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EXERCISE 8B

Use the compound-angle formulae to write the following as surds.


(i) sin 75 = sin(45 + 30)
(ii) cos 135 = cos(90 + 45)
(iii) tan 15 = tan(45 30)
(iv) tan 75 = tan(45 + 30)

Expand each of the following expressions.


(i) sin( + 45)
(ii) cos( 30)
(iii) sin(60 )
(iv) cos(2 + 45)
(v) tan( + 45)
(vi) tan( 45)

Simplify each of the following expressions.


(i) sin 2 cos cos 2 sin
(ii) cos z cos 3z sin z sin 3z
(iii) sin 120 cos 60 + cos 120 sin 60
(iv) cos cos sin sin

Solve the following equations for values of in the range 0   180.


(i) cos(60 + ) = sin
(ii) sin(45 ) = cos
(iii) tan(45 + ) = tan(45 )
(iv) 2sin = 3 cos( 60)
(v) sin = cos( + 120)
Solve the following equations for values of in the range 0   .
(When the range is given in radians, the solutions should be in radians,
using multiples of where appropriate.)

(i) sin + = cos


4

(ii) 2 cos = cos +


3
2

Calculators are not to be used in this question.


The diagram shows three points L(2, 1), M(0, 2) and N(3, 2) joined to
form a triangle. The angles and and the point P are shown in the diagram.
y
M(0, 2)
L(2, 1)

N(3, 2)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(iv)
7 (i)
(ii)

2
Show that sin = and write down the value of cos .
5
Find the values of sin and cos .
11
Show that sin LMN = .
5 5
11
Show that tan LNM = .
27
Find x cos kx dx, where k is a non-zero constant.
Show that
cos(A B) cos(A + B) = 2 sin A sin B.

(iii)

Hence express 2 sin 5x sin 3x as the difference of two cosines.


Use the results in parts (i) and (ii) to show that

.
x sin 5x sin 3x dx =
16
0

8 (i)

[MEI]

Use the formulae for cos( + z) and cos( z) to prove that

cos( z) cos( + z) = 2 sin sin z.


Prove also that sin ( ) = sin .

In triangle PQR, angle P = 16 radians, angle Q = radians, and QR = 1 unit.


The point S is at the foot of the perpendicular from R to PQ, as shown in the
diagram.
R

1
6

Q
S

(ii)

Show that PQ = 2 sin + 16 .


By finding RS in terms of , deduce that the area A of the triangle is given by

A = sin + 16 sin .
Find the value of for which the area A is a maximum. [You may find the
result helpful.]
(iii)

Expand sin + 16 , and hence show that, for small values of ,


A p + q2, where p and q are contants to be determined.

[For small , sin  and cos  1.]


Find the value of this expression when = 0.1, and find also the
corresponding value of A given by the expression in part (ii).

[MEI]

EXERCISE 8C

Solve the following equations for 0   360.


(i) 2 sin 2 = cos
(ii) tan 2 = 4 tan
(iv) tan tan 2 = 1
(v) 2 cos 2 = 1 + cos

(iii)

cos 2 + sin = 0

Solve the following equations for   .


(i) sin 2 = 2 sin
(ii) tan 2 = 2 tan
(iv) 1 + cos 2 = 2 sin2
(v) sin 4 = cos 2

(iii)

cos 2 cos = 0

(Hint: Write the expression in part (v) as an equation in 2.)


3

By first writing sin 3 as sin(2 + ), express sin 3 in terms of sin .


Hence solve the equation sin 3 = sin for 0   2.

Solve cos 3 = 1 3 cos for 0   360.

+ cos 2 .
Simplify 1
sin 2

Express tan 3 in terms of tan .

7
8

tan2 = cos 2.
Show that 1
1 + tan2

(i) Show that tan + tan = 1.


4
4
(ii) Given that tan 26.6 = 0.5, solve tan = 2 without using your calculator.
Give to 1 decimal place, where 0   90.

9 (i)

) (

Sketch on the same axes the graphs of


y = cos 2x and y = 3 sin x 1 for 0  x  2.

(ii)

(iii)

Show that these curves meet at points whose x co-ordinates are solutions
of the equation 2 sin2 x + 3 sin x 2 = 0.
Solve this equation to find the values of x in terms of for 0  x  2.
[MEI]

EXAMPLE 8.6

Solve sin 3 + sin = 0 for 0   360.


SOLUTION

Using
+

sin + sin = 2 sin cos


2
2

) ( )

and putting = 3 and = gives


sin 3 + sin = 2 sin 2 cos
so the equation becomes
2 sin 2 cos = 0

cos = 0

or

sin 2 = 0.

From the graphs for y = cos and y = sin


cos = 0 gives = 90 or 270
sin 2 = 0 gives 2 = 0, 180, 360, 540 or 720
so

You should only list


each root once in the
final answer.

= 0, 90, 180, 270 or 360.

The complete set of roots in the range given is = 0, 90, 180, 270, 360.
EXERCISE 8D

The questions in this exercise relate to enrichment material.


Factorise the following expressions.
sin 4 sin 2
(ii) cos 5 + cos
(iii) cos 7 cos 3
(iv) cos( + 60) + cos( 60)
(v) sin(3 + 45)+ sin(3 45)
(i)

Factorise cos 4 + cos 2. Hence, for 0   180, solve


cos 4 + cos 2 = cos .

sin 5 + sin 3.
Simplify
sin 5 sin 3

Solve the equation sin3 sin = 0 for 0   2.

Factorise sin( + 73) sin( + 13) and use your result to sketch the graph of
y = sin( + 73) sin( + 13).

Prove that sin2 A sin2 B = sin(A B) sin(A + B).

7 (i)

Use a suitable factor formula to show that


sin 3 + sin = 4 sin cos 2 .

(ii)

Hence show that sin 3 = 3 sin 4 sin3 .