The Taste of India




The Taste of India

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mr.Manish Tripathi Asst.manager (sales) Amul ltd Prof.Prashant Rastogi Head of department INJ Business school

(1STMAY TO 30TH JUNE ) INJ BUSINESS School Greater noida


The Taste of India


The Taste of India

The PGDM programme is well structured and integrated course of Business studies. The main objective of practical training at PGDM level is to develop skill in student by supplement to the theoretical Study of business management in general. Industrial training helps To gain real life knowledge about the industrial environment and Business practices. The PGDM programmed provides student with a Fundamental knowledge of business and organizational functions And activities, as well as an exposure to strategic thinking of Management. In every professional course, training is an important factor. Professors give us theoretical knowledge of various subjects in the College but we are practically exposed of such subjects when we get the training in the organization. It is only the training through which I Come to know that what an industry is and how it works. I can learn about various departmental operations being performed in the industry, which would, in return, help me in the future when I will enter the practical field. During this whole training I got a lot of experience and came to know about the management practices in real that how it differs from those of theoretical knowledge and the practically in the real life. In today’s globalize world, where cutthroat competition is prevailing in the market, theoretical knowledge is not sufficient. Beside this one need to have practical knowledge, which would help an individual in his/her carrier activities and it is true that

“Experience is best teacher”.


The Taste of India

This work is an outcome of eight weeks of hard labour and commitment towards the company I worked for. This task could not been possible without the help and support of people with whom I worked. It is with great pleasure and privilege that I wish to thank all the people who actively supported me and with whom I worked and met during my training period. I would like to thank Mr. Manish tripathi and Mr.Jogindra Singh (Asst. Sales Manager of AMUL MILK in DELHI Office) for allowing me as Management Trainee in for giving me knowledge about the marketing and deal with retailer & distributers and let me aware about business tactics. I extended my sincere thanks to Mr. Rajesh jha for extending his cooperation at every possible time when I face any difficulty in market and giving me a concept of “PO” (Possible) instead of “NO” and so many other concepts that helped me to learn the nuances of the real corporate world.

Last but not the least I would like to thank all my faculty members in INJ BUSINESS SCHOOL who gave me a real chance to get the taste of real corporate world.

The Taste of India

Sr. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chapter name Introduction Amul milk product History Marketing research Research design Distribution channel SUPPLIER Cooperatives Milk processing Marketing function Retailers 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 SWOT analysis My assignment Scope of training Experience & learning Finding Suggestion Limitation Conclusion Appendices 36-38 38-39 41-47 48-50 50-56 57-62 62-64 64 65-67 68-69 69-70 70 71-72 73-75 Page no. 07-08 09-15 15-19 20-24 24-27 28-56


The Taste of India

Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation
GCMMF: An introduction Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) is India's largest food products marketing organization. It is a state level apex body of milk cooperatives in Gujarat which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also serve the interest of consumers by providing quality products which are good value for money Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd (GCMMF) is the largest Organisation in FMCG industry engaged in marketing of milk & milk products under the brand names of AMUL and SAGAR with an annual turnover exceeding Rs 5000 crores. GCMMF is a unique organisation. It's a body created by Farmers, managed by competent professionals serving a very competitive and challenging consumer market. It is a true testimony of synergistic national development through the practice of modern management methods. We in GCMMF stand for integrity, excellence and quality through innovation. Our roots are embedded in the phrase " Work is worship. ". Those who share these values will find themselves at home with us. At GCMMF Ltd, while in pursuit of excellence, we offer a unique career opportunity to unlock your own potential. If you are looking for a challenging opportunity, you can explore your options with us. We firmly believe that you will never look back in your career again.


The Taste of India Members: 13 district cooperative milk producers' Union No. of Producer Members: No. of Village Societies: Total Milk handling capacity: Milk collection (Total - 2008-09): Milk collection (Daily Average 2008-09): Milk Drying Capacity: Cattle feed manufacturing Capacity: 2.79 million 13328 11.22 million litres per day 3.05 billion litres 8.4 million litres 626 Mts. per day 3500 Mts. per day

Sales growth of amul ltd
Sales turnover 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Rs. (million) 22588 23365 27457 28941 29225 37736 42778 52554 67113 US $ (in million) 500 500 575 616 672 850 1050 1325 1504


The Taste of India



Amul Taaza Double

Amul gold milk

Amul Lite Slim and Trim Milk


Fresh Cream

Toned Milk

Amul Shakti toned milk


The Taste of India


Masti dahi

VARITY Amul gold (whole milk) Amul shakti(standardized milk) Amul taaza (toned milk) Amul slim n trim FAT (%) 6 4.5 3 1.5 SNF (%) 9 8.5 8.5 9.0

*Every 100 parts of SNF (Solids Not Fat) contains 56 parts of carbohydrates, 34 parts of protein and 9 parts of minerals.

Special Features:
Amul Milk is the most hygenic liquid milk available in the market. It is pasteurised in state-of-the-art processing plants and pouchpacked to make it conveniently available to consumers.

AMUL FRESH MILK :AMUL MILK is made from Pasteurised Milk

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The Taste of India AMUL GOLD MILK :Amul Gold is Long Life standardised milk. It is fresh and only fresh milk, which has been processed with a technology called UHT (Ultra High Temperature), hence also known as UHT milk. Notwithstanding popular misconception, UHT technology does not involve any use of preservatives. The UHT treatment ensures zero microbial activation, while preserving the maximum flavour, taste, and nutritional value. The aseptic packaging system protects the product from air and light and guarantees a long shelf life of 180 days without refrigeration.

Amul Gold contains 4.5% fat ideal for making sweet dishes

and 8.5% SNF minimum and is (like kheer, payasam etc.) and

for setting curds. It is also ideal for drinking straight from the pack for kids and adolescents who simply love its creamy taste sans the inconvenient cream layer! Amul Gold comes in convenient 1 liter and 500ml packs

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AMUL TAAZA DOUBLE TONED MILK :Amul Taaza is Long Life double toned milk. It is fresh and only fresh milk, which has been processed with a technology called UHT (Ultra High Temperature), hence also known as UHT milk. Notwithstanding popular misconception, UHT technology does not involve any use of preservatives. The UHT treatment ensures zero microbial activation, while preserving the maximum flavour, taste, and nutritional value. The aseptic packaging system protects the product from air and light and guarantees a long shelf life of 180 days without refrigeration. Amul Taaza contains 1.5% fat and 9% SNF minimum and is ideal for tea and coffee whitening and for setting curds. It is also just right for drinking straight from the pack for those who would like to enjoy the taste the goodness of natural while avoiding the hazards of too much fat! Amul Taaza comes in convenient 1 liter, 500ml and 200ml packs.

