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CHAPTER2OPERATIONALAMPLIFIERS

ChapterOutline
2.1TheIdealOpAmp
2.2TheInvertingConfiguration
2.3TheNoninverting Configuration
2.4DifferenceAmplifiers
2.5IntegratorsandDifferentiators
2.6DCImperfections
2.7EffectofFiniteOpenLoopGainandBandwidthonCircuitPerformance
2.8LargeSignalOperationofOpAmp

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2.1IdealOpAmp
Introduction
Theirapplicationswereinitiallyintheareaofanalogcomputationandinstrumentation
Opampisverypopularbecauseofitsversatility
Opampcircuitsworkatlevelsthatarequiteclosetotheirpredictedtheoreticalperformance
Theopampistreatedabuildingblocktostudyitsterminalcharacteristicsanditsapplications

Opampsymbolandterminals
Twoinputterminals:invertinginputterminal()andnoninverting inputterminal(+)
Oneoutputterminal
TwodcpowersuppliesV+ andV
Otherterminalsforfrequencycompensationandoffsetnulling
Circuitsymbolforopamp

Opampwithdcpowersupplies

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Idealcharacteristicsofopamp
Differentialinputsingleendedoutputamplifier
Infiniteinputimpedance
i1 =i2 =0(regardlessoftheinputvoltage)
Zerooutputimpedance
vO=A(v2v1)(regardlessoftheload)
Infiniteopenloopdifferentialgain
Infinitecommonmoderejection
Infinitebandwidth

Differentialandcommonmodesignals
Twoindependentinputsignals:v1 andv2
Differentialmodeinputsignal(vId):vId =(v2v1)
Commonmodeinputsignal(vIcm):vIcm =(v1+v2)/2
Alternativeexpressionofv1 andv2:
v1 =vIcmvId/2
v2 =vIcm+vId/2

Exercise2.2(Textbook)
Exercise2.3(Textbook)
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2.2TheInvertingConfiguration
Theinvertingcloseloopconfiguration
ExternalcomponentsR1 andR2 formacloseloop
Outputisfedbacktotheinvertinginputterminal
Inputsignalisappliedfromtheinvertingterminal

Invertingconfigurationusingidealopamp
Therequiredconditionstoapplyvirtualshortforopampcircuit:
Negativefeedbackconfiguration
Infiniteopenloopgain
Closedloopgain:G vO/vI = R2/R1
Infinitedifferentialgain:v2v1 =vO/A =0
Infiniteinputimpedance:i2 =i1 =0
Zerooutputimpedance:vO =v1i1R2 = vIR2/R1
Voltagegainisnegative
Inputandoutputsignalsareoutofphase
Closedloopgaindependsentirelyonexternalpassive
components(independentofopampgain)
Closeloopamplifiertradesgain(highopenloopgain)
foraccuracy(finitebutaccurateclosedloopgain)

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Equivalentcircuitmodelfortheinvertingconfiguration
Inputimpedance:Ri vI/iI =vI /(vI/R1)=R1
Forhighinputclosedloopimpedance,R1 shouldbelarge,butislimitedtoprovidesufficientG
Ingeneral,theinvertingconfigurationsuffersfromalowinputimpedance
Outputimpedance:Ro =0
Voltagegain:Avo =R2/R1

Othercircuitexampleforinvertingconfiguration

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Application:theweightedsummer
Aweightedsummerusingtheinvertingconfiguration

Rf

k 1

R1

vO 0 R f ik (

v1

Rf
R2

v2 ...

Rf
Rn

vn )

Aweightedsummerforcoefficientsofbothsigns

R
R R
R R
Rc
vO v1 a c v2 a c v3 c v4
R1 Rb
R2 Rb
R4
R3

Exercise2.4(Textbook)
Exercise2.6(Textbook)
Exercise2.7(Textbook)
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2.3Noninverting Configuration
Thenoninvertingcloseloopconfiguration
ExternalcomponentsR1 andR2 formacloseloop
Outputisfedbacktotheinvertinginputterminal
Inputsignalisappliedfromthenoninvertingterminal

