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Food Research International 37 (2004) 851–859

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Stability and rheology of corn oil-in-water emulsions
containing maltodextrin
Utai Klinkesorn a, Pairat Sophanodora a, Pavinee Chinachoti b, D.J. McClements
a

b,*

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand
b
Department of Food Science, Chenoweth Laboratory, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
Received 14 April 2004; accepted 4 May 2004

Abstract
The influence of maltodextrin concentration (0–35 wt%) and dextrose equivalent (DE ¼ 10–36) on the stability and rheology of
5 wt% corn oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by Tween 80 was studied. Creaming stability, mean droplet diameter, f-potential, and
apparent shear viscosity of emulsions were measured. Rapid creaming was observed when the maltodextrin concentration exceeded
a particular value, referred to as the critical flocculation concentration (CFC), which was attributed to depletion flocculation caused
by the non-adsorbed maltodextrin. The CFC (wt%) decreased as the DE value of the maltodextrin decreased, i.e., as the molecular
weight increased. Above the CFC, emulsions showed a small increase (<15%) in mean droplet diameter (d43 ) after one week storage,
which was attributed to enhanced coalescence of the flocculated droplets. The apparent viscosity of emulsions increased steeply
when the maltodextrin concentration exceeded the CFC, and the emulsions exhibited distinct shear thining behavior. The results
were interpreted in terms of the impact of maltodextrin on the strength of the colloidal interactions between the emulsion droplets.
Addition of maltodextrins to emulsions can be used to create emulsions with different physicochemical and stability properties. 
2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Maltodextrin; Nonionic surfactant; Oil-in-water emulsion; Critical flocculation concentration; Rheology

1. Introduction
Maltodextrins and corn syrup solids are hydrolysis
products of starch consisting of a-(1,4) linked D -glucose
oligomers and/or polymers (Shahidi & Han, 1993). They
may be hydrolyzed by acid, enzyme, or acid/enzyme
combinations (Reineccius, 1991; Shahidi & Han, 1993).
They differ in average molecular size and are classifiled
on the basis of their dextrose equivalent (DE). Dextrose
equivalent is a measure of the reducing power of starchderived polysaccharide/oligosaccharides compared with
D -glucose on a dry-weight basis (Wang & Wang, 2000).
Normally, maltodextrins are defined as having a DE
value <20, whereas corn syrup solids are defined as
having a DE value P20 (Reineccius, 1991; Shahidi &
Han, 1993). Nevertheless, in this paper the term ‘‘mal*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-413-545-1019; fax: +1-413-5451262.
E-mail address: mcclements@foodsci.umass.edu (D.J. McClements).

0963-9969/$ - see front matter  2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2004.05.001

todextrin’’ will be used to include both maltodextrins
and corn syrup solids because they have similar properties and applications in food emulsions.
Maltodextrins with different DE values have different
physicochemical properties, including solubility, freezing temperature, viscosity, etc. (Dokic, Jakovljevic, &
Dokic-Baucal, 1998; Dokic-Baucal, Dokic, & Jakovljevic, 2004). However, maltodextrins with the same DE
value may also have different properties depending on
the hydrolysis procedure, source of starch (maize, potato, rice), and amylose to amylopectin ratio (DokicBaucal et al., 2004). Maltodextrins are widely used in
food emulsions as stabilizers (Chronakis & Kasapis,
1995; Chronakis, 1997; Dokic-Baucal et al., 2004; Hardas, Danviriyakul, Foley, Nawar, & Chinachoti, 2000;
Hogan, McNamee, O’Riordan, & O’Sullivan, 2001).
