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Journal of Food Engineering 116 (2013) 170–175

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Journal of Food Engineering
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jfoodeng

Rheological properties and stability of oil-in-water emulsions containing
tapioca maltodextrin in the aqueous phase
Sunsanee Udomrati a,b, Shinya Ikeda c, Shoichi Gohtani c,⇑
a

Department of Food Science, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Ehime University, Ehime, Japan
Institute of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
c
Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan
b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 22 May 2012
Received in revised form 17 October 2012
Accepted 18 October 2012
Available online 15 November 2012
Keywords:
Coalescence
Critical flocculation concentration
Emulsion
Flocculation
Maltodextrin
Shear thinning behavior

a b s t r a c t
The present research focuses on the effect of the concentration and dextrose equivalent (DE) values of
tapioca maltodextrin in the aqueous phase on rheological behavior and stability of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with Tween80. The critical flocculation concentrations (CFCs) of oil-in-water emulsions
containing tapioca maltodextrin with DE of 16 (DE16), 12 (DE12) and 9 (DE9) were 11%, 9% and 7%
(w/w) respectively, as revealed by transmittance measurement. Coalescence was observed as maltodextrin concentration increased above the CFC. The rheological parameters of flow behavior index (n) and
consistency index (k) have been well-described by the Herschel–Bulkley model. The relative consistency
index (krelative) increased markedly when the concentration of maltodextrin exceeded the CFC because of
depleting flocculation. The consistency index (kemulsion) and yield stress (s0) of emulsions containing tapioca maltodextrin increased with increasing maltodextrin concentration or decreasing DE. The emulsions
containing maltodextrin showed Newtonian flow behavior when the maltodextrin concentration was
below the CFC. At maltodextrin concentrations above the CFC, emulsions containing maltodextrin exhibited shear thinning behavior. An increase in the maltodextrin concentration resulted in a decrease in the
nemulsion until maltodextrin concentration reached 20% (w/w) for DE9, DE12 and 25% (w/w) for DE16. Further increase in the maltodextrin concentration resulted in an increased the nemulsion because of predominant influence of the continuous phase.
Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion is a dispersed system that consists
of oil droplets dispersed in an immiscible aqueous medium
(McClements, 2005; Shaw, 1992). Emulsions tend to break down
during storage due to their thermodynamic instabilities. Flocculation is an early process of emulsion breakdown whereby two or
more droplets (or flocs) stick together to form an aggregate without losing their individual integrity. Coalescence is another breakdown process occurring at a later stage whereby flocculated
droplets merge into a single daughter droplet (McClements,
2005). The occurrence of flocculation and coalescence in an O/W
emulsion results in a modification of rheological properties due
to the alteration of the effective hydrodynamic volume of the dispersed phase. Udomrati et al. (2011) found that the viscosity of an
O/W emulsion increases as more flocculation occurs. An increase in
the viscosity can have a positive impact on the quality of an

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel./fax: +81 878 91 3103.
E-mail address: gohtani@ag.kagawa-u.ac.jp (S. Gohtani).
0260-8774/$ - see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.10.032

emulsion food in that the rate of deterioration of the product is
retarded; however, a thickened mouth-feel can be detrimental to
the sensory quality depending on the nature of the product and
consumer preference.
