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# REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR FINAL EXAM

( Manufacturing Engineering 2 )

## Chapter 1 Fundamentals of machining

Serope Kalpakjian
1) A turning operation has cutting conditions as follow:
V = 300 m/min, s = 0.25mm/rev, t = 4 mm. Which one of the following is the MRR?
a) 5 x104mm3/s ; b) 5000mm3/s; c) 30 x 30mm3// min ; d) 3 x10-3m3/min
2) A roughing operation generally involves which one of the following combinations of
cutting conditions?
a) High v, f and d

## 3) What are the two basic categories of cutting tools in machining?

a) Turning tool and shaping tool b) Turning tool and milling tool
c)A single point tool and Multiple cutting edge tool
4) Which of the three types of chip would be achieved in a turning operation with low cutting
speeds and a brittle work material ( as cast iron ):
a) Discontinuous chip; b) continuous chip ; c) continuous with BUE
5) Allowing to the Merchant equation, if increase in rake angle of the tool would have which
of the following result:
a) Decrease in power of shearing deformation b) Increase in power of shearing deformation
c) Increase in cutting temperature d) Allof a),b) and c)
6) Which of the following cutting conditions has the strongest effect on wearing tool?
a) Feed b) Speed c) Depth of cut
7) On the Force diagram there are six force components: F (friction force); N (The normal
force to friction ); Fs (The shear force ); Fn (The normal force to shear); Fc ( cutting
force); Ft ( The thrust force ).The which of them can be measured?

## a) F and N b) Fs and Fn c) Fc and Ft d) All of a, b and c

8) In equation Merchant, the relationship between:
a) Force and rake angle of tool b) Force and friction angle
c)Force and shear angle d) Shear angle with rake angle and friction angle
9) If increasing the rake angle, the shear angle will be:
a) Shear angle will be constant b) Shear angle will be decreased
c)Shear angle will be increased
10) The shear stress in cutting metal is calculated by equation:
a) S = Fs/As ( As- area of the shear plane ) b)S = Fs/ w (w- The width of the shear
plane )
c)S= Fs/ t0 ( t0 - The chip-thickness before the cut )
11) The shear strength is defined by:
( a = S ( S- The shear stress )

## = As ( As The area of the plane )

= Fc ( Fc cutting force )

12) The power required to perform a machining operation is calculated by the equation:
a) Pc = Ft/v ( Ft thrust force) b) Pc = F/ v ( F Friction force)
c)Pc = Fc/v ( Fc- Cutting force ) Note: v cutting speed
13) What is HPc ?
a) Cutting power in Inch unit b) Cutting horsepower (hp)
c)Cutting power (w)
14) What is the specific energy in metal machining?
a) The thermal energy during cutting metal
b) The mechanical force during cutting metal
c) The mechanical energy during cutting metal
d) The power per unit volume rate of metal cut

15) What does the term size effect mean in metal cutting?
a) That is effect of f ( feed) to cutting force
b) That is effect of v (speed ) to cutting force
c) That is effect of t0 ( chip thickness before cut ) to power
d) That is effect of t0 ( chip thickness before cut) to Unit power
16) HPc is calculated by:
a) HPc = Ft/33,000 b) HPc = Fc/33,000 c) HPc = Fc.v/33,000
17) In the equation Pg = Pc/E, what is E?
a) The thermal efficiency of the cutting operation
b) The mechanical efficiency of the machine tool
c) The mechanical efficiency of the motor
d) The mechanical efficiency of the drive train in the machine
18) Which material in following materials has the lowest specific energy ( unit power)
a) Carbon steels b)Gray cast irons c) Alloy steels d) Bronze
19) What is MRR?
a) The area of the shear plane b) The material removal volume of machining operation
The formula: U = Fc/fw ( U- unit power; f-feed; w width of shear plane )
A Wrong

b) Right

a)

## 21) What is a tool-chip thermocouple?

a) To be used to measure the heat energy b) To be used to measure the temperature
cutting
c) To be used to measure the temperature on the chip
22) Fill in the blank of the equation:
...... = 0,4U

