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This paper presents the Adaptive Noise Cancellation using Delta Controlled Affine Projection Algorithm to adaptively filter the noise using a concept of minimum absolute mean square error. It is very simple with less computational complexity. All the computer simulations are carried out in Matlab software. Results are presented graphically to illustrate the improvement of performance. Performance in terms of Signal to noise ratio (SNR) is also presented in tabular form.

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Volume: 2 Issue: 2

ISSN: 2321-8169

298 301

______________________________________________________________________________________

Algorithm

Rajul Goyal

PankajShukla

Technical Education

Govt. of Rajasthan, India

goyalrajul@yahoo.co.in

Rajasthan Technical University

Kota, India

shukla_pec@rediffmail.com

Rajasthan Technical University

Kota, India

parmar_girish2002@yahoo.com

AbstractThis paper presents the Adaptive Noise Cancellation using Delta Controlled Affine Projection Algorithm to adaptively filter the noise

using a concept of minimum absolute mean square error. It is very simple with less computational complexity. All the computer simulations are

carried out in Matlab software. Results are presented graphically to illustrate the improvement of performance. Performance in terms of Signal to

noise ratio (SNR) is also presented in tabular form.

Keywords-component; formatting; style; styling; insert (key words)

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

I.

INTRODUCTION

estimate of the noise signal using an Adaptive Flter and

subtract it from the corrupted signal. The error signal is used

to adapt the tap weight vectors of adaptive filter so as to

minimize the noise. By ANC, higher levels of noise rejection

are attainable without apriori estimates of signal or noise. The

level of cancellation of noise components in corrupted signal

depend on the difference between the estimated characteristics

and actual characteristics of unknown channel, which decides

the accuracy of desired signal obtained at the output.

In the Least Mean Square (LMS) based adaptive noise

cancellation less number of operations are required to make one

complete iteration of the algorithm. However, since

convergence rate is relatively slow, it allows the algorithm to

adapt slowly to a stationary environment of unknown at higher

speeds with less computational complexity [1].

APA is a generalization of the well known Normalized

Least Mean Square (NLMS) algorithm. Under this

interpretation, each tap weight update of NLMS is viewed as a

one dimensional affine projection. In APA the projections are

made in multiple dimensions. As the projection dimension

increases, so does the convergence speed of the tap weight

vector, and unfortunately, the algorithms computational

complexity [2]. APA updates the weights based on K previous

input vectors, where, K is projection order of the APA [3]. Like

NLMS algorithm, convergence speed and the steady state

misalignment of the conventional APA is governed by the step

size [4]. In conventional APA a matrix inversion is required,

therefore some numerical problems arise caused by ill

conditioned matrix. To avoid this problem a diagonal matrix is

added to the matrix to be inverted. This diagonal matrix is often

chosen as the identity matrix multiplied by a positive constant

called the regularization parameter or delta [1], [5]. The

noise. The rule of thumb for this is: the more is the noise, the

larger the value of the delta [6]. The use of regularization factor

makes the APA more robust to both perturbations and model

uncertainties [7].

Here, in this paper, a delta controlled affine projection

algorithm is proposed to adaptively filter the reference noise

using a concept of minimum absolute mean square error. It is

very simple with less computational complexity. The rults are

tabulated in SNR sense and the mean square error is

graphically presented.

II.

SYSTEM MODEL

this paper is as shown in figure 1 followed with a description.

The variables described here are used in the proposed

algorithm.

noise signal v(n) is to obtain a desired signal d(n). Here a

sinusoidal signal of varying frequency is taken as s(n) and

a white guassian noise passed through an autoregressive

process is considered as v(n). Thus, d(n) = s(n) + v(n). To

simulate the proposed algorithm K recent samples of d(n)

298

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Volume: 2 Issue: 2

ISSN: 2321-8169

298 301

______________________________________________________________________________________

are considered at a time, so that, d(n) = [d(n),d(n1),..,d(n-K+1)]T.

Input to the adaptive filter, u(n) is is reference noise

correlated with v(n). In this deal, it is white guassian

noise passed through a moving average process.

u(n)= [u(n),..,u(n-L+1)]T

(1)

v(n) and u(n) both are uncorrelated with s(n).

w(n) is tap weight vector of adaptive filter, w(n) =

[w0(n),wL-1(n-1)]T.

y(n) is output of adaptive filter.

This output is subtracted from desired signal to get error

signal e(n), where,

e(n) = [e0(n),e1(n),..,eK-1(n)]T

For Delta Controlled APA structure of excitation signal

matrix A(n) for adaptive filter is L by N, such that,

A(n) = [u(n),u(n-1),..,u(n-K+1)] (2)

K is projection order of APA.

L is length of the adaptive filter.

I is K by K identity matrix.

is adaptation constant in the range 0 1.

Filter structure is taken as finite impulse response (FIR).

III.

(9)

Thus, to minimize error, (n) is given by,

(10)

And the optimal value of delta is given by,

(11)

Since, signal to noise ratio is defined by,

(12)

Where,

(13)

These are variances of s(n) and v(n) respectively.

Initialize:

Filter order L

Projection Order K

Step Size

Delta

Number of iteration N

Tap weight vector w(0)

matrix during matrix inversion in conventional APA , a

diagonal identity matrix multiplied with a constant called delta

is added. This parameter delta() is highly influenced by the

level of the system noise. As the noise increases, the larger

value of delta is required. However it is not easy to tune the

value of this constant in noisy environments [8].