A stabilizer can be defined as single or mixed chemical
component that confers long-term stability on emulsions. Stabilisers may operate by acting as emulsifiers or
as texture modifiers (McClements, 1999). Emulsifiers are
surface-active ingredients that adsorb to the surface of

Texture modifiers are ingredients that increase the viscosity of the continous phase of emulsions so as to slow down the gravitational separation of the droplets. Maltodextrins are not particularly surface-active.0 using HCl or NaOH. Louis.02–5. Inc.. All the emulsion droplet size distributions were approximately log-normal and monomodal (Fig. Klinkesorn et al. Creaming of emulsion samples (10 ml or 67 mm) was monitored at room temperature by visual observation of the height of the serum layer formed at the bottom of glass tubes (HS ). These interactions could potentially alter the functionality of both the surfactant and the maltodextrin in an emulsion. In particular.8 wt% emulsifier) were made by blending 20 wt% corn oil with 80 wt% aqueous emulsifier solution using a high-speed blender (M133/1281-0. we have interpreted out results in terms of quantitative theories describing the influence of nonadsorbed biopolymers on colloidal interactions and emulsion rheology.. / Food Research International 37 (2004) 851–859 emulsion droplets and prevent them from aggregating. IA). Worcs. NJ) operating in the shear stress range 0. followed by one pass at 5000 psi through a two-stage high-pressure valve homogenizer (LAB 1000. ESGC.1 1 10 Diameter (µm) Fig. In addition.0 using HCl or NaOH. Switzerland).01.5 mm) with a thin layer of mineral oil on top of the sample to prevent water evaporation. In this work.02 wt%... (St. (Keokuk. 0.0 Pa. was obtained from Roquette America. molecular characteristics of maltodextrin. Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monoleate (Tween 80). the nature and strength of emulsion stability will depend on thesurfactant–polysaccharide interactions at the surface of the emulsion droplets as well as in the aqueous medium between the droplets (Dickinson. Droplet size distribution of diluted 5 wt% corn oil emulsion stabilized by Tween 80 for 30 wt% of maltodextrin DE20 after storage at room temperature for one week. & McClements. Emulsions containing maltodextrins as stabilizers therefore require an additional emulsifying agent for the production of a stable emulsion (Hogan et al. Rheological measurments were carried out at 30 C using a dynamic shear rheometer (Constant Stress Rheometer. MO). Wilmington. The emulsion was contained in a double-gap concentric cylinder cell (the diameter of the inner cylinder was 25 mm. Different maltodextrins were dissolved in double-distilled water at various concentration (0–45 wt%). 1. Materials and methods Maltodextrins with different DE. IA).1 wt% sodium azide as an antimicrobial agent. designated as DRI SWEET 36. NJ) purchased from a local supermarket was used. designated as M100. our objective was to systematically study the effects of maltodextrin type and concentration on the stability and rheology of oil-inwater emulsions stabilized by a non-ionic surfactant. 1). hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were purchased from the Sigma Chemical Co. 2. 0. 9 8 7 Frequency (vol %) 852 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0. UK). In an emulsion system containing surfactant and polysaccharide. The particle size distribution of the emulsions was measured using a static light scattering instrument (Malvern Mastersizer Model 3.2 wt% Tween 80. The pH of the solutions was adjusted to 7. Mazola corn oil (CPC International Inc. and the diameter of the outer cylinder was 27. will affect the overall rheology and stability of oil-inwater emulsions. 2003). To prevent multiple scattering effects the emulsions were diluted with double-distilled water prior to analysis so the droplet concentration was less than 0.U. obtained by an acid/enzyme hydrolysis of native corn starch were donated by Grain Processing Corporation (Muscatine. CS10. 2003). 2001. For example. APV-Gaulin. Inc. Biospec Products.01 0. Diluted emulsions with varying composition (5 wt% corn oil. Cranbury. . 2003). MA). An emulsifier solution was prepared by dissolving 1. 2001). Concentrated corn oil-in-water emulsions (20 wt% oil.02 wt% NaN3 and 0–35 wt% maltodextrins) were prepared by diluting concentrated emulsions with aqueous maltodextrin solutions. M200 and M250. M150. expressed as a percentage of the total height of the emulsions in the tubes (HE ): Creaming Index ¼ 100  (HS /HE ). 0. it has been shown that small molecule surfactants bind to maltodextrins by inserting their non-polar tails into a helical coil formed by the maltodextrin chain (Wangsakan. Bohlin Instruments. such as concentration and chain length. The pH of the emulsions was adjusted back to 7. sodium azide (NaN3 ). Another maltodextrin.0 wt% Tween 80 into double-distilled water containing 0. Malvern Instruments. and so their main stabilizing action in oil-in-water emulsions is believed to be through viscosity modification or gelation of the aqueous continuous phase surrounding the oil droplets (Dickinson. Chinachoti.