23) Which one of the cutting conditions is the most affect to temperature cutting?
a) Feed

b) speed

c) dept of cut

## 24) Explain why continuous chips are not necessarily desirable

( Gii thch ti sao khng hon ton mong mun khi hnh thnh phoi dy)
25) Name the factors that contribute to the formation of discontinuous chips
( K tn cc yu t gp phn hnh thnh phoi vn)
26) Explain the difference between positive and negative rake angles. What is the
important of the rake angle
( Gii thch s khc nhau gia gc trc dng v m, gc trc c tm quan trng nh th
no?)
27) Comment on the role and importance of the relief angle
( Bnh lun v vai tr ca gc sau )
28) Explain the difference between discontinuous chips and segmented chips (Gii thch s
khc nhau gia phoi vn v phoi xp )
29) Why should we be interested of in the magnitude of the thrust force in cutting (Ti sao
chng ta cn quan tm n ln ca lc y trong ct gt )
30) What are the differences between orthogonal and oblique cutting? (S khc nhau gia
m hnh ct trc giao v m hnh ct xin )
31) Is there any advantage to having a built-up edge on a tool? Explain. (C u im g
khng khi lo dao c hnh thnh? )
32) What is the funtion of chip breakers? How do they funtion? (Chc nng ca c cu b
phoi, chc nng ca chng nh th no?)
33) Identify the forces involved in a cutting operation which of these forces contribute to
the power required? ( Xc nh cc thnh phn lc khi ct gt cn thit xc ng
cng sut yu cu )
34) Explain the characteristics of different types of tool wear . (Gii thch cc c tnh ca
cc dng mi mn khc nhau)

35) List the factors that contribute to poor surface finish in cutting . (Lit k cc yu t lm
gim bng trong gia cng )
36) The location of the tool which has maximum temperature , why? ( B mt no trn
dng c c nhit cao nht, ti sao?)
37) Explain why studying the types of chip produced is important in understanding cutting
operations . ( Gii thch ti sao nghin cu cc dang phoi sinh ra li quan trng khi thc
hin nguyn cng )
38) Why do you think the maximum temperature in orthogonal cutting is located at about
the middle of the tool-chip interface?
(Trong m hnh ct trc giao, ti sao anh ngh nhit ln nht sinh ra khong gia b
mt tip xc ca phoi v dng c ? )
39) tool life can be almost infinite at low cutting speeds. Would you then recommend that
all machining be done at low speeds? Explain
(Tui bn c th ko di khi ct tc thp . T anh c khuyn ngi ta khi gia cng nn
thc hin tc thp, ti sao? )
40) The cutting force increases with the depth of cut and decreasing rake angle. Explain
why?
( Lc ct tng khi ta tng chiu su ct v gim gc trc. Gii thch ti sao?)
41) why is it not always advisable to increase the cutting speed in order to increase the
production rate? (Ti sao khng phi lc no cng khuyn nn tng tc ct c
nng sut ln nht?)
42) Let n =0,5 and C =90 in Taylor equation for tool wear.What is the percent increase in
tool life if the cutting speed is reduced by (a) 50% and (b) 75% (Trong phng trnh
Taylor, cho n=0,5 v C=90. Tui bn s tng bao nhiu phn trm nu vn tc ct gim
50%, 75% )
43) An orthogonal cutting operation is being carried out under the following conditions: to =
0,1mm, tc = 0,2mm, width of cut = 5mm, V =2m/s, rake angle = 100 , Fc = 500N, and Ft
= 200N. Calculate the percentage of the total energy is dissippated in the shear plane
( Phng php ct trc giao c tin hnh vi iu kin nh sau:
to = 0,1mm, tc = 0,2mm,b rng ct = 5mm, V =2m/s, gc trc = 100 , lc ct Fc = 500N, v
lc y Ft = 200N. Tnh ton phn trm nng lng tiu hao trong mt trt )
Mikell P. Groover

## Multiple choice quiz

44) A turning operation has cutting conditions as follow:
v = 300 m/min, s = 0.25mm/rev, t = 4 mm. Which one of the following is the MRR?
b) 5 x104mm3/s ; b) 5000mm3/s; c) 30 x 30mm3// min ; d) 3 x10-3m3/min
45) A roughing operation generally involves which one of the following combinations of
cutting conditions?
b) High v, f and d

## b) High v, low f and d c) Low v, high f and d d) Low v, ,f, and d

46) What are the two basic categories of cutting tools in machining?
b) Turning tool and shaping tool b) Turning tool and milling tool
c)A single point tool and Multiple cutting edge tool
47) Which of the three types of chip would be achieved in a turning operation with low cutting
speeds and a brittle work material ( as cast iron ):
b) Discontinuous chip; b) continuous chip ; c) continuous with BUE
48) Allowing to the Merchant equation, if increase in rake angle of the tool would have which
of the following result:
b) Decrease in power of shearing deformation b) Increase in power of shearing deformation
c) Increase in cutting temperature d) Allof a),b) and c)
49) Which of the following cutting conditions has the strongest effect on wearing tool?
b) Feed b) Speed c) Depth of cut
50) On the Force diagram there are six force components: F (friction force); N (The normal
force to friction ); Fs (The shear force ); Fn (The normal force to shear); Fc ( cutting
force); Ft ( The thrust force ).The which of them can be measured?
b) F and N b) Fs and Fn c) Fc and Ft d) All of a, b and c
51) In equation Merchant, the relationship between:
b) Force and rake angle of tool b) Force and friction angle
c)Force and shear angle d) Shear angle with rake angle and friction angle
52) If increasing the rake angle, the shear angle will be:

## b) Shear angle will be constant b) Shear angle will be decreased

c)Shear angle will be increased
53) The shear stress in cutting metal is calculated by equation:
b) S = Fs/As ( As- area of the shear plane ) b)S = Fs/ w (w- The width of the shear
plane )
c)S= Fs/ t0 ( t0 - The chip-thickness before the cut )
54) The shear strength is defined by:
( a = S ( S- The shear stress )

## = As ( As The area of the plane )

= Fc ( Fc cutting force )

55) The power required to perform a machining operation is calculated by the equation:
b) Pc = Ft/v ( Ft thrust force) b) Pc = F/ v ( F Friction force)
c)Pc = Fc/v ( Fc- Cutting force ) Note: v cutting speed
56) What is HPc ?
b) Cutting power in Inch unit b) Cutting horsepower (hp)
c)Cutting power (w)
57) What is the specific energy in metal machining?
e) The thermal energy during cutting metal
f) The mechanical force during cutting metal
g) The mechanical energy during cutting metal
h) The power per unit volume rate of metal cut
58) What does the term size effect mean in metal cutting?
e) That is effect of f ( feed) to cutting force
f) That is effect of v (speed ) to cutting force
g) That is effect of t0 ( chip thickness before cut ) to power
h) That is effect of t0 ( chip thickness before cut) to Unit power

## 59) HPc is calculated by:

b) HPc = Ft/33,000 b) HPc = Fc/33,000 c) HPc = Fc.v/33,000
60) In the equation Pg = Pc/E, what is E?
e) The thermal efficiency of the cutting operation
f) The mechanical efficiency of the machine tool
g) The mechanical efficiency of the motor
h) The mechanical efficiency of the drive train in the machine
61) Which material in following materials has the lowest specific energy ( unit power)
b) Carbon steels b)Gray cast irons c) Alloy steels d) Bronze
62) What is MRR?
a) The area of the shear plane b) The material removal volume of machining operation
The formula: U = Fc/fw ( U- unit power; f-feed; w width of shear plane )
A Wrong

b) Right

b)

## 64) What is a tool-chip thermocouple?

b) To be used to measure the heat energy b) To be used to measure the temperature
cutting
c) To be used to measure the temperature on the chip
65) Fill in the blank of the equation:
...... = 0,4U
66) Which one of the cutting conditions is the most affect to temperature cutting?
b) Feed

b) speed

c) dept of cut

## Chapter 2 : Cutting tool Materials and Cutting fluids

Serope Kalpakjian
67) What are the major properties required of cutting tool materials? Why? ( Nhng tnh
cht chnh yu vt liu dng c cn c l g? )

68) what is the composition of a typical carbide tool? ( Thnh phn ca dng c hp kim
cng in hnh l g )
69) why were cutting tool inserts developed? (Ti sao dng c ct dng inserts c pht
trin?)