Polysaccharides are widely used in food emulsions to control
the extent of flocculation and coalescence through manipulation
of rheological properties of the aqueous phase as well as to control
interaction potentials between dispersed particles (Klinkesorn
et al., 2004; Dickinson, 2003). Flocculation can be kinetically prevented by increasing the viscosity of the aqueous phase, or promoted by the presence of polysaccharides in the aqueous phase
that reinforces attractive interactions between dispersed oil droplets through the depletion mechanism (Dickinson and Euston,
1991; Dickinson, 1995). When attractive interactions between oil
droplets become high enough to overcome repulsive interactions,
flocculation occurs. The critical flocculation concentration (CFC)
can be defined as the threshold polysaccharide concentration of
flocculation (Dickinson, 2003). The CFC of an emulsion is an important property for emulsions containing macromolecules because
the CFC can used to control the stability and properties of
emulsion. Currently, the CFC of emulsions are measured with the

. (b) the rheological behavior of emulsion containing maltodextrin which relates maltodextrin concentration and DE value by using Herschel–Bulkley model. Darmstadt. Determination of the critical flocculation concentration (CFC) with turbidity measurement An approximately 30 ll volume of liquid from the middle of the serum layer of the creamed emulsions was transferred into . respectively.. at higher polysaccharide concentrations (>0. (Bangkok. The fresh emulsions described above were mixed with the aqueous solutions of maltodextrin and stirred using a magnetic stirrer for 10 min. 21%. 7% and 5. respectively. (Tokyo. (Tokyo. (2011) found that the CFC of emulsions containing tapioca maltodextrin with DE 16.. (2003) found that guar gum induces flocculation of emulsion droplets at relatively low concentrations 0. evaluating. The results obtained in this study. DE 9 and 16 compared to DE 10 and 15 used in the present study and Klinkesorn’s study.1% (w/w) of sodium azide as an antimicrobial agent.0% (w/w) of Tween 80 in purified water containing 0. Maltodextrin is a partially depolymerized starch (Domagała et al. USA) at 680 and 70 bars for the first and second stages respectively.e. differ from findings of Klinkesorn et al. Dismic-25 cs. Toyo Roshi Kaisha. tapioca maltodextrin of DE12 and DE9 in O/W emulsions were found to prevent the formation of a cream layer of separated oil on top of an emulsion and to inhibit coalescence when the maltodextrin concentration was greater than 40% (w/w) and 35% (w/w). 2004. Japan) and injected at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. designing.3. Thailand). France) for 5 min and then homogenizing the blend for four cycles using a two-stage high-pressure homogenizer (LAB 2000. Food grade Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monoleate) was purchased from Nikko Co. respectively). Additionally. 20. Ltd. s0 c_ k ksolution kemulsion krelative M yield stress (Pa) shear rate (s1) consistency index (Pa sn) consistency index of maltodextrin solution (Pa sn) consistency index of emulsion containing maltodextrin (Pa sn) relative consistency index (dimensionless) weight – average molecular mass (g/mol) 2.1. 2. The dn/dc (ml/g) values used were determined by the refractive index (RI) detector (Optilab rEX. 2005). wheat. 12 and 9 were 11%. Ltd. Herschel– Bulkley and Casson models have been widely used to describe flow behavior of food products including emulsions (Izidoro et al.2% (w/w) of Tween 80 and 0.S. Materials Tapioca maltodextrins of dextrose equivalent values of 9 (DE9). so this study compared these methods using emulsions exposed to the same conditions.. A number of mathematical models. 0.5% (w/w). 2007). Analytical grade sodium azide (NaN3) (Nacalai Tesque. Maltodextrins were dispersed in purified water at various concentrations (0–35% (w/w)) and then stirred using a magnetic stirrer for 30 min. since starch from various botanicals (i. USA). 12 (DE12) and 16 (DE16) were supplied by Corn Products Co.4)-linked a-d-glucopyranosyl residues of variable lengths with some (1. USA). 2. Japan). Determination of molecular weight of maltodextrin by MALLS-RI The weight-average molecular mass (M) of maltodextrin was measured by multi-angel laser-light-scattering (MALLS) (DAWN EOS. The final emulsions contained 5% (w/w) of soybean oil. Samples were filtered (0. / Journal of Food Engineering 116 (2013) 170–175 171 Nomenclature CFC DE n nsolution nemulsion nrelative s critical flocculation concentration (% w/w) dextrose equivalent (dimensionless) flow behavior index (dimensionless) flow behavior index of maltodextrin solution (dimensionless) flow behavior index of emulsion containing maltodextrin (dimensionless) relative flow behavior index (dimensionless) shear stress (Pa) rheological method (Klinkesorn et al. chain-length distribution. and tapioca) vary in amylose content. in some cases.g. Wyatt tech. 21%. potato. Kyoto. although the DE values were very similar (e.. Fresh O/W emulsions were prepared by blending 20% (w/w) of soybean oil with 80% (w/w) of the aqueous emulsifier solution using a high-speed homogenizer (Ultra turrax T25. 2009). Japan).075% (w/w). consisting mainly of (1. 2004) and the microscopic method (Sun et al. corn. Germany) were used.. such as mixing and piping equipment and pumps (Maskan and GÖgus. the turbidity method (Klinkesorn et al. 15 and 10 in the aqueous phase start to flocculate at saccharide concentrations of 35%. 