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GUC

MATH103
For Engineering

Winter 2015

Lecture # 1
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Instructor and Textbooks


Lecturer: Dr. Hany El-Sharkawy
Office:

C3.106

E- mail: hany.elsharkawy@guc.edu.eg
Textbooks:

Lecture notes your main source


I- Available on the INTRAnet via:
V:\Faculties\Basic Sciences\Mathematics\2015_Winter\MATH-103

Calculus, Smith and Minton, 4th edition.


Calculus, J. Stewart, 7th edition.
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Math103-TEAM- @ C3.127, C3.125


Whenever you need our help, you will find a TEAM of tutors are
ready to support you:

Eng. Tarek Monir


Eng. Lina Darwish

Mr. Mohamed Shawky

Eng. Aia Abd-ElHamed


Eng. Karim Kamal
Eng. Nouran Arafat
Eng. Michael Mounir

Eng. Engy Alaa

Eng. Khaled El-Agha

tarek.abdelgaber@guc.edu.eg
lina.darwish@guc.edu.eg
mohamed.hafez-amer@guc.edu.eg
aia.yousef@guc.edu.eg
karim.kamal@guc.edu.eg
nouran.zaghlool@guc.edu.eg
michael.nagib@guc.edu.eg
engy.hanafy@guc.edu.eg
khaled.elagha@guc.edu.eg
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Course Assessment
Assessment will be based on: assignments,
quizzes, Midterm and Final exams.
10% : Assignments
must be submitted in your tutorials .

20% : 3 Quizzes BEST 2.


20% : Midterm Exam
50% : Final Exam.
Important Notice: 75% of the lectures and
tutorials must be attended.
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Engineering need for mathematics

Real world problem


Design a car

modeling
Mathematical Model
Write the equations

analysis

verification
Predictions
Explanations
Computer code

interpretation
Mathematical
conclusions

Course main objectives


1. Introduce the basics of numbers, algebraic
and transcendental functions which are
mostly used in engineering study.
2. Introduce the fundamental concepts of
limits and continuity.
3. Introduce the main concept of the
derivative with more stress on its
engineering applications.
4. Introduce the concept of integration,
indefinite and definite, and show some
applications of the definite integration.
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Course Outlines
Engineering
Mathematics 1

Math 103

Numbers,
Inequalities and
Basic functions

5 Lectures

Limits and
continuity

Derivative and
its applications

Integration

3 Lectures

8 Lectures

4 lectures

GUC - MATH103

Chapter 1
Basics: Numbers, Inequalities &
algebraic and transcendental functions
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Lecture 1
A- Fundamental concepts of

Numbers

1.1 The real numbers; the real number line


1.2 Integer exponents of real numbers
1.3 Radicals and Rational exponents
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1.1 The real numbers; the number line

The natural numbers:


N = {1, 2, 3, 4, }.
The whole numbers:
N* = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, }.
The integers: Z = {, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, }.
n
The rational numbers: Q = {x = ; n,m Z; m 0}.
m
The irrational numbers Q = {e, , 5 ,..}
The real numbers: R = Q Q = ]- , [
NNotice
, Z , Q contain
data
values,
R contains
thatDiscrete
for any
two
realwhile
numbers
a continuous
and b data values
(1) we define unique numbers a+b and ab
First term

Second factor
Second term
First factor

(2) a-b = a + (-b) and a/b = a.(1/b), b 0.


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Geometric representation of real


numbers; the number line
Every real number is represented by a point on a horizontal
straight line called the number line, and conversely, every point
on the number line represents one and only one real number
Positive numbers

0
Negative numbers

Ordering of real numbers:


We say that a < b if b-a is a positive real number
or equivalently, if a precedes b on the number line.

a b if: a < b or a = b.
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Some Remarks on Numbers


1- Decimal representation of a number shows if
the number is rational or irrational!!!!!---------?
0.9999999999
2- Prove that:

= or

1 ???

5 is an irrational number.