McClements. 15 and 10. the creaming rate was rapid. The transmittance of the serum layer was then measured at 600 nm using an UV–visible spectrophotometer (Spectronic 21D. Fifty microliter of liquid was withdrawn from the middle of the serum layer of a creamed emulsion and then diluted with double-distilled water to five milliliter.000 1.. The average molecular masses of the maltodextrin ingredients used in this study have been calculated previously from their DE values as: 1. the CFC decreased as the molecular weight of the maltodextrin molecules increased (Fig. the CFC was defined as the maltodextrin concentration where at least 80% of the droplets in the original emulsion had flocculated and creamed to the top. 2003). When the maltodextrin concentration was increased further.1. UK). The emulsions were diluted to a droplet concentration of approximately 0. 2004.U. The CFC decreased as the DE of maltodextrins decreased. 720 and 500 Da for DE 36. 3. the CFC of the different types of maltodextrin was determined precisely by carrying out turbidity measurements on the serum layer of the creamed emulsions.. Effect of maltodextrin concentration and dextrose equivalent on creaming stability of 5 wt% corn oil emulsions stabilized by Tween 80 after 24 h storage at room temperature. 900. respectively (Danviriyakul. 4. In other words. 15 and 10. All experiments were carried out in at least duplicate using freshly prepared samples and results are reported as the mean and standard derivation of these measurements. 2). There was no evidence of creaming in emulsions containing less than 13 wt% maltodextrin. 1. . DokicBaucal et al. 2003. Rochester. with complete phase separation being observed in less than 2 h. respectively. 21. Hence. Influence of maltodextrin concentration and DE on creaming stability The creaming stability of 5 wt% corn oil-in-water emulsions was determined by measuring the height of the serum layer formed at the bottom of the emulsions after 24 h storage at room temperature (Fig. This phenomenon can be attributed to the influence of molecular weight and conformation on the magnitude of the depletion attraction between the droplets (see Section 3. 2. Information about the kinetics of creaming in emulsions containing different maltodextrin concentrations (DE 10) is shown in Fig. Rapid creaming occurred when a critical maltodextrin concentration was exceeded. Klinkesorn et al. the 40 100 DE 10 DE 25 DE 36 80 CFC (wt%) Creaming Index (%) DE 15 60 40 30 20 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 Maltodextrin (wt%) Fig. whose height depended on maltodextrin concentration and DE value.000 MW (g/mol) Fig. 20. GPC. 17 and 13 wt% maltodextrin for DE 36.008 wt% using double-distilled water prior to analysis to avoid multiple scattering effects. Malvern Instruments. Non-adsorbed polymers generate an attractive osmotic force between droplets that increases as the polymer concentration increases. 20. Critical flocculation concentration (CFC) of different maltodextrins in 5 wt% corn oil emulsions stabilized by Tween 80 after 24 h storage at room temperature. The minimum amount of maltodextrin required to promote rapid creaming was defined as the critical flocculation concentration (CFC). / Food Research International 37 (2004) 851–859 The f-potential of oil droplets in the emulsions was determined using a particle electrophoresis instrument (ZEM5003.200.500 2.4). At 15 wt% maltodextrin. Worcs. 2001.800. to 25 or 35 wt%. A distinct serum layer was observed in some of the emulsions. 10 500 1.. The CFC was defined as the lowest concentration of maltodextrin that gave a transmittance less than that of a non-creamed 1 wt% oil-in-water emulsion (prepared by diluting the original emulsion). Zetamaster. 25. 853 In this study. 25. 21. 2000). which was attributed to depletion flocculation of the droplets by the non-adsorbed maltodextrin molecules in the aqueous phase of the emulsions (Dickinson. until eventually it becomes large enough to overcome the repulsive forces acting between the droplets. being 35. 2004. NY). 3). Milton Roy. 3. Results and discussion 3. Dokic-Baucal et al.