AMUL LITE SLIM AND TRIM MILK :Amul Lite is Long Life skimmed milk. It is fresh and only fresh milk, which has been processed with a technology called UHT (Ultra

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The Taste of India High Temperature), hence also known as UHT milk.

Notwithstanding popular misconception, UHT technology does not involve any use of preservatives. The UHT treatment ensures zero microbial activation, while preserving the maximum flavour, taste, and nutritional value. The aseptic packaging system protects the product from air and light and guarantees a long shelf life of 180 days without refrigeration. Amul Lite Milk is a unique offering to health conscious milk lovers. With virtually zero fat content, nil cholesterol and 8.7% SNF minimum, it gives you all the proteins, vitamins and minerals of natural milk without your having to imbibe unnecessary flab in the deal! Amul Lite Milk comes in convenient 1 liter, 500ml and 200ml pack.

AMUL SHAKTI TONED MILK :Amul Shakti is Long Life toned milk. It is fresh and only fresh milk, which has been processed with a technology called UHT (Ultra High Temperature), hence also known as UHT milk. Notwithstanding popular misconception, UHT technology does not involve any use of preservatives. The UHT treatment ensures zero microbial activation, while preserving the aximum flavour, taste, and nutritional value. The
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The Taste of India aseptic packaging system protects the product from air and light and guarantees a long shelf life of 180 days without refrigeration. Amul Shakti contains 3% fat and 8.5% SNF minimum. It is the ideal ultipurpose milk. Growing children love its taste while benefiting from its comprehensive nutrition. Amul Shakti comes in convenient 1 liter and 500ml packs.

AMIL MASTI SPICED BUTTERMILK :Amul introduces the Best Thirst Quenching Drink which is Free of Colour, Preservatives, Acids and Sucrose Sugar (unlike Cola drinks) Product Details: Product - Amul Masti Spiced Buttermilk Pack - 200ml Tetra Brik , MRP - Rs. 5.00 Ingredients Milk Solids, Common Salt, Spices and Condiments, Contains permitted StabilizerMost importantly, Unlike carbonated soft drinks, Amul Masti Spiced Buttermilk is 100% Natural and Sucrose Free without any color or preservative added.

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The Taste of India It is a low fat product with lower sodium salt content. It contains protein with almost 50% lower calorie than soft drinks. The spices and condiments added to the product enhance its taste and flavour. Available in convenient and attractive, take-away tamper proof 200 ml Tetra Pak Brik with 120 days shelf life at ambient temperatures. Presently available in India only.

DAHI :AMUL MASTI DAHI is made from Pasteurized Toned Milk Approximate Composition: Fat 3.5%, SNF 8.5% Special Features: Only Packed curd available in market, made in

the hygienic way in modern processing plant. Made with special culture to give a smooth, mild acidic taste and pleasant flavour consistently.

In the year 1946 the first milk union was established. This union was started with 250 liters of milk per day. In the year 1955 AMUL was established. In the year 1946 the union was known as KAIRA DISTRICT CO-OPERATIVE MILK PRODUCERS’ UNION. This union selected the brand name AMUL in 1955.

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The brand name Amul means “AMULYA”. This word derived form the Sanskrit word “AMULYA” which means “PRICELESS”. A quality control expert in Anand had suggested the brand name “AMUL”. Amul products have been in use in millions of homes since 1946. Amul Butter, Amul Milk Powder, Amul Ghee, Amulspray, Amul Cheese, Amul Chocolates, Amul Shrikhand, Amul Ice cream, Nutramul, Amul Milk and Amulya have made Amul a leading food brand in India. (The total sale is Rs. 6 billion in 2005). Today Amul is a symbol of many things like of the high-quality products sold at reasonable prices, of the genesis of a vast cooperative network, of the triumph of indigenous technology, of the marketing savvy of a farmers' organization. And have a proven model for dairy development (Generally known as “ANAND PATTERN”). In the early 40’s, the main sources of earning for the farmers of Kaira district were farming and selling of milk. That time there was high demand for milk in Bombay. The main supplier of the milk was Polson dairy limited, which was a privately owned company and held monopoly over the supply of milk at Bombay from the Kaira district. This system leads to exploitation of poor and illiterates’ farmers by the private traders. The traders used to beside the prices of milk and the farmers were forced to accept it without uttering a single word. However, when the exploitation became intolerable, the farmers were frustrated. They collectively appealed to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, who was a leading activist in the freedom movement. Sardar Patel advised the farmers to sell the milk on their own by establishing a co-operative union, Instead of supplying milk to private traders. Sardar Patel sent the farmers to Shri Morarji Desai in order to gain his co-operation and help. Shri Desai held a meeting at Samarkha village near Anand, on 4th January 1946. He advised the farmers to form a society for collection of the milk.

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These village societies would collect the milk themselves and would decide the prices at which they can sell the milk. The district union was also form to collect the milk from such village cooperative societies and to sell them. It was also resolved that the Government should be asked to buy milk from the union. However, the govt. did not seem to help farmers by any means. It gave the negative response by turning down the demand for the milk. To respond to this action of govt., the farmers of Kaira district went on a milk strike. For 15 whole days not a single drop of milk was sold to the traders. As a result the Bombay milk scheme was severely affected. The milk commissioner of Bombay then visited Anand to assess the situation. Having seemed the condition, he decided to fulfill the farmers demand.Thus their cooperative unions were forced at the village and district level to collect and sell milk on a cooperative basis, without the intervention of Government. Mr. Verghese Kurien showed main interest in establishing union who was supported by Shri Tribhuvandas Patel who lead the farmers in forming the Cooperative unions at the village level. The Kaira district milk producers union was thus established in ANAND and was registered formally on 14th December 1946. Since farmers sold

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all the milk in Anand through a co-operative union, it was commonly resolved to sell the milk under the brand name AMUL.

