Table 5-2 for plume equations. Figure 5-12 and Table
5-3 are for puff model.

Simplified Cases - Plume

Maximum Concentrations - Plume

Wind

Ground Centerline Concentration:

1H
Qm
C ( x,0,0)
exp r
y z u
2 z

X
2

Always occurs at release point.

(5-51)

Ground, centerline, release height Hr = 0

C ( x,0,0)

Qm

z x ,max

(5-48)

y z u

Hr
2

Qm*
2 x y z
3/2

3. Determine

from Figures 5-10 or 5-11.

Simplified Cases - Puff

2
2





exp 1 z H r exp 1 z H r
2 z
2 z

t0
Side view with time

u, t not explicit in equation.


x is implicit thru dispersion coefficients.
Coordinate system moves with puff center at x=ut.

x y

2Qm z
2
euHr y

4. Calculate <C> from right equation.

Concentration on ground below puff center

C (0,0,0)

Hr

Assume

C max

1. Use left equation to determine

Equation 5-54

C ( x, y , z , t )
1 y
exp
2
y

2. Use Figures 5-10 or 5-11 to get x.

X is implicit in the dispersion coefficients!

Puff

For releases above ground, max. concentration on ground


occurs downwind.

1 H 2
exp
r
2 3 / 2 x y z
2 z
Qm*

Same as above, with Hr = 0. Puff center on


ground.
*

C (0,0,0)

Qm
2 3 / 2 x y z

(5-56)

(5-41)

Puff center always at release height.

CM4310: Chapter 5

Copyright 2012 D. A. Crowl

Location of Puff
y

Constant
concentration
x

t0

t1

t2

t3

t4

Maximum Concentration - Puff

Always at puff
center

t5
X

---> Wind = constant at u


Center of puff located at:

x=ut
On ground, max. concentration
always occurs directly below puff
center.

Guidelines Puff and Plume


If release given in mass / time -> Plume
If a fixed mass is given -> Puff
If mass is released over a period of time equal to or
less than 10 minutes -> Puff

Example:
10 kg/s of H2S is released 100 m off of ground.
Estimate the concentration 1 km downwind on
ground? It is a clear, sunny day, 1 PM, wind
speed = 3.5 m/s. Assume rural conditions.
Plume, due to continuous nature of release!
From Table 5-1, Stability Class B.

Most chemical plants are located in the country, so


default condition is rural.

From Figure 5-10, y 130 m


From Figure 5-10, z 120 m
Use Equation 5-51 for a plume.

Example: Apply Equation 5-51

Example: Where is max. concentration?

Applies to ground concentration directly downwind of release:

Use Equation 5-53:

1 H
exp r
C (x,0,0)
2
yzu
z
10.0 kg/s
C ( x, 0, 0)

(3.14)(130 m)(120 m)(3.5 m/s)


2

Qm

1 100 m
exp

2 120 m

C ( x, 0, 0) 41.2 10-6

z x ,max

H r 100 m

70.7
2 1.414

Use equation in Table 5-3 to determine downwind distance:

Z 0.12 x
70.7 m 0.12 x
x 590 m
At this location, from Figure 5-10:

y 92 m

Use Equation 2-7 to get 29.7 ppm. TLV-TWA is 10 ppm.

CM4310: Chapter 5

Copyright 2012 D. A. Crowl

Use Equation 5-52 to calculate max. concentration:

C max

2
e uH r y

10 ppm = 13.9 mg/m3

(2)(100 kg/s)


70.7 m

(2.718)(3.14)(3.5 m/s)(100 m)

92 m

C max

2Qm
e uHr
3

z

y
2 Qm
(2.71)(3.14)(3.5 m/s)(100 m)

Qm 2.7

Example:

Hr

Substitute into Equation 5-52:

-6

514 mg/m 370 ppm

70.71 m
92 m

Not very much!

Example:

10 kg of H2S is released instantly on the ground.


What is concentration at fenceline 100 m away?
Same conditions as before.
From Table 5-1, stability class is B.
At x = 0.1 km, from Figure 5-12:

y 10 m
*

C (0, 0, 0)

x y
6
10 kg = 10 10 mg

Assume

Qm
2

3/ 2

How long does it take for puff to reach fenceline?

x ut

z 16 m

Use Equation 5-41 for a ground release, centerline conc.:

Qm

z x ,max

(Equation 2-7)

13.9 10 kg/m

What is max. discharge to result in 10 ppm?

Maximum will occur at same location:

2 Qm

C max 5.14 10

Example:

x y z

x 100 m
28.6 s after release.
t
u 3.5 m/s
Very little time for an emergency response!

<C> = 79.4 mg/m 571 ppm

Isopleths

Example:
What size release will result in 10 ppm at fenceline?
Same procedure as for plume.