17% and 13% (w/w). Emulsions containing DE16 showed creaming throughout the experiment in a concentration range between 15% and 50% (w/w). McClements. and molecular weight. An aqueous solution of the emulsifier was prepared by dissolving 1. 2006). the creaming rate was reduced. The purposes of the present study are to investigate: (a) the differences in the CFC determining method.2.. Velez et al. A partially depolymerized starch product with a DE value over 20 may be referred to as glucose syrup. (2011). Maltodextrin is defined as a partially depolymerized starch product with a DE value of less than 20 (Storz and Steffens. Corp. and operating food processing equipment. However. IKA Janke and Kunke. the significance of the difference in these CFC measuring methods has not been evaluated. Purified water was prepared using a Barnstead E-pure system (Dubuque.02% (w/w) of NaN3. Udomrati et al.4. Soybean oil was purchased from Nisshin Oillio Group. (2004) found that emulsions containing corn maltodextrins or glucose syrup with DE values of 36. Rheological properties of emulsions have a significant impact on stability and engineering calculations for handling. 2004). (2004). USA) with a He–Ne laser source (k = 690 nm) and a K-5 flow cell.2 lm. APVGualin. Wyatt tech. 2000). Klinkesorn et al.1%). such as power-law. 25. To date. These differences may have been caused by the differences in the source of starch. Ltd. Materials and methods 2. Temperature of the RI detector was set at 25 °C... 2. and (c) the relationship between rheological behavior and the stability of these emulsions. Emulsion preparation Emulsions with maltodextrins were prepared as described by Udomrati et al. Japan) and perylene (Merck. respectively..6)-linkages. Udomrati et al. Corp.

was monitored using a UV–visible spectrophotometer (Ubest-30. The horizontal line represents the transmittance of an O/W emulsion containing 1% (w/w) oil and no maltodextrin. The very small flocs. 2. nrelativ e ¼ nemulsion nsolution ð3Þ where nrelative is the relative flow behavior index (dimensionless). 8% and 6% (w/w) for DE16. Japan). Brookfield.0 lm. JASCO. it is reasonable to conclude that the transmittance method slightly overestimates the CFC. For all maltodextrin (DE 16. Emulsions were stirred continuously throughout the measurement to ensure a homogenous dispersion of the emulsion droplets. we found that the CFC of DE16. n is the dimensionless flow behavior index.190 g/mol. s0 is the yield stress (Pa). The relative flow behavior index (nrelative) was obtained from the following equation: Fig. Ltd. As molecular weight of maltodextrin molecules increased. and k is the consistency index (Pa sn). nemulsion is the flow behavior index of emulsion containing maltodextrin (dimensionless) and nsolution is the flow behavior index of maltodextrin solution (dimensionless). 10. respectively. 1. 3. (2004). Results and discussion 2. The small difference between the CFC values is due to observation at the different stages of flocculation of emulsion.2. 7% and 5. Purified water was used as the reference. (2004). 1 shows the data of transmittance of emulsion containing maltodextrin after storage at 25 °C for 3 days. Samples were placed in the measurement cell of the viscometer and allowed to equilibrate at 25 °C.5 lm..6 lm (Fig..500 and 13. Rheological analysis Shear stress (s) of emulsions containing maltodextrin and shear stress of maltodexrin solutions of varied concentrations were measured using a cone and plate type viscometer. Microscopic analysis A fluorescence microscope (BX51. at a wavelength of 600 nm. The CFC values as determined by the microscopic method were 11%. Transmittance of O/W emulsions containing maltodextrin with varied concentrations and DE values in the aqueous phase. Japan). DE12 and DE9 were 5182. Toki Sangyo. the angle and the gap were 1°340 and 12. and 9).. the where s is the shear stress (Pa). The angle and the gap between the cone and plate were 0. DE12 and DE9. respectively when the relative viscosity of the emulsion was higher than one (Udomrati et al. The transmittance of a non-creamed 1% (w/w) oil-in-water emulsion was used as the reference point. emulsions were diluted before measurement. The determined CFC corresponds to the maltodextrin concentration. as shown in Fig. DE12 and DE9 were 11%. Influence of maltodextrin concentration and DE on oil droplet size The average diameter of oil droplets in the fresh emulsion was about 0. Japan) using a standard cone. c_ is the shear rate (s1). The high maltodextrin concentration samples were measured by viscometer (TV-20H.. USA) using cone number CPE-40.6. DE12 and DE9 were equal to 11%. . respectively. kemulsion is the consistency index of emulsion containing maltodextrin (Pa sn) and ksolution is the consistency index of maltodextrin solution (Pa sn). and the differences in the resulting measures are minimal. Experimental data was fitted to the Herschel–Bulkley model (Nikovska. 2011). The molecular weight of maltodextrin DE16.5% (w/w).8° and 13.1. 