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Savonius wind turbine


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Savonius wind turbines are a type of vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT),


used for converting the force of the wind into torque on a rotating shaft. The
turbine consists of a number of aerofoils, usually—but not always—vertically
mounted on a rotating shaft or framework, either ground stationed or
tethered in airborne systems.

Contents
1 Origin
2 Operation
3 Power and rotational speed
4 Use
5 Tethered airborne Savonius turbines
Savonius wind turbine
6 Gallery
7 References
8 External links

Origin
The Savonius wind turbine was invented by the Finnish engineer Sigurd Johannes Savonius in 1922.
However, Europeans had been experimenting with curved blades on vertical wind turbines for many decades
before this. The earliest mention is by the Italian Bishop of Czanad, Fausto Veranzio, who was also an
engineer. He wrote in his 1616 book Machinae novae about several vertical axis wind turbines with curved
or V-shaped blades. None of his or any other earlier examples reached the state of development made by
Savonius. In his Finnish biography there is mention of his intention to develop a turbine-type similar to the
Flettner-type, but autorotationary. He experimented with his rotor on small rowing vessels on lakes in his
country. No results of his particular investigations are known, but the Magnus-Effect is confirmed by
König.[1] The two Savonius patents: US1697574 (https://www.google.com/patents/US1697574), filed in 1925
by Sigurd Johannes Savonius, and US1766765 (https://www.google.com/patents/US1766765), filed in 1928.

Operation
The Savonius turbine is one of the simplest turbines. Aerodynamically, it is a drag-type device, consisting of
two or three scoops. Looking down on the rotor from above, a two-scoop machine would look like an "S"
shape in cross section. Because of the curvature, the scoops experience less drag when moving against the
wind than when moving with the wind. The differential drag causes the Savonius turbine to spin. Because
they are drag-type devices, Savonius turbines extract much less of the wind's power than other
similarly-sized lift-type turbines. Much of the swept area of a Savonius rotor may be near the ground, if it
has a small mount without an extended post, making the overall energy extraction less effective due to the
lower wind speeds found at lower heights.

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Savonius wind turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savonius_wind_turbine

Schematic drawing of a
two-scoop Savonius turbine

Power and rotational speed


The maximum power of a Savonius rotor is given by , where and
are the height and radius of the rotor and is the wind speed.

The angular frequency of a rotor is given by , where is a dimensionless factor called the
tip-speed ratio. The range λ varies within is characteristic of a specific windmill, and for a Savonius rotor λ is
typically around ≈1.

For example, an oil-barrel sized Savonius rotor with h=1 m and r=0.5 m under a wind of v=10 m/s, will
generate a maximum power of 180 W and an angular speed of 20 rad/s (190 revolutions per minute).

Use
Savonius turbines are used whenever cost or reliability is much more important
than efficiency.

Most anemometers are Savonius turbines for this reason, as efficiency is


irrelevant to the application of measuring wind speed. Much larger Savonius
turbines have been used to generate electric power on deep-water buoys, which
need small amounts of power and get very little maintenance. Design is
simplified because, unlike with horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs), no
pointing mechanism is required to allow for shifting wind direction and the
turbine is self-starting. Savonius and other vertical-axis machines are good at
pumping water and other high torque, low rpm applications and are not usually
connected to electric power grids. They can sometimes have long helical scoops,
to give smooth torque.
Combined Darrieus-
The most ubiquitous application of the Savonius wind turbine is the Flettner Savonius generator in
Ventilator, which is commonly seen on the roofs of vans and buses and is used Taiwan
as a cooling device. The ventilator was developed by the German aircraft
engineer Anton Flettner in the 1920s. It uses the Savonius wind turbine to drive
an extractor fan. The vents are still manufactured in the UK by Flettner Ventilator Limited. [2]

Small Savonius wind turbines are sometimes seen used as advertising signs where the rotation helps to draw

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Savonius wind turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savonius_wind_turbine

attention to the item advertised. They sometimes feature a simple two-frame animation.

Tethered airborne Savonius turbines


Airborne wind turbines
Kite types
When the Savonius rotor axis is set horizontally and tethered, then kiting results. There are scores of
patents and products that use the net lift Magnus-effect that occurs in the autorotation of the Savonius
rotor. The spin may be mined for some of its energy for making noise, heat, or electricity.

Gallery

Operation of a A Savonius rotor


Savonius turbine bladed WECS

References
1. Felix van König (1978). Windenergie in praktischer Nutzung. Pfriemer. ISBN 3-7906-0077-6.
2. Flettner (http://www.flettner.co.uk/home.htm)

External links
Build your own model Savonius wind turbine (http://www.re-
Wikimedia Commons has
energy.ca/wind-turbine)
media related to Savonius
Windside Savonius Type Wind Turbines for use in Extreme wind turbines.
Environments (http://www.windside.com/)
Forgen low power Savonius Type Wind Turbines for Marine Applications
(http://forgenrenewables.com/buy-products/wind-turbines/vertical-axis/)
HelixWind Savonius Type Wind Turbine (http://jason.wells.me/blog/?page_id=722)
Savonius turbines for dynamic environments www.spinpower.org (http://www.spinpower.org)
How to build a Savonius wind generator (http://www.amics21.com/laveritat
/savonius_generator_english.pdf)

Notions of Wind Energy for the Complete Idiot (http://www.amics21.com/laveritat


/notions_of_wind_energy_for_the_complete_idiot.pdf)

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Categories: Vertical axis wind turbines Finnish inventions

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Savonius wind turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savonius_wind_turbine

This page was last modified on 25 August 2015, at 16:57.


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