At the 11 initial stage only 250 liters of milk was collected everyday. But with the growing awareness of the benefits of the cooperativeness, the collection of milk increased. Today Amul collect 11 lakhs liters of milk everyday. Since milk was a perishable commodity it becomes difficult to preserve milk flora longer period. Besides when the milk was to be collected from the far places, there was a fear of spoiling of milk. To overcome this problem the union thought out to develop the chilling unit at various junctions, which would collect the milk and could chill it, so as to preserve it for a longer period. Thus, today Amul has more than 150 chilling centers in various villages. Milk is collected from almost 1073 societies. With the financial help from UNICEF, assistance from the govt. of New Zealand under the Colombo plan, of Rs. 50 millions for factory to manufacture milk powder and butter was planned. Dr.Rajendra Prasad, the president of India laid the foundation on November 15, 1954. Shri Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the prime minister of India declared it open at Amul dairy on November 20,1955.

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PEOPLE POWER: AMUL'S SECRET OF SUCCESS The system succeeded mainly because it provides an assured market at remunerative prices for producers' milk besides acting as a channel to market the production enhancement package. What'smore, it does not disturb the agro-system of the farmers. It also enables the consumer an access to high quality milk and milk products. Contrary to the traditional system, when the profit of the business was cornered by the middlemen, the system ensured that the profit goes to the participants for their socio-economic upliftment and common good. Looking back on the path traversed by Amul, the following features make it a pattern and model for emulation elsewhere. Amul has been able to:Produce an appropriate blend of the policy makers farmers board of management and the professionals: each group appreciating its rotes and limitations, Bring at the command of the rural milk producers the best of the technology and harness its fruit for betterment. Provide a support system to the milk producers withoutdisturbing their agro-economic systems, Plough back the profits, by prudent use of men, material and machines, in the rural sector for the common good and betterment of the member producers and Even though, growing with time and on scale, it has remained with the smallest producer members.

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Marketing research plays an important role in the process of marketing. Starting with market component of the total marketing talks. It helps the firm to acquire a better understanding of the consumers, the competition and the marketing environment. DEFINITION :“Marketing research is a systematic gathering, recording and analysis marketing problem to facilitate decision making.” - Coundiff & Still. “Marketing research is a systematic problem analysis, model building and fact finding for the purpose of important decision making and control in the marketing of goods and services” - Phillip Kotler . MAIN STEPS INVOLVED IN MARKETING RESEARCH :Defining the Marketing Problem to be tackled and identifying the market research problem involved in the task. (1) Define the problem and its objectives. (2) Identify the problem. (3) Determine the information needed. (4) Determine the sources of information. (5) Decide research methods. (6) Tabulate, Analyze and interpret the data. (7) Prepare research report. (8) Follow-up the study. (1) Define the problem and its objectives :This includes an effective job in planning and designing a research project that will provide the needed information. It also includes the establishment of a general framework of major marketing elements such as the industry elements, competitive elements, marketing elements and company elements.

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(1) Identify the problem :Identifying the problem involves getting acquainted with the company, its business, its products and market environment, advertising by means of library consultation and extensive interviewing of company’s officials. (2) Determining the specific Information needed :In general the producer, the manufacturer, the wholesaler and the retailer try to find out four things namely :(1) What to sell (2) When to sell (3) Where to sell (4) How to sell (4) Determine the sources of information :Primary Data :Primary datas are those which are gathered specially for the project at hand, directly – e.g. through questionnaires & interviews. Primary data sources include company salesman, middleman, consumers, buyers, trade association’s executives & other businessman & even competitors. Secondary Data :These are generally published sources, which have been collected originally for some other purpose. Source are internal company records, government publication, reports & publication, reports & journals, trade, professional and business associations publications & reports. (4) Decide Research methods for collecting data :If it is found that the secondary data cannot be of much use, collection of primary data become necessary. Three widely used methods of gathering primary data are Survey Observation Experimentation

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A) Survey Method :In this method, information gathered directly from individual respondents, either through personal interviews or through mail questionnaires or telephone interviews. B) Observation Method :The research data are gathered through observing and recording their actions in a marketing situation. This technique is highly accurate. It is rather an expensive technique. C)Experimental Method :This method involves carrying out a small scale trial solution to a problem, while at the same time, attempting to control all factors relevant to the problem. The main assumption here is that the test conditions are essentially the same as those that will be encountered later when conclusions derived from the experiment are applied to a broader marketing area. D) The Panel Research :In this technique the same group of respondents is contacted for more then one occasion; and the information obtained to find out if there has been any in their taste demand or they want any special quality, color, size, packing in the product. a) Preparation of questionnaire b) Presetting of questionnaire c) Planning of the sample (5) Tabulate, Analysis and Interpret the Data :The report must give/contain the following information:a) The title of research b) The name of the organization for which it has been Conducted c) The objectives of research d) The methodology used e) Organization and the planning of the report

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f) A table of contents along with charts and diagrams used in the reports g) The main report containing the findings h) Conclusion arrived at end recommendations suggested i) Appendices (containing questionnaire / forms used sample design, instructions.) (6) Follow-up the study :The researchers, in the last stage, should follow up this study to find if his recommendation are being implemented and if not, why

Market research is discovering what people want, need, or believe. It can also involve discovering how they act. Once that research is complete it can be used to determine how to market your specific product. Whenever possible, try to reduce risks at the earliest possible stage. For example you could carry out market research early on and not wait until you are almost ready to enter the market. If early market research reveals that your business idea has real potential, you can use this information in planning the build-up of your business. [Ilar 1998] For starting up a business there are a few things should be found out through market research in order to know if your business is feasible. These are things like:

Market Information Market information is making known the prices of the different commodities in the market, the supply and the demand. Information about the markets can be obtained in several different varieties and formats. The most basic form of market information is the best quotation and last sale data, including the number of shares, with respect to a particular security at a given time. [Market research 2006] Examples Of Market Information Questions Are:

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Who are the customers? Where are they located and how can they be contacted? What quantity and quality do they want? What is the best time to sell? What is the long-term or historical price data over a number of years? What is the expected production in the country? Is there more demand for one product or another? Etc.

“Advertising is a paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.”
1. RESEARCH PROBLEM:Increase the awareness level of AMUL MILK . Seek the general perception of consumer towards AMUL MILK . To find the performance of AMUL MILK vis-à-vis other Brands. To know the consumer psyche and their behaviour towards AMUL MILK. 2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES & related sub objectives :To know the relationship of sales with the advertisement. To know awareness of people towards Amul MILK. To know in which segment chocolates are mostly like/preferred. To know which advertisement tool is mostly preferred by people. To know the preference of Amul MILK with comparison to Other competitive brands. To know the factors which affects consumer’s buying behavior to purchase milk.

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3.RESEARCH INSTRUMENT USED :If one wants to know what type of dentifrice people use, thequestionnaire method has come to be the more widely used of the two data collection method. Many consumers are now familiar with the telephone caller who greets them with “We are making a survey”, and then proceeds to ask a series of questions. interviews are conducted in retailer, others by ,distributer . Each of these has its special advantages and disadvantages and limitations. The questionnaire method in general, however, has a number of pervasive advantages and disadvantages. Discussion of particular variations will be more meaningful if these characteristics of the general methods are brought out first. A questionnaire consists of list of questions to be asked from the respondents and the space provided to record the answer / responses. The choice among these alternatives is largely determined by the type of information to be obtained and by the type of respondents from whom it is to be obtained. The common factor in all varieties of the questionnaire method is this reliance on verbal responses to question, written or oral. Questionnaire in the project consists of: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS: Questions of this type offer the respondents an alternative to choose the right answer among others. It is faster, time saving and less biased. It also simplifies the tabulating process. OPEN END QUESTIONS: In this type respondents are free to answer in their own words and express the ideas they think are relevant, such questions are good as first questions or opening questions. They introduce the subject and obtain general reaction.

FIELD WORK- METHOD USED FOR DATA COLLECTION :Questionnaire was prepared keeping the objective of research in mind.

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Questions were asked to respondents as regards to there willingness to purchase milk. The help of questionnaires conducted direct interviews, in order to get accurate information. I visited as many respondents as I can and asked them their real likings about amul milk and other competitor milk and also got an idea, How a milk should be? It is really a Herculean task to understand Consumer Behavior, as the definition suggest, “Consumer behavior is a physical activity as well as decision process individual engaged in when evaluating, acquiring, using and disposing goods and services”. Retailers were not willing to answer, when they were contacted between 1.00 pm to 3.00 pm, the time when most of the retailers take rest during the scorching heat. [1] Market share of amul milk in south Delhi Amul 22%

Mother dairy - 46% Paras dairy Saras dairy DMS Others 10%

- 08% - 09% - 05%

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At What time retailers required milk? 14% 60% 20% 06%

3am - 5am 4am - 6am 5am - 7am Other

Requirement of Milk

6% 20%


3am-5am 4am-6am 5am-7am Other


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INFERENCE The above diagram suggest that the most preferred time is 4am – 6am i.e. 60%.

Distribution channel of amul milk
» Understand the procurement, processing and distribution activities of GCMMF's supply chain "Amul is a supply chain which has taken the form of a cooperative association. It has developed the technology and methods to store surplus stocks of milk and dairy products in the form of powered milk and to reconstitute and distribute products made from the powered milk during seasons of the year when dairy farm yields fall below demand levels."1 - Ron Kopicki, Lead Private Sector Development Specialist, World Bank in 1999. "Amul, the showcase for the cooperative sector in developing countries, encompasses the poor farmer with two buffaloes and world-class processing facilities and distribution system with a national and increasingly global reach." - CK Prahalad3 in The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid.

Building Networks:The founders of Kaira Union realized that to fulfill their objectives, a large number of marginal farmers had to benefit from the cooperative – a network of stakeholders had to be built. And once built, it had to grow so as to draw more rural poor to undertake dairy farming as a means of livelihood. The network had to have several layers – the organizational network where the voice of the owners governed all decisions, a physical network of support services and product delivery process and a network of small farmers that
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could deliver the benefit of a large corporation in the market place. More importantly, a process had to be put in place to build these networks. Building an organizational network that would represent the farmers and the customers was the most complicated task. A loose confederation evolved with GCMMF representing the voice of the customers, the Unions representing the milk processors and the village societies representing the farmers. Competition in the markets ensured that the entire network was responding to the requirements of the customers at prices that were very competitive. The task of ensuring the returns to the farmers was commensurate with the objectives with which the cooperatives were setup was achieved through representation of farmers at different levels of decision making throughout the network – the societies, Unions and the Federation boards comprised farmers themselves. In order to ensure that most returns from sales went to the farmers themselves who were the producers, the intermediaries had to operate very effectively and on razor thin margins. This turned out to be a blessing in disguise – the operations remained very “lean” and started to provide cost based advantage to the entire network. AMUL established a group to standardize the process of organizing farmers into village societies. In addition to establishing the criteria for selecting members, the group had to train the VS to run the cooperative democratically, profitably and with concern for its members. This included establishing procedures for milk collection, testing, payment for milk purchased from member farmers and its subsequent sale to the union, accounting, ensuring timely collection and dispatch of milk on milk routes established by the union, etc. The village societies department at AMUL acted as internal representatives of the village societies in their dealings with the Unions. Milk procurement activity at AMUL comprises development and servicing of village societies, increasing milk collection, procurement of milk from societies & its transport to the chilling locations, and resolving problems of farmers and village societies. The physical delivery network for distribution of milk and milk products is managed by the marketing arm of the network – GCMMF. GCMMF provides umbrella branding to all the products of the networked. The two brands that GCMMF supports are AMUL and SAGAR. Milk and milk products from all Unions are sold under these two key brands (Table 3 shows the market share of AMUL across various product segments). In essence, GCMMF procures from multiple production plants (the thirteen
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Unions) which in turn procure from the Village Societies registered with each Union. GCMMF distributes its products through third party distribution depots that are managed by distributors who are exclusive to GCMMF. These distributors are also responsible for servicing retail outlets all over the country. GCMMF sales staff manages this process. Retailing of GCMMF’s products takes place through the FMCG retail network in India most of whom are small retailers. Liquid milk also gets distributed by home vendors who deliver milk at homes. Since 1999, GCMMF has started web based ordering facilities for its customers. A well-defined supply chain has been developed to service customers who order in this manner. Cooperative development programmers at the village level for educating & training its members have become an important part of the strategy to build this extensive network. It has provided education and training to around 650,000 women members & 550,000 male members along-with the management committee members and staff of the village societies.

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Dairy cooperative structure and details for state of Gujarat:-

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While figure ( 1) describes the hierarchical nature of the cooperative structure, Figure 2 presents the (1)Supply chain linking farmer Suppliers of milk with the millions of consumers Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation or GCMMF is the marketing entity for the State of Gujarat. GCMMF has 42 regional distribution centers in India, serves over 5, 00,000 retail outlets and exports to more than 15 countries. All these organizations are independent legal entities yet loosely tied together with a common destiny! Today AMUL is a symbol of many things. Of high-quality products sold at reasonable prices Of developing and coordinating a vast co-operative network Of making a strong business proposition out of serving a large number of small and marginal suppliers Of the triumph of indigenous technology of the marketing savvy of a farmers' organization. We will now try to address the central issue of how to develop and manage a network of firms in an emerging market environment. (2) Characteristics of a Network Environment During late 1980s and 90s network structure emerged as an innovative mechanism for enhancing competitiveness and providing value to the consumer. Essentially, a network is made up of various stake holders ranging from suppliers to retailers, loosely linked by a common interest of remaining competitive in a demanding environment. This is in contrast to the traditional mechanism of vertical integration, joint ventures etc. In recent years, much of the interest in the network structure has been motivated by the increased attention to supply chain management with the focus shifting from the individual firm to the supply chain. A typical supply chain network spans several levels of suppliers, manufacturers/assemblers, distributors, wholesalers, and retailers. It is now quite well recognized and well documented that cooperation among the members is necessary to manage such chains effectively and efficiently. Further, research on the subject has highlighted the role of coordination and its importance in supply chain management. It is also recognized that such changes are not easy to implement and require a paradigm shift in the outlook of firms in the chain. Specifically, this requires that decision making by various players be driven by the objective of optimizing the performance of the chain (global optimum) rather than by the interests of the individual firms (local optimum). Further, complexity and dynamics of the supply chain make it very difficult to assess the interaction effects. Increased cooperation among network members has resulted in a
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number of changes at all levels -- operational, tactical and strategic, and has led to the emergence of practices and strategies for improving the chain's performance. Most prominent among these include the following: Information sharing, often dynamically, to improve planning and execution. Sharing of POS data is a classic example for minimizing the distortions due to bull-whip effect and reducing perceived variability of demand by the partners in the chain. Typically, information Sharing extends to costs as well. Focus on core competence of each player in the chain. The objective is to ensure that each task is performed by the entity best suited for it. As a result, firms have become willing partners in ceding control to a network partner for improving performance. VMI in Much industry is a direct result of such change in management thinking. Similarly, the Role of third parties for providing specific expertise such as logistics has grown sub statically with emphasis on supply chain. Help network partners in improving their capability and making them competitive. Again, this represents a sea change from the past when such entities were viewed as rivals in a zero sum game. The new thinking is motivated by the recognition that helping partners become competitive will make the chain more effective and lead to higher growth i revenues and profits, thus leading to a win-win situation for all parties. Helping suppliers with process improvements and implementation of JIT methods are examples of such initiatives leading to overall improvement. With many of the above characteristics being embodied in a network, it may start to perform all the functions of a firm by satisfying the requirements of an organization, i.e., having multiple agents, having a legal standing, presence of group objective as well as individual objectives amongst agents, existence of a hierarchy of relationship and pooled interdependence, sharing of common information and centralized planning (to some extent), sharing of risks, having centralized marketing function for most products etc. (Carley 1992, Dyer and Singh 1998, Van Zandt, 1998). It is interesting to note that AMUL has adopted the network model in early 1950s in a broader context and more complex environment, well before the approach was recognized in Western Europe and North America. In the following sections we describe the AMUL story and elaborate on its practices.
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The Business Model
The objective of the network was to deliver profitable and equitable returns to a large number of farmers for a long period of time. This follows rather directly from the fact that the member farmers own essentially the network of cooperatives. As explained later, given the weak economic status of these members, an additional objective was to develop the supplier over the long term through social change. Consequently, the business model had to include both the costs and benefits of services that would be needed to deliver milk with high productivity as well as to assist farmers in improving their social environment. The success of the network depended on high collection rate of milk. This required increasing membership with more VSs(Village societies), raising the number of members per VS, and improving the milk yield (i.e., better cattle management), constant concern about the cost to farmers in the network and delivering quality to customers at low prices. The cooperative had decided as part of its value: to charge for each service provided to the supplier to purchase all milk that member farmers produced to sell liquid milk at affordable prices so as to serve a large number of consumers to develop and deliver services that will improve lives of people in the network to hire professional managers, to run the federation and unions, whose values included upliftment of rural poor. It is noteworthy that from the very beginning, in the early 1950s, AMUL adopted the network as the basic model for long-term growth. Two aspects of this network deserve special attention. First, the network explicitly includes secondary services to the farmersuppliers. Second, several of the entities in the network are organized as co operatives linked in a hierarchical fashion. In what follows, we describe briefly the environmental characteristics and the rationale for the underlying business model. Market / Customers: In comparison with developed economies, the market for dairy products in India is still in an evolutionary stage with tremendous potential for high value products such as ice cream, cheese etc. The distribution network, on the other hand, is quite reasonable with access to ruralareas of the country. Traditional methods practiced in western economies are not adequate to realize the market potential and alternative approaches are necessary to tap this market.

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Suppliers: A majority of the suppliers are small or marginal farmers who are often illiterate, poor, and with liquidity problems as they lack direct access to financial institutions. Again, traditional market mechanisms are not adequate to assure sustenance and growth of these suppliers.