Noninverting configurationusingidealopamp
Therequiredconditionstoapplyvirtualshortforopampcircuit:
Negativefeedbackconfiguration
Infiniteopenloopgain
Closedloopgain:G vO/vI =1+R2/R1
Infinitedifferentialgain:v+v =vO/A =0
Infiniteinputimpedance:i2 =i1 =v /R1
Zerooutputimpedance:vO =v +i1R2 =vI(1+R2/R1)
Closedloopgaindependsentirelyonexternalpassive
components(independentofopampgain)
Closeloopamplifiertradesgain(highopenloopgain)
foraccuracy(finitebutaccurateclosedloopgain)
Equivalentcircuitmodelforthenoninverting configuration
Inputimpedance:Ri =
Outputimpedance:Ro =0
Voltagegain:Avo =1+R2/R1
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Thevoltagefollower
Unitygainbufferbasedonnoninverting configuration
Equivalentvoltageamplifiermodel:
InputresistanceofthevoltagefollowerRi =
OutputresistanceofthevoltagefollowerRo =0
VoltagegainofthevoltagefollowerAvo =1
Theclosedloopgainisunityregardlessofsourceandload
Itistypicallyusedasabuffervoltageamplifiertoconnectasourcewithahighimpedancetoalow
impedanceload

Exercise2.9(Textbook)

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Exercise1:Assumetheopampsareideal,findthevoltagegain(vo/vi) ofthefollowing
circuits.
(1)(2)

(3)(4)

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2.4DifferenceAmplifiers
Differenceamplifier
Idealdifferenceamplifier:
RespondstodifferentialinputsignalvId
RejectsthecommonmodeinputsignalvIcm
Practicaldifferenceamplifier:
vO =AdvId+AcmvIcm
Ad isthedifferentialgain
Acm isthecommonmodegain
Commonmoderejectionratio(CMRR):
CMRR 20 log

| Ad |
| Acm |

Singleopampdifferenceamplifier
R4
v I 2 v
R3 R4
v v
1 R2 / R1
R
vO v iR2 v 1 R2 2 vI 1
vI 2
1
/
R
R

R
R
1
1
3
4

R
1 R2 / R1
vIcm vId / 2
2 vIcm vId / 2
R1
1 R3 / R4
v

1 R2 / R1 R2
1 1 R2 / R1 R2

vIcm
vId

R
R
R
R
R
R1
1
/
2
1
/
3
4
1
3
4

1 1 R2 / R1 R2
Ad

2 1 R3 / R4 R1

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1 R2 / R1 R2
Acm

1 R3 / R4 R1

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Superpositiontechniqueforlineartimeinvariantcircuit
SetvI2 =0 vO1 ( R2 / R1 )vI 1
R R4
vI 2
SetvI1 =0 vO 2 1 2
R
R

R
1 3
4

R
1 R2 / R1
vO vO1 vO 2 2 vI 1
vI 2
R1
1 R3 / R4

vI1
vO1

1 R2 / R1 R2
1 1 R2 / R1 R2

vIcm
vId
1
/
2
1
/
R
R
R1

R
R
R

3
4
1
3
4

1 1 R2 / R1 R2 1 R2 / R1 R2
/

CMRR 20 log

2
1
R
/
R
R
1
R
/
R
R1
3
4
1
3
4

1 1 R2 / R1 R2
Ad

2 1 R3 / R4 R1

1 R2 / R1 R2
Acm

1 R3 / R4 R1

vI2

vO2

Theconditionfordifferenceamplifieroperation:R2/R1 =R4/R3 vO =(R2/R1)(v2v1)


Forsimplicity,theresistancescanbechosenas:R3 =R1 andR4 =R2
DifferentialinputresistanceRid:
Differentialinputresistance:Rid =2R1
LargeR1 canbeusedtoincreaseRid
R2 becomesimpracticallylargetomaintainrequiredgain
GaincanbeadjustedbychangingR1 andR2 simultaneously
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Instrumentationamplifier

Ad

vO
R R
4 1 2
vI 2 vI 1 R3 R1

DifferentialmodegaincanbeadjustedbytuningR1
Commonmodegainiszero
Inputimpedanceisinfinite
Outputimpedanceiszero
Itspreferabletoobtainalltherequiredgaininthe1st stage,leavingthe2nd stagewithagainofone

Exercise2.15(Textbook)
Exercise2.17(Textbook)
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2.5IntegratorsandDifferentiators
Invertingconfigurationwithgeneralimpedance
R1 andR2 ininvertingconfigurationcanbereplacedbyZ1(s)andZ2(s)
Theclosedlooptransferfunction:Vo(s)/Vi(s)=Z2(s)/Z1(s)
Thetransmissionmagnitudeandphaseforasinusoidinput
canbeevaluatedbyreplacings withj

Invertingintegrator
Timedomainanalysis:
t

1
1 v (t )
vC (t ) VC i1 (t )dt VC I dt
C0
C0 R
t

vO (t ) vC (t )

