Motivation 1

VICTORIA UNIVERSITY & HANOI UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN STUDIES
FACULTY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SCHOOL OF EDUCATION

GRADUATE PROGRAM IN TESOL

 Course:

MTESOL7

 Subject Code and Title: AER 0001

INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS  Assignment topic:

D. P. HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN ENGLISH LEARNING
 Student’s name:  VU Student number:  Lecturer:
 Due Date of Assignment: September 22, 2008

Motivation 2

Abstract
This research was designed to find out about D.P. High School students’ motivation in terms of three elements: (1) Attitudes toward learning English; (2) Desire to learn English; (3) Motivational intensity. At the same time it was also intended to look at their instrumental motivation , and to see if there was any relationship between their motivation and their achievement in English learning. The results of a survey of 70 grade – 12 students indicate that they are highly instrumentally motivated and motivationally intense, but their attitudes toward learning English are not distinct and their desire to learn English is not very strong. In other words, they have good reasons to learn English, but they lack motivation for learning it. The results also reveal that there is a correlation between the students’ motivation and their achievement in English learning. Based on the research findings some pedagogical implications are discussed.

Motivation 3

Introduction
The English teaching and learning at the researcher’s school, D.P. High School, is not very good in terms of the students’ achievement. At the end of the school year 2007 – 2008 only about 50% of the students got an average of 5, and only 47.41% of grade -12 students got an average of 5 in the English test in the 2008 State Graduation

Examination. These figures displease the principal and disappoint us, the teachers of English at the school. This poor achievement has lasted for years, and we, the teachers, have done a lot about it but the situation has not improved. We have given the students extra lessons so that they have more time to practice their English. We have helped them with the revision before every test. We have even prepared hand-outs of the points on which we are going to test them and told them what to learn to do the tests well. In spite of what we have done for them, to our disappointment, they have not improved their achievement. More things must be done to change the situation for the better. To this end , we, the teachers of English at the school, have met with each other and discussed what must be done to solve the problem. During the discussion the word “motivation” has been mentioned by 80% of the teachers present and they have come to a conclusion that it may be the students’ lack of motivation that leads to their poor achievement in English learning. Is it true that the students’ lack of motivation leads to their poor achievement in English learning? It is not easy to answer this question because language learning is a

Motivation 4 complex process. Idapper (2006) explains that in this process language learners are exposed to input, which is constrained by such variables as individual differences and situational factors. Under the influence of individual differences and situational factors, learners use their own learning strategies to turn as much input as possible into a variable second language (L2) output in the form of writing or speaking. However, there is the fact that different learners, in spite of being influenced by the same situational factors, produce very different outputs. In fact, it has been observed that even in the same classroom setting, some learners make rapid progress through the first stage of learning a new language, while others have to work very hard making very slow progress. Is this to say that individual differences play an important role in language learning? And if so, which factors are important? Is it motivation? To find out which factors are important in language learning, it is necessary to have a close look at social factors as well as a number of psychological dimensions of difference. These dimensions are many and various. Such affective factors as learners' personalities and their learning styles can have an effect on their language learning. For example, their learning styles may influence their beliefs in the learning task and the kind of input with which they choose to work. Their personalities can influence the degree of their anxiety and their willingness to take risks in learning and using an L2 (Ellis,1998). Attitudes and motivation, self-confidence, field independence, intelligence, language aptitude, and language learning strategies have also been found to have an effect on language learners’ success in their language learning (Gardner, 2001). In spite of a variety of variables that have influence on individual difference

Motivation 5 characteristics of the language learner, Gardner (2001) states that “motivation is a central element along with language aptitude in determining success in learning another language in the classroom setting”(p.2) because he believes that “many of these other variables are dependent on motivation for their effects to be realized” (p.2). He argues that the individual who does not have motivation to learn a language probably will not use language learning strategies, and that the individual who has little or no intention to learn a language will not take risks using it. Thus, the focus of this present study is on D.P. High School (DPHS) students’ motivation in learning English as a foreign language as well as the relationship between their motivation toward English learning and their achievement. Furthermore, the findings of study may promise some improvements and changes regarding English teaching and learning at the school. Research Questions The study seeks answer to the following questions: (1) What is D.P. High School students’ motivation toward English learning?