The three –tier structure “ANAND PATTERN “

State Level Marketing Federation

District Milk Product Union Ltd.

Village Milk Product Union Ltd.


The three-tier “Anand Pattern’ structure consists of a Cooperative Society at village level affiliated to a Milk Union at District level and they are further federated into a Milk Federation at State level. The above three-tier structure was formed in order to delegate responsibilities at various levels such that there is no internal competition and economics of scale is achieved.

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The Village Cooperative is the primary society under the three-tier structure. It has membership of milk producers of the village (approximately 200 member milk producers per village) and is governed by an elected Management Committee consisting of 9 to 12 elected representatives of the milk producers. The main function of this cooperative society is to collect surplus milk from the milk producers of the village and make payment based on quality and quantity. It also provide support services to the members like Veterinary First Aid, Artificial Insemination Services, Cattle-feed sales, mineral mixture sales, fodder & fodder seed sales, conducting training on Animal Husbandry and Dairying, etc. The district-level Milk Union is the second tier under the three-tier structure. It has membership of Village Societies of the District and is governed by a Board of Directors consisting of 9 to 18 elected representatives of the Village Societies. The main function of the Milk Union is to process milk into various milk and milk products as per the market requirement. The Union procures milk from the Village Societies of the District and arranges for the transportation of raw milk from the villages to the Milk Union. It also provides input services to the producers and other support to the village level societies. The State-level Federation is the apex tier under the three-tier structure. It has membership of Milk Unions of the State and is governed by a Board of Directors consisting of one elected representative of each Milk Union. The main function of the Federation is to market the milk and milk products, manufactured by Milk Unions. The Federation establishes distribution network for marketing of milk and milk products and maintains the supply chair network. It also provides support services to the Milk Unions and members like Technical Inputs. Technologies:A basic milk collection transaction done by Akashganga comprises: Measuring weight of milk with electronic weighing scale. Fat testing using ‘milk-o-tester’. Capture of unique member ID by the PC software. Printing of pay slip, with all this data and the amount to be paid.

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The MS DOS based system offers scalability for an information-kiosk like service. Thus, DISK has been added as an enhancement, which offers a multitude of animal husbandry related services, besides maintaining databases and offering Internet connectivity at the Dairy Cooperative Society. Cooperative milk producing societies in Gujarat :Following are the cooperative that function under the GCMMF : Ahmadabad Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Ahmadabad. Soc: 433, Memes: 52,428. Av Milk Proc: 90,000 lpd. Banaskantha Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Palanpur. Soc: 1,130, Mems: 97,251. Av Milk Proc: 295,000 lpd. Baroda Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Baroda. Soc: 783, Mems: 156,691. Av Milk Proc: 225,000 lpd. Bharuch Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Bharuch. Soc: 289, Mems: 37,900. Av Milk Proc: 38,000 lpd. Bhavnagar Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Bhavnagar. Soc: 190, Mems: 25,532. Av Milk Proc: 23,000 lpd. Gandhinagar Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Gandhinagar. Soc: 56, Mems: 13,000. Av Milk Proc: 46,500 lpd. Junagadh Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Junagadh. Soc: 400, Mems: 41,500. Av Milk Proc: 73,000 lpd. Kaira Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Amul Dairy, Anand. Soc: 943, Mems: 513,280. Av Milk Proc: 740,000 lpd. Kutch Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Kutch Dairy, Madhapar. Av Milk Proc: 25,000 lpd. Mehsana Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Dudhsagar Dairy, Mehsana. Soc: 1,020, Mems: 292,800. Av Milk Proc: 704,402 lpd.

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Panchmahal Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Godhra. Soc: 1,133, Mems: 126,510. Av Milk Proc: 112,000 lpd. Rajkot Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Rajkot. Soc: 193, Mems: 29,620. Av Milk Proc: 50,000 lpd. Sabarkantha Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Sabar Dairy, Himatnagar. Soc: 1,315, Mems: 200,482. Av Milk Proc: 322,346 lpd. Surat Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Sumul Dairy, Surat. Soc: 864, Mems: 160,000. Av Milk Proc: 300,000 lpd. Surendranagar Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Surendranagar. Soc: 486, Mems: 31,000. Av Milk Proc: 30,000 lpd.

Plant layout is the overall arrangement of the machine tools, handling equipments, storeroom and other various accessories required for facilitating production in a factory. These arrangements are pre-planned with the results that the building has been constructed to fit a layout of a given process. AMUL plant is indigenously worked out with facilitation of various production processes and production of multi products under one plant. The total plot is nearly about 2.27 kms. Separate buildings are provided with required arrangements of machine tools handling and computers connection through the control room to fit for varying product-manufacturing departments. The plant is engaged in producing milk, ice creams, milk powder and ghee. Entire department is uniquely provided with facilities for the processing each

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product. There are 4 production departments and packaging departments pertaining to each product respectively. Thus, plant layout encompasses all production and service facilities and provides for the most effective utilization of the men, materials and machines constituting the process. operations. A good layout results in elimination or minimization of accidents and hazards and cost while increases the output. Thus a good layout specifically is observed to be beneficial on the following grounds: Efforts minimization Fewer material handling will be provided manufacturing units cost will be lover Bottlenecking of production will be eliminated Total item in process will be less Specialization of operations is facilitated Less inspection will be required Production control will be easier to achieve Plant investment can be held to the necessary minimum Plant and equipment obsolescence may be less Wastage space will be eliminated Thus, a true beneficiary is provided to the plant through good and sound planning for plant layout. Operating Analysis:Amul’s only source of raw material is Village Milk societies. Milk is brought from such village milk societies every morning and evening.
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It is the master blue print of coordinating all

The Taste of India
This milk is then sent to the dairy plant. In the dairy plant the milk is processed i.e. it is made free from germs.

Milk Processing
The entire process of milk can be divided into following steps: Milk Processing Chart: Collection of Raw-Milk Electronic Milk Test Methyline Blue Reduction Test Purchasing And Standardizing Process

Separation Process

Quality Check

Packaging Process

Cold Storage

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Steps in Production Process
1. Collection of Raw Milk Raw milk is collected from different co-operative societies of Gujarat. About 122000 liters of raw milk is collected per day. Before this milk is sent to the laboratory for testing the ‘FAT & SNF’ proportion, the milk is separated from the raw milk. The milk is taken from the chilling centers to Ahmadabad with the help of trucks. After collecting the samples of milk, they are taken to the laboratory ,where two types of tests are conducted.

