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, and indications. There is a distinction between the meanings we ‘give’ in words and the meanings we ‘give –off’ in non verbal signals. Nonverbal communication plays a central role in human behavior and it is important to recognize that communication frequently involves more than a verbal message. Effective communication requires that we understand the role of nonverbal behavior as one dimension of communication competence. It is recognized as the route to discover what the other side wants, without then ever saying it like a secret way into their soul. Communication researcher Mehrabian found that only 7% of a message’s effect is carried by words; listeners receive the other 93% through non verbal communication. Birdwhistell suggested that spoken words account for not more than 3035%of all our social interactions. Over 65%of the social meanings of messages we send to others are communicated non – verbally. Non-verbal communication relates to the non-verbal aspect of personal interactions. It can be divided into four areas: (a) Physical appearance; (b) Paralinguistic (tone and speed of voice); (c) Kinesics (movements, gestures, facial expression and eye contact); (d) Proxemic (body proximity, orientation and posture). Each of these areas can reinforce the message being passed, so long as they are appropriate to the verbal communication. If they are inappropriate, the message may be confused or ambiguous. Non-verbal communication is considered to be the aspect of communication over which an individual has least control; however, it is possible to become aware of the meaning of certain gestures etc. By doing so, verbal communication skills can be reinforced and so understanding can be enhanced. Non-verbal communication has a strong cultural aspect to it. Certain bodily movements in particular are unacceptable in various parts of the world. For example, it is considered a gross insult to give the thumbs up sign in South America, and in Arab countries it is unacceptable to point the soles of your feet in another person's direction. What we consider usual may not be acceptable elsewhere; many a business has run into difficulties as a result of lack of preparation before venturing abroad.
Advantages Being aware of non-verbal communication brings the following advantage. Competitive advantage Understanding and being aware of the non-verbal signals being communicated from another person can help you ask the right questions or give the correct responses. The use of your own body language can reinforce the message you want to convey, and this can be used by adopting a 'listening' pose. All good sales people know that customers buy from individuals they like or identify with; this fact can be “used to advantage by those in control of their own body language. Disadvantages There are two main disadvantages associated with non-verbal communication. (a) Concentration Just a control of own body language, and an understanding of the body language of others, is an advantage, it requires a high degree of concentration and training. A lapse in concentration during an important meeting could be unfortunate, if one is using controlled body language to reinforce a point that is not genuine. (b) Ambiguity By looking the photographs of celebrities, where the caption has been added by the publication editor. Usually designed to be amusing, the captions fit woods to the body postures of the celebrity. No-one expects the caption to reflect exactly what was said, but the results are often believable. This illustrates the possible ambiguity that can be attributed to non-verbal communication. • PHYSICAL APPREANCE
It includes the use of personal adornments such as clothing, jewellery, make up, hair styles, and beards. People are apt to make inferences about us based on the way we dress. Physical Contact Shaking hands, touching, holding, embracing, pushing, or patting on the back all convey messages. They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction
This facet of nonverbal communication includes such vocal elements as:
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Tone Pitch Rhythm 6
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Timbre Loudness Inflection
For maximum teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these six elements of our voice. One of the major criticisms is of instructors who speak in a monotone. Listeners perceive these instructors as boring and dull. Students report that they learn less and lose interest more quickly when listening to teachers who have not learned to modulate their voices. Is the content of your message contradicted by the attitude with which you are communicating it? Researchers have found that the tone, pitch, quality of voice, and rate of speaking convey emotions that can be accurately judged regardless of the content of the message. The important thing to gain from this is that the voice is important, not just as the conveyor of the message, but as a complement to the message. As a communicator you should be sensitive to the influence of tone, pitch, and quality of your voice on the interpretation of your message by the receiver. • KISNESICS
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Posture Gesture Facial expressions Gaze / Eye Contact