2 )38. 1).6  0.2 )39.6  1. 5).3  1.0 )38.1  2.8  0.9 )36.5 )42.8 )41.3  1. 100 Creaming Index (%) 80 60 3.4  0.9 )38.1 )42.5 )44.2 )39.2 )39.3  1. Klinkesorn et al.2  1.9 )42.2 )39. On the other hand.6  2.3  1.4 )44.9  2.7 )38.9  1.7 )37.5 )36.3 )36. / Food Research International 37 (2004) 851–859 creamed layer (McClements. 1999).3 )38. 2004). Effect of maltodextrin concentration on the creaming rate of 5 wt% corn oil emulsions stabilized by Tween 80 storage at room temperature.4  0. The shape of the particle size distribution remained fairly constant throughout the observation period (Fig.6 )36.4  0. we examine the influence of maltodextrin characteristics on droplet size and electrical charge.1  1.8 )38. We observed no significant change in the mean droplet diameter in the emulsions at any maltodextrin concentration (0–35 wt%) or dextrose equivalent (DE 10–36) after 24 h storage: d32 ¼ 0:41  0:02. Droplet mean diameter of 5 wt% corn oil emulsion stabilized by Tween 80 with different maltodextrin concentration and dextrose equivalent after 7 days storage at room temperature.2  1.2 . These emulsions were diluted about 1000fold prior to making the measurements using double distilled water. Droplet coalescence may have been promoted because the droplets were in contact for extended periods in the flocculated emulsions and therefore ‘‘hole’’ formation was more likely (Kabalnov.8  1.3 )42.7 )44.6  1.6 )36.5 )37.7 )40.4  0. 5.1  2.3 )41.7  2.4  0.3 )37.9 )37.4 )37.5 )43.2 )39.0  1. 1998) and/or because the droplets were forced closer together at high maltodextrin concentrations because of the strong depletion attraction between them (Ye.8  2. The f-potential of corn oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by Tween 80 in the presence of different maltodextrin concentrations and DE values at pH 7 are shown in Table 1. 1995).3  0. & Singh.2. but the maximum in the distribution shifted to slightly higher diameters (data not shown).4  3.7 )44.5  0.2  0.8  2.0  2. Influence of maltodextrin concentration and DE on droplet characteristics 40 15% 25% 35% 20 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time (hrs) Fig.4  0.2 )36.7 )37.3 )36.7  1. These results are in agreement with those of other workers who have also observed a decrease in creaming rate when the concentration of non-adsorbing polymer is increased above the CFC (Dickinson et al.4  0. creaming rate decreased appreciably.3  0.2  3. 14 DE10 12 DE20 DE36 ∆d43 (%) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Maltodextrin (wt%) Fig. a small but significant increase (p < 5%) in mean droplet diameter (up to 12%) was observed in emulsions containing maltodextrin concentrations above the CFC after 7 days storage (Fig. which can be attributed to the increase in continuous phase viscosity and network formation by the aggregated droplets in the In this section.6  1.7  0.854 U. The same phenomenon has been reported by a Table 1 f-Potential (mV) of diluted corn oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by Tween 80 with different maltodextrin concentration and DE after storage for 24 h at room temperature Maltodextrin concentration (wt%) Dextrose equivalent of maltodextrin 10 15 20 25 36 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 )42. Hemar. 4.4  1.5 )38.7 )40.8  3.0 )38. These results suggest that there may have been some coalescence of the droplets in the flocculated emulsions.. It is interesting to note that even though the droplets were stabilized by a non-ionic surfactant they had an appreciable negative charge ( 40 mV).