(2) Is there any relationship between the students’ motivation and their achievement in English learning?

Literature Review
The Status of The English Language in Vietnam The English language may be the most important foreign language in Vietnam. As a result English learning plays an important role in learning activities throughout Vietnam. Foreign languages centres where English is mainly taught can be found all over the country, especially in such major cities as Hanoi, Danang, HCM city, or Cantho. The

Motivation 6 English learning has become important since 1995 when the United States lifted an embargo on economy from Vietnam, and it has even become more important since Vietnam became a member of the World Trade organization in 2006. Its importance can easily be seen through different levels . Most job applicants are required certain levels of English if they want a good job with a good salary. Civil servants or government workers are encouraged to learn English to meet the requirement of promotion. University students need a certificate of intermediate level in English to meet the requirement of graduation. Students have to study English when they are in grade six, and English is one of the compulsory subjects on which grade-12 students are tested in their State Graduation Examination. However, most of the students cannot use their English communicatively after studying it for seven years in their schools and also passing some credits in universities. The reasons for this problem are many and various but the focus of this study is on the reasons related to motivation. The insights into this subject can help DPHS teachers find new ways to improve the quality of teaching and learning English at D.P. High School . Motivation and second language learning “Motivation involves the attitudes and affective states that influence the degree of effort that learners make to learn an L2”( Ellis,1998,p.75). The research findings of the role of attitudes and motivation in second language learning show that there is a relationship between learners’ success and their positive attitudes and motivation (Gardner, 1985). Various kinds of motivation have been identified. Robert Gardner and Wallace Lambert (1972) created the terms integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Research has shown that these types of motivation are

Motivation 7 related to success in second language learning. Integrative motivation refers to ‘a sincere and personal interest in the people and culture represented by the other language group’ (Lambert, 1974, p.98). Some learners may choose to learn a particular L2 because they are interested in the people and culture represented by the target-language group. For example, people who go abroad to work or live usually learn the target language, the language of the country they are going to. Some young people learn English to understand the English songs they like; others learn English to read books or magazines in English so that they can broaden their knowledge of American or British cultures. Instrumental motivation refers to ‘the practical value and advantages of learning a new language’ (Lambert, 1974, p.98). Learners may make efforts to learn an L2 for some functional reasons - to pass an examination, to get a better job, or to get a place at university. For example, in Vietnam some people learn English to get better jobs with high salaries in foreign companies. Some students or teachers learn English to get scholarships for their higher study abroad. Gardner (1985) developed the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) to measure L2 learners’ motivation. He and his colleagues found that integrative motivation was a more powerful predictor of linguistic achievement as it was consistently correlated with L2 linguistic achievement. Instrumental integration was found to be related to L2 linguistic achievement in some studies. With the development of the AMTB many more research studies on L2 motivation

Motivation 8 have been driven. The studies reveal that students’ learning goals are also directed to different motivation types, whose definition varies according to the socio-cultural setting in which the data are collected (Oxford & Shearin, 1994). As a result, new types of motivation have been identified. In an attempt to challenge Gardner’s theory of motivation Graham Crookes and Richard Schmidt (1991) identified resultative motivation, and intrinsic motivation. Resultative motivation An assumption of the research referred to above is that motivation is not only the cause of L2 achievement but also the result of learning. That is, that learners may become more or less motivated to learn depends on their success or failure in learning. The researcher’s colleague used to tell the researcher about his son’s English learning. At first, when he was in grades six and seven he did not study English well, so he did not like studying it and found English learning boring. Later, when he was in grade 8, a good female teacher of English helped him make progress in his study, and he found English learning useful and interesting. Finally, when he finished lower secondary school, he had such good knowledge of English that he passed the exam into Le Hong Phong High School, a school for the gifted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Intrinsic motivation In some learning situations, learners may have good reasons for learning an L2 or a foreign language, but they are not very highly motivated to learn it . This may be because their attitudes towards the target-language group are not distinct, positive or negative. The researcher has many times seen this kind of motivation in his English evening class at the Foreign Languages Center of Ho Chi Minh City University of