What: Lines of constant concentration


Plume:

Answer is 0.175 kg = 175 gm.

Conclusion about releases:

Puff:

10 ppm
boundary

CM4310: Chapter 5

Copyright 2012 D. A. Crowl

Determining Isopleths: Plume and Puff


Divide equation for centerline concentration by
equation for ground level concentration. Solve
for y, which is crosswind direction.

C ( x,0,0, t )
y y 2 ln

C ( x, y ,0, t )

Downwind,
ground
centerline conc.

Procedure to Determine Isopleths - 1


1. Determine concentrations along centerline
at fixed points downwind.
Wind

(5-45)
Release
point

2. Use equation (5-45) to find y at each


fixed point.

Isopleth conc.

Procedure to Determine Isopleths - 2


3. Plot +y and - y at each fixed point.

Procedure to Determine Isopleths - 3


4. Connect the points.

Wind

Wind

Release
point

Release
point

Worst Case on Ground- Plume and Puff

C ( x,0,0)

Qm*
2

Specify: Qm and Qm* at maximum

's

x y z u

3/ 2

are minimum --> F stability

Qm

y z u

Puff: Center of puff on ground, Hr = 0

C ( x,0,0)

Toxic Effect Criteria


What concentration should we use for emergency releases?

Want maximum <C> downwind


Plume: Centerline, ground, Hr = 0

Isopleth

Cannot use PEL or TWA since these are for continuous work
exposures values are too low for short-term exposures.
ERPGs Emergency Response Planning Guidelines, issued by
American Industrial Hygiene Association
EEGLs Emergency Response Guidance Levels, issued by
National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council.
LOC Level of Concern from EPA
Toxic Endpoints promulgated by EPA as part of RMP

u is minimum within stability class --> 2 m/s


(EPA suggests 1.5 m/s!)

CM4310: Chapter 5

Copyright 2012 D. A. Crowl

ERPG: Emergency Response Planning


Guideline
ERPG-1: max. airborne concentration below which it
is believed nearly all individuals can be exposed for
up to 1-hr without experiencing effects other than mild
transient adverse health effects or perceiving a clearly
defined objectionable odor.
ERPG-2: max. airborne conc. below which it is
believed nearly all individuals can be exposed up to 1
hr without experiencing or developing irreversible or
other serious health effects or symptoms that could
impair their ability to take protective action.

EEGL: Emergency Exposure Guidance Levels


A concentration of a gas, vapor, or aerosol that is
judged acceptable and allows exposed individuals to
perform specific tasks during emergency conditions
lasting from 1 to 24 hours.
Table 5-7

1-hr EEGL

24-hr EEGL

Ammonia

100 ppm

Chlorine

3 ppm

0.5 ppm

Toluene

200 ppm

100 ppm

ERPG: Emergency Response Planning


Guidelines
ERPG-3: max. airborne concentration below which it
is believed nearly all individuals can be exposed for
up to 1-hour without experiencing or developing lifethreatening health effects.
Table 5-6

ERPG-1

ERPG-2

ERPG-3

Ammonia

25 ppm

150 ppm

750 ppm

Chlorine

1 ppm

3 ppm

20 ppm

Monomethylamine 10 ppm

100 ppm

500 ppm

Toluene

300 ppm

1000 ppm

50 ppm

IDLH: Immediately Dangerous to Life and


Health
A concentration that poses a threat of exposure to airborne
contaminants when that exposure is likely to cause death or
immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or
prevent escape from such an environment.
Available from OSHA (osha.gov) or
NIOSH Pocket Guide: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/

Ammonia

300 ppm

Chlorine

10 ppm

Toluene

500 ppm

LOC: Level of Concern


The max. concentration of an extremely hazardous
substance in air that will not cause serious
irreversible health effects in the general population
when exposed to the substance for relatively short
duration.

Toxic Endpoints
Must be used for dispersion modeling required for
the EPA RMP. Values are, in order of preference,
ERPG-2 or LOC.

See EPA for values.


Ammonia

0.14 mg/L

Chlorine

0.0087 mg/L

Table 5-8

Chloroform 0.49 mg/L

CM4310: Chapter 5

Proposed Hierarchy to Estimate Values

Copyright 2012 D. A. Crowl

Proposed Hierarchy to Estimate Values (cont)

Table 5-9: ORDER IS REVERSED IN OLDER EDITONS!

Primary

Secondary

ERPG-3:

EEGL (30-min)

ERPG-2:

EEGL (60 min)

IDLH

Primary
ERPG-1:

Secondary
PEL-STEL
TLV-STEL
3 x TLV-TWA

LOC
PEL-C
TLV-C
5 x TLV-TWA