& Toji. In addition. free fatty acids or phospholipids. Influence of maltodextrin concentration and DE on rheology The apparent viscosity of 5 wt% corn oil-in-water emulsions and aqueous solutions containing different maltodextrin types and concentrations was measured as a function of shear stress. e. 2002). At relatively low maltodextrin concentrations ( 6 20 wt%) the relative viscosity was slightly higher than unity across the whole shear stress range. Dependence of relative viscosity on maltodextrin concentration and dextrose equivalent for 5 wt% corn oil emulsions stabilized by Tween 80.01 100 Relative Viscosity Relative Viscosity 20% 25% 0. Ho. 2003). The variation of relative viscosity with shear stress for different concentrations of maltodextrin (DE 20) are shown in Fig. 6). where gE is the apparent viscosity of the emulsion at a particular shear stress and g1 is the viscosity of the aqueous continuous phase at the same shear stress.U. The dependence of the relative viscosity on maltodextrin concentration and type at a fixed shear stress (0..3. as would be expected for a non-flocculated oil-in-water emulsion.e. which has been attributed to the incorporation of non-polar surfactant tail groups into a helical coil formed by the maltodextrin chain (Semenova et al. 1999). At higher maltodextrin concentrations (>20 wt%). A previous study has shown that surfactant–maltodextrin binding only occurs when the chain length of the maltodextrin molecules exceeds a particular value. 1999. The data points represent the viscosity of an emulsion containing maltodextrin (see annotation box) at a particular shear stress divided by the viscosity of the emulsion in the absence of maltodextrin at the same shear stress. 6. 1999. 1999). who reported that the fpotential depended on the pH and ionic strength of the aqueous phase (Ahmad. This may explain why we observed no change in f-potential for the maltodextrin with the lowest degree of polymerization (DE 36).. which is approximately equal to 1. Fong.. The relative viscosity of an emulsion increases when the droplets become flocculated because the 30% 35% 10 1 0. which was attributed to depletion flocculation. there were no maltodextrin molecules with chain lengths sufficiently long to interact with the anionic surface active lipids. The relative viscosity increased appreciably when a critical maltodextrin concentration was exceeded. 1996. The electrical charge measured on droplets stabilized by non-ionic surfactants has been attributed to adsorption of H3 Oþ ions (low pH) or OH ions (high pH) from water (Ho & Ahmad. 2001. which can be attributed to extensive droplet flocculation (McClements. 2003). 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Maltodextrin (wt%) Fig. Our results showed that there was a slight decrease in the magnitude of the droplet f-potential ( 42 to  36 mV) with increasing maltodextrin concentration (Table 1) for all DE values except DE 36. Dependence of relative viscosity on shear stress and concentration of maltodextrin DE20 for 5 wt% corn oil emulsions stabilized by Tween 80. / Food Research International 37 (2004) 851–859 number of other researchers. 2003. 100 3. Quemada & Berli.. The relative viscosity of the emulsions was then calculated so that we could focus on the influence of the droplets (rather than the continuous phase) on emulsion rheology: grelative ¼ gE =g1 . . For example. It is also possible that some of the electrical charge on the corn oil droplets used in our study arose from anionic impurities present within the oil. Ho & Ahmad. corresponding to about 12 glucose units (Wangsakan et al.. i.1 Pa) is shown in Fig.125 for our system since /  0:05 (McClements.1 1 855 DE 10 DE 15 DE 25 DE 36 10 10 Shear Stress (Pa) Fig. there was an appreciable decrease in the relative viscosity with increasing shear stress. Previous studies have shown that small molecule surfactants will bind to maltodextrin. It is therefore possible that the maltodextrin molecules bound anionic surface active lipids that were originally associated with the corn oil droplets. 7. 6. 2002). which can be attributed to progressive disruption of the flocs as the shear stress was increased (Quemada & Berli. 2003). Klinkesorn et al. Hsu & Nacu. the Einstein equation for dilute emulsions predicts that gE =g1 ¼ 1 þ 2:5/.g. 7. Wangsakan et al. thereby reducing the negative charge on the oil droplets. the relative viscosity was much greater than unity at low shear stresses (Fig.