In this brief, choice of the delta is based on attenuation of

the effects of the noise in the adaptive filter estimate. By

controlling the delta, it became possible to improve the

convergence speed and the misalignment. The Nth order affine

projection algorithm is defined as,

(3)

(4)

(5)

Here, e(n) is a priori error. In order to minimize the difference

between the estimated and the true adaptive filter coefficients,

the l2 norm of the a posterior error (n) is equal to the noise

variance and the a posteriori error is defined as,

(6)

Substituting for d(n) from equation (3) and then for w(n+1)

from equation (5) it becomes,

Read :

Desired Response d(n)=s(n)+v(n)

Input as Reference noise u(n)

Read K most recent data of:

Input AH(n)=[u(n),......u(n-K+1)

Desired response dH(n)=[d(n)...d(n-K+1)]

Compute error signal e(n)=d(n) AT(n)W(n)

Update the tap weight vector by APA

W(n+1) = W(n) + A(n)S(n)e(n)

0 = min ( + 1) 2 ()

Compute n = n+1

yes

If n = N

no

Calculate minimum mean square error as

[ ( + 1 () 2

(7)

(8)

To control the delta, the criterion is to minimize expectation of

the l2 norm of the system error and the system error is defined

as,

For minimum error, variance of estimated output power should

approximate to actual signal power i.e.

299

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Volume: 2 Issue: 2

ISSN: 2321-8169

298 301

______________________________________________________________________________________

(14)

(15)

Where,

is variance of output. In order to attenuate the

effects of the noise in the adaptive filter, it is reasonable to find

in such a way that,

amplitude

4

2

0

-2

-4

200

400

600

(16)

time in seconds

1400

1600

1800

2000

SIMULATION RESULTS

4

noisy signal

filtered signal

2

amplitude

Number of iterations : 2000

Order of filter

: 20

Projection order

:4

Initial delta

: 0.001

Initial tap weight vector: [0,0,.,0]

Time response and frequency response of frequency

varying sinusoidal signal applied as the actual signal

at primary input is are shown in figure 3 & 4

respectively.

Reference noise as input to adaptive filter is as shown

in figure 4.

Time and frequency response of unknown input signal

at primary sensor i.e. noisy signal of which noise has

to be cancelled and the filtered signal at output of

Adaptive Noise Canceller are as shown in figure 6

and 7 respectfully.

Mean square error of adaptive noise canceller is as

shown in figure 8.

For different values of variables SNR of output is

tabulated in table I.

-2

-4

200

400

600

800

1000 1200

time in seconds

1400

1600

1800

2000

0.4

noisy signal

filtered signal

0.3

magnitude

IV.

0.2

0.1

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

frequency

6000

7000

8000

ANC

5

4

MSE

amplitude

0.5

3

2

1

0

-0.5

-1

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

time in seconds

1400

1600

1800

200

400

600

number of iterations

1400

1600

1800

2000

2000

0.4

magnitude

0.3

0.2

0.1

1000

2000

3000

4000

frequency

5000

6000

7000

8000

300

IJRITCC | February 2014, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 2 Issue: 2

ISSN: 2321-8169

298 301

______________________________________________________________________________________

N

Final

Delta

*10-4

2000

0.100

06

2000

1.290

2000

SNR in dB

Gain

(b)-(a)

Initial

(a)

Final

(b)

40

-1.9933

5.8611

7.8544

06

20

-1.9933

6.4388

8.4321

0.036

04

40

-1.9933

5.5332

7.5265

2000

0.620

04

20

-1.9933

6.6976

8.6909

2000

0.514

08

40

-1.9933

5.7106

7.7039

2000

2.529

08

20

-1.9933

5.9583

7.9516

1000

3.075

06

40

-1.7087

4.5977

6.3064

1000

2.165

06

20

-1.7087

5.6252

7.3339

1000

3.121

04

40

-1.7087

3.7111

5.4198

1000

3.535

04

20

-1.7087

5.4852

7.1939

1000

5.314

08

40

-1.7087

4.8952

6.6039

1000

8.082

08

20

-1.7087

5.4446

7.1533

10000

0.828

08

40

-2.2397

6.2770

8.5167

10000

0.897

06

40

-2.2397

6.9030

9.1427

10000

2.064

04

40

-2.2397

7.4869

9.7266

TABLE I.

REFERENCES

V.

from table, higher SNR gain can be obtained with less number

of iterations and projection order increasing the speed.

[1]

River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp 27, 2002.

[2]

algorithm, in Proc. IEEE ICASSP 1995, Detroit, U.S.A.,

vol. 5, pp. 3023-3026, May 1995.

[3]

using an orthogonal projection to an affine subspace and

its properties, Electron. Commun. Jpn., vol. 67-A, no. 5,

pp. 19-27, 1984.

[4]

a family of affine projection algorithms, IEEE Trans.

Signal Process., vol. 52, no. 1, pp, 90-102, Jan. 2004.

[5]

Hoboken, NJ: jhon Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.

[6]

S.L. Gay, Advances in Network and Acoustic Echo

Cancellation. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2001.

[7]

explicit regularization in affine projection algorithm:

Robustness issues and optimal choice, IEEEmTrans.

Signal Process., vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 2096-2109, May 2007.

[8]

Optimally regularized adaptive filtering algorithms for

room acoustic signal enhancement, Signal Processing,

vol. 88, pp. 594-611, Mar. 2008.

CONCLUSIONS

keeping step size parameter constant. It has increased the

convergence speed. It removes the wide rage of unwanted

frequency components of noise signal than LMS algorithm and

conventional APA with faster convergence rate. Thus, it can be

concluded that this algorithm can cancel the noise components

added suddenly due to varying channel response without

301

IJRITCC | February 2014, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

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