12. It was confirmed that higher molecular weight of maltodextrins is more effective in promoting depletion flocculation because of the increasing depletion attraction potential (Udomrati et al. Samples were excited at wavelengths of 330–384 nm and observation was performed at a wavelength of 420 nm using an optical filter (U-MWU2. respectively. Japan) after storage at 25 °C for 3 days. 9% and 7% (w/w). The transmittance. Determination of average oil droplet size The average diameter of oil droplets in emulsions was determined using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer (SALD-3000. The CFC was determined according to the method of Klinkesorn et al. Olympus. The shear stress of the sample was measured in the range of shear rate 5–225 s1.5. Jafari et al. To avoid multiple scattering effects. Shimadzu Co. / Journal of Food Engineering 116 (2013) 170–175 cuvettes with a 10 mm path length and then diluted with 3 ml of purified water. 3. This instrument measures the angular dependence of the intensity of light scattered from a dilute emulsion under stirring.172 S. Udomrati et al. 2012) which is represented by the equation shown below. occurred at 7% (w/w) for DE12. Thus. flocculation occurred at lower maltodextrin concentrations. 2011). The solid line represents the transmittance from an emulsion sample and the dotted line represents the transmittance from the reference in accordance with the method of Klinkesorn et al. Olympus. Oil droplets were stained by mixing an approximately 5 ml volume of an emulsion sample and a 50 ll volume of perylene solution (1 mM in acetone) prior to microscopic observation. We think that the transmittance method is useful to determine the CFC because it is easier to use than the microscopic method and the rheological method. The determined CFC of DE16. Japan) was used to determine the microstructure of the emulsions. 2. 3). In a previous study.7. at which 80% of oil in an initial emulsion flocculates and forms a cream layer on top. 2. s ¼ s0 þ k  cn ð1Þ 3. Shear stress readings were taken after subjecting the sample to shear for 1 min. The CFC values of maltodextrin of DE12 and DE9 determined by spectroscopy (transmittance method) and microscopy in the present study are a little larger than those reported in previous studies. respectively. 2010. The relative consistency index (krelative) was calculated by following equation: krelativ e ¼ kemulsion ksolution ð2Þ where krelative is the relative consistency index (dimensionless). Influence of means of measurement on CFC of emulsions with maltodextrins Fig. The samples which contained low maltodextrin concentration were measured with a viscometer (DV-III Ultra. respectively (Table 1). which were not observable with microscopy because of the resolution limit of the microscope.

Flow curves of O/W emulsions containing varied concentration of DE9 in the aqueous phase. but there was no indication of influence from DE of maltodextrin. / Journal of Food Engineering 116 (2013) 170–175 173 Fig. 3. 2. When the concentration was above 20%. 2002). 2002). 4. flocculation was observed for DE9 and DE12 under the microscope. At a maltodextrin concentration of 10% (w/w). and DE16 in the aqueous phase. This may be attributed to the long-chain glucose unit fractions of maltodextrin. Mean diameter of oil droplets in fresh O/W emulsion and O/W emulsions diluted from those containing varied concentrations of DE9.. 2009. 5. Table 1 Weight – average molecular mass of the maltodextrin molecules. Data points are presented in average of three replications with maximum standard deviation of 0. Udomrati et al. the droplet size increased with increasing maltodextrin Fig. the population of large droplets increased. An increase in the large size droplets indicates that attractive interactions between flocculated oil droplets are sufficiently strong and/ or coalescence has occurred. 4. DE12 (b) and DE16 (c) in the aqueous phase. Wu et al. 3. 1) with the regression coefficients (r2) of more than 0. DE12. The droplet size distribution of emulsions containing DE16 and 12 maltodextrin were similar (data not shown).S.3. However. 2009 and Ibanoglu. 3).. The droplet size distribution of emulsions containing DE9 is shown in Fig. 2a and b. Both the ksolution and the kemulsion increased with an increase in the Fig. . which are more efficient in increasing the resistance to flow (Ibanoglu. indicating that the attractive interaction between flocculated oil droplets was not large enough to induce coalescence. The present results suggest that coalescence is promoted as the maltodextrin concentration increases. Fig. 5 shows flow curves of emulsions containing DE9 wellfitted to the Herschel–Burkley model (Eq. Maltodextrin M (g/mol) DE16 DE12 DE9 5182 ± 155 10500 ± 313 13190 ± 599 concentration because of the occurrence of flocculation and coalescence. Optical micrograph of O/W emulsions containing varied concentrations of DE9 (a). The solid lines represent Herschle–Bulkley relationships between the shear stress and the shear rate. at maltodextrin concentrations above 15% (w/ w).999 (Table 2). Droplet size distribution in emulsion containing maltodextrin DE9 with different concentrations. but the droplet sizes were unchanged. as shown in Fig. The consistency index (k) is an indicator of the viscous nature of fluids (de Cassia da Fonseca et al. Influence of maltodextrin concentration and DE on the rheological behavior of emulsions Fig. size of oil droplets in diluted emulsions remained unchanged when the maltodextrin concentration was increased up to 15% (w/w) (Fig.3 lm. The consistency index of maltodextrin solution (ksolution) and the consistency index of emulsions containing maltodextrin (kemulsion) increased with both decreasing DE and increasing concentration of maltodextrin (Tables 2 and 3).