Motivation 9 Pedagogy, where learners of different ages and jobs have to pay to study English for different reasons. In speaking activities, when we talk about such topics as “the best companies to work for” or “Vitamins and health”, young learners look dead and do not pay attention, and sometimes ask for permission to leave early. However, when we talk about fashion, films, or music they become alive and take part in the activities actively. Another distinction which may be useful for teachers is that between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Extrinsic motivation, like instrumental orientation, is caused by any number of outside factors. Thus, the individual desires to learn a second/foreign language because of some pressure or reward from the social environment . For example the need to pass an exam, the hope of getting promotion or financial reward (Harmer , 2002). Intrinsic motivation, like integrative motivation, is derived from within the individual. Therefore, a person learns a second/foreign language because the learner enjoys the learning process itself or desires to make himself feel better (Harmer , 2002). When a learner is not extrinsically or intrinsically motivated to learn a language, the learner may quit learning the target language at the earliest convenience (Noels, Clėment , and Pelletier, 2001). Most researchers and methodologists have come to view that intrinsic motivation plays a central role in learning a second/foreign language and is especially important for encouraging success (Harmer, 2002). However, empirical studies on second language learning motivation has suggested that “The level and type of motivation is strongly influenced by the social context in which

Motivation 10 learning takes place” ( Ellis,1985, p.119). He argues that “in certain situations an integrative motivation may be more powerful in facilitating successful L2 learning, but in other situations instrumental motivations may count far more.” To make it clearer he gives an example of the case where Gardner and Lambert (1972) found the relationship between an integrative orientation and the success in French learning in schools in both Canada and USA, but in the Philippines an instrumental motivation was more effective. Gardner and Lambert (1972) based their explanation for this on the role the L2 plays in the learner’s community . They put it that an integrative motivation is more effective in the community where the L2 is used as a foreign language, and that in the community where the L2 is used as means of wider communication outside the classroom, the role of a “second language”, an instrumental motivation is more important. In an investigation into a learning situation of non-westernized female learners of L2 English in Bombay, which was very similar to that in the Philippines described by Lambert and Gardner, Lukmani (1972) also found that an instrumental motivation was a more major force determining success in L2 learning than an integrative motivation in this learning context. Thus, to determine which type of motivation is more important for the language learner to be successful in language learning is to depend on the specific social situation where learning takes place. In conclusion, “Motivation and attitudes in language learning are important factors to help determine the level of proficiency achieved by different learners” (Ellis, 1995, p.118). Motivation which can be identified as integrative ,instrumental, resultative, or intrinsic is clearly a highly complex phenomenon. Ellis (1998 ) states that:

Motivation 11 “These four types of motivation should be seen as complimentary rather than as distinct and oppositional. Learners can be both integratively and instrumentally motivated at one and the same time. Motivation can produce successful learning then successful learning in turn enhances motivation” (p.76 ). The social situation helps to determine the types of motivation learners have as well as the one that is most effective for language learning. “Furthermore, motivation is dynamic in nature; it is not something that a learner has or does not have but rather something that varies from one moment to the next depending on the learning context or task” ( Ellis, 1998, p. 76). Therefore, the concern of this study is to investigate DPHS students’ integrative and instrumental motivations to see if the integrative one, in spite of the students’ possibility of high instrumental motivation, is a more major force determining success in English learning in Vietnam, a country where English is used as a foreign language. To know more about integrative motivation, it is necessary to have a close look at Gardner’s (2001) Socio-Educational Model of Second Language Acquisition. In this model , integrative motivation, which is made up of Integrativeness, Attitudes toward the Learning Situation, and Motivation, “is hypothesized to be a complex of attitudinal, goal-directed, and motivational attributes” (Gardner ,2001, p. 9), and he stresses that “it is motivation that is responsible for achievement in the second language”(p.9). This model also shows that motivation consists of three elements: (1) Motivational Intensity; (2) Desire to Learn English; (3) Attitudes toward Learning English, and that all the elements “ are necessary to distinguish between individuals who are more motivated and those who are less motivated” (Gardner ,2001, p.8). Based on this literature research DPHS students’ Motivational Intensity, Desire to

Motivation 12 Learn English and Attitudes toward Learning English as well as instrumental motivation which the researcher and his colleagues in Vietnam usually refer to as reasons for learning English are investigated in this study to find out about their motivation and to see if there is any relationship between their motivation and their achievement in English learning.