If a polymer molecule adopts a compact spherical conformation. molecular weight (in kg mol1 ) and molecular density (in kg m3 ) of the polymer molecules. 0. .1 5. qm ð2Þ where wdepletion ðhÞ is the inter-droplet pair potential due to depletion interactions at a surface-to-surface droplet separation of h. 1999):  3  2 3 rc  3 h wdepletion ðhÞ ¼  pr POSM 2 1 þ þ 1þ 3 2r r !    rc 2 h 3 1þ 1þ .0 0. NA is Avogadro’s number.7 1. These results therefore support the creaming stability measurements described earlier. but the same overall aqueous phase concentration (10 wt%) is shown in Fig. In this paper we have assumed that the maltodextrin molecules act like rigid rods in solution so that (McClements. 2000). 8. 2000) pn3 l3 qm NA . 8. The above equations were used to calculate the influence of maltodextrin characteristics on the depletion attraction between emulsion droplets (r ¼ 0:21 lm). Depletion attraction for maltodextrins with different DE values at 10 wt% overall aqueous phase concentration. 1999).4. assuming that the maltodextrin molecules act as rigid rods. The molecular characteristics of the maltodextrin used in our calculations of the interaction potentials are shown in Table 2. c.0 5. and can be attributed to the influence of maltodextrin on the depletion interactions between the droplets (see below). In other words. / Food Research International 37 (2004) 851–859 effective volume fraction of the particles in the system is increased due to the presence of the continuous phase trapped between the droplets in the flocs (McClements. As the DE of the maltodextrin increased. ð1Þ 2r r POSM ¼ ckTNA M   2cRv 1þ . l  0:47 nm and qm  2000 kg m3 (McClements. In addition. This figure indicates that the depletion attraction between oil droplets is relatively strong. then Rv  1.7 n.8 2.3 3. 2000). The parameter. and rc is the effective radius of the polymer molecules in solution. average number of monomers per molecule. M and qm are the mass concentration (in kg m3 ). ð3Þ 6M where n is the number of monomer segments per molecule ( ¼ M=M0 Þ. Klinkesorn et al. M is the molecular weight of the whole molecule.7 7. Both the magnitude and the range of the attractive depletion interaction increased with decreasing maltodextrin DE. Calculation of depletion attraction between the droplets The objective of this section was to provide some rationalization for the influence of maltodextrin type and concentration on the properties of oil-in-water emulsions in terms of the physical phenomenon involved. Rv .3 1. The magnitude of this attractive interaction can be calculated using the following equations (McClements. volume ration.0 36 16 9.1 1 10 0 -50 DE 36 -100 w (h ) /kT 856 -150 -200 DE 20 DE 15 -250 -300 DE 10 -350 h (nm) Fig. RV . l is the length of a monomer segment and qm is the density of the polymer chain. POSM is the osmotic pressure arising from the exclusion of non-adsorbed polymer molecules from a narrow region ( rc ) surrounding the emulsion droplets. The variation of the depletion attraction with droplet separation for maltodextrins with different DE values. However. 3.7 2. It was assumed that the maltodextrin molecules were rod-like in conformation.4 4. M0  168 g mol1 . rg is radius of gyration.5 1.U. and T is the absolute temperature. and increases Rv ¼ Table 2 Molecular characteristics of the maltodextrin molecules used in the theoretical calculations Name MW (g/mol) n Rv rg (nm) DE10 DE15 DE20 DE25 DE36 1800 1200 900 720 500 10. like a globular protein. r is the droplet radius. is referred to as the volume ratio. then Rv  1. if the polymer molecules entrain large quantities of solvent as they rotate in solution. The presence of non-adsorbed biopolymers in the aqueous phase of an oil-in-water emulsion is known to increase the attraction between the droplets through a depletion mechanism. k is Boltzmann’s constant. which is equal to the effective volume of a polymer molecule in solution divided by the actual volume of the constituent atoms making up the molecule (McClements. M0 is the molecular weight of a monomer segment. the maltodextrin concentration where the relative viscosity of the emulsions started to substantially increase became higher. flocculation occurred at lower maltodextrin concentrations as the molecular weight of the maltodextrin molecules increased. For oligosaccharide or polysaccharide molecules.