70) why are some tools coated? What are the common coating materials?.(Ti sao mt vi
dng c c ph? Vt liu ph thng dng l g? )
71) List the major functions of cutting fluids . ( K ra cc chc nng chnh ca cht bi
trn-lm ngui trong ct gt)
72) (explain the difference beetwen M-serries and T-serriees. ( Gii thch s khc bit ca
hai loi thp gi: loi M v loi T)
73) Explain why so many different types of cutting tool materials have been developed
over the years.Why are they still being developed further? Gii thch ti sao nhiu loi
vt liu dng c ct c pht trin trong nhng nm qua. Ti sao chng vn c
pht trin trong tng lai?
74) which tool-material properties are suitable for interrupted cutting operations? Why?.
(Tnh cht vt liu no l ph hp cho nhng nguyn cng c va p? Ti sao? )
75) Describe the reasons for and advantages of coating cutting tools with multiple layers of
different materials. Din t nhng nguyn nhn v nhng u im vi dng c ct c
ph nhiu lp bng nhng vt liu khc nhau
76) Make a list of the alloying elements used in high speed steels. (K ra nhng nguyn t
hp kim dng trong thp gi ( thp ct tc cao)
77) Titannium-nitride coatings on tool reducethe coeficient of frictionat the tool-chip
interface. What is the significance of this property?. ( Lp ph Titanium-nitride trn
dng c gim h s ma st gia b mt tip xc gia phoi v mt trc dng c. Tnh
cht ny c ngha g?)
78) Gc trc m thng thng thch hp cho vt liu lm dng c ct nh gm s, kim
cng? Ti sao vy?
79) Negative rake angles generally are preferred for ceramic,diamond tools.Why?. (Gc
trc m thng thng thch hp cho vt liu lm dng c ct nh gm s, kim cng?
Ti sao vy? )

80) Do you think that there is a relationship beetwen the cost of a cutting tool and its hot
hardness? Explain. (Anh c ngh gi thnh ca dng c c quan h vi cng nng
ca dng c. Ti sao vy? )
81) It has been stated that titanium-nitride coatings allow cutting speeds and feeds to be
higher than those for uncoated tools. Survey the technical literature and prepare a table
showing the percentage increase of speeds and feeds that would be made possible by
coating the tools. ( C tuyn b l lp ph Titanium-nitrid ln vt liu nn cho php tc
ct v lng chy dao cao hn so vi nhng vt liu nn ny m khng c ph.
Da vo ti liu nghin cu v cc bng trong ti liu ch ra mc tng theo phn
trm ca vn tc v lng chy dao )
82) The sequence choice of cutting conditions. (Trnh t chn ch ct)
Mikell P. Groover
83) To write three possible modes by which a cutting tool can fail in machining :
a) ....

b) ....

c)........

84) Can you express in equation form of Taylor,s tool life equation?
..........................................
85) What is the physical interpretation of the parameter C in the Taylor tool life equation?
.................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
86) In addition to cutting speed, what other cutting variables are included in the expanded
version of the Taylor equation?
............................................

...................................................................

## 87) Identify three desirable properties of a cutting tool material

88) Of the following cutting conditions, which one has the greatest effect on too wear?
a) Cutting speed;

## b) depth of cut; c) feed

89) As an alloying ingredient in HSS, tungsten serves which of the following functions:
a) Forms hard carbides to resist abrasion b) improves strength and hardness
b) decreases hot hardness
90) What are the principal alloying ingredients in high speed steel (HSS)

## a) Tungsten and Molybdenum b) Chromium and Vanadium

c) Titanium and Tantalum
91) Why are ceramic cutting tools generally designed with negative rake angles?
a) Ceramic cutting tools are very hard

## c) Ceramic cutting tools are very toughness

92) What are the two principal locations on a cutting tool where tool wear occurs?
--------------

-----------------

93) Identify the mechanisms by which cutting tools wear during machining:
...........

.............

...............

.................

.................

94) Which of the following is not a common ingredient in cemented carbide cutting tools
a) Al2O3

b) WC

c) Ti C

d) Ta C

95) In the carbide cutting tools : a) Adhesive bonding is Co b) Adhesive bonding is bronze
96) Which of the following processes are used to make the thin coatings on the surface of the
substrate:
a) Physical vapor deposition b) electroplating c) pressing and sintering
97) Write operational sequence of making two cutting tools:
a) HSS: ....................................................................................................................
b) Cemented Carbide cutting tool:.......................................................................
98) The sequence choice of cutting conditions:
.Chater 3: Machining operations and Machine tools
Serope Kalpakjian
1) turning and hole making
99 ) Describe the types of machining operations that can be ferformed on a lathe . (Trnh by
cc nguyn cng c th thc hin trn my tin )

100 ) Describe the types of machining operations that can be ferformed on a drill press .( Trnh
by cc nguyn cng c th thc hin trn my khoan )
101) Explain why operations such as boring on a lathe and tapping are difficult.( Gii thch ti
sao nguyn cng tin trong v taro trn my tin li kh khn )
102) Describe the differences between boring a workpiece on a lathe and boring it on a
horizontal boring mill. (M t s khc nhau gia tin l trn my tin v khot l trn my phay
ngang )
103) How is drill life determained?.(Tui bn ca mi khoan c xc nh nh th no?)
104) Why are reaming operations performed? Ti sao nguyn cng doa c thc hin
105) Explain how external threads are cut on a lathe. (Gii thch cch tin ren ngoi)
106) List and explain the factors that contribute to poor surface finish in the processes described
in this chapter. ( Lit k v gii thch cc yu t gp phn lm gim cht lng b mt ca cc qu
trnh c trnh by trong chng ny )
107) Explain why the sequence of drilling,boring,and reaming produces a hole that is more
accurate than drilling and reaming it only. ( Gii thch ti sao khi gia cng mt l theo th t
khoan-khot-doa li c chnh xc cao hn ch thc hin khoan-doa)
108 ) Describe the difficulties tha tmay be encountered in clamping a workpiece made of a soft
metal in a three-jaw chuck.( Nu nhng kh khn cn phi tnh n khi kp cht chi tit bng
mm cp 3 chu i vi vt liu chi tit mm )
109) Does the force and torque in drilling change as the hole depth increases? Explain.( Lc v
m men xon khi khoan thay i khi chiu su ca l tng? Gii thch)
110) Describe the advantages and applications of having a hollow spindle in the headstock of a
lathe? (Ni nhng u im v nhng ng dng khi kt cu trc chnh my tin c l)
111) In modern manufacturing , which types of metal chips would be undersirable and why?
(Trong sn xut bng thit b t ng, dng no ca phoi kim loi khng mun c?)
2) Milling, broaching, sawing, filling and gear manufacturing
112) Explain why milling is such a versatile machining operation.( Gii thch ti sao phay l mt
phng php vn nng)
113) Describe the different types of cutters used in milling operations and give an application of
each type.( M t cc dng khc nhau ca dao phay v ni r s ng dng ca mi loi)

114)Explain the relative characteristics of climb milling and up milling.( Gii thch phay thun
v phay nghich)
115) Describe the geometric features of a broach and it funtions. ( M t hnh hc ca dao
chut v chc nng ca chng )
116)Milling machines. ( Cc loi my phay)
Mikell P. Groover
turning and related operations
117) Definition
118) Cutting conditions in turning
119) Tool and machine tools
120) Related operations
Drilling and related operations
121) Definition,
122 ) Cutting conditions,
123) Tool, machine tool
124) Related operations
Milling
125) Definition
126) Types of milling operations
127) Cutting conditions in milling
128) Milling machines
Other operations
129 ) Definition
130 ) Applications