Methodology
1. Subjects The subjects involved in this research were 70 students randomly selected from three classes 12A4, 12A5,and 12A8 at D.P. High School, Binh Chanh District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. These students , who were just back to school after five weeks’ summer holiday, are grade 12 students in the school year 2008 - 2009. Among 70 subjects 60 students( 85.71%) were 17 years old and 10 students ( 14.29%) were 18 years of age. Forty-five of them (64.29%) were female students and 25 (35.71%) were male. 2. Materials / Instruments The instrument used in the study was made up of a motivation survey, and two open-ended questions. The motivation survey used in this study was designed in two parts with exploratory questions adapted from Gardner’s (1985: 177 - 184) Motivation/Attitude Test Battery. The first part aimed to get the information about DPHS students’ reasons for learning English (instrumental motivation) , and the second one about their motivation to

Motivation 13 English learning, which focused on the three elements: (1) Attitudes toward English learning; (2) Desire to learn English; (3) Motivational intensity At the end of the survey, so as to find out if there is a relationship between the students’ motivation and their achievement in English learning, two open-ended questions were added: (1)Why do you think the students at DPHS cannot get a good achievement in English learning?; (2) What was your achievement in English learning at the end of grade 11? What led you to have this achievement? 3. Procedures The survey items were translated into Vietnamese to make sure that the subjects could understand them well. The survey was first piloted to a small sample and then administered to 70 grade - 12 students in 3 classes by their content course teachers on the same day. The survey was conducted on July 8th 2008, the date when the students returned to school for a summer course after five weeks’ summer holiday . The students were asked to finish the survey within 15 minutes before teaching and learning began. All the questionnaires were collected by the teachers and given to the researcher, and 70 were complete for data collection. Before the survey was conducted the students were given assurance that the information provided in the questionnaire would be kept confidential and used for research purposes only so that they would be honest in filling out the questionnaire.

Motivation 14

Data Analysis
The results analyzed and interpreted below were collected from the data in the motivation survey, and the two open-ended questions. Findings And Interpretation I. Instrumental motivation(adapted from Gardner, 1985: Attitude/Motivation Test Battery): Reasons for learning English for my future career a more knowledgeable person. be useful in getting a good job. Be more respected understand films, music, newspapers, magazines, or books in English. to search for the information and materials in English I need on the internet. Examination Agree % 48 36 56 25 41 38 51 68.5 7 51.4 3 80.0 0 35.7 1 58.5 7 54.2 9 72.8 6 Partly agree 21 30 12 35 26 25 15 % 30.0 0 42.8 6 17.1 4 50.0 0 37.1 4 35.7 1 21.4 3 Disagree % 01 04 02 10 03 07 04 1.43 5.71 2.86 14.29 4.29 10.00 5.71

As can be seen from the above table , the students’ instrumental motivation is strong. They have very good reasons for learning English. They believe that English can bring them a better life with 68.57% thinking English is good for their future career and 80% agreeing that English can help them find a good job. They also think that English can help enrich their minds with knowledge. 51.43% agree that English helps them become a

