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MOL Tankship Management (Asia) Pte Ltd.

Welcome to the
OSHAS Training
Capt. R. Joshi

OHSAS is an international standard for

Occupational Health and Safety Assessment
The version currently being implemented in
MOLTA is OHSAS: 2007.
This standard is used for creating an Occupational
Safety and Health Management System (OSH
The main aim is to provide a common,
internationally certifiable OH&S specification that
could be applied Worldwide.

Is now a Standard similar to ISO 9001 and 14001

It is not industry specific
Describes good management practice but does not
state how procedures and controls are to be
Does not state specific OH&S performance criteria
Is applicable to small or large organizations
Is applicable to any industry, organization or

There are 4 main clauses in OHSAS as follows:

1. Scope
2. Reference publications
3. Terms & definitions
4. OSH Management system requirements

Under OSH Management system requirements

(Clause 4) there are 6 clauses as follows:
4.1 General Requirements,
4.2 OSH Policy
4.3 Planning,
4.4 Implementation and Operation
4.5 Checking
4.6 Management Review

Occupational Health &

Conditions and factors that
effect the well being of
employees, temporary
workers, contractor personnel,
visitors and any other person
in the work place.

Any Physical Location in which work related

activities are performed under the control of
the organization.

Note: W hen giving considering to w hat

constitutes a w orkplace, the organization
should take into account the OSH effects on
personnel w ho are, for ex am ple, travelling or
in transit (driving, flying, on boats or trains),
w orking at the prem ises of a client or
custom er or w orking at hom e.

It is a system that includes the following elements:

1. A safety policy
2. A programme for training and ensuring competency
3. A framework for involving employees in the management of OHS
4. The collection, analysis and reporting of safety performance data
5. The identification of hazards in the workplace
6. The assessment of the risk they pose to people
7. The elimination or control of those risks
8. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the control measures
9. Arrangements for emergency preparations and response
10. Systems for monitoring the effectiveness of OHS arrangements
11. Systems for monitoring the health of workers
12. Systems for the reporting and investigation of accidents / incident
13. Controls over documents and records
14. A programme of internal audits and management review to ensure that the system
continues to meet objectives and requirements

Basic Elements of OHSAS

Individual responsibility
Joint occupational health and safety committee
Health and safety rules
Correct work procedures
Employee orientation
Workplace inspections
Reporting and investigating accidents
Emergency procedures
Medical and first aid
Health and safety promotion
Workplace specific items

When we do a GAP analysis to find out what is the difference

between the existing Management system and that required by
OHSAS standards, the main areas identified are as follows:
A). Policy
B). Top Management involvement & commitment.
C). Additional emphasis on Hazard identification & Risk Assessment.
D). Inclusion of visitors and contractors into the exposure hours,
injury monitoring and data analysis.
E). Workplace hazards & Emergency preparedness requirements.
F). Employee Involvement and Representation.
G). Monitoring OSH Effectiveness.
H). Legal Requirements.

As you can see the main emphasis is upon hazard

identification, risk assessment and risk
elimination, health monitoring, emergency
preparedness & accident / incident investigations.
Risks also include risks originating outside the
workplace capable of adversely affecting the
safety & health of people within the workplace.
You may think that so whats new we are already
doing this yes thats true because of industry
requirements we are already following certain
elements from OSH. It however needs to be fine
tuned in certain elements and additional efforts
towards other elements.

OSHAS gives requirements for an occupational

safety and health management system, to enable
organizations to control its OH&S risks and
improve its performance.
It does not state specific OH&S performance
criteria, nor does it give detailed specifications for
the design of a management system
Aims for: Preventing accidents & ill health
Emergency preparedness

4.3.1 Planning for hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control
The organization shall establish, implement and maintain procedure(s) for
the ongoing identification, risk assessment and determination of necessary
In other words.....
The organization shall construct a (document) list that includes all work
hazards, risk assessment of each hazard, and the required measures for
controlling the risk of each hazard. The list shall at least include:
a). Hazards reported by the manufacturers of all material, equipment, and
tools used at the organization.
b). Hazards reported by workers
c). Hazards identified by incidents/accidents
d). Hazards identified by any non-conformances to safety standards,
regulations or other requirements

Materials and their properties
Work processes and procedures
Workplace and location
Natural environment, climatic conditions
External / interested parties

Identify all Hazards

& Loss Exposures

Evaluate the Risk

Develop Controls

Implement Controls

Review Adequacy
of Controls


Physical Hazards

Pressure, Velocity, Height
Physical characteristics

Chemical Hazards
v Explosives
v Flammable liquids
v Corrosives
v Oxidizing materials
v Toxic, carcinogenic, substances
v Gases and air particulate matter

Biological Hazards

Biological wastes (blood, fluids, etc.)