## Chater 4: Abrasive Machining and Finishing Operations

Serope Kalpakjian
131) Why are abrasive processes technologically and commercially important? . (Ti sao cc
qu trnh mi li c ngha v cng ngh v thng mi )
132 ) What are the five principal abrasive materials used in grinding wheels ?
( Nm loi ht mi chnh c dng ch to l g? )
133 ) Four types of surface grinding. (Bn dng mi mt phng l g)
134) Two types of cylindrical grinding ( external, internal ).( Hai dng mi tr l g?)
135) External center-less grinding . ( Trnh by phng php mi ngoi v tm)
136) Principle of honing, lapping (Nguyn l ca mi khn, mi nghin )
137) Applications of honing, lapping. ( ng dng ca mi khn, mi nghin )
Mikell P. Groover
Grinding and Other Abrasive Processes
138 ) Why are abrasive processes technologically and commercially important?
139 ) What are the five principal abrasive materials used in grinding wheels ?
140 ) Four types of surface grinding
141) Two types of cylindrical grinding ( external, internal )
142 ) External center-less grinding
143 ) Principle of honing, lapping
144 ) Applications of honing, lapping
Serope Kalpakjian
145 ) Why are the nontraditional material removal processes important?
(Ti sao ni cc phng php gia cng khng truyn thng l quan trng)

146) There are four categories of nontraditional removal processes, based on principal
Energy forms. Name the four categories
( C bn loi gia cng khng truyn thng da vo dng nng lng s dng. Bn loi nng
lng l g?)
147) ( How does the ultrasonic machining process work? ( figure and principle )
Nguyn l lm vic ca phng php siu m ( s v nguyn l)
148) How is about capacity and quality ( accuracy and surface finish ) (Kh nng v cht
lng l nh th no )
149) Describe the water jet cutting process (figure and principle)
(M t qu trnh gia cng bng tia nc )
150) What is the different between water jet cutting, abrasive water jet cutting?
( S khc nhau gia gia cng bng tia nc v gia cng bng tia nc ht mi)
151) Name the three main types of electrochemical machining.
( Tn ca ba loi chnh ca qu trnh gia cng in ho)
152 ) Describe the electrochemical process( figure and principle )
( M t qu trnh gia cng in ho ( s v nguyn l )
153 ) Identify the two significant disadvantages of Electrochemical Machining. ( Nu hai
nhc im chnh ca gia cng in ho)
154 ) Describe the EDM process ( figure and principle )
(M t qu trnh gia cng bng tia la in) ( hnh v v nguyn l)
155 ) How does increasing discharge current affect metal removal rate and surface finish in
EDM (Khi tng cng dng in, nh hng n nng sut v nhm b mt nh
th no?khi gia cng bng EDM )
156 ) What is meant by the term over-cut in EDM .( Khi nim ct qu l g?
157 ) Describe the Electric Discharge Wire cutting (figure and principle)
M t qu trnh ct dy ( hnh v v nguyn l)
158 ) Describe the Laser Beam machining (figure and principle)

## M t qu trnh gia cng bng Laze ( s v nguyn l

159 ) Describe the Chemical Machining (figure and principle)
(M t qu trnh gia cng ho) ( hnh v v nguyn l )
160 ) Name the four principal steps in chemical machining. (Tn ca bn bc chnh khi gia
cng bng ho )
161) Why are the nontraditional material removal processes important?
162 ) How does the ultrasonic machining process work? ( figure and principle )
163) How is about capacity and quality( accuracy and surface finish )
164) Describe the water jet cutting process (figure and principle)
165) What is the different between water jet cutting, abrasive water jet cutting?
166) Name the three main types of electrochemical machining
167) Describe the electrochemical process( figure and principle )
168) Identify the two significant disadvantages of Electrochemical Machining
169) Describe the EDM process ( figure and principle )
170 ) How does increasing discharge current affect metal removal rate and surface finish in
EDM
171) What is meant by the term over-cut in EDM
172) Describe the Electric Discharge Wire cutting (figure and principle)
173) Describe the Laser Beam machining (figure and principle)
174) Describe the Chemical Machining (figure and principle)
175 ) Name the four principal steps in chemical machining