Motivation 15 more knowledgeable person. With a wide knowledge of English, they can understand films, music, newspapers, magazines, or books in English (58.57%) and they can search for the information and materials in English they need on the internet(54.29%).72.86% think that learning English is important because of an examination reason, which is not surprising because English is one of the compulsory subjects they are tested on in the State Graduation Examination. 35.71% agree and 50% partly agree that they will be more respected if they have a good knowledge of English. This finding shows that they may think English is important, but difficult to master. II. Motivation A. Attitudes toward learning English (adapted from Gardner, 1985: Attitude / Motivation Test Battery): Attitudes toward learning English Studying English is an enjoyable experience. I really enjoy learning English. 14 23 32.8 6 20.0 0 I plan to learn as much English as possible. I would rather spend my time on learning other subjects than English. When I leave school, I shall stop learning English entirely because I am not interested in it. I find it a waste of time to learn 03 4.2 11 15.7 56 80.00 09 12.8 6 18 25.7 1 43 61.43 23 25 35.7 1 32.8 6 32 33 35 Agree % Partly agree 34 48.5 7 50.0 0 47.1 4 45.7 1 15 21.43 12 17.15 21 30.00 13 18.57 % Disagree %

Motivation 16 English. 9 1

The data from the above table show that the students’ Attitudes toward learning English are not distinct, neither negative nor positive. Although 61.43% do not agree that they will stop learning English entirely when they leave school because they are not interested in it, and 80% do not find it a waste of time to learn English, only 35.71% agree and 47.14% partly agree that they plan to learn as much English as possible. This is because only 32.86% agree and 48.57% partly agree that studying English is an enjoyable experience, and only 20% agree and 50% partly agree that they really enjoy learning English. These findings suggest that the students may think English is important and want to learn as much English as possible for their future career, but it may be the teachers’ methodologies or the heavy syllabus that make them find English learning boring and so they do not really enjoy learning it. The data also show that 32.86% agree and 45.71% partly agree that they would rather spend their time on learning other subjects than English, which is not surprising because the students may not need English in their examinations into university. They think they can study English later at some foreign language centers when they are university students . That is why the researcher has seen many university students in his English evening class at the Foreign Languages Center of HCM University of Pedagogy during his 17 years’ teaching there. B. Desire to learn the second foreign language (adapted from Gardner, 1985: Attitude / Motivation Test Battery):

1. During English class, I would like Respondents

Motivation 17 to have a combination of Vietnamese and English spoken. to have as much English as possible spoken. to have only English spoken. 2. If I had the opportunity to speak English outside of school, I would never speak it. speak English most of the time, using Vietnamese only if really necessary. speak it occasionally using Vietnamese whenever possible. 3. Compared to my other courses, I like English the most. the same as all the others. least of all. 4. I find studying English not interesting at all. no more interesting than other subjects. very interesting. 5. If there were English speaking families in my neighborhood, I would never speak English with them. speak English with them as much as possible. speak English with them sometimes. 6. If I had the opportunity and knew enough English, I would read English magazines and newspapers as often as I could. never. not very often. Respondents 06 ( 8.57%) 13 (18.57%) 51 (72.86%) Respondents 05 ( 7.14%) 50 (71.43%) 15 (21.43%) Respondents 02 ( 2.86%) 40 (57.14%) 28 (40.00%) Respondents 10 (14.29%) 18 (25.71%) 42 (60.00%) Respondents 49 (70.00%) 06 ( 8.57%) 15 (21.43%) 65 (92.86%) 04 ( 5.71%) 01 ( 1.43%)

92.86% would like to have a combination of Vietnamese and English spoken during English class. 72.86% would speak it occasionally using Vietnamese whenever possible if they had the opportunity to speak English outside of school. 71.43% like English the

Motivation 18 same as the other subjects. 57.14% find studying English no more interesting than other subjects. If there were English speaking families in their neighborhood, 60% would speak English with them sometimes. 70% would read English magazines and newspapers as often as they could if they had the opportunity and knew enough English. The data suggest that they do not really enjoy speaking English or listening to it, which they rarely do or are afraid of doing in class. They are not willing to speak English outside classroom. They do not really enjoy the learning process. They have to learn English because it is included in the school subjects. However, they enjoy reading in the English language, which they are studying. This may be because they usually do it in class. These findings show that they do not have much Desire to learn English . C. Motivational Intensity (adapted from Gardner, 1985: Attitude/Motivation Test Battery):