Electronic milk test Methyline blue reduction test (a) Electronic Milk Test

Before pasteurizing the milk the samples are taken to the laboratory. In the laboratory with the help of machine called electronic milk tester, the proportion of SNF & FAT is checked with phosphate solution. When the colour of the milk becomes yellow, it is sent for pasteurisation. (b) Methyline blue reduction test

Another test, which is taken in the laboratory, is called Methyline blue reduction test. This test is conducted for checking for how long the milk will remain fresh. To check this, 10 ml of milk is taken and 1 ml of methyline blue solution is added to it. It is then kept under water at 57-degree C. After one hour, if the solution losses its color than it is called raw milk. If the solution remains the same even after 5 hours than it is considered as fresh milk, which remains constant for a long period of time.

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The dairy fixes the proportion of FAT & SAF. MILK Buffalo Cow SNF 9% 8.5% FAT 6% 4.5%

After laboratory gives green signal and confirming the raw milk at the reception dock is brought in to the house connected with the pump is sent to the milk processing plant. This is than chilled below 4 degree C. and then stored in milk silos. After that milk is processed which has two steps i.e. pasteurising and standardizing?

2. Pasteurizing & standardizing After collecting and checking and conducting laboratory tests, the pasteurising process is conducted. To pasteurized the milk means to kill all the germs in the milk by a particular method which was invented by a scientist called James Pasteur and so the name pasteurization. In pasteurizing, the milk is first heated at 72 C to 76 C for 15 seconds and then it is immediately cooled below 4 C. By this method they destroy the pathogenic bacteria present in the raw milk. But if the right degree of temperature is not provided there are chances that the milk might still contain germs. After this process some milk goes to separator machine and remaining is proportionately sent for standardization.

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Standardization process is known such as it bifurcates the milk in 3 categories varying according to that FAT & SNF contents. The equipment named OSTA. Auto standardization adjusts the fat directly. The computer is just ordered whether gold or standard milk is to be rationed and the same will be received with appropriate contents. Ready Milk = Pasteurized + Standardized. 3. Separation process

Separator machine separates two kinds of products, skimmed milk & cream, through channels. There are 100 disks fixed in separator machines, which revolve at 5000 rpm (revolution per minute). It is taken to the tanks, which has the capacity of 20000 litres. Whenever the milk is needed from the tank, it is tested in the laboratory and the deficit proportion fat is added by mixing cream. This process continues for 24 hours. 4. Quality Check

Pasteurized milk is sent for a quality check in the Quality Assurance laboratory of the dairy plant. Within 14 seconds FAT and SNF proportion is received regarding 30 lack liters’ of milk. The total investment put into the lab by the Dairy plant is of Rs. 6 crores. This laboratory only checks and analyses the powder, milk and ghee. There is a separate ice-cream analyzing laboratory.

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4 Packing Process After this the milk is sent for packing to the milk packing station in the dairy plant. In the milk packaging station there are huge pipelines and behind each of them there is polyfill machine from which the material to pack milk comes out. There are 12 such polyfill machines in the packaging station from which the materials to pack milk comes out. From each of these 12 machines 100 pouches are packed in one single minute. 6. Storage Then the milk is sent to the cold storage of the dairy where the milk is stored until it is dispatched. Here the milk is stored at temperature ranging from 5 C to 10 C, it is maintained with the help of exhaust fans having silicon chips. About 40000 litres of milk is dispatched from the cold storage of the dairy plant everyday. The damaged pouches are kept a side and the milk is once again put to the tank. Milk Powder :For converting milk powder first of all water content is evaporated in condensing plant. By this process they get condensed milk, it is used as a raw material. There after the milk is sent to the drying plant. The spray drying plant is huge in size with a height of 70 feet. The plant is divided into many floors to enable easy use of the plant. First of all the raw material i.e. condensed milk is put into the first floor of the plant along with air at 200° C. By this process the remaining water, which the condensed milk might have retained is also evaporated and milk comes as powder but this is not the last stage.

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This powder is again put in to a machine called milk calendaria, where it is turned in to real milk powder. Its capacity is 1000 litres per 15 minutes. Then again this milk powder is put into a Dense Waise Vessel. Here the lumps are removed and uniform milk powder is sent up. After processing the powder is sent for quality checking at quality assurance laboratory. After the quality confirms, this milk powder is differentiated, by adding different flavors to them like elaichi, chocolate & sugar free milk powder. Thereafter they are packed in tins and boxes. Afterwards it is stored at storage department. First plant is at ANAND, which engaged in the manufacturing of milk, butter, ghee, milk powder, flavored milk and buttermilk.

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Second plant is at MOGAR, which engaged in manufacturing chocolate, nutramul, Amul Ganthia and Amul lite.

Third plant is at Kanjari, which produces cattelfeed Fourth plant is at Khatraj, which engaged in producing cheese.

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Today, twelve dairies are producing different products under the brand name Amul. Today Amul dairy is no. 1 dairy in Asia and no. 2 in the world, which is matter of proud for Gujarat and whole India.

Distribution network of marketing function
Most producers work with marketing intermediaries to bring their products to market. The marketing intermediaries make up a marketing channel also called distribution cannel. Distribution channels are sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. The Head Office of GCMMF is located at Anand. The entire market is

divided in 5 zones. The zonal offices are located at Ahmedabad, Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai. Moreover there are 49 Depots located across the country and GCMMF caters to 13 Export markets. A zero level of channel also called a direct marketing channel consists of a manufacturer selling directly to the final customers. A one level channel; contains one selling intermediary such as retailer to the final customers. A two level channel two intermediaries are typically wholesaler and retailer. A three level channel are typically wholesaler, retailer and jobber in between. GCMMF has an excellent distribution. It is its distribution channel, which has made it so popular. GCMMF’s products like milk and milk products are perishable. It becomes that much important for them to have a good distribution.