Posture When people's verbal self-presentation contradicts their behavior, their words are ignored in favor of the deeds. The old saw that "actions speak louder than words" is valid. Be cautious that your own body language does not provoke an undesirable response. The body has a lower sending capacity than the face, making body cues more likely to leak deceptive information than facial cues. Research is mixed on the relevance of this tendency. Stiff, restrained trunk and limb positions indicate tension. Deceivers also swivel more in their chairs and tend to restrict their facial movements. Non-language is more easily processed. We communicate numerous messages by the way we walk, talk, stand and sit. Standing erect, but not rigid, and leaning slightly forward communicates to students that we are approachable, receptive and friendly. Furthermore, 6
interpersonal closeness results when we and our students face each other. Speaking with our back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided; it communicates disinterest to our class.Than language. Gesture Some people who are engaged in cognitive tasks will be immune to aspects of linguistic behaviors and will rely on non-linguistic cues in making their determinations (Gilbert and Jones, 1986). Interactive hand gestures assist dialogue in that they serve the special conversational demands of talking in dialogue. Gestures are invaluable to a speaker; they include the listener so that the speaker can be sure he/she is being heard and understood. Open-handed gestures metaphorically hand over the information. Rotation of the hand with fingers uncurling implies shared information or "as you already knew." The rotating hand with fingers uncurling off to the side implies a digression from the main point. The importance of gesturing lies more in the function that the gesture serves in the juncture of information sharing than in the actual form that the gesture takes. If we fail to gesture while speaking, we may be perceived as boring, stiff and unanimated. A lively and animated teaching style captures students' attention, makes the material more interesting, facilitates learning and provides a bit of entertainment. Head nods, a form of gestures, communicate positive reinforcement to students and indicate that we are listening.
Facial Expression One determination of emotional experience is the interplay between an emotional stimulus and the innate response, such as a smile. The reaction toward the emotional stimulus is intensified when the facial expression is facilitated but softened when the expression is inhibited (Strack, Martin and Sterrer, 1988). When people are trying to mask negative emotions by putting on a "happy face," their smiles will tend to include traces of muscular actions that normally are associated with disgust, fear, contempt, or sadness (Ekma, Friesen and O'Sullivan, 1988). . Facial expressions can be helpful in effective management of affect. Nonverbal warmth, conveyed in the form of increased smiling, can reinforce specific desirable categories of behavior. It also will signal acceptance and approval to the jurors. This will increase the jurors’ motivation to perform as desired. 6
Jurors will tend to judge a witness less harshly if the witness exhibits a smile at appropriate times. The person is viewed as being more likable and consequently more physically attractive, sincere, sociable and competent. If a person smiles, he is perceived to be more trustworthy and a better person. The face easily conveys factual lies, those that might occur in a courtroom when dealing with impressions of others. Deception produces a reduction in smiling and positive head nods. However, body language is more likely to betray deception when the lie is about an emotional state. Also, verbal channels are highly controllable and more indicative of one's demeanor than expressive or spontaneous changes in emotional states. Senders are better able to control, express, and exaggerate facial expressions than their voices when that is the intent. However, liars are more successful when using verbal means to deceive than when using nonverbal means. When a speaker intends to deceive, unintentional leakage may be produced by nervousness and arousal. The voice may have a higher pitch or be perceptually nervous, and speech will contain more errors and hesitations. The speaker also may use halting, brief messages. Few examples of Facial Expressions:The picture is that of an air hostess. One look at her and we would think that she is happy but in reality she is feeling irritated because of the behavior of a passenger.
In India such a gesture would mean that the person is making fun of someone but in reality such a sign in Japan means that the person is very angry.
In India, Thumbs Sign means that the person is motivating some one but in Iran such gesture means a very vulgar meaning.
Gaze /Eye Contact A major feature of social communication is eye contact. It can convey emotion, signal when to talk or finish, or aversion. The frequency of contact may suggest either interest or boredom. Tortoriello, Blott, and DeWine have defined non-verbal communication as: Eye contact is a direct and powerful form of non-verbal communication. The superior in the organization generally maintains eye contact longer than the subordinate. The direct stare of the sender of the message conveys candor and openness. It elicits a feeling of trust. Downward glances are generally associated with modesty. Eyes rolled upward are associated with fatigue. Example of few Gazes:-
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