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Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute
Library Avenue, New Delhi-110 012
SPAR 2.0 has been primarily, developed for the statistical analysis of experimental
research data in Plant Breeding and Genetics. However, many of the programs can be
used for the analysis of data coming from other disciplines of research, provided the data
confirms to the method and design used in the program. Statistical Package for
Agricultural Research Data Analysis (SPAR 1.0) was developed at IASRI for statistical
analysis of experimental research data in Plant Breeding and Genetics using Fortran
Language, which was DOS based and had some limitations like Dynamic Memory
Allocation, Graphic User Interface etc. The package was not able to handle large data sets.
So there was a need to develop the Windows Version of SPAR1. SPAR 2.0 is a Windows
Version of SPAR 1.0 with some additional modules. This package has been developed in
Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 language. It is User-Friendly, Interactive, Password Protected,
Menu-Driven Package and can also be operated using the Toolbars. A Context-Sensitive
Web Help with Index, Contents, Search and Favorites facility are available. This package
consists of all the necessary details to use the software and also the basic definitions
including mathematical formulas related to the methods used in the package. Moreover, it
includes sample inputs and outputs of all the modules. This is a helpful tool for quick
understanding of this statistical software. This package is also useful for teaching the
subject of genetical statistics to the post-graduate students and helpful for the researchers
in statistics with special interest in plant and animal sciences. The package consists of
eight modules viz., (i) Data Management (ii) Descriptive Statistics (iii) Estimation of
Breeding Values (iv) Correlation and Regression Analysis (v) Variance and Covariance
Components Estimation (vi) Stability Analysis (vii) Multivariate Analysis (viii) Mating
Design Analysis.
Design and Development of SPAR 2.0
SPAR 2.0 has been written in Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0. Visual C++ is an object-oriented
language and suitable for software development. It utilizes various key features of object
oriented technologies such as its ability to programme in an event driven operating system
with great ease, write code for events automatically, optimize code capability for native
platform, etc. An Online SPAR 2.0 Web HTML Help with Contents, Index, Search and
Favorites Facilities are available and are developed using Microsoft HTML Web Help
Workshop 4.0, JavaScript and a Graphics edit tool Microsoft help Image Editor. The
package is very easy to use. The password control regulates its access to valid users. The
package also works as a text editor with usual facilities for preparing and editing data file.
The concepts of Dynamic Linked Library (DLL) and Component Object Model (COM)/
Dynamic Component Object Model (DCOM) in Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 has been
utilized in SPAR 2.0 for complex mathematical calculations. A system with minimum of

SPAR 2.0

64 MB RAM and 2 GB Hard Disk capacity is required to run this package and it is
compatible on Microsoft Windows 98, ME, 2000 and XP.
3. Features of SPAR 2.0
Flash screen of SPAR 2.0 is given in Fig. 3.1. SPAR 2.0 is password protected and after
entering the password, screen out put which is main screen, is given in Fig. 3.2.

Fig. 3.1: Flash screen of SPAR 2.0

Fig, 3.2: First screen of SPAR 2.0 after entering password and clicking the Analysis link

3.1 Data Management

The Data Management Module consists of a sub module for Transformation of Data. One
can generate new variables, from the existing variables, that already exist. Any variable
and any number of variables one can transform. User can compute the data using the
Relational operators, Arithmetic operators, Numeric operators and Logical operators. One
can transform the data using various Logarithmic, Trigonometric, Inverse and other
mathematical functions. User can either enter the data through the SPAR 2.0 Editor or can
browse any type of file from any directory.

SPAR 2.0

3.1.1 Transformation of Data

On selection of Menu "Data Management", a sub-menu "Transformation of Data" will
open (Fig. 3.3).

For Entering the Parameters

Fig. 3.3: Transformation of data: Parameter entry

After entering the Characters and Rows and clicking on OK command button will open a
dialog box. One can select the type of file form from the Combo Box control, then press
OK for browsing the file and select the file and fetch the data (Fig. 3.4). This procedure of
selection of data to be processed either through an existing file or entering the data
through a worksheet is followed in all the modules. After fetching the data either through
a file or entering the data directly on a worksheet, one can click the "Proceed" command
button to enter information on parameters like target variable (output variable name), type
label, numerical expression, relational operators, numerals, functions (Fig. 3.5). Clicking
the "Finish" button will lead to termination of the transformation of data.

For Selection of Type of File

Fig. 3.4: Selection and browsing of the file to be processed.

SPAR 2.0

For Fetching the Data

Numeric Expression to be Computed



Fig. 3.5: Type of Transformation of data as per Users choice

3.2 Descriptive Statistics

The Descriptive Statistics Module consists of six Sub Modules, Measures of Central
Tendency such as Mean, Median, Mode, Geometric Mean and Harmonic Mean; Measures
and Coefficients of Dispersion such as Range, Mean Deviation, Quartile Deviation,
Standard Deviation, Root Mean Square Deviation, Mean Square Deviation and Variance;
Measures of Skewness based on difference between Mean and Median, difference
between Mean and Mode and (Q3 (2 x Median) Q1), Coefficients of Skewness due to
Karl Pearsons, Bowels and Moments; Coefficient of Kurtosis; Measures of Partition
Values and Generation of Moments (Inclusion of Sheppard Correction in case of
Continuous Distribution). Facility is there to compute the Test of Independence of
Attributes and Chi Square Test. Sample screen for some of the options are given in Fig.
3.6 and Fig.3.7.

For Further Processing

Total Number of
Characters Available

Selected Character to
be Analyzed

Fig. 3.6: User choice: Selection of characters for descriptive statistics

SPAR 2.0

Coefficient of Skewness

Measures of Skewness

Fig. 3.7: User choice: Selection for measures and coefficients of skewness and kurtosis

3.3 Estimation of Breeding Values

The Estimation of Breeding Values Module predicts breeding values by fitting of
Generations means (as three, five and six parameter models) and performing Scaling and
Joint Scaling Tests. Adequacy of scale must satisfy two conditions namely, additively of
gene effects and independence of heritable components from non-heritable ones. The test
of first condition provides information regarding absence or presence of gene interactions.
The test of adequacy of scales is important because in most of the cases the estimation of
additive and dominance components of variances is made assuming the absence of gene
interaction. Sample screen for some of the options are given in Fig. 3.8.

Fig. 3.8: Scaling test: Selection of scaling test, and selection of five parameter model

SPAR 2.0

3.4 Correlation and Regression

This module consists of sub-modules for correlation, regression and path analysis.
3.4.1 Correlation Analysis
The correlation analysis gives Simple Correlation, Partial and Multiple Correlations.
3.4.2 Regression Analysis
The Regression Analysis computes the Regression Coefficient, Analysis of Variance of
Regression and Regression Equation.
3.4.3 Path Analysis
The path analysis module gives Direct Effects, Indirect Effects and Residual Effects.

3.5 Variance and Covariance Components Estimation

The Variance and Covariance Component Estimation Module consists of computation of
ANOVA, Components of Variances such as Phenotypic and Genotypic Coefficient of
Variation and Heritability (Broad Sense), Standard Error and Critical Difference, Analysis
of Covariance such as Phenotypic Covariance, Genotypic Covariance for an experiment
conducted in RBD layout.
3.6 Stability Analysis
Stability analysis can be performed using the three models (i) Eberhart and Russell (1966)
(ii) Perkins and Jinks (1968) and (iii) Freeman and Perkins (1971). On selection of
Stability Analysis module, a Window Dialog Box will open up that asks about the
information on parameters Locations, Varieties, Replications, Characters (Fig. 3.9).
Sample results are given in Fig. 3.10.

Fig. 3.9: Information about parameters for stability analysis

SPAR 2.0

SPAR 2.0

Fig. 3.10: Sample results generated on execution of sub-module stability analysis

3.7 Multivariate Analysis

This module has three sub modules viz., (i) Cluster Analysis, (ii) Discriminant Analysis
and (iii) Principal Component Analysis.
3.7.1 Cluster Analysis
Cluster analysis sub module is further partitioned into Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and
Non- Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The Hierarchal Cluster analysis by using the various
techniques such as Single Linkage (Minimum Distance or Nearest Neighbor), Complete
Linkage (Maximum Distance or Farthest Neighbor), Average Linkage (Average Distance)
and Distance Matrix Methods included in the computation are the Co-efficient of Shape
Difference, the Cosine Co-efficient ,the Correlation Co-efficient , The Canbera Metric Coefficient, the Bray Curtis Co-efficient, the Eucleidean Distance. For the graphical
representation of the above analysis provision is there in the software package for
Dendogram (Plot) Development. Sample screen outputs for Hierarchical Cluster Analysis
are given in Fig. 3.11 and Fig. 3.12.

SPAR 2.0

Fig. 3.11: Hierarchical cluster analysis: Clicking analysis command button and choosing
multivariate analysis sub-module and then cluster analysis and finally
hierarchical cluster analysis option.

Fig. 3.12: Continuing with hierarchical cluster analysis option

Non Hierarchical Clustering can be done by four methods viz., (i) K-Means Method (ii)
K-Medians Method (iii) K-Modes Method and (iv) K-Mediod Method. Provision is there
to analyze the data both Cases and Variable wise. On selection of Non-Hierarchical
Cluster Analysis from SPAR 2.0, a Window Dialog Box will open up that asks about the
parameters information on characters and rows. From the Frame Cluster, one can select
the select one of the options from the two Radio Buttons, Cases and Variables. If one
selects the Radio Button Cases, it will compute the Distance Matrix Row wise and If
one Selects the Radio Button Variables, it will compute the Distance Matrix Column
After selection of input file, if one presses the Method Command Button a Window
Dialog Box will open up which asks parameter information on Cluster Method option
where one can choose from the four options, K- Means, K-Median, K-Mode and KMediod (Fig. 3.13).

SPAR 2.0

Results of Clicking Method Comand Button

Click it for Further Processing

Fig. 3.13: Selection of the cluster method option

If one clicks the Command Button Solution, a Window Dialog Box will open up which
asks the following parameter information from the user on the two options, Single
Solution and Multiple Solution (Fig. 3.14).

Results of Clicking Solution Comand Button

Click it for Further Processing

Fig. 3.14: Choice of the type of solution- single or multiple

If one clicks the Single Solution Radio Button, a Window Dialog Box will open up
which will asks the parameter information, Range (number of clusters).


SPAR 2.0

Specify the Number of Clusters

Fig. 3.15: Specifying the number of clusters in single solution

After entering the Range in the Text Box, user can click the Continue Command
Button. If one clicks the Multiple Solution Radio Button Option, a Window Dialog Box
will come up which asks the following parameter information, Lower Range and Upper
Range. User can specify the number of cluster range using Lower Range for the minimum
number of clusters to Upper Range for the maximum number of clusters (Fig. 3.16).

Specify the Number of Clusters Range

Fig. 3.16: Specifying the number of clusters in multiple solution

After entering all the information in the various Window Dialog Box, One can click the
Proceed" Command Button for Final Execution of the Non-Hierarchical Cluster

SPAR 2.0

3.7.2 Discriminant Analysis

Discriminant Analysis can be used for estimation of Variance-Covariance matrix,
Discriminant function, Optimal linear combination and Testing the validity of
3.7.3 Principal Component Analysis
Principal Component Analysis can be employed for computation of Variance-Covariance
matrix, Correlation matrix, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, Principal Components, Variance of
principal components, Total variation by original variables, Total variation by principal
components and proportion of total variation accounted for by each of the principal
components and principal component scores. On selection of Principal Component
Analysis, a Window Dialog Box will open up that asks about the following parameters
information on characters, rows and the computational process (Fig. 3.17).

For Entering the Parameters


Fig. 3.17: Sample screen shots for principal component analysis

3.8 Mating Design Analysis

This module consists of seven sub modules viz., (i) Complete Diallel, (ii) Partial Diallel
(iii) Line x Tester (with parents) and Line x Tester (without parents) (iv) Three way cross
(v) Double cross and (vi) North Carolina Designs.
3.8.1 Complete Diallel Analysis
Complete Diallel Analysis has been done by using two approaches (i) Haymans approach
and (ii) Griffings approach.
The Haymans Approach includes the computations viz., ANOVA, Estimation of
components of variation such as Testing the Significance of Genotypic Differences,
Estimation of Variances and Covariance, Testing the Validity of the Hypothesis, Wr,VrGraph, Estimation of Components of Variation, Other Parameters, Estimation of Most
Dominant and Recessive Parent, Estimation of Components of Variation in F2,
Computation of Proportion of the Genetic Components.


SPAR 2.0

The Griffings Approach includes the Analysis using Parents (n), (n-1)/2 F1s and
reciprocals, Analysis using Parents and F1s only, Analysis using F1s and reciprocals and
Analysis using F1s only. All the above analysis computes Significance of Genotypic
Difference, Combining Ability Analysis, gca, sca, reciprocal effects, Standard Error and
Critical Differences. Sample screen shots are given in Fig. 3.18.

Fig. 3.18: Complete diallel analysis: By Haymans and Griffings approach.

3.8.2 Partial Diallel Analysis

The Partial Diallel Analysis in SPAR 2.0 computes the Sampling Procedure, Testing the
Significance of genotypic Differences, Combining Ability Analysis, Component of
Variances and Genetic Interpretations and Standard Error.
3.8.3 Line x Tester Analysis
Line x Tester Analysis computes ANOVA with Parents and Crosses, ANOVA for Line x
Tester Analysis, ANOVA for Line x Tester Analysis including Parents, gca Effects, sca
Effects, Standard Error for Combining Ability Effects, Genetic Components and
Proportional Contribution of Lines, Testers and their Interactions to Total Variance.
3.8.4 Three-Way Cross Analysis
Three-Way Cross Analysis computes ANOVA for Triallel, Testing the Significance of
Genotypic (Crosses) Differences, Estimation of Effects and Variances, Estimation of the
Various Effects such as Estimation of General and Two-line Specific Effects, Three-line
Effect, Analysis of Variance for Specific and General Line Effects, Standard Errors (S.E.)
Estimation of Parameters Useful for the Evaluation of Lines, Estimation of the Variance
3.8.5 Double Cross Hybrids Analysis
Double Cross Hybrids Analysis includes the computation of Statistical Model, ANOVA,
Components of variances, Combining Ability Effects.
3.8.6 North Carolina Designs Analysis
North Carolina Designs Analysis computes the ANOVA and Component of Variances for
NCD I, II and III Designs.

SPAR 2.0

A complete Context Sensitive Web HTML Help with Index, Contents, Search and
Favorites facility is available. The package can be run without the aid of a manual. This
package consists of all the necessary details to use the software and also the basic
definitions including mathematical formulae related to the methods used in the package. It
also includes sample inputs and outputs of all the modules. Fig. 3.19 gives the home page
of Help. Fig. 3.20 gives how to use help for a specified analysis. Fig. 3.21 gives the SPAR
2.0 Help Samples Inputs and Outputs.

Fig. 3.19: Home page of Help

Fig. 3.20: SPAR 2.0 help


SPAR 2.0

Fig. 3.21: SPAR 2.0 help samples inputs and outputs

References and Suggested Reading

Beale, E.M.L. (1969). Euclidean Cluster Analysis. Contributed paper to 37th Session of
International Statistical Institute.
Cavelli, L.L. (1952). An analysis of linkage in quantitative inheritance in: E.C.R. Reeve
and C.H. Waddington (Eds.), Quantitative Inheritance, HSMO (London), pp. 135144.characters
Eberhart, S.A. and Russell, W.A. (1966). Stability parameters for comparing varieties.
Crop Sci. 6, 36-40.
Freeman, G.H. and Perkins, J.M.(1971). Environmental and genotype-environmental
components of variability. VIII. Relations between genotypes grown in different
environments and measure of these environments. Heredity, 26, 15-23.
Gupta,S.C. and Kapoor, V.K.(1996). Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics, IX Ed.,
Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi.
Hayman, B.I. (1958). The theory and analysis of diallel crosses. Genetics, 43, 63-85.
Hayman, B.I.and Mather, K. (1955). The description of genic interactions in continuous
variation. Biometrics, 11, 69-82.
Jeff , Prosise (1999). Programming Windows with MFC, II Edition. Microsoft Press,
Jinks, J.L. and Jones, R.M. (1958). Estimation of components of heterosis. Genetics, 43,
Kearsey, M.J. and Jinks, J.L. (1968). A general method of detecting additive, dominance
and epistatic variation for metrical traits. I. Theory. Heredity, 23, 403-409.


SPAR 2.0

Kempthorne, O. and Curnow, R.N. (1961). The partial diallel crosses. Biometrics, 17,
Krishnamurthy, E.V. and Sen, S.K. (1986). Numerical Algorithms, Second Edition.
E.W.Press, New Delhi.
Kruglinski, David. (1996). Inside Visual C++, I Edition. Microsoft Press, Washington.
Mather, K. (1949). Biometrical Genetics. Methuen and Co.Ltd. London.
Narain, Prem, Bhatia, V.K. and Malhotra, P.K. (1979). Handbook of Statistical Genetics,
IASRI Publication, New Delhi.
Perkins, J.M. and Jinks, J.L. (1968). Environmental and genotype-environmental
components of variability. III. Multiple lines and crosses. Heredity, 23, 339-356.
Richter, Jeffrey. (1999). Programming Applications for Microsoft Windows, IV Edition.
Microsoft Press, Washington.
Singh, R.K. and Choudhry (1977). Biometrical Methods in Quantitative Genetic Analysis,
Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.
Smith Eric, A., Whisler, Valore. and Marquis, Hank (1998).Visual Basic 6 Programming
Bible, I Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Yates, F. (1937). The Design and Analysis of Factorial Experiments. Imp. Bur. Soil. Sci.
Tech. Comm., 35.