1
vI (t )dt VC
RC 0

Frequencydomainanalysis:
Vo ( j )
1
Z
2
Vi ( j )
Z1
jRC
Vo
1

Vi RC

f =90

AlsoknownasMillerintegrator
Integratorfrequency(int)istheinverseoftheintegratortimeconstant(RC) int =1/RC
Thecapacitoractsasanopencircuitatdc( =0) openloopconfigurationatdc(infinitegain)
Anytinydcintheinputcouldresultinoutputsaturation
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TheMillerintegratorwithparallelfeedbackresistance
Topreventintegratorsaturationduetoinfinitedcgain,parallelfeedbackresistanceisincluded
G(dB)

1
RF C

w(logscale)
1
RC

Vo ( j )
Z ( j )
1
2

Vi ( j )
Z1 ( j )
R / RF jRC

Closedloopgain=1/(jRF+R/RF)
Closedloopgainatdc=RF/R
Closedloopgainathighfrequency( >>1/RFC)1/jRC
Cornerfrequency(3dBfrequency)=1/RFC
Theintegratorcharacteristicsisnolongerideal
LargeresistanceRF shouldbeusedforthefeedback

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Theopampdifferentiator
Timedomainanalysis:
iC

dvI (t )
dt

vO (t ) RC

dvI (t )
dt

Frequencydomainanalysis:
Vo ( j )
Z
2 jRC
Vi ( j )
Z1
Vo
RC
Vi

f =90

Differentiatoroperation:

Differentiatortimeconstant:RC
Gain(=RC)becomesinfiniteatveryhighfrequencies
Highfrequencynoiseismagnified(generallyavoidedinpractice)

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Thedifferentiatorwithseriesresistance
Topreventmagnifyinghighfrequencynoise,seriesresistanceRF isincluded
G(dB)

Vo ( j )
jRC

Vi ( j )
1 jRF C

1
RC

1
RF C

w(logscale)

Closedloopgain=jRC/(1+jRFC)
Closedloopgainatinfinitefrequency=R/RF
Closedloopgainatlowfrequency( <<1/RFC) jRC
Cornerfrequency(3dBfrequency)=1/RFC
Thedifferentiatorcharacteristicsisnolongerideal

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Exercise2: ForaMillerintegratorwithR =10k andC =10nF,ashuntresistanceRF is


usedtosuppressthedcgain.FindtheminimumvalueofRF ifaperiodsignalwithaperiod
of0.1sisappliedattheinput.
Example2.4(Textbook)
Example2.5(Textbook)
Exercise2.18(Textbook)
Exercise2.20(Textbook)

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2.6DCImperfections*
Offsetvoltage
Inputoffsetvoltage(VOS)arisesasaresultoftheunavoidablemismatches
Theoffsetvoltageanditspolarityvaryfromoneopamptoanother
Theanalysiscanbesimplifiedbyusingthecircuitmodelwithanoffsetfree
opampandavoltagesourceVOS atinputterminal
TypicaloffsetvoltageisafewmV

Effectofoffsetvoltageforaclosedloopamplifier

VO VOS (1 R2 / R1 )

AdcvoltageVOS(1+R2/R1)existsattheoutputatzeroinputvoltage
Inputoffsetvoltageiseffectivelyamplifiedbytheclosedloopgainastheerrorvoltageatoutput
Someopampsareprovidedwithtwoadditionalterminalsforoffsetnulling

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Inputbiasandoffsetcurrent
DCbiascurrentsIB1 andIB2 arerequiredforcertaintypesofopamps
InputbiascurrentisdefinedbyIB =(IB1+IB2)/2
InputoffsetcurrentisdefinedasIOS =|IB1IB2|
TypicalvaluesforopampsthatusebipolartransistorsareIB =100nA andIOS =10nA

Effectofinputbiascurrentforaclosedloopamplifiers
Outputdcvoltageduetoinputbiascurrent:VO =IB1R2 IBR2
ThevalueofR2 andtheclosedloopgainarelimited.

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Effectofinputoffsetvoltageonthethe invertingintegrator
Theoutputvoltageisgivenby
vO VOS

VOS
1 t VOS
d
t

t
OS
RC
C 0 R

Theoutputvoltageincreaseswithtimeuntiltheopampsaturates

Effectofinputbiascurrentontheinvertingintegrator
Theoutputvoltageisgivenby
vO I B 2 R

I OS
1 t
I
d
t

I
R

t
2
OS
B
C 0
C

Theoutputvoltagealsoincreaseswithtimeuntiltheopampsaturates

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2.7EffectofFiniteOpenLoopGainandBandwidthonCircuitPerformance
Practicalopampcharacteristics
Opampwithfiniteopenloopgain:A(j)=A0
Opampwithfiniteopenloopgainandbandwidth:A(j)=A0/(1+j/b)
Frequencyresponseofopamp:

Openloopopamp
ThefrequencyresponseofanopenloopopampisapproximatedbySTCform:
A(j)=A0/(1+j/b)
Atlowfrequencies( <<b),theopenloopopampisapproximatedby|A(jw)|A0
Athighfrequencies( >>b),theopenloopopampisapproximatedby|A(jw)|A0/b
Unitygainbandwidth (ft =t/2)isdefinedasthefrequencyatwhich|A(jt)|1 t =A0b

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Invertingconfigurationusingopampwithfiniteopenloopgain
Closedloopgain:
vI (vO / A0 ) vI vO / A0

R1
R1
v
v v v / A
vO O i1 R2 O I O 0 R2
A0
R1
A0

v
R2 / R1
G O
vI 1 (1 R2 / R1 ) / A0
i1

ClosedloopgainapproachestheidealvalueofR2/R1 asA0 approachestoinfinite


TominimizethedependenceofG onopenloopgain,weshouldhaveA0 >>1+R2/R1
Inputimpedance: Ri

vI
vI
vI
R1

i1 (vI vO / A0 ) / R1 (vI vI G / A0 ) / R1 1 G / A0

Outputimpedance: Ro 0

Invertingconfigurationusingopampwithfinitegainandbandwidth
R2 / R1
R2 / R1

1 (1 R2 / R1 ) / A( j ) 1 (1 R2 / R1 ) / A0 /(1 j / b )
R2 / R1

1 (1 R2 / R1 ) / A0 j (1 R2 / R1 ) / b A0

ifA0 >>1+R2/R1 G G0 /(1+j/3dB)


whereG0 =R2/R1 and3dB =A0b /(1+R2/R1)(A0 /|G0|)b

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Exercise3: Consideraninvertingamplifierwheretheopenloopgainand3dBbandwidth
oftheopampare10000and1rad/s,respectively.Findthegainandbandwidthoftheclose
loopgain(exactandapproximatedvalues)forthefollowingcases:R2/R1 =1,100,200,and
2000.
Exercise4:Anopamphasanopenloopgainof80dBanda3dBbandwidthof10rad/s.
(1) TheopampisusedinaninvertingamplifierwithR2/R1 =100.Findthecloseloopgain
atdcandat =1000rad/s.
(2) TwoidenticalinvertingamplifierswithR2/R1 =100arecascaded.Findthecloseloop
gainatdcandat =1000rad/s.
(3) Forthecascadedamplifierin(2),findthefrequencyatwhichthegainis3dBlower
thanthedcgain.
Exercise2.12(Textbook)
Exercise2.26(Textbook)
Example2.6(Textbook)
Exercise2.27(Textbook)
Exercise2.28(Textbook)

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2.8LargeSignalOperationofOpAmps
Outputvoltagesaturation
Ratedoutputvoltage(vO,max)specifiesthemaximumoutputvoltageswingofopamp
Linearamplifieroperation(fortherequiredvO <vO,max):vO =(1+R2/R1)vI
Clippedoutputwaveform(fortherequiredvO >vO,max):vO =vO,max
Themaximuminputswingallowedforoutputvoltagelimitedcase:vI,max =vO,max/(1+R2/R1)
OutputistypicallylimitedbyvoltageincaseswhereRL islarge

Outputcurrentlimits
Maximumoutputcurrent(iO,max)specifiestheoutputcurrentlimitationofopamp
Linearamplifieroperation(fortherequirediO <iO,max):vO =(1+R2/R1)vI andiL =vO /RL
Clippedoutputwaveform(fortherequirediO >iO,max):iL =iO,max iF
Themaximuminputswingallowedforoutputcurrentlimitedcase:
vI,max =iO,max[RL||(R1+R2)]/(1+R2/R1)
OutputistypicallylimitedbycurrentincaseswhereRL issmall

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Slewrate
dv

SR O max
Slewrateisthemaximumrateofchangepossibleattheoutput:(V/sec)
dt
Slewratemaycausenonlineardistortionforlargesignaloperation
Inputstepfunction

Smallsignaldistortion(finiteBW)

Largesignaldistortion(SR)

vO (t ) V (1 e t t )

Fullpowerbandwidth
DefinedasthehighestfrequencyallowedforaunitygainbufferwithasinusoidaloutputatvO,max
vi (t ) Vo sin t vo (t ) Vo sin t

vO

dvo (t )
Vo cos t
dt
dv (t )
| o |max Vo SR distortionless
dt
dv (t )
| o |max Vo SR distortion
dt

SR
fM M
2 2vO ,max

vO,max
SR

w
wM

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Example2.7(Textbook)
Exercise2.26(Textbook)
Exercise2.30(Textbook)

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