A mathematical model has recently been developed to describe the influence of shear stress on the apparent viscosity of weakly flocculated emulsions (Quemada & Berli. and ½g is the intrinsic viscosity (2.6).U.. and /i. ð5Þ where g1 is the apparent viscosity of the emulsion at an infinitely high shear stress. no flocculation). / is the volume fraction of droplets within the overall emulsion /c is the packing parameter for a suspension of spherical particles (»0. These calculations can be used to explain the dependence of the CFC on maltodextrin DE seen in Section 3. electrostatic and hydration repulsion) dominate the attractive interactions (e. 2002)   kT Umin si ¼ 3 1 þ . Prediction of influence of maltodextrin on emulsion rheology It would also be useful to obtain a more quantitative understanding of the influence of maltodextrin on the rheology of the emulsions.1.g. / Food Research International 37 (2004) 851–859 with increasing maltodextrin molecular weight. Klinkesorn et al. s is the applied shear stress. 2002)   1  /=/c /i. g0 is the viscosity of the continuous phase. Predictions of the dependence of the relative viscosity (g=g0 ) on applied shear stress (s) for 5 wt% oil-in-water emulsions with different attractive strengths between the droplets are shown in Fig. The shear stress where the relative viscosity begins to fall increases as the strength of the attraction between the droplets increases. steric. The variables used in these calculations were assumed to be similar to those for the experimental measurements made in this study: / ¼ 0:05. Dependence of wdepletion ðh ¼ 0Þ on maltodextrin concentration and DE value of 5 wt% corn oil emulsion stabilized by Tween 80.g.0 ¼ 0:1 (very open flocs).5). van der Waals) (McClements.1 ¼ 1 (i.6). 9).2 (highly open packing) to 1 (highly dense packing) depending on the nature of the interactions in the system. The value of si depends on the size of the individual droplets and the strength of the attraction between the droplets (Quemada & Berli. Experimental measurements made on emulsions containing 35 wt% maltodextrin are compared with theoretical predictions calculated assuming different . until eventually the overall attractive interactions outweigh the repulsive interactions and the droplets flocculate. /i will have a value somewhere between 0. The strength of the depletion attraction increases progressively with maltodextrin concentration. si is the critical applied shear stress. Addition of maltodextrin to the emulsions increases the depletion attraction between the droplets.0 R¼ : ð6Þ 1  /=/c /i.e. a smaller amount of maltodextrin needs to be added to the emulsion in order to generate the additional attraction required to promote droplet flocculation. the rheological index is given by (Quemada & Berli.e. 3.5. the magnitude of the interaction potential at the droplet separation where the interaction potential is a minimum: jwðhmin Þj. /i.. 10. and /i. For an emulsion in which the droplet concentration is sufficiently low to prevent the formation of a three-dimensional network of aggregated droplets. and the applied shear stress..  gðsÞ ¼ g1 1 þ s=si R þ s=si 857 2 .. As the molecular weight of the maltodextrin molecules increases. r ¼ 0:21 lm. The value of the apparent viscosity of the emulsion at infinitely high shear stresses can be calculated from the following expression:  2 g1 / ¼ 1 .0 and /i. ð8Þ /c /i. ð7Þ r kT where Umin is the strength of the attractive interaction between the droplets. 9. 2002) 0 10 20 30 40 0 w (h =0) /kT DE 36 -500 DE 20 DE 15 -1000 DE 10 -1500 h (nm) Fig.1 g0 where /c is the packing parameter for a suspension of spherical particles (0.1 Here. and R is the rheological index. The relative viscosity decreases from a high plateau value at low shear stresses to a low plateau value at high shear stresses. Typically. i.1 are the volume fractions of droplets within the flocs at low and high shear stress. An estimate of the overall strength of the depletion attraction in a particular system can be obtained by calculating the magnitude of wdepletion when the droplets are in contact:   2 wdepletion ðh ¼ 0Þ ¼ 2prc2 POSM r þ rc : ð4Þ 3 The dependence of wdepletion ðh ¼ 0Þ on maltodextrin concentration and DE value was calculated (Fig. 1999). with the increase being larger for lower DE values. In the absence of maltodextrin the emulsion droplets are prevented from flocculating because the repulsive droplet–droplet interactions (e.

