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# Fluid Mechanics (3-1)

Introduction to Fluid
Mechanics

Assessment
Category

Total

Weightage

Quizzes

06

12%

Sessional

02

35%=(15+20)%

Final

01

40%

Assignment

02

08%

Project

01

05%

Topics Covered
S. No

Topic

Week

## Introduction: Definition of a fluid, fluid properties, viscosity,

compressibility of fluids
Hydrostatics: Measurement of pressure, Pressure measurement devices,
hydrostatic forces on plane and inclined surface, buoyancy and stability

1-2

## Principles of Fluid Motion: Description of fluid flow; continuity equation;

Euler and Bernoulli equations; Pitot total head and static tubes, venturimeters, orifice plates, restrictions on use of Bernoulli equation

6-7

## Fluid Kinematics: Eulerian and Lagragian flow, acceleration field and

Reynolds transport theorem

8-9

## Momentum Equation: Momentum equation for steady flow; applications

to jet flows, impinging flows in pipe bends; momentum theory of
propellers, differential analysis of fluid flow.
Dimensional Analysis: Buckingham Pi Theorem, Modelling and Similitude
Viscous and Compressible Flow: Laminar and Turbulent flow, Minor and
Major losses in pipes, Mach number and speed of sound, Isentropic and
Non isentropic flow, Rayleigh flow

10-11

## Turbomachines: Hydraulic systems, centrifugal, axial and mixed flow

pumps, fans, turbines, compressors

15-16

6
7

2-5

12
13-14

Recommended Books
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics by Bruce
R. Munson, Donald F. Young and Theodore H.
Okiishi (SI Version)
Fluid Mechanics by Frank M. White
Fluid Mechanics by John F. Douglas, John A
Swaffield
Fluid
Mechanics-Fundamentals
and
Applications by Yunus A Cengel
Engineering Fluid Mechanics by Donal F.
Elger

## Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

At the end of this chapter, you should be
able to;
a. Understand the basic concepts of fluid
mechanics
b. Determine the dimensions and units of physical
quantities
c. Identify the key fluid properties used in the
analysis of fluid behavior
d. Use the concepts of viscosity, vapor pressure
and surface tension
e. Recognize the various types of fluid flow
problems encountered in our daily life

## Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

What is Fluid?
Anything which can flow.
What is Mechanics?
Physical science that deals with both stationary and
moving bodies under the influence of forces
Statics
Bodies at Rest
Dynamics
Bodies in Motion

## Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

What is Fluid Mechanics?
Science that deals with fluid at rest (fluid statics) or in motion (fluid dynamics) and
interaction of fluids with solids or fluid at the boundary.
Classification of Fluid Mechanics
Hydrodynamics
(study of motion of fluid especially incompressible i.e. water, gases at low speeds)
Hydraulics
(Flow of liquids in pipes and open channels)
Gas dynamics
(Flows of liquids that undergo density changes i.e. flow of gases through nozzles at
high speed)
Aerodynamics
(Flow of gases especially air over bodies such as aircraft, automobiles etc)
Meteorology
(Science deals with atmosphere)
Oceanography
(Deals with ocean science and its applications)
Hydrology
(Study of waters of earth on and below the surface of planet)

What is Fluid
Substance exists in three different phases
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasma (at very high temperature)
Substance in the liquid or gas phase is referred as
FLUID.

## Thus we can say that, all matter exists in two

forms FLUID and SOLID.

## Difference between Solid and Fluid

Solid is hard while fluid is soft
Ability to resist applied shear stress that tends
to change its shape

Solid

Liquid

It can resist applied shear stress by deforming It deform continuously under the action of
shear stress, no matter how small it is
Stress is proportional to strain

## Stress is proportional to strain rate

When a constant shear force is applied, a Fluid never stops deforming and approaches a
solid eventually stops deforming at some constant rate of strain. Fluid at rest has zero
fixed strain angle
shear stress known as hydrostatic stress
condition.

*
*

## Intermolecular bonds are strongest in solids and weakest in gases.

Molecules in solids are closely packed together, whereas in gases they are separated by relatively large
distances .

The molecules in a solid are arranged in a pattern that is repeated throughout due to small distances
between molecules in a solid, the attractive forces of molecules on each other are large and keep the
molecules at fixed positions.

The molecular spacing in the liquid phase is not much different from that of the solid phase, except the
molecules are no longer at fixed positions relative to each other and they can rotate and translate
freely.

In a liquid, the intermolecular forces are weaker relative to solids, but still strong compared with gases.
The distances between molecules generally increase slightly as a solid turns liquid.

## Liquid: Molecules move relative to each other

Total volume remain fixed due to strong cohesive forces
Takes the shape of container and forms a free surface

## Gas: Molecules are widely spaced due to weak cohesive forces

Expands and fill the entire space available
Cannot form a free surface

Rheology
Matter that acts as solid but with the
application of shear stress for the extended
period of time it behaves as fluid
Asphalt, toothpaste, slurry etc

Attribute

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Visualization
Macroscopic
description

## Solids hold their shape-no

need of container

## Liquids take the shape of

container and can stay in open
container by forming a free
surface

container

Mobility of
molecules

## Little mobility due to strong

intermolecular forces

## Flow easily even there are

strong intermolecular forcesweaker than solids

## Molecules move around freely with

little interaction expect during
collision

Density

Molecular
spacing

together

together

## Large-molecules are far apart

Effect of shear
stress

Produces deformation

Produces flow

Produces flow

Viscosity

N/A

## High-decrease with increase of

T

Low-increase as T increases

compressibility

Difficult to compress-steel
has bulk modulus 160*109 Pa

Difficult to compress-water
has bulk modulus 2.2*109 Pa

## Easy to compress-Gas has bulk

modulus at room temperature
2.2*105 Pa

## Human Body (Heart is pumping blood to all parts of

body through veins and arteries etc.)
Piping system for water, natural gas and sewage in
houses, cities etc.
Heating and air conditioning system
Automobile (fuel from the fuel tank to cylinder etc.)
Design and analysis of aircrafts, ships, submarines,
wind turbines etc.
Design of buildings, bridges and even billboards
Natural phenomenon (rain cycle, winds, ocean waves,
rise of ground water to tops of trees etc.)

## What kinds of forces act on Fluid particles?

Each fluid particle experience surface force (pressure, friction) that
are generated by contact with other particles or solid body and
body force (gravity, electromagnetic) throughout the particle.
For example, 1. diving board, 2. body moves thru fluid, so we can say
that stresses in fluid are mostly generated thru motion rather than by
deflection.
Stress: Force per unit area
The normal component of the force acting on a surface per unit area
is normal stress. The tangential component of the force acting on
the surface per unit area is tangential stress

## Surface of fluid particle is in contact with

other fluid particle and so a contact force is
generated b/w the particles.

## The No-Slip Condition (cont.)

Fluid flow is confined by solid surface
Flow of liquid in a solid pipe or over a solid non-porous
surface.
Fluid in direct contact with solid surface sticks to it, hence
there is no slip known as No slip condition

## Similar to no slip condition but in heat transfer

When two bodies at different temperatures are
brought into contact, heat transfer occurs until
both bodies assume the same temperature at the
points of contact. Therefore, a fluid and a solid
surface have the same temperature at the points of
contact. This is known as the no-temperature-jump
condition

## Classification of Fluid Flow

Viscous Vs Inviscid Regions of Flow
Frictional force develops b/w two layers

as Viscous Flow.

## Classification of Fluid Flow (Cont.)

Internal Vs External Flow

## Flow of an unbounded fluid over a surface i.e. plate is known as

external flow
Flow in a confined space such as flow through pipes knows as
internal flow.
Flow in a duct which is partially filled with liquid and there is
free surface known as open-channel flow.

## Classification of Fluid Flow (Cont.)

Compressible Vs Incompressible Flow

## If the density of fluid remained nearly constant through the

flow known as incompressible flow
Liquids are usually incompressible while gases are
compressible
For example; a Pressure of 210atm required to change the
density of water by just 1percent at 1atm while for gases
pressure of 0.001atm is required.

## Classification of Fluid Flow (Cont.)

Laminar Vs Turbulent Flow

## Highly ordered flow is known as

laminar flow e.g. flow of high viscosity
fluid such as oil at low velocity
Disordered or chaotic flow is known
as turbulent flow e.g. flow of low
viscosity fluid such as air at high
velocity
Flow that alternated between being
laminar and turbulent known as
transitional flow

## Classification of Fluid Flow (Cont.)

Forced Vs Natural Flow

## In forced flow, external source is required such as fan,

pump in order to flow the fluid in pipe or over a surface.
In natural flow, fluid motion is through natural means e.g.
rise of warmer fluid or fall of cooler fluid.
Thermo siphoning effect

## No change of properties such as velocity, temperature etc.

at a point with time is steady flow and the opposite is
Heat exchangers, turbines, compressors etc operate for a
long period of time and thus classified as steady flow
devices.

## Classification of Fluid Flow (Cont.)

One, two and three Dimensional Flow
A flow is said to be one-, two-, or three-dimensional if the flow velocity varies in
one, two, or three primary dimensions, respectively

## Quantity of matter or region in space selected for

study is system
Mass or region outside the system is surroundings
Real or imaginary surface separates the system
from surroundings is boundary. It can be fixed or
moveable and has zero thickness or volume.

## Mass, energy can enter or leave the system

No mass can enter or leave the system, but
energy in the form of heat can enter
No Mass, energy can enter or leave the system

system

## Open System (control volume)

Properties of System
Intensive and Extensive properties

## Any characteristics of a system such as Pressure, velocity,

temperature is property
Properties that are independent of mass of system are intensive
Properties whose values depend on mass or size of system are
extensive

## Example:A tank of liquid having a total mass of 36 kg rests on a support in the

equipment bay of the Space Shuttle. Determine the force (in newtons) that the
tank exerts on the support shortly after lift off when the shuttle is accelerating
upward as shown in Fig. at 15 ft / s2.

## a= (15 ft/s2)(0.3048 m/ft)

Fluid as Continuum

## The properties of a fluid arise from its molecular

structure, engineering problems are usually concerned
with the bulk behavior of fluids. The number of molecules
involved is immense.

## Quantities such as velocity and pressure can then be

considered to be constant at any point, and changes due
to molecular motion may be ignored.

## Fluid as Continuum (Cont.)

We are all familiar with fluidsthe most common being air and
waterand we experience them as being smooth, i.e., as
being a continuous medium. Unless we use specialized
equipment, we are not aware of the underlying molecular
nature of fluids.
This molecular structure is one in which the mass is not
continuously distributed in space, but is concentrated in
molecules that are separated by relatively large regions of
empty space.

## A region of space filled by a stationary fluid (e.g., air,

treated as a single gas) looks like a continuous medium, but
if we zoom in on a very small cube of it, we can see that we
mostly have empty space, with gas molecules scattered
around, moving at high speed (indicated by the gas
temperature).

## Fluid as Continuum (Cont.)

Consider how we determine the density at a point. Density is defined as mass per
unit volume. The mass m will be given by the instantaneous number of molecules in
V (and the mass of each molecule), so the average density in volume V is given by
density = m /V .

We say average because the number of molecules in V , and hence the density,
fluctuates. For example, if the gas was air at standard temperature and pressure (STP)
and the volume was a sphere of diameter 0.01 m, there might be 15 molecules in V,
but an instant later there might be 17 (three might enter while one leaves). Hence the
density at point C randomly fluctuates in time.

In this figure, each vertical dashed line represents a specific chosen volume, V, and
each data point represents the measured density at an instant. For very small volumes,
the density varies greatly, but above a certain volume, V/, the density becomes
stablethe volume now encloses a huge number of molecules.

For example, if V =0.001 mm3 (about the size of a grain of sand), there will on
average be 2.5*1013 molecules present.

## Fluid as Continuum (Cont.)

As a consequence of the continuum assumption, each
fluid property is assumed to have a definite value at every
point in space. Thus fluid properties such as density,
temperature, velocity, and so on are considered to be
continuous functions of position and time.
Rarefied Gas Theory

and Units

## Any physical quantity can be characterized by dimensions.

The magnitudes assigned to the dimensions are called units.
Some basic dimensions such as mass m, length L, time t, and
temperature T are selected as primary or fundamental
dimensions.
Others such as velocity V, energy E, and volume V are expressed
in terms of the primary dimensions and are called secondary
dimensions, or derived dimensions.

## Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity,

and Units (Cont.)
Dimensional Homogeneity
The dimensions of the left side of all theoretically derived
equations must be the same as those on the right side
Equation: V = Vo + at
Dimension: LT-1= LT-1+ LT-1
Since the dimensions on the left equal to that on the right, the
equation above is Dimensionally Homogeneous

## Restricted Homogenous Equation

Equations that are restricted to particular system of units
For example, equation of freely falling body traveling the distance
d is;
d=4.90t2
The well known equation is;

d=gt2/2
g= 32.2 ft/s2
g=9.8 m/s2

## Example:- (Restricted and general

Homogenous Equation)

## Analysis of Behavior of Fluid

Different fluids have different behavior. For example, gases are light
and easily compressible while liquids are rather heavy and
incompressible.
Syrup flows slowly from a container while water flows rapidly
when poured from a container.
To quantify these differences, certain fluid properties are used.

## Measurement of Fluid Mass and Weight

Density
Mass per unit volume
It varies from fluid to fluid
For Liquids, variation in temperature and pressure have a little effect
on density. At 20C, for example, the density of water changes from
998 kg/m3 at 1 atm to 1003 kg/m3 at 100 atm, a change of just 0.5
percent.
At 1 atm, for example, the density of water changes from 998 kg/m3
at 20C to 975 kg/m3 at 75C, a change of 2.3 percent.
For Gases, the density strongly influenced by variation in temperature
and pressure.
Specific Volume
The reciprocal of density or volume per unit mass. This is uncommon in
fluid mechanics but commonly used in thermodynamics.

## Measurement of Fluid Mass and Weight

Specific Weight
Weight per unit volume

=
Density is used to characterize the mass of fluid while specific
weight is used to characterize the weight of fluid system.
For example, water has specific weight of 9.80 kN/m3 at 15oC.

## Measurement of Fluid Mass and Weight

Specific Gravity (Relative Density)
Ratio of density of fluid to the specific density of water at some
temperature. The specified temperature is taken as 4oC as the
density is 1000kg/m3 at this T

SG=

0 @ 4
2

## For example, SG of Hg at 20oC is 13.55 so its density will be;

(13.55)(1000) = 13600kg/m3
Thus, density, specific weight and specific gravity are all
interrelated.

## Ideal Gas Law

Gases are highly compressible as compared to liquid
Changes in density directly related to changes in temperature and
pressure

P = Absolute pressure
T = Absolute Temperature
R = gas constant
Pabs = Pg + Patm
Pg is pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure.
Patm = 101 kPa

Example:The compressed air tank shown in Fig. has a volume of 0.024m3. The
temperature is 20oC and the atmospheric pressure is 101.3 kPa.
FIND When the tank is filled with air at a gage pressure of 345 kPa,
determine the density of the air and the weight of air in the tank.

Viscosity
Fluidity of the fluid known as viscosity.
Density, specific weight are insufficient to
properly characterize the behavior of
fluid. For example, oil and water have
approximately same value of density but
their behavior is different when flowing.

Example:-

Example:The dynamic viscosity of water at 20C is 1.00 10-3 N.s/m2, and the viscosity at
40C is 6.53 10-4 N.s/m2.
estimate the viscosity at 30C.

Example:A board 1 m by 1 m that weighs 25 N slides down an inclined ramp (slope = 20)
with a velocity of 2.0 cm/s. The board is separated from the ramp by a thin film of
oil with a viscosity of 0.05 N.s/m2.
Neglecting edge effects, calculate the space between the board and the ramp.

Viscous Resistance
Viscous Resistance of Bearings
Lubrication of Bearing
1. Highly viscous oil leads to greater resistance so greater
power loss
2. Light oil may not be able to maintain the required film
between the metal surfaces results into wear and tear of
both surfaces
3. Viscosity of oil changes with temperature

## Viscous Resistance (Cont.)

Power required to overcome the viscous resistance in following cases;

## a. Viscous Resistance of Oiled Bearings

b. Viscous Resistance of Foot-step Bearings
c. Viscous Resistance of Collar Bearings

Compressibility of Fluids
Bulk Modulus
Volume or density of fluid changes with the
change in pressure or temperature. Fluid
expands as they are heated and contract as
they are cooled.
The question is how compressible is the fluid
is?
The property commonly used to characterize
the compressibility of fluid is the Bulk
Modulus just as Youngs modulus of elasticity
in solids.
Equation:Example:-

## Compressibility of Fluids (Cont.)

Compression and Expansion of Gases
Gases are compressible and when they are
compressed or expanded, the relationship
b/w density and pressure depends on the
nature of the process.
Isothermal Process:Isentropic Process:Equation:Example:-

## Example:A 0.03m3 cubic foot of air at an absolute pressure of

101.3kPa is compressed isentropically to (0.015) m3
by the tire pump.
What is the final pressure?

## Compressibility of Fluids (Cont.)

Speed of Sound
A loud speaker diaphragm causes a
localized disturbances as it vibrates and the
small change in pressure created by the
motion of the diaphragm is propagated thru
air with finite velocity. The velocity at which
the small disturbances propagates is called
the acoustic velocity or speed of sound.
Equation:Example:-

## Example:A jet aircraft flies at a speed of 885 km/h at an altitude of

10,500 m, where the temperature is -54 oC and the specific
heat ratio is k =1.4.
Determine the ratio of the speed of the aircraft, V, to that of
the speed of sound, c, at the specified altitude.

Vapor Pressure
Evaporation

## Liquid molecules at the surface have sufficient momentum

to overcome the intermolecular cohesive forces and escape
into the atmosphere.

Vapor Pressure

Boiling

## Formation of vapor bubbles within the fluid mass is initiated when

the absolute pressure in the fluid reaches the vapor pressure

Cavitation

## If the pressure developed in the flowing fluid is lowered than vapor

pressure, boiling will occur. These produced vapor bubbles in
flowing fluid are swept into the region of high pressure where they
suddenly collapse with sufficient intensity to cause structural
damage. The formation and collapse of vapor bubbles in a flowing
fluid is known as cavitation

## Compressibility of Fluids (Cont.)

Cavitation (cont.)

## Possibility of the liquid pressure in liquid-flow systems dropping below the

vapor pressure at some locations, and the resulting unplanned vaporization.
For example, water at 10C may vaporize and form bubbles at locations (such
as the tip regions of impellers or suction sides of pumps) where the pressure
drops below 1.23 kPa. The vapor bubbles (called cavitation bubbles since
they form cavities in the liquid) collapse as they are swept away from the
low-pressure regions, generating highly destructive, extremely high-pressure
waves. This phenomenon, which is a common cause for drop in performance
and even the erosion of impeller blades, is called cavitation, and it is an
important consideration in the design of hydraulic turbines and pumps. Water
hammer is caused by acoustic waves propagating and reflecting in a confined
liquid, for example, when a valve is closed abruptly. The resulting noise can be
similar to hammering on the pipes, hence the term

Surface Tension
It

## is the intensity of the molecular attraction per unit

length along any line in the surface
Depends on Temperature ( as T)
Fluid/surface it is in contact with

## Compressibility of Fluids (Cont.)

Surface Tension
Noting that surface tension acts along the circumference
and the pressure acts on the area, horizontal force
balances for the droplet and the bubble give

## Example:Pressures are sometimes determined by measuring the

height of a column of liquid in a vertical tube.
What diameter of clean glass tubing is required so that the
rise of water at 20oC in a tube due to capillary action (as
opposed to pressure in the tube) is less than h =1.0 mm?

## Compressibility of Fluids (Cont.)

Capillary Effect
The rise or fall of a liquid in a small-diameter tube
inserted into the liquid. Such narrow tubes are called
capillaries.
1. Rise of kerosene oil through a cotton wick
2. Rise of water to the top of tall trees

## Compressibility of Fluids (Cont.)

Capillary Effect
Wetting fluid
Non-wetting fluid

Capillary Effect
Capillary rise

## This relation is also valid for non-wetting liquids (such

as mercury in glass) and gives the capillary drop. In this
case, > 90 and thus cos < 0, which makes h
negative. Therefore, a negative value of capillary rise
corresponds to a capillary drop

Capillary Effect

## Capillary rise is inversely proportional to the radius of the

tube. Therefore, the thinner the tube is, the greater the rise
(or fall) of the liquid in the tube. In practice, the capillary
effect is usually negligible in tubes whose diameter is
greater than 1 cm. When pressure measurements are made
using manometers and barometers, it is important to use
sufficiently large tubes to minimize the capillary effect.
The capillary rise is also inversely proportional to the
density of the liquid. Therefore, lighter liquids experience
greater capillary rises.

Example:

## A shaft 100mm diameter rotates at 60

rpm in a 200mm long bearing. If the
surfaces are uniformly separated by a
distance of 0.5mm and linear velocity
distribution in the lubricating oil having
dynamic viscosity 4 centipoises, find the
power absorbed in the bearing.

Example:

## A vertical shaft of 150mm diameter runs

inside a bearing at 300rpm. If the space
b/w the lower end of the shaft and the
bearing is 1mm filled with a oil of viscosity
60 poises, determine the necessary power
absorbed in overcoming the viscous
resistance.

Example:

## The external and internal radii of a collar

bearing are 100mm and 75mm
respectively. The space b/w the collar
surface and bearing is 2.5mm and is filled
with an oil. If the power lost in
overcoming the viscous resistance is
23.6W when the shaft is running at 250
rpm, find the viscosity of the oil.

Example:The viscosity of some fluids changes when a strong electric field is applied on them. This
phenomenon is known as the electrorheological (ER) effect, and fluids that exhibit such
behavior are known as ER fluids. The Bingham plastic model for shear stress, which is
expressed as t = ty + (du/dy) is widely used to describe ER fluid behavior because of its
simplicity. One of the most promising applications of ER fluids is the ER clutch. A typical
multidisk ER clutch consists of several equally spaced steel disks of inner radius R1 and
outer radius R2, N of them attached to the input shaft. The gap h between the parallel
disks is filled with a viscous fluid. (a) Find a relationship for the torque generated by the
clutch when the output shaft is stationary and (b) calculate the torque for an ER clutch
with N=11 for R1=50 mm, R2=200 mm, and n=2400 rpm if the fluid is SAE 10 with =0.1
Pa.s, ty=2.5 kPa, and h=1.2 mm.