3- Locate Figure out, represent

5 on the real line.

4- The sum difference of two integers is an integer?

5- The sum difference of two rationals is a rational?


6- The sum difference of two reals is a real?
7- The sum of two irrationals is an irrational?

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Answers: Remarks on Numbers


2- Prove that:

5 is an irrational number.

Proof: By contradiction in Tutorials.

3- Represent 5 on the real line.


5 lies somewhere between 2 and 3.
On the number line, create a right angle triangle
with a base of 2 units and a height of 1 unit. The
hypotenuse length is sqrt(5).
Using a compass, draw a circle using the point on
the triangle where the base and hypotenuse meet
as the center, and the point where the hypotenuse
and height meet as to draw the circle.
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1.2 Integer exponents of real numbers

If a is any real number and n is any positive


integer then we define:
a a
.
a.a
......
a , a 1, a

n times

1
n
a

35 3 3 3 3 3 243
S o, what about...?

Laws of exponents
(i ) a m . a n a m n

( ii) (a m )n a mn

( iv) (ab)n a n b n

a n an
(v ) ( ) n
b
b

am
( iii) n a m n
a

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1.3 Radicals and Rational exponents

If a is any nonnegative real number and m, n are


any positive integers then we define:
n

1
n

a a ,

m
n

a n a m ( n a )m

Laws of radicals
(i )

( iii)

an a
n

ab n a .n b

( ii)
( iv)

m n

a mn a

a na
n
b
b
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B- Techniques of solving
equations and inequalities
1.4 Introduction
1.5 Solving linear equations
1.6 Solving quadratic equations
1.7 Solving other types of equations
1.8 Solutions of inequalities
1.9 Equations and inequalities involving absolute
value
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1.4 Introduction

What is an equation?
It is a statement in which two algebraic
expressions are equal.
Examples
of equations:
2
What
is the solution
of an equation
?

x 2x 3 0

It is the set of values of the variable/variables


which make the equation a true statement.
Examples of equations:
2x+4x = 6x
2x+1 = 5
True for all values of x
Identity

True for some values of x


(x = 2 only)
Conditional equation

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1.5 Solving linear equations

Standard form of a linear equation:

ax b c

It has only one solution in the form:

cb
x
a
Example: Solve the equation:

2x 1 7

Solution: 2 x 1 7 2 x 6 x 3
Therefore, the

solution set = {3}

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1.6 Solving quadratic equations

Standard form of a quadratic equation:

ax bx c 0
2

It has TWO solutions obtained by one of


the following two methods:
Method 1: By factorizing
Method 2: By using the standard quadratic
formula

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Method 1: By factorizing, as follows:


Example: Solve the equation: x 2 x 12 0
Solution: x x 12 ( x 4)( x 3) 0
( x 4) 0 x 4 or ( x 3) 0 x 3
2

Hence, the equation has two solutions x = - 3 and x = 4.


Therefore, the solution

set = {-3, 4}
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Method 2: By using the standard quadratic


formula:
b b 2 4ac
2
b b 4ac and
x2
x1
2a
2a

Example: Solve the equation: x 2 x 12 0


Solution: a 1, b 1, c 12. Hence, we have:
x1

b b 2 4ac
x2
2a

b b 4ac
2a
2

1 1 4(1)( 12)

2(1)
1 49 1 7

2
2
6

3
2

and

1 1 4(1)( 12)
2(1)

1 49 1 7

2
2
8
4
2

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Important formulas

A B ( A B )( A B )
2

A3 B3 ( A B )( A2 AB B 2 )
A B ( A B )( A AB B )
3

( A B ) A 2 AB B

( A B ) A 2 AB B

( A B ) A 3 A B 3 AB B
3

( A B ) A 3 A B 3 AB B
3

3
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1.7 Solving other types of equations

Examples: Solve each of the following equations


1.

( x 2) 12

2.

( x 1) 64

3.