7).0004 0. The value of the nsolution is almost one in all cases.0021 ± 0.006 0.004 0.0167 ± 0.0108 ± 0.005 0. At a maltodextrin concentration above the CFC.004 0. The s0 of emulsion containing maltodextrin tended to increase as the maltodextrin concentration increased because of increasing strength of the attractive force in the emulsion system (Table 2).051 0.0019 0.0000 0. Table 3 Consistency index of maltodextrin solutions varied concentrations and DE values. The krelative was proposed by Ayora et al. Udomrati et al.054 ± 0.0196 ± 0.0016 ± 0.0155 ± 0.038 ± 0.0011 ± 0.0003 0. The flow behavior index of maltodextrin solutions (nsolution) and the relative flow behavior index (nrelative) are shown in Fig.0068 ± 0.0002 0.0017 ± 0. 2005). The krelative tended to increase with increasing maltodextrin concentration until it reached of the maximum value. (2009) who found that an addition of a higher concentration of xanthan and carboxymethyl cellulose in salad dressing increased the apparent viscosity and the k and with Wu et al.004 ± 0.044 ± 0. and the flow behavior index did not exhibit shear thinning behavior (Fig.074 ± 0.002 0.238 ± 0.0212 ± 0. Maltodextrin concentration (% w/w) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 DE16 DE12 n DE9 n s0 (Pa) kemulsion (Pa s ) s0 (Pa) kemulsion (Pa s ) s0 (Pa) kemulsion (Pa sn) 0. the increase in the kemulsion was related to the increase in maltodextrin concentration.0002 0.0023 ± 0.003 0.002 ± 0.0001 0.0025 ± 0.034 ± 0. (1997) to explain the rheological behavior for complex suspension systems.0001 Fig. Relative consistency index (krelative) of O/W emulsions containing maltodextrin varied concentrations and DE values in the aqueous phase. indicating that the attractive interaction between flocculated oil droplets was very weak and was not able to induce a change in the k. / Journal of Food Engineering 116 (2013) 170–175 Table 2 Rheological characteristics of emulsions containing maltodextrin varied concentrations and DE values.0109 ± 0.0001 0.0014 ± 0.0066 ± 0. 7.002 ± 0.0001 0. as shown in Fig.0000 0.0001 0.001 0.117 ± 0.0013 ± 0. and also might be related to the depletion flocculation occurrence.0009 ± 0.0000 0.0000 0.0347 ± 0.0028 ± 0.0005 0.0009 0.0001 0.0079 ± 0.0001 0.0011 ± 0.0000 0.0182 ± 0.0001 0.001 0.021 ± 0.009 0.004 ± 0.0041 ± 0. At a maltodextrin concentration of 15% (w/w) for DE16 and 10% (w/w) for DE12 and DE9.0001 0. Maltodextrin concentration (% w/w) DE16 ksolution (Pa sn) DE12 ksolution (Pa sn) DE9 ksolution (Pa sn) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0.029 ± 0.0013 0.007 0.0001 0.0000 0. These results show that .006 0.174 S. 7.107 ± 0.261 ± 0.0051 ± 0.0002 0. who found that k of emulsions containing galactomannan polysaccharides in the aqueous phase increased with the increase of the molecular weight of galactomannan.0056 R2 > 0.0001 0.207 ± 0. It is thought that the krelative is also useful to explain the cause of rheological behavior of emulsion in the complex systems.999.210 ± 0.001 0. (2009).0005 0. These results confirmed that the oil droplet sizes were unchanged at the above mentioned concentrations (15% (w/w) and 10% (w/w)). regardless of an increase in the concentration or DE value. The maltodextrin molecules become less mobile and show more resistance to flow.0001 0.0006 0.0178 ± 0.0005 0.0007 0.0001 0.0414 ± 0.0018 ± 0. de Cassia da Fonseca et al. 6.0002 0. An increase in the krelative can be caused by depleting flocculation as the effective volume fraction of the particles in the system increases due to the presence of the continuous phase trapped between the droplets in the flocs (McClements. These results were confirmed by an obvious increase in the relative consistency index (krelative) above the CFC as shown in Fig. concentration of maltodextrin because of an increase in the number of maltodextrin molecules per unit volume of aqueous and/or a continuous phase increase.0256 ± 0.0015 ± 0.0501 ± 0.004 0. It is reasonable to state that both the ksolution and the kemulsion increased with decreasing DE and/or increasing concentration.0067 ± 0.011 0. It is thought that maltodextrin in the aqueous phase may have a major effect on the kemulsion at high concentration.014 0.019 ± 0. 