C. Hardas. 233–239. Dokic-Baucal. K. (2001). W. about the size. (2003). The theory and experimental data are in rough qualitative agreement. J. 25–39. K.. In addition. References Ahmad.. Hydrocolloids at interfaces and the influence on the properties of dispersed systems. K. W. The presence of maltodextrins in emulsions leads to an enhanced rate of creaming above a critical concentration due to depletion flocculation and the rate of creaming depends on the concentration and DE value of the maltodextrins. S. United States Department of Agriculture. 216. & Jakovljevic. the rheology measurements only took about 5– 10 min to carry out. and we observed little creaming during this time in the creaming stability measurements. C. Danviriyakul. It is possible that the relative viscosity was high at low shear stresses because of some creaming of the droplets within the rheometer. Control of maltodextrin characteristics can therefore be used to create emulsions with different physicochemical properties for various applications in food processing.1 1 10 Shear Stress (Pa) Fig. J. 831). Dokic. 2002). Foley. Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Project No. Dokic.01 0. (2004). Fong. Nevertheless. 141. Properties of palm oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by nonionic emulsifiers.. Doctoral Dissertation. emulsions were highly viscous and showed strong shear thining. S. & Dokic-Baucal. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. Accelerated stability studies of microencapsulated anhydrous milk fat. Food Hydrocolloids. 488–494.. This suggests that there must be a relatively strong repulsive interaction that balances the relatively strong depletion attraction generated between the droplets by the presence of maltodextrin (see Section 3. and an United States Department of Agriculture. Nawar.. (1997).. & Kasapis.. C. 33. (1998). Colloids and Surfaces A. the comparison between theory and experiment does suggest that the bonds holding the droplets together in the flocs were relatively weak and easily disrupted by shearing. the experimental measurements may be prone to errors due to wall-slip or creaming phenomenon (see below). Chronakis. (1995). Jakovljevic. Conclusions Relative Viscosity 100 0. & Chinachoti. Food Hydrocolloids. The theory makes a number of simplifying assumptions about the system that may not be valid in practice. 435–440. CREES. Chronakis. Klinkesorn et al. 36–44. 10. Program for financial support. C.g. interaction strengths in Fig. The authors also thank The Thailand Research Fund. & Ahmad. shape and internal structure of the flocs (Quemada & Berli. P. P. 17. E.. & Toji. and no low and high shear stress plateau regions were observed in the experimental measurements. I. 595–604. D. Iowa.4). Maltrin: Maltodextrins and corn syrup solids for food formulations. S.. (1996). this decrease occurs at lower shear stresses in the experimental measurements than in the theoretical predictions. W. Ho. Dependence of the relative viscosity (g=g0 ) on applied shear stress (s) for 5 wt% oil-in-water emulsions with different attractive strengths between the droplets (shown in annotation box as Umin =kT ). USA. . Nevertheless.0 ¼ 0:1). Electrokinetic behavior of palm oil emulsions in dilute electrolyte solutions. University of Massachusetts (Amherst). Royal Golden Jubilee Ph. P. The predictions are compared with measurements made on corn oil-inwater emulsions containing 35 wt% maltodextrin. (2000). S.858 U. / Food Research International 37 (2004) 851–859 4. USA: Grain processing Corporation. (1999)... except for the emulsions where the CFC was just exceeded (Fig. 10. Preparation and analysis of water continuous very low fat spreads. S.D. N. L. there being a large decrease in relative viscosity once a particular shear stress is exceeded. These differences between theory and experiment indicate that there is some discrepancy between theory and experiment. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie. Above the CFC. 18. Molecular characteristics of maltodextrins and rheological behaviour of diluted and concentrated solutions. 506–513. Danviriyakul. Acknowledgements This material is based upon work supported by the Cooperative State Research. LebensmittelWissenschaft und-Technologie. Education Service. It should also be noted that the theoretical predictions were made using the assumption that the flocculated droplets had a very open structure at low shear stresses (/i. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie. 25–33. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 30. I. L... GPC. Dickinson. 28. 181.1 1 10 Data 10 1 0. Extension. J. 4). This value of the packing of the droplets within the flocs seems relatively low for flocculated emulsions. 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