Drugs (antibiotics, marijuana)
Viruses, bacteria
Parasites, insects
Poisonous or diseased plants, animals
Improperly handled food
Contaminated Water

Ergonomic Hazards
A. Physical:

Poor work, task design

Repetitive motion
Prolonged sitting
Poor layout
Poor posture
Improper lifting and handling

B. Environmental:


lighting, glare
temperature control
humidity control

Ergonomic Hazards.
C. Psycho-social

Work rest cycles

Violence, discrimination
Extraneous stress
Un-even work load
Lack of personnel space
Poor inter staff relationships

When determining controls, or considering changes to existing

controls, consideration shall be given to reducing risks
according to the following hierarchy:
1. Elimination
2. Substitution
3. Engineering Controls
4. Signage / Warnings & administrative controls.
5. Personal Protective Equipment.
The idea behind this hierarchy is that the control methods at
the top of the list are potentially more effective and
protective than those at the bottom.

Elimination and substitution, while most effective at reducing hazards, also tend to
be the most difficult to implement in an existing process.
If the process is still at the design or development stage, elimination and
substitution of hazards may be inexpensive and simple to implement. For an
existing process, major changes in equipment and procedures may be required to
eliminate or substitute for a hazard.
Engineering Controls involve changes in the physical features of the workplace.
When engineering solutions are not feasible, administrative controls offer
methods to reduce the exposure of workers to the identified hazard.
If administrative controls are not available, work practice controls should be
considered and finally personal protective equipment (PPE).
The preferred method for controlling ergonomics hazards is through engineering
techniques. When the design of the workplace reduces the magnitude of risk
factors, the likelihood of injury/illness is lessened.
As an example Engineering controls might include changing the weight of objects,
changing work surface heights, or purchasing lifting aids.

As an example for hearing loss prevention purposes, engineering controls are defined as any
modification or replacement of equipment, or related physical change at the noise source or along
the transmission path that reduces the noise level at the employee's ear.
Please note that hearing protectors do not constitute an Engineering control.
Typical engineering controls will involve:
1. Reducing noise at the source - Installing a muffler.
2. Interrupting the noise path - Erecting acoustical enclosures and barriers
3. Reducing reverberation - Installing sound absorbing material.
4. Reducing structure-borne vibration - Installing vibration pads and providing proper lubrication.

To use this example for explaining how OSH works let us say we install a sound proof booth for the
above then what aspects shall we require to address??
Work posture (sitting, standing, bending)
Environmental factors must be considered.
EF = Lighting, heating, and cooling must ensure comfort and be sufficient to prevent reduction in
efficiency and work quality.
Enclosures should be of adequate size.
The Enclosure must have enough window area to prevent claustrophobia.
The windows should be positioned carefully to enhance proper usage by employees.
The window glass may need to be tilted to prevent glare.

Administrative controls are workplace policy, procedures, and practices that

minimize the exposure of workers to risk conditions. They are considered less
effective than engineering controls in that they do not usually eliminate the
hazard. Rather, they lessen the duration and frequency of exposure to the risk
condition. Administrative controls are applied when the cost or practicalities of
engineering controls are prohibitive.
Examples of administrative controls include work permits, rest breaks, additional
employees performing a lifting task, and housekeeping for tools and work areas.
As an example, for Hearing loss prevention, Administrative controls that may be
used are changes in the work schedule or operations which reduce noise
Operating a noisy machine on the second or third shift when fewer people are
exposed, or shifting an employee to a less noisy job once a hazardous daily noise
limit has been reached.
Work breaks in quiet areas where employees can gain relief from workplace noise.
Areas used for work-breaks and lunch rooms located away from noise.
The least effective controls are PPE as the worker is still exposed to the risk factor.