1 I actively think about what I have learned in my English class hardly ever. once in a while. very frequently. 2 When I have a problem understanding something we are learning in the English class, I immediately ask the teacher for help. only seek help before the exam. just forget about it. 3 When it comes to English homework, I put some effort into it, but not as much as I could. work very carefully, making sure I understand everything. skim over it. Respondents 16 (22.86%) 35 (50.00%) 19 (27.14%) Respondents 54 (77.14%) 13 (18.57%) 03 ( 4.29%) Respondents 19 (27.14%) 41 (58.57%) 10 (14.29%)

Motivation 19

4 Considering how I study English, I can honestly say that I do just enough work to get along. will pass on the basis of sheer luck or intelligence because I do very little work. really try to learn English. 5 If my teacher wanted someone to do an extra English assignment, I would definitely not volunteer. definitely volunteer. only do it if the teacher asked me directly. 6 After I get my English assignment back, I always write them, correcting my mistakes. just throw them in my desk and forget them. I look them over, but don't bother correcting mistakes. 7 When I am in English class, I volunteer answers as much as possible. answer only the easier questions. never say anything. Respondents 20 (28.57%) 22 (31.43%) 28 (40.00%) Respondents 42 (60.00%) 13 (18.57%) 15 (21.43%) Respondents 05 ( 7.14%) 11 (15.71%) 54 (77.15%) Respondents 17 (24.29%) 20 (28.57%) 33 (47.14%)

The data show that they take their English learning seriously with 77.15% immediately asking the teacher for help when they have a problem understanding something they are learning in the English class and 50% working very carefully, making sure they understand everything when it comes to English homework. They make efforts to learn English with 47.14% stating that they really try to learn English and 24.29% doing just enough work to get along . 60% always write their English assignment, correcting their mistakes after they get them back. They also want to take part in the English learning

Motivation 20 activities when stating that they volunteer answers as much as possible (28.57%) and answer only the easier questions (31.34%). However, if their teacher wanted someone to do an extra English assignment, 77.15% would only do it if the teacher asked them directly. This may be because of their reticence , which can be seen in Asian students in general, and Vietnamese students in particular . To sum up, they have Motivational intensity to learn English. III. Motivation ( open–ended questions) 1. Why do you think the students at DPHS cannot get a good achievement in English learning? Reasons Lack of effort Lack of required language proficiency Not an important subject Difficult to learn Methodologies Heavy syllabus No activities related to using English Number of ideas 34 19 17 12 10 09 07

As can be seen from the above table, the reasons why the students at DPHS cannot get a good achievement in English learning are many and various. However, the dominant reasons are their lack of effort, lack of required language proficiency, and negative attitudes toward English. This to say that they lack motivation to English learning. 2. What was your achievement in English learning at the end of grade 11? What led you to have this achievement?

Motivation 21 Achievement ( Average scores) Good (8.0 – 10.0) Quite good (6.5 – 7.9) Average (5.0 – 6.4) Below average (3.5 – 4.9) 37 (52.85%) Respondents 01 (1.43%) Reasons Highly interested in the subject Positive attitudes toward the subject Special effort Much effort interested in the subject Positive attitudes toward the subject Effort Methodologies Positive attitudes toward the subject interested in the subject Lack of effort Lack of required language proficiency Unimportant subject Heavy and boring syllabus uninterested in the subject Number of ideas 01 01 01 09 04 09 14 01 14 06 24 10 16 03 16

10 (14.29%)

22 (31.43%)

The data from the above table suggest that the students’ positive attitudes toward the subject, efforts (Motivational intensity) and their interest in English (Desire to learn English) play a dominant role in their achievement in English learning. The more positive attitudes, Motivational intensity and Desire to learn English they have, the better their achievement is . This finding shows that there is a correlation between students’ motivation and their achievement.