( x 5) 27

Solution: 1. ( x 2)2

12 x 4 x 4 12
2

x 4 x 8 0,
2

Then, applying the quadratic formula, we get the solution.


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1.8 Solution of inequalities

What is the inequality?


It is a statement that two (or many) algebraic
expressions are related to each other by one (or
more than one) of the symbols <, >, or .
What is the solution of an inequality?
It is the set of all values (usually an interval) of
the variable that makes the inequality a true
statement
(satisfy the inequality).
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1.8 Solution of inequalities

What is the interval?


It is any portion of the number line

Bounded interval (finite)


if it corresponds to
line segment on
the number line

unbounded interval (infinite)


if it corresponds to a ray on
the number line

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Types of intervals

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1.9 Equations and inequalities involving


absolute value |u|?
(a) Equations involving absolute value
An equation of the form:

u k
u k , if k 0

u 0, if k 0

no solution, if k 0

An equation of the form:

u v u v
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Examples: Solve each of the following equations:


1.

4x 3 5

2.

x 6 x 12 7 x
2

3. 2 x 3 x 6

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Solutions:
1.

4 x 3 5 4 x 3 5
x 2 & x 0.5 S. S. {0.5, 2}

2. x 6 x (12 7 x )
2

x 6 x 12 7 x or x 6 x 7 x 12
2

x 2 x 12 0 or x 2 13 x 12 0
x 4, 3
or x 1, 12.
S . S . {4, 1, 3, 12}
3.

2 x 3 ( x 6 ) x 3 & x 3
S.S. {3, 3}

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(b) Inequalities involving absolute value

u k k u k

1.

u k u k or u k

2.

3.

u uu0

Note that: i.

u u
2

not
not u

u k k u
2

ii.

iii. u k u
2

k or u k
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Examples: Solve each of the following inequalities:


1.

2x 3 5

2.

x2 3 1

3.

x4
2
x 1

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Solutions:

2
x

2
x

5
1.
2 2 x 8 1 x 4 ] 1,4[
2
2
2
x

1
or
x
3 1
2.

x 4 or x 2
2

" x 2 or x 2" or 2 x 2
3. x 4 2 | x 4 | 2 | x 1 | : x 1

x 1

( x 4)2 4( x 1)2 x 2 4 2 x 2
[2, 2] {1} [2,1[]1,2]
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Examples: Solve each of the following inequalities:


1. 2x-1 7
2. 5(x+1) <2(4-3x)+2x
3. 2x < 6 x 3x + 2
4.

x2 x 2 0

5. 5 x 2

x 1

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Remark: If the inequality includes a quadratic form,


check first if it is factorized or not:
Case 1 : x 2 5 x 6 0 " factorized"
( x 2)( x 3) 0 line - test x ]2,3[.
Case 2 : - 3 x 2 6 x 1 0 " not factorized"
S o, we proceed using complete square method :
- 3(x - 1) 2 2 0 3(x - 1) 2 2
2
2
(x - 1) | x 1 | 23
3

2
3

x 1

x [1

2
3

,1

2
3
2
3

1
]

2
3

x 1

2
3

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Remark: We will be in need for the following remarks


while solving some inequalities:
#1 : if

a x a 0 x2 a2

Like : 2 x 2 0 x 2 4
# 2 : if

a x b 0 x 2 maximum of " a 2 or b 2 "

Like : 2 x 3 0 x 2 9 & 5 x 4 0 x 2 25
# 3 : if
x y
multiplying by a constant " c"
cx cy if c 0 While cx cy if c 0
#4 : Knowing that the outputs of " . " & "| . |" must be " 0" ,
then, one can see that :
x 2 | x | not " x"

&

25 5 not "5"
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Absolute Value Function f (x) = |x|

Now, we can understand :| x | 5 5 x 5


1 By the geometry of " y | x |" comapred with " y 5".
2 OR : by sketching the interval [5,5] on a real line represents
" x" and then apply the modulus effect on this line.
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Thank you
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