2 but they showed the krelative values as same as the krelative of the lower concentrations.0056 ± 0.004 0. These results concur with Fig.0001 0.003 0.0275 ± 0.0002 0.002 0. flocculation was observed under the microscope as shown in Fig.0044 ± 0. Further increase in concentration resulted in a decrease in the krelative.0017 ± 0.0012 0.0148 ± 0.0216 ± 0.0030 ± 0.0001 0.0026 ± 0.011 ± 0.0086 ± 0.0001 0.0266 ± 0.0047 0.167 ± 0.000 0.043 ± 0.0013 ± 0. 3. 6.0014 0. Flow behavior index (nsolution) of maltodextrin solution (closed symbols) and relative flow behavior index (nrelative) of O/W emulsions containing maltodextrin (open symbols) varied concentrations and DE values in the aqueous phase.0003 0.001 0.

Flocs are elongated and/or aligned in a strong shear field. An increase in the concentration or a decrease in DE value resulted in an increase in shear thinning behavior until maltodextrin concentration reached 25% (w/ w). Jafari. 2009). 1–11. Che Man. Practices. W.. I. K.. 2011). C. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 44. Rheological behavior and stability of Dlimonene emulsions made by a novel hydrocolloid (Angum gum) compared with Arabic gum. Both of these concentration ranges can be used to modify the viscosity in emulsion food products where controlled flocculation and coalescence are desired.. M. M. Bonczar..S. W. At a concentration slightly above the CFC. (Thailand) for generously donating maltodextrin. Tapioca maltodextrin is believed to allow successful control of the rheological 175 behavior and stability of the emulsions for various applications in food processing. 549–560.C... 1541–1553. 2009. 4. Nor Hayati. Sun. Coalescence also increased shear thinning behavior because the attraction forces among the larger droplets weakened and thus became more sensitive to lower shearing forces (Nor Hayati et al. E.W. Izidoro. 172–177. Sports. Gels and Colloids.. resulting in the reduction in the viscosity due to a reduced effective volume fraction of flocs (McClements. Tan. Florida.. second ed. J.. and Techniques..R. G.. flocculation was observed and shear thinning flow behavior became less pronounced. Dickinson.. UK. The less pronounced pseudoplasticity with increasing maltodextrin concentration may suggest that the flow behavior of emulsions is related to the colloidal nature of the continuous phase (Maskan and GÖgus. 2010. 1141–1146. Ltd. the shear thinning flow behavior was significantly more pronounced. Stability of food emulsion containing both protein and polysaccharide. 173–177. Wrexham. Emulsion stabilization by the polysaccharides and proteinpolysaccharide complexes. 1997. Comments on viscosity enhancement and depletion flocculation by polysaccharides. S. Effect of sugar on the rheological properties of sunflower oil–water emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids 14. Meunier.. Feasibility study for determination of the dextrose equivalent (DE) of starch hydrolysis products with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). 2006. R. The relative flow behavior index values also tended to decrease as concentration increased or DE value decreased. Shaw. These results are consistent with the finding of Ibanoglu (2002) who found that the rheological behavior of emulsions containing gum Arabic approaches Newtonian flow behavior as the gum concentration increases. (2004) who found that potato maltodxtrin solution at different concentrations (1–35%) exhibits Newtonian flow behavior. These results are consistent with the results of Loret et al.. Fernandez.. CRC Press. Finally. Quijano. Dickinson. Introduction to Colloid and Surface Chemistry. Domagała.. Ikeda. M. 2003. Mhlrquez. at concentrations below the CFC determined by transmittance method.. M.... RiOS. Dickinson. 