Motivation 22

Conclusion
This research was conducted to investigate DPHS students’ instrumental motivation and their motivation toward English learning in terms of the three elements: (1) Attitudes toward learning English; (2) Desire to learn English; (3) Motivational intensity. It was also intended to see if there was a correlation between their motivation and their achievement in English learning. The interpretation of the data collected reveals that their instrumental motivation is high. They are aware of the importance of English learning. They think that English is good for their future career. It can be useful to them in finding a good job. With a wide knowledge of English they can be more knowledgeable. They can understand mass media in English and search for information and materials on the internet. Surprisingly, the data from the research into their motivation show that although they have Motivational intensity, their Attitudes toward learning English are not very positive and their Desire to learn English is not strong. In other words, the students are not motivated because “the truly motivated individual displays effort, desire, and affect” and “ each element, by itself, is seen as insufficient to reflect motivation” (Gardner, 2001, p9). The data collected from the first open-ended question also give the same result. More importantly, the interpretation of the data collected from the second open-ended question reveals that the good and quite good students are highly motivated, whereas the below average ones lack motivation. This suggests a correlation between their motivation and their achievement in English learning. These research findings are important and useful to us , the teachers at D.P. High school. Motivation which “is responsible for achievement in the second language” should be much considered in the process of teaching and learning English. Therefore, if the

Motivation 23 teachers want to improve their students’ achievement they have to make special efforts to motivate the students. To this end, they should not just stick to the textbooks, try to stuff the students’ minds with dead knowledge, or make the students focus on the lessons in class and do a lot of homework. These things do not help create an English learning environment where the students can actually use English because unlike other school subjects “learning a second language involves making part of another culture group part of one’s self” ( Gardner, 2001, p17). More importantly, the teachers had better improve their methodologies by paying more attention to the three elements of motivation, effort expended, desire to learn, and favourable attitudes toward learning the language, so that they can create a true English learning environment where the students can use the language they are learning inside and outside the classroom. However, the big question is “what exactly can the teachers do to motivate the students?”. To have a full answer to the question, more research should be done on this field. The results of this research are , of course, tentative and the research needs to be reproduced with better plans and preparations because of some limitations that have been found. Firstly, this research was conducted with a small sample of students with the same level of English proficiency and almost the same age. The results might have been somewhat different if it had been conducted with a larger sample of students with different levels of English proficiency and ages. Secondly, there might have been something wrong with the instrumental questions, which led to the inconsistent results of the research in terms of the students’ Motivational intensity, or effort extended. The data collected from the questions adapted from

Motivation 24 Gardner’s Motivation / Attitude Test Battery show that DPHS students have made their effort to learn English, whereas those of the second open-ended question suggest their lack of Motivational intensity. Lastly, the research was not intended to investigate the students’ Integrativeness and Attitudes toward the learning situation, two elements together with motivation that form integrative motivation. If this had been done , there would have been more insights into the students’ motivation and more explanation for the correlation between their motivation and their achievement in English learning. However, The research suggests the value of motivation as a significant factor influencing achievement in English learning, which is useful to the teachers in improving their English teaching at the school. (5,642 words)

Motivation 25

References
Crookes, G. and Schmidt, R.1991. Motivation. Reopening the Research Agenda in Language Learning, 31 ,pp 469 – 512. Ellis, R. 1985. Understanding Second Language Acquisition : Individual learner differences and Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ellis, R. 1998. Second Language Acquisition : Individual differences in L2 acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (original work published 1997) Gardner, R. C. 1985. Psychology and Second Language Learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold. Gardner, R. C. 2001. Language Learning Motivation: The Student, the Teacher, and the Researcher. Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, Volume 6, Number 1, Fall 2001. Gardner, R.C. and Lambert, E. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Harmer, J. 2002. The practice of English language teaching: Describing learners. Pearson Education Ltd. (original work published 2001) Idapper, J. (2006). Understanding and developing good practice: How students learn languages .London: CiLT. Lambert, W. E. (1974). Culture and language as factors in learning and education. In F. F. Aboud & R. D. Meade (Eds.), Cultural factors in learning and education (pp. 91– 122). Bellingham: Western Washington State University. Lukmani, Y.M. (1972). Motivation to learn and language proficiency. Language Learning, 22, 261-273. Noels, K. A., Clėment, R., and Pelletier, A. G. (2001). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and integrative orientations of French Canadian learners of English. The Canadian Language Review, 57, 424-442. Oxford, R., and Shearin, J. (1994). Language learning motivation: Expanding the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 12-27.

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