What will be the Employee Responsibilities ??

Because the employees who operate or maintain and
repair the equipment are often the ones who know most
about the processes involved, they need to express their
concerns and ideas to management.
This should be done through the OSH Employee
This will ensure that the noise-control devices will be as
practical and effective as possible.
Employees also have the responsibility of learning to
operate their machines with the noise controls in place, of
maintaining the controls properly, and of notifying the
appropriate personnel when additional maintenance is

Individual OH&S responsibilities

Health and safety is the joint responsibility of management and employees / workers. Management is
accountable for non-compliance to health and safety legislation. All health and safety activities are
based on specific individual responsibilities.
Responsibility may be defined as an individual's obligation to carry out assigned duties.
Individual responsibilities apply to every employee in the workplace, including the Managing Director or
equivalently the Ships Captain and Chief Engineer.
To fulfil their individual responsibilities, the people must:
a). know what these responsibilities are
b). have sufficient authority to carry them out
c). have the required ability and competence
Examples of responsibilities of workers include:
a). using personal protection and safety equipment as required by the employer
b). following safe work procedures
c). knowing and complying with all regulations
d). reporting any injury or illness immediately
e). reporting unsafe acts and unsafe conditions
f). participating in health and safety committees

More requirements Participation and consultation.

The organisation shall establish, implement & maintain a procedure(s) for
a). The participation of workers by their:
- appropriate involvement in hazard identification, risk assessment and
determination of controls.
- appropriate involvement in incident investigation.
- involvement in the development and review of OSH policies and
- consultation where there are any changes that affect their OSH and
- representation on OSH matters.
Workers shall be informed about their participation arrangements,
including who is their representative(s) on OSH matters.
b). Consultation with contractors where there are changes that affect their OSH.
The organisation shall ensure that when appropriate, relevant external interested
parties are consulted about pertinent OSH matters.
Interested Party: Person or group inside or outside the workplace concerned with or
affected by the OSH performance of an organisation.

1) Proactive OH&S Management - Reduced OH&S Risk

Management reduces OH&S risk by having a management system in place that clearly defines
roles and performance metrics. Improves compliance with OH&S legal requirements and helps
organizations become more proactive in managing OH&S issues.
2) Save Money
Provides a tool to identify and act on cost reduction initiatives related to OH&S expenses (WSIB
premiums, lost productivity, fines, etc).
3) Marketing & Goodwill Opportunity
OHSAS 18001 registration will have some customers and employees perceiving management as
being proactive, responsible and serious about OH&S concerns.
4) Continuous Improvement
OHSAS 18000 provides a tool to identify and act on cost takeout and other improvement
opportunities. OHSAS 18001 requires the Management Team to be more responsible for
continuous improvement

Hazards & Risks
Eyes/ Sight,
Body/ limbs,
Long term health

Legal Requirements

Your Business
Routine activities
Non-routine activities
Activities involving
visitors & contractors


OH&S Objectives

Manage OH & S Objectives

Reduce Hazards & Risks
Ensure Legal Diligence

Support Processes of OHSAS 18001

Mgmt Resp.
& Review

OH & S


Flow & control



Consultation &

Corr & Prev




The trick is to do it in a cost-effective and user-friendly manner. The system

needs to be low-impact in terms of the time needed to maintain it.

1. What is OSH ?
An Occupational Safety and Health Management
2. What are the main points?
Conditions and factors that affect or could affect the
safety and health of employees, Or other workers,
visitors or other person at the workplace.
3. How is it done?
By Hazard identification, Risk assessment, risk
mitigation corrective preventive actions & control
4. What is preventive action?
Action to prevent occurrence.

5. What is corrective action?

Action to prevent re-occurrence.
6. Is that all??
No additionally by monitoring the effectiveness of controls
and through continual improvement.
7. Who are the OSH Management Representatives?
Mr. S. Yoshida OSHMR & Mr. H. Kubo is the secondary OSHMR.
8. Who are the Osh Employee Representatives?
M/s Hazel Cheung & Mr. Sanjeev N. Kurungodan.
9. What is the role of OSH Employee Representatives?
To ensure employee involvement in OSH matters.
To represent employees & convey OSH matters from employees
to Management and from Management to Employees.
Educate employees on OSH matters.

Thank You Folks !!