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spar

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You are on page 1of 16

SANGEETA AHUJA, P.K. MALHOTRA, V.K. BHATIA

AND RAJENDER PARSAD

Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute

Library Avenue, New Delhi-110 012

vkbhatia@iasri.res.in

1.

Introduction

SPAR 2.0 has been primarily, developed for the statistical analysis of experimental

research data in Plant Breeding and Genetics. However, many of the programs can be

used for the analysis of data coming from other disciplines of research, provided the data

confirms to the method and design used in the program. Statistical Package for

Agricultural Research Data Analysis (SPAR 1.0) was developed at IASRI for statistical

analysis of experimental research data in Plant Breeding and Genetics using Fortran

Language, which was DOS based and had some limitations like Dynamic Memory

Allocation, Graphic User Interface etc. The package was not able to handle large data sets.

So there was a need to develop the Windows Version of SPAR1. SPAR 2.0 is a Windows

Version of SPAR 1.0 with some additional modules. This package has been developed in

Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 language. It is User-Friendly, Interactive, Password Protected,

Menu-Driven Package and can also be operated using the Toolbars. A Context-Sensitive

Web Help with Index, Contents, Search and Favorites facility are available. This package

consists of all the necessary details to use the software and also the basic definitions

including mathematical formulas related to the methods used in the package. Moreover, it

includes sample inputs and outputs of all the modules. This is a helpful tool for quick

understanding of this statistical software. This package is also useful for teaching the

subject of genetical statistics to the post-graduate students and helpful for the researchers

in statistics with special interest in plant and animal sciences. The package consists of

eight modules viz., (i) Data Management (ii) Descriptive Statistics (iii) Estimation of

Breeding Values (iv) Correlation and Regression Analysis (v) Variance and Covariance

Components Estimation (vi) Stability Analysis (vii) Multivariate Analysis (viii) Mating

Design Analysis.

2.

Design and Development of SPAR 2.0

SPAR 2.0 has been written in Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0. Visual C++ is an object-oriented

language and suitable for software development. It utilizes various key features of object

oriented technologies such as its ability to programme in an event driven operating system

with great ease, write code for events automatically, optimize code capability for native

platform, etc. An Online SPAR 2.0 Web HTML Help with Contents, Index, Search and

Favorites Facilities are available and are developed using Microsoