45 views

Uploaded by zohaibshabir

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Mechanics

© All Rights Reserved

- Rarefaction Effect on Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Microchannel
- Fluid Mechanics Note
- unit_1_FFO
- 4. Deliverability Testing and Well Production Potential Analysis Methods
- Buletin științific
- Chanwoo - Cdr Pdfs Indexed 1 1
- Oil Pressure Drop
- Sedimentation and Sediment Transport
- 2nd Year Syllabus - CIVIL
- M.tech ( Industrial Safety and Hazards Management) Syllabus
- Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Two Phase Flows
- A Three-Phase, Experimental and Numerical
- 242765575 Concentric Tube Heat Exchangers
- Fea Peels Away Mysteries Hydraulic Valves
- Design of Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines
- Unit Specification - Fluid Mechanics NEW Unit 11
- AJUSTE DE LOS COEFICIENTES DE ARRASTRE ESMAILI-MAHINPEY.pdf
- WJ
- Disk in Flight Euler
- 6-Wellbore Reservoir Model Khasani

You are on page 1of 69

Introduction to Fluid

Mechanics

Assessment

Category

Total

Weightage

Quizzes

06

12%

Sessional

02

35%=(15+20)%

Final

01

40%

Assignment

02

08%

Project

01

05%

Topics Covered

S. No

Topic

Week

compressibility of fluids

Hydrostatics: Measurement of pressure, Pressure measurement devices,

hydrostatic forces on plane and inclined surface, buoyancy and stability

1-2

Euler and Bernoulli equations; Pitot total head and static tubes, venturimeters, orifice plates, restrictions on use of Bernoulli equation

6-7

Reynolds transport theorem

8-9

to jet flows, impinging flows in pipe bends; momentum theory of

propellers, differential analysis of fluid flow.

Dimensional Analysis: Buckingham Pi Theorem, Modelling and Similitude

Viscous and Compressible Flow: Laminar and Turbulent flow, Minor and

Major losses in pipes, Mach number and speed of sound, Isentropic and

Non isentropic flow, Rayleigh flow

10-11

pumps, fans, turbines, compressors

15-16

6

7

2-5

12

13-14

Recommended Books

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics by Bruce

R. Munson, Donald F. Young and Theodore H.

Okiishi (SI Version)

Fluid Mechanics by Frank M. White

Fluid Mechanics by John F. Douglas, John A

Swaffield

Fluid

Mechanics-Fundamentals

and

Applications by Yunus A Cengel

Engineering Fluid Mechanics by Donal F.

Elger

At the end of this chapter, you should be

able to;

a. Understand the basic concepts of fluid

mechanics

b. Determine the dimensions and units of physical

quantities

c. Identify the key fluid properties used in the

analysis of fluid behavior

d. Use the concepts of viscosity, vapor pressure

and surface tension

e. Recognize the various types of fluid flow

problems encountered in our daily life

What is Fluid?

Anything which can flow.

What is Mechanics?

Physical science that deals with both stationary and

moving bodies under the influence of forces

Statics

Bodies at Rest

Dynamics

Bodies in Motion

What is Fluid Mechanics?

Science that deals with fluid at rest (fluid statics) or in motion (fluid dynamics) and

interaction of fluids with solids or fluid at the boundary.

Classification of Fluid Mechanics

Hydrodynamics

(study of motion of fluid especially incompressible i.e. water, gases at low speeds)

Hydraulics

(Flow of liquids in pipes and open channels)

Gas dynamics

(Flows of liquids that undergo density changes i.e. flow of gases through nozzles at

high speed)

Aerodynamics

(Flow of gases especially air over bodies such as aircraft, automobiles etc)

Meteorology

(Science deals with atmosphere)

Oceanography

(Deals with ocean science and its applications)

Hydrology

(Study of waters of earth on and below the surface of planet)

What is Fluid

Substance exists in three different phases

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Plasma (at very high temperature)

Substance in the liquid or gas phase is referred as

FLUID.

forms FLUID and SOLID.

Solid is hard while fluid is soft

Ability to resist applied shear stress that tends

to change its shape

Solid

Liquid

It can resist applied shear stress by deforming It deform continuously under the action of

shear stress, no matter how small it is

Stress is proportional to strain

When a constant shear force is applied, a Fluid never stops deforming and approaches a

solid eventually stops deforming at some constant rate of strain. Fluid at rest has zero

fixed strain angle

shear stress known as hydrostatic stress

condition.

*

*

Molecules in solids are closely packed together, whereas in gases they are separated by relatively large

distances .

The molecules in a solid are arranged in a pattern that is repeated throughout due to small distances

between molecules in a solid, the attractive forces of molecules on each other are large and keep the

molecules at fixed positions.

The molecular spacing in the liquid phase is not much different from that of the solid phase, except the

molecules are no longer at fixed positions relative to each other and they can rotate and translate

freely.

In a liquid, the intermolecular forces are weaker relative to solids, but still strong compared with gases.

The distances between molecules generally increase slightly as a solid turns liquid.

Total volume remain fixed due to strong cohesive forces

Takes the shape of container and forms a free surface

Expands and fill the entire space available

Cannot form a free surface

Rheology

Matter that acts as solid but with the

application of shear stress for the extended

period of time it behaves as fluid

Asphalt, toothpaste, slurry etc

Attribute

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Visualization

Macroscopic

description

need of container

container and can stay in open

container by forming a free

surface

container

Mobility of

molecules

intermolecular forces

strong intermolecular forcesweaker than solids

little interaction expect during

collision

Density

Molecular

spacing

together

together

Effect of shear

stress

Produces deformation

Produces flow

Produces flow

Viscosity

N/A

T

Low-increase as T increases

compressibility

Difficult to compress-steel

has bulk modulus 160*109 Pa

Difficult to compress-water

has bulk modulus 2.2*109 Pa

modulus at room temperature

2.2*105 Pa

body through veins and arteries etc.)

Piping system for water, natural gas and sewage in

houses, cities etc.

Heating and air conditioning system

Automobile (fuel from the fuel tank to cylinder etc.)

Design and analysis of aircrafts, ships, submarines,

wind turbines etc.

Design of buildings, bridges and even billboards

Natural phenomenon (rain cycle, winds, ocean waves,

rise of ground water to tops of trees etc.)

Each fluid particle experience surface force (pressure, friction) that

are generated by contact with other particles or solid body and

body force (gravity, electromagnetic) throughout the particle.

For example, 1. diving board, 2. body moves thru fluid, so we can say

that stresses in fluid are mostly generated thru motion rather than by

deflection.

Stress: Force per unit area

The normal component of the force acting on a surface per unit area

is normal stress. The tangential component of the force acting on

the surface per unit area is tangential stress

other fluid particle and so a contact force is

generated b/w the particles.

Fluid flow is confined by solid surface

Flow of liquid in a solid pipe or over a solid non-porous

surface.

Fluid in direct contact with solid surface sticks to it, hence

there is no slip known as No slip condition

When two bodies at different temperatures are

brought into contact, heat transfer occurs until

both bodies assume the same temperature at the

points of contact. Therefore, a fluid and a solid

surface have the same temperature at the points of

contact. This is known as the no-temperature-jump

condition

Viscous Vs Inviscid Regions of Flow

Frictional force develops b/w two layers

as Viscous Flow.

Internal Vs External Flow

external flow

Flow in a confined space such as flow through pipes knows as

internal flow.

Flow in a duct which is partially filled with liquid and there is

free surface known as open-channel flow.

Compressible Vs Incompressible Flow

flow known as incompressible flow

Liquids are usually incompressible while gases are

compressible

For example; a Pressure of 210atm required to change the

density of water by just 1percent at 1atm while for gases

pressure of 0.001atm is required.

Laminar Vs Turbulent Flow

laminar flow e.g. flow of high viscosity

fluid such as oil at low velocity

Disordered or chaotic flow is known

as turbulent flow e.g. flow of low

viscosity fluid such as air at high

velocity

Flow that alternated between being

laminar and turbulent known as

transitional flow

Forced Vs Natural Flow

pump in order to flow the fluid in pipe or over a surface.

In natural flow, fluid motion is through natural means e.g.

rise of warmer fluid or fall of cooler fluid.

Thermo siphoning effect

Steady Vs Unsteady Flow

at a point with time is steady flow and the opposite is

unsteady flow.

Heat exchangers, turbines, compressors etc operate for a

long period of time and thus classified as steady flow

devices.

One, two and three Dimensional Flow

A flow is said to be one-, two-, or three-dimensional if the flow velocity varies in

one, two, or three primary dimensions, respectively

study is system

Mass or region outside the system is surroundings

Real or imaginary surface separates the system

from surroundings is boundary. It can be fixed or

moveable and has zero thickness or volume.

No mass can enter or leave the system, but

energy in the form of heat can enter

No Mass, energy can enter or leave the system

system

Properties of System

Intensive and Extensive properties

temperature is property

Properties that are independent of mass of system are intensive

Properties whose values depend on mass or size of system are

extensive

equipment bay of the Space Shuttle. Determine the force (in newtons) that the

tank exerts on the support shortly after lift off when the shuttle is accelerating

upward as shown in Fig. at 15 ft / s2.

Fluid as Continuum

structure, engineering problems are usually concerned

with the bulk behavior of fluids. The number of molecules

involved is immense.

considered to be constant at any point, and changes due

to molecular motion may be ignored.

We are all familiar with fluidsthe most common being air and

waterand we experience them as being smooth, i.e., as

being a continuous medium. Unless we use specialized

equipment, we are not aware of the underlying molecular

nature of fluids.

This molecular structure is one in which the mass is not

continuously distributed in space, but is concentrated in

molecules that are separated by relatively large regions of

empty space.

treated as a single gas) looks like a continuous medium, but

if we zoom in on a very small cube of it, we can see that we

mostly have empty space, with gas molecules scattered

around, moving at high speed (indicated by the gas

temperature).

Consider how we determine the density at a point. Density is defined as mass per

unit volume. The mass m will be given by the instantaneous number of molecules in

V (and the mass of each molecule), so the average density in volume V is given by

density = m /V .

We say average because the number of molecules in V , and hence the density,

fluctuates. For example, if the gas was air at standard temperature and pressure (STP)

and the volume was a sphere of diameter 0.01 m, there might be 15 molecules in V,

but an instant later there might be 17 (three might enter while one leaves). Hence the

density at point C randomly fluctuates in time.

In this figure, each vertical dashed line represents a specific chosen volume, V, and

each data point represents the measured density at an instant. For very small volumes,

the density varies greatly, but above a certain volume, V/, the density becomes

stablethe volume now encloses a huge number of molecules.

For example, if V =0.001 mm3 (about the size of a grain of sand), there will on

average be 2.5*1013 molecules present.

As a consequence of the continuum assumption, each

fluid property is assumed to have a definite value at every

point in space. Thus fluid properties such as density,

temperature, velocity, and so on are considered to be

continuous functions of position and time.

Rarefied Gas Theory

and Units

The magnitudes assigned to the dimensions are called units.

Some basic dimensions such as mass m, length L, time t, and

temperature T are selected as primary or fundamental

dimensions.

Others such as velocity V, energy E, and volume V are expressed

in terms of the primary dimensions and are called secondary

dimensions, or derived dimensions.

and Units (Cont.)

Dimensional Homogeneity

The dimensions of the left side of all theoretically derived

equations must be the same as those on the right side

Equation: V = Vo + at

Dimension: LT-1= LT-1+ LT-1

Since the dimensions on the left equal to that on the right, the

equation above is Dimensionally Homogeneous

Equations that are restricted to particular system of units

For example, equation of freely falling body traveling the distance

d is;

d=4.90t2

The well known equation is;

d=gt2/2

g= 32.2 ft/s2

g=9.8 m/s2

Homogenous Equation)

Different fluids have different behavior. For example, gases are light

and easily compressible while liquids are rather heavy and

incompressible.

Syrup flows slowly from a container while water flows rapidly

when poured from a container.

To quantify these differences, certain fluid properties are used.

Density

Mass per unit volume

It varies from fluid to fluid

For Liquids, variation in temperature and pressure have a little effect

on density. At 20C, for example, the density of water changes from

998 kg/m3 at 1 atm to 1003 kg/m3 at 100 atm, a change of just 0.5

percent.

At 1 atm, for example, the density of water changes from 998 kg/m3

at 20C to 975 kg/m3 at 75C, a change of 2.3 percent.

For Gases, the density strongly influenced by variation in temperature

and pressure.

Specific Volume

The reciprocal of density or volume per unit mass. This is uncommon in

fluid mechanics but commonly used in thermodynamics.

Specific Weight

Weight per unit volume

=

Density is used to characterize the mass of fluid while specific

weight is used to characterize the weight of fluid system.

For example, water has specific weight of 9.80 kN/m3 at 15oC.

Specific Gravity (Relative Density)

Ratio of density of fluid to the specific density of water at some

temperature. The specified temperature is taken as 4oC as the

density is 1000kg/m3 at this T

SG=

0 @ 4

2

(13.55)(1000) = 13600kg/m3

Thus, density, specific weight and specific gravity are all

interrelated.

Gases are highly compressible as compared to liquid

Changes in density directly related to changes in temperature and

pressure

P = Absolute pressure

T = Absolute Temperature

R = gas constant

Pabs = Pg + Patm

Pg is pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure.

Patm = 101 kPa

Example:The compressed air tank shown in Fig. has a volume of 0.024m3. The

temperature is 20oC and the atmospheric pressure is 101.3 kPa.

FIND When the tank is filled with air at a gage pressure of 345 kPa,

determine the density of the air and the weight of air in the tank.

Viscosity

Fluidity of the fluid known as viscosity.

Density, specific weight are insufficient to

properly characterize the behavior of

fluid. For example, oil and water have

approximately same value of density but

their behavior is different when flowing.

Example:-

Example:The dynamic viscosity of water at 20C is 1.00 10-3 N.s/m2, and the viscosity at

40C is 6.53 10-4 N.s/m2.

estimate the viscosity at 30C.

Example:A board 1 m by 1 m that weighs 25 N slides down an inclined ramp (slope = 20)

with a velocity of 2.0 cm/s. The board is separated from the ramp by a thin film of

oil with a viscosity of 0.05 N.s/m2.

Neglecting edge effects, calculate the space between the board and the ramp.

Viscous Resistance

Viscous Resistance of Bearings

Lubrication of Bearing

1. Highly viscous oil leads to greater resistance so greater

power loss

2. Light oil may not be able to maintain the required film

between the metal surfaces results into wear and tear of

both surfaces

3. Viscosity of oil changes with temperature

Power required to overcome the viscous resistance in following cases;

b. Viscous Resistance of Foot-step Bearings

c. Viscous Resistance of Collar Bearings

Compressibility of Fluids

Bulk Modulus

Volume or density of fluid changes with the

change in pressure or temperature. Fluid

expands as they are heated and contract as

they are cooled.

The question is how compressible is the fluid

is?

The property commonly used to characterize

the compressibility of fluid is the Bulk

Modulus just as Youngs modulus of elasticity

in solids.

Equation:Example:-

Compression and Expansion of Gases

Gases are compressible and when they are

compressed or expanded, the relationship

b/w density and pressure depends on the

nature of the process.

Isothermal Process:Isentropic Process:Equation:Example:-

101.3kPa is compressed isentropically to (0.015) m3

by the tire pump.

What is the final pressure?

Speed of Sound

A loud speaker diaphragm causes a

localized disturbances as it vibrates and the

small change in pressure created by the

motion of the diaphragm is propagated thru

air with finite velocity. The velocity at which

the small disturbances propagates is called

the acoustic velocity or speed of sound.

Equation:Example:-

10,500 m, where the temperature is -54 oC and the specific

heat ratio is k =1.4.

Determine the ratio of the speed of the aircraft, V, to that of

the speed of sound, c, at the specified altitude.

Vapor Pressure

Evaporation

to overcome the intermolecular cohesive forces and escape

into the atmosphere.

Vapor Pressure

Boiling

the absolute pressure in the fluid reaches the vapor pressure

Cavitation

pressure, boiling will occur. These produced vapor bubbles in

flowing fluid are swept into the region of high pressure where they

suddenly collapse with sufficient intensity to cause structural

damage. The formation and collapse of vapor bubbles in a flowing

fluid is known as cavitation

Cavitation (cont.)

vapor pressure at some locations, and the resulting unplanned vaporization.

For example, water at 10C may vaporize and form bubbles at locations (such

as the tip regions of impellers or suction sides of pumps) where the pressure

drops below 1.23 kPa. The vapor bubbles (called cavitation bubbles since

they form cavities in the liquid) collapse as they are swept away from the

low-pressure regions, generating highly destructive, extremely high-pressure

waves. This phenomenon, which is a common cause for drop in performance

and even the erosion of impeller blades, is called cavitation, and it is an

important consideration in the design of hydraulic turbines and pumps. Water

hammer is caused by acoustic waves propagating and reflecting in a confined

liquid, for example, when a valve is closed abruptly. The resulting noise can be

similar to hammering on the pipes, hence the term

Surface Tension

It

length along any line in the surface

Depends on Temperature ( as T)

Fluid/surface it is in contact with

Surface Tension

Noting that surface tension acts along the circumference

and the pressure acts on the area, horizontal force

balances for the droplet and the bubble give

height of a column of liquid in a vertical tube.

What diameter of clean glass tubing is required so that the

rise of water at 20oC in a tube due to capillary action (as

opposed to pressure in the tube) is less than h =1.0 mm?

Capillary Effect

The rise or fall of a liquid in a small-diameter tube

inserted into the liquid. Such narrow tubes are called

capillaries.

1. Rise of kerosene oil through a cotton wick

2. Rise of water to the top of tall trees

Capillary Effect

Wetting fluid

Non-wetting fluid

Capillary Effect

Capillary rise

as mercury in glass) and gives the capillary drop. In this

case, > 90 and thus cos < 0, which makes h

negative. Therefore, a negative value of capillary rise

corresponds to a capillary drop

Capillary Effect

tube. Therefore, the thinner the tube is, the greater the rise

(or fall) of the liquid in the tube. In practice, the capillary

effect is usually negligible in tubes whose diameter is

greater than 1 cm. When pressure measurements are made

using manometers and barometers, it is important to use

sufficiently large tubes to minimize the capillary effect.

The capillary rise is also inversely proportional to the

density of the liquid. Therefore, lighter liquids experience

greater capillary rises.

Example:

rpm in a 200mm long bearing. If the

surfaces are uniformly separated by a

distance of 0.5mm and linear velocity

distribution in the lubricating oil having

dynamic viscosity 4 centipoises, find the

power absorbed in the bearing.

Example:

inside a bearing at 300rpm. If the space

b/w the lower end of the shaft and the

bearing is 1mm filled with a oil of viscosity

60 poises, determine the necessary power

absorbed in overcoming the viscous

resistance.

Example:

bearing are 100mm and 75mm

respectively. The space b/w the collar

surface and bearing is 2.5mm and is filled

with an oil. If the power lost in

overcoming the viscous resistance is

23.6W when the shaft is running at 250

rpm, find the viscosity of the oil.

Example:The viscosity of some fluids changes when a strong electric field is applied on them. This

phenomenon is known as the electrorheological (ER) effect, and fluids that exhibit such

behavior are known as ER fluids. The Bingham plastic model for shear stress, which is

expressed as t = ty + (du/dy) is widely used to describe ER fluid behavior because of its

simplicity. One of the most promising applications of ER fluids is the ER clutch. A typical

multidisk ER clutch consists of several equally spaced steel disks of inner radius R1 and

outer radius R2, N of them attached to the input shaft. The gap h between the parallel

disks is filled with a viscous fluid. (a) Find a relationship for the torque generated by the

clutch when the output shaft is stationary and (b) calculate the torque for an ER clutch

with N=11 for R1=50 mm, R2=200 mm, and n=2400 rpm if the fluid is SAE 10 with =0.1

Pa.s, ty=2.5 kPa, and h=1.2 mm.

- Rarefaction Effect on Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in MicrochannelUploaded bytalhawasim
- Fluid Mechanics NoteUploaded byymorit2
- unit_1_FFOUploaded byYash Khedekar
- 4. Deliverability Testing and Well Production Potential Analysis MethodsUploaded by77bgfa
- Oil Pressure DropUploaded bySKR
- Buletin științificUploaded byCristinaCintabine
- Sedimentation and Sediment TransportUploaded byEdgar Chuquipiondo Vargas
- M.tech ( Industrial Safety and Hazards Management) SyllabusUploaded byRamNocturnal
- Chanwoo - Cdr Pdfs Indexed 1 1Uploaded byfsgfdgsgfgfs
- 2nd Year Syllabus - CIVILUploaded byamoghlingamalla
- Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Two Phase FlowsUploaded bygetsweet
- A Three-Phase, Experimental and NumericalUploaded byCinthya Sánchez
- 242765575 Concentric Tube Heat ExchangersUploaded bySharifah Zulaikha BenYahya
- Fea Peels Away Mysteries Hydraulic ValvesUploaded bySumitGaikwad
- Design of Oil and Natural Gas PipelinesUploaded byAhmed Moustafa
- Unit Specification - Fluid Mechanics NEW Unit 11Uploaded byalexandre_motta_3
- AJUSTE DE LOS COEFICIENTES DE ARRASTRE ESMAILI-MAHINPEY.pdfUploaded bypapapa14
- WJUploaded byNrl Syafini
- Disk in Flight EulerUploaded byapoorvs75
- 6-Wellbore Reservoir Model KhasaniUploaded byanjar priangka
- PC 3 2005 Mohamadbeighy2 FinalUploaded byidigiti
- Zhang_13-21Uploaded by2591995
- Lin Sen Me 598 Mpf Cp1 FinalUploaded bySushobhan Sen
- 00089426Uploaded bymsmsoft
- Unidirectional Flow and Sediment TransportUploaded byRizka
- COMSOL_FULLTEXT02Uploaded byDaniele Gouveia
- lecture 1Uploaded byAnonymous 0AiaLaUlC
- Fuels,Cryogenics,CfdUploaded byCharan Prasad
- Assignment 1Uploaded bySYED ASGHAR ALI SULTAN
- SGChapt09Uploaded byashutosh_raj_4

- Fan FundamentalsUploaded byaryan98876
- Feb 2019Uploaded byzohaibshabir
- Divider Block TestUploaded byzohaibshabir
- Alignment SoftwareUploaded byzohaibshabir
- Fan Engineering Guide - Twin City FansUploaded byHafiz Kamal
- Week_15_16Uploaded byzohaibshabir
- AptmaUploaded byAdeel Ahmad
- List of Companies With Shares in PakistanUploaded byzohaibshabir
- week13Uploaded byzohaibshabir
- Axial Flow Fan SelectionUploaded bysrichalam01
- Police Character Certificate2Uploaded byzohaibshabir
- SNMP web card+box-user manualUploaded byJ.M.
- Engro AB PLC work list.txtUploaded byzohaibshabir
- P30Uploaded bySunu Karthikappallil
- TFH REMVue BrochureUploaded byzohaibshabir
- dpla01mUploaded byzohaibshabir
- Viewse Um006 en eUploaded byStevenOstaiza
- Acronyms of EngineUploaded byzohaibshabir
- Business-Service-Proposal-Template.docUploaded byGlobal
- GTE_Application_Form.pdfUploaded byzohaibshabir
- Sukkur IBA Admissions Ad 15x8.pdfUploaded byzohaibshabir
- Cover Letter ExamplesUploaded byMuhammad Yusi Anda Rizky
- cremonaUploaded byUlises Sarayasi
- Formula SheetUploaded byzohaibshabir
- Mechanical Impedense and ReflectionUploaded byzohaibshabir
- LCS_Week_11_12Uploaded byzohaibshabir
- fitersUploaded bykbankit
- Lab 02Uploaded byRa'aed Sadoon

- Particle Size Analysis (An003) Laser DiffractionUploaded bygangs
- PaperUploaded byAnurag Shivran
- New Microsoft Word Document (4)Uploaded byEmil Mammen
- Unit 1Uploaded byRaj Bakhtani
- Compression Only Spring-STAADUploaded byAjaykumar Mistry
- Introduction to PV Design by Analysis1Uploaded bybapug98
- The New Theory of Opportune Time by Emil Núñez RojasUploaded byEmil Núñez Rojas
- lec03-130312015416-phpapp01Uploaded byRajneesh Vachaspati
- Bernoulli EquationUploaded byShida Shidot
- AVL TutorialUploaded byNeilson Luniere Vilaça
- 4 stiffened-WH500X400X12X25-WH500X400X12X25Uploaded byphanikrishnab
- TOPIK 1 - 4Uploaded byJezry Nuink
- strut & tie modelUploaded byahmed adel
- Il 3215101517Uploaded byniteen_mulmule485
- Batina, Reynold NumberUploaded byDanielle Watson
- b1Uploaded byWaheed Ahmad
- Fatigue Analysis Correlation and Failure Analysis of Optimized Connecting RodUploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- Solution to Problem 577 _ Horizontal Shearing Stress _ Strength of Materials ReviewUploaded byRehan Hakro
- Butt 2000Uploaded bykasra7
- 01 F MaizUploaded byGeras Pacheco
- Norum[1]Uploaded byMichael England
- https___isidore.udayton.edu_access_content_attachment_211f364d-62a2-495d-9ade-e848cff7f36c_Assignments_1d4b1015-19f6-4bad-88e4-57ac956e0425_hw1.pdfUploaded byChethan Jalli
- Stephan J.G. Gift- The Luminiferous Ether DetectedUploaded byOppekee
- The Effect of Discontinuity Frequency on Ground Vibrations ProducedUploaded bygia26
- A Conceptual Framework for Science Education - The Case Study of Force and MovementUploaded byMaristela Rocha
- Practice Problems 4 Newtons LawUploaded byAnonymous L3W8LlpMPW
- Presentation 1Uploaded byGKJK2530
- ESTEEM Academic Journal Vol 14Uploaded byAshaari Cha-e
- Simulation of High-Speed FillingUploaded byLTE002
- Isolated Column Footing ExampleUploaded byBunkun15