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You are on page 1of 8

Learning Objectives:

Wind--->

2. Perform calculations using plume and puff

models. Calculate iospleths.

3. Couple dispersion model with source model

(Chapter 4).

4. Understand various toxic effect criteria.

Discharge thru hole

Dispersion Models

Selection of

Release Incident

Selection of

Source Model

to Describe

Release Incident

Figure 4-1

downwind of a release. Valid between 100 m to 10

km.

Chapter 4

Selection of

Dispersion Model

Chapter 5

Flammable

Chapter 6

Flammable

and/or Toxic?

Selection of

Fire and

Explosion Model

Toxic

Selection of

Effect Model

Why?

Chapter 2

Results:

Area affected

Mitigation

Factors

Consequence

Model

Dispersion

PLUME

wind

PUFF

Atmospheric stability

MAINLY DETERMINED BY VERTICAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENT

+ heat & radiation balance troposphere and surface

- convective air flows

Figure 5-3

700

LOWER TROPOSPHERE

600

Instantaneous release

season

time of day

night

500

400

neutral

300

200

ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION

- Wind speed

- Atmospheric stability: vertical temp. profile

- Roughness ground: buildings, structures, trees, water

- Height of release above ground level

- Momentum and buoyancy: effective height

incident sunlight

cloud coverage

wind speed

Height (meter)

place

Continuous release

day

night

100

0

difficult

-2

10

12

Temperature (Centigrade)

humid air: 0.5 oC / 100 m

CM4310: Chapter 5

Atmospheric stability

Atmospheric stability

so that air temperature near the ground is higher than the air

temperature at higher elevations.

Neutral: The air above the ground warms and the wind speed

increases, reducing the effect of solar input.

Stable: The sun cannot heat the ground as fast as the ground

cools - temperature at ground is lower.

STABILITY CLASSES A - F

A

B

C

D

E

F

Extremely unstable

Moderately unstable

Slightly unstable

Neutral

Slightly stable

Moderately stable

Table 5-1

Coordinate systems

Plume

Figure 5-5

High stack

ground level

concentration

Wind-->

z

Coordinate system

Reflected plume

As release height increases,

downwind concentration

decreases.

wind

Hr = Release Height

Hr

(x,y,z) = (0,0,0)

Dispersion Models

Dispersion models are based on a mass balance.

Two approaches:

1. Use eddy diffusivities, K, to represent turbulence.

Advantage: nice tidy theoretical model.

Disadvantage: K = K(x,y,z), and impossible to

measure.

See text.

Jet

Release

becomes neutral

downwind as it mixes

with air.

standard

deviations in the concentration profiles.

Advantage: easy to measure and correlate.

CM4310: Chapter 5

Equation 5-49

Atmospheric stability

2 y zu

10

y2 ( z Hr )2

( z Hr )2

exp

exp

exp

2

2 2

2

2 z 2

y

z

A

B

C

D

E

F

(m)

10

Wind

C ( x, y, z ) Ave. conc. (20-30 min ave)

10

y, z Coordinates (length)

H r Release height (length)

10

A

B

Fig. 5-10

C

2

10

10

10

10

D

E

F

0.1

1

10

0.1

Distance Downwind, km

10

10

C ( x, y, z)

Qm

(m)

10

Distance Downwind, km

releases. See Figure 5-11 for urban releases, and

Table 5-2 for plume equations. Figure 5-12 and Table

5-3 are for puff model.

Wind

1H

Qm

C ( x,0,0)

exp r

y z u

2 z

X

2

(5-51)

C ( x,0,0)

Qm

z x ,max

(5-48)

y z u

Hr

2

Qm*

2 x y z

3/2

3. Determine

2

2

exp 1 z H r exp 1 z H r

2 z

2 z

t0

Side view with time

x is implicit thru dispersion coefficients.

Coordinate system moves with puff center at x=ut.

x y

2Qm z

2

euHr y

C (0,0,0)

Hr

Assume

C max

Equation 5-54

C ( x, y , z , t )

1 y

exp

2

y

Puff

occurs downwind.

1 H 2

exp

r

2 3 / 2 x y z

2 z

Qm*

ground.

*

C (0,0,0)

Qm

2 3 / 2 x y z

(5-56)

(5-41)

CM4310: Chapter 5

Location of Puff

y

Constant

concentration

x

t0

t1

t2

t3

t4

Always at puff

center

t5

X

Center of puff located at:

x=ut

On ground, max. concentration

always occurs directly below puff

center.

If release given in mass / time -> Plume

If a fixed mass is given -> Puff

If mass is released over a period of time equal to or

less than 10 minutes -> Puff

Example:

10 kg/s of H2S is released 100 m off of ground.

Estimate the concentration 1 km downwind on

ground? It is a clear, sunny day, 1 PM, wind

speed = 3.5 m/s. Assume rural conditions.

Plume, due to continuous nature of release!

From Table 5-1, Stability Class B.

default condition is rural.