2005. Rheological properties and texture of yoghurts when oat-maltodextrin is used as a fat substitute. Nor Aini.. The shear thinning behavior at maltodextrin concentrations above the CFC indicates the deformation and/or disruption of flocs in emulsions. This could be attributed to a high maltodextrin concentration or lower DE value of maltodextrin which is thought to be more effective in flocculation enhancement because the depletion attraction potential between the droplets increased with an increase in concentration or a decrease in DE value (Udomrati et al. 265–269.R.J.. fourth ed. 58–62.N. Rheological characterisation of the gelation behaviour of maltodextrin aqueous solutions... Y. we thank Associate Professor Peter Lutes for providing language assistance. Starch/Sträke 56. Hydrocolloids at interfaces and influence on the properties of disperse system. 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These ranges can also be used to maintain the viscosity of emulsion during high shear rate processing. V... . An investigation of four commercial galactomannans on their emulsion and rheological properties. I. M.M. Food Emulsions: Principles. Nikovska. T. At the highest maltodextrin concentration range.. E. Starch/Starke 63. 2003... 2012.D.. References Ayora. and Technology. F...... J. S. Steffens. Eskin. 2000. 1992. The effect of tapioca maltodextrins on the stability of oil-in-water emulsions. M.. 2007. 273–277.. Velez. In the intermediate concentration range. Sophanodora. 1991. 233–243. 2004. Acknowledgements This research was supported in-part by a grant from the Ministry of Education. C. V. as shown in Fig. 851–859. Food Hydrocolloids 21. Goff. Carbohydrate Polymers 57.. 173–177. 2004...K. 2000. de Cassia da Fonseca. Oxidative stability and rheological properties of oil-in-water emulsions with walnut oil. Sierakowski. D. McClements.. 2004... turbidity measurement may be a good alternative method for the CFC determination. E. Klinkesorn. Internatioanal Journal of Food Properties 9. Oxford. Rheological behaviour of whey protein stabilized emulsions in the presence of gum Arabic.. P. Butterworth-Heinemann. P. S. Science.B. Waszczynskyj. Frith. flocculation occurred without any shear thinning flow behavior. P. Food Research International 37. Food Hydrocolloids 23. M. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 52. 777–783. Cui. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 2..D.. Udomrati. S. P. A. Polymer Composites 18. 1995. Stability and rheology of corn oil-in-water emulsions containing maltodextrin. Conclusion According to our findings. D. S. Grega.. Beheshti.. Storz. R..J. Cambridge. I. McClements.. J.W. In: Food Polysaccharides and their Applications.C. Coalescence was observed at maltodextrin concentration above 15% (w/w). GÖgus. / Journal of Food Engineering 116 (2013) 170–175 the tapioca maltodextrin solution has Newtonian flow behavior. de Paula Scheer... Ibanoglu. However. Wu. 1–8. the emulsions exhibited shear thinning behavior for all DE values. We would like to thank Corn Product Co. As maltodextrin concentration increased above the CFC.H. 2009. 2009. E. The lowest maltodextrin concentration range below the CFC could be used to modify the mouth-feel of the emulsion without significant deterioration of the stability of the emulsion indicated by the absence of flocculation occurrence. 2002. Rheological properties of emulsions stabilized by green banana (Musa cavendishii) pulp fitted by power law model. The emulsions containing maltodextrin. Richards.. 2009. although some flocculation and coalescence were observed. M.D. 153– 163..A. Journal of Food Engineering 52. A. Assadpoor.. Munoz. R. Loret. G. 2000). Journal of Food Engineering 43. 2000). McClements. Food Research International 42. In: Food Polymers. Sierakowski. E..A. shear thinning behavior decreased with increasing maltodextrin concentration or decreasing DE value in the high concentration range.