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Distribution Chart






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We can see from above figure that GCMMF distribution channel is simple and clear. The products change hands for three times before it reaches to the final consumer. First of all the products are stored at the Agents end who are mere facilitators in the network. Then the products are sold to wholesale dealers who then sell to retailers and then the product finally reaches the consumers.

Amul Parlors
Amul has come out with a unique concept of Amul Parlours. They have classified them under four types namely:

Center for excellence On the Move Amul Parlors Amul Preferred Outlets

Center for Excellence: These Amul Parlors are specifically at a place, which has a class of excellence of its own. We can find such parlors at the Infosys, IIMA, NID Ahmadabad etc.

On the Move: These parlors are at the railway stations and at different state bus depots across different cities.

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Amul Parlors: These parlors can be seen at different gardens across different cities. These are fully owned by Amul. Amul Preferred Outlets: These are the private shops that keep the entire of product range of Amul. They also agree not to keep any competitor brands in the outlets. They can keep other brands that are in the non-competitor category. Amul has more than 200 such outlets right now. It wants to have 1,00,000 parlors by the end of the year 2010.

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R S Sodhi, general manager, GCMMF, said that a few executives from Amul's headquarters in Gujarat have already been dedicated to this channel. This will be rolled out to the branch level over a period of time. Most FMCG companies such as Hindustan Lever, Procter & Gamble and Marico have dedicated units, which work with the organized retailers. Apart from managing the supply chain, this team would also work to create consumer schemes and offers, which would be run at these outlets. At present, modern trade contributes less than five per cent to the total brand sales for Amul. The company is also working on increasing its retail presence, both through branded outlets and in-store presence. In the past year, Amul has set up close to 900 Amul Priority Outlets and these will be increased to 10,000 over the next three years. V J Matthai, assistant general manager, GCMMF said that by March 2008, the total number of outlets would go up to 3,000. Since these are being set up on a franchisee model, it requires almost no investment from the company, said Sodhi. “We will increase our presence at various points of sale like railway stations, highways, chemists and BPO's apart from the supermarket and kirana outlets,"

Third Party Logistics Services: In addition to the weaknesses in the basic infrastructure, logistics and transportation services are typically not professionally managed, with little regard for quality and service. Even from the cursory description of the environment provided above, it should be clear that the traditional management practices of the west are not sufficient for success in emerging markets. Many MNCs that ventured into India following the first phase of liberalization in 1990s found this at a great cost. The success of GCMMF and AMUL is in glaring contrast to the experience of these MNCs and thus provides an alternative business model that may be useful for others considering entry into emerging markets like India.

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A schematic description of the business model showing the demand-supply linkages is presented in Figure 3. In addition to material flows, the figure shows Major decisions, support services, and planning and coordination activities. For example, procurement prices set by Unions are a major determinant of milk supply. Similarly, GCMMF’s pricing strategy for dairy products has a strong influence on consumer demand. As shown in the figure, the Unions and GCMMF share coordination activities. In addition to outbound logistics, GCMMF takes responsibility for coordinating with the distributors to assure adequate and timely supply of products It also works with the Unions in determining product mix, product allocations and in developing production plans. The Unions, on the other hand, coordinate collection logistics and support services to the member-farmers. In what follows we elaborate on these aspects in more detail and provide a rationale for the model and strategies adopted by GCMMF.

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On the supply side, as mentioned earlier, the member-suppliers were typically small and marginalfarmers with severe liquidity problems, illiterate and untrained. AMUL and other cooperative Unions adopted a number of strategies to develop the supply of milk and assure steady growth. First, for the short term, the procurement prices were set so as to provide fair and reasonable return. Second, aware of the liquidity problems, cash payments for the milk supply was made with minimum of delay. This practice continues today with many village societies making payment upon the receipt of milk. For the long-term, the Unions followed a multi-pronged strategy of education and support. For example, only part of the surplus generated by the Unions is paid to the members in the form of dividends. A substantial part of this surplus is used for activities that promote growth of milk supply and improve yields. These include provision of veterinary services, support for cold storage facilities at the village societies etc. In parallel, the Unions have put in place a number of initiatives to help educate the members. Managing Third Party Service Providers: Well before the ideas of core competence and the role of third parties in managing the supply chain were recognized and became fashionable, these concepts were practiced by GCMMF and AMUL. From the beginning, it was recognized that the core Activity for the Unions lay in processing of milk and production of dairy products. Accordingly, the Unions focused efforts on these activities and related technology development. The marketing efforts (including brand development) were assumed by GCMMF. All other activities were entrusted to third parties. These include logistics of milk collection, distribution of dairy products, sale of products through dealers and retail stores, some veterinary services etc. It is worth noting that a number of these third parties are not in the organized sector, and many are not professionally managed. Hence, while third parties perform the activities, the Unions and GCMMF have developed a number of mechanisms to retain control and assure quality And timely deliveries. This is particularly critical for a perishable product such as liquid milk.

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DEMAND & SUPPLY ANALYSIS OF MILK DELHI MARKET: Looking into the demand of the Milk in the South delhi region it has shown a great potentiality and great demand of the products in the market. Many companies are existing in the milk market, such as Mother dairy, Dairy India & GCMMF, Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Limited (AMUL). All the national players doing good business in the market, along with them local manufacturers like Parag and Paras are also doing very good business holding a good market share along with Big One. All these companies are catering to the need of the consumers and supplying their products among the consumers. Again apart from these organized sectors players many local unorganized players are also doing good business in the South Delhi market. They are also holding a major portion of the market share. Demand is very good in the market so all these local companies have been able to do good business where big giants like Amul and Mother Dairy exists. So from the data collected I have seen that there is a huge demand of the product in the market and it has a very good future market. But looking to the demand of the product in the market the marketers have not been able to supply the products in the market for meeting the demand of the consumers. Different marketers are using different marketing strategy in the market to make more demand of their products in the market. But the question arise that to what extent the marketers become successful in their strategies. IN THE SOUTH

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Here again the question arise that why these marketers have not been able to satisfy the need of these consumers. It’s not like that it has not been able to supply the goods to the consumers but it has not been able to meet the whole demand of the product required in the market. Here we have seen that other companies have been able to cater the needs of the consumer to very much extent, but in case of Amul it has s

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