From Figure 5-10, z 120 m

Use Equation 5-51 for a plume.

1 H

exp r

C (x,0,0)

2

yzu

z

10.0 kg/s

C ( x, 0, 0)

2

Qm

1 100 m

exp

2 120 m

C ( x, 0, 0) 41.2 10-6

z x ,max

H r 100 m

70.7

2 1.414

Z 0.12 x

70.7 m 0.12 x

x 590 m

At this location, from Figure 5-10:

y 92 m

CM4310: Chapter 5

C max

2

e uH r y

(2)(100 kg/s)

70.7 m

(2.718)(3.14)(3.5 m/s)(100 m)

92 m

C max

2Qm

e uHr

3

z

y

2 Qm

(2.71)(3.14)(3.5 m/s)(100 m)

Qm 2.7

Example:

Hr

-6

70.71 m

92 m

Example:

What is concentration at fenceline 100 m away?

Same conditions as before.

From Table 5-1, stability class is B.

At x = 0.1 km, from Figure 5-12:

y 10 m

*

C (0, 0, 0)

x y

6

10 kg = 10 10 mg

Assume

Qm

2

3/ 2

x ut

z 16 m

Qm

z x ,max

(Equation 2-7)

13.9 10 kg/m

2 Qm

C max 5.14 10

Example:

x y z

x 100 m

28.6 s after release.

t

u 3.5 m/s

Very little time for an emergency response!

Isopleths

Example:

What size release will result in 10 ppm at fenceline?

Same procedure as for plume.

Plume:

Puff:

10 ppm

boundary

CM4310: Chapter 5

Divide equation for centerline concentration by

equation for ground level concentration. Solve

for y, which is crosswind direction.

C ( x,0,0, t )

y y 2 ln

C ( x, y ,0, t )

Downwind,

ground

centerline conc.

1. Determine concentrations along centerline

at fixed points downwind.

Wind

(5-45)

Release

point

fixed point.

Isopleth conc.

3. Plot +y and - y at each fixed point.

4. Connect the points.

Wind

Wind

Release

point

Release

point

C ( x,0,0)

Qm*

2

's

x y z u

3/ 2

Qm

y z u

C ( x,0,0)

What concentration should we use for emergency releases?

Plume: Centerline, ground, Hr = 0

Isopleth

Cannot use PEL or TWA since these are for continuous work

exposures values are too low for short-term exposures.

ERPGs Emergency Response Planning Guidelines, issued by

American Industrial Hygiene Association

EEGLs Emergency Response Guidance Levels, issued by

National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council.

LOC Level of Concern from EPA

Toxic Endpoints promulgated by EPA as part of RMP

(EPA suggests 1.5 m/s!)

CM4310: Chapter 5

Guideline

ERPG-1: max. airborne concentration below which it

is believed nearly all individuals can be exposed for

up to 1-hr without experiencing effects other than mild

transient adverse health effects or perceiving a clearly

defined objectionable odor.

ERPG-2: max. airborne conc. below which it is

believed nearly all individuals can be exposed up to 1

hr without experiencing or developing irreversible or

other serious health effects or symptoms that could

impair their ability to take protective action.

A concentration of a gas, vapor, or aerosol that is

judged acceptable and allows exposed individuals to

perform specific tasks during emergency conditions

lasting from 1 to 24 hours.

Table 5-7

1-hr EEGL

24-hr EEGL

Ammonia

100 ppm

Chlorine

3 ppm

0.5 ppm

Toluene

200 ppm

100 ppm

Guidelines

ERPG-3: max. airborne concentration below which it

is believed nearly all individuals can be exposed for

up to 1-hour without experiencing or developing lifethreatening health effects.

Table 5-6

ERPG-1

ERPG-2

ERPG-3

Ammonia

25 ppm

150 ppm

750 ppm

Chlorine

1 ppm

3 ppm

20 ppm

Monomethylamine 10 ppm

100 ppm

500 ppm

Toluene

300 ppm

1000 ppm

50 ppm

Health

A concentration that poses a threat of exposure to airborne

contaminants when that exposure is likely to cause death or

immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or

prevent escape from such an environment.

Available from OSHA (osha.gov) or

NIOSH Pocket Guide: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/

Ammonia

300 ppm

Chlorine

10 ppm

Toluene

500 ppm

The max. concentration of an extremely hazardous

substance in air that will not cause serious

irreversible health effects in the general population

when exposed to the substance for relatively short

duration.

Toxic Endpoints

Must be used for dispersion modeling required for

the EPA RMP. Values are, in order of preference,

ERPG-2 or LOC.

Ammonia

0.14 mg/L

Chlorine

0.0087 mg/L

Table 5-8

CM4310: Chapter 5

Primary

Secondary

ERPG-3:

EEGL (30-min)

ERPG-2:

IDLH

Primary

ERPG-1:

Secondary

PEL-STEL

TLV-STEL

3 x TLV-TWA

LOC

PEL-C

TLV-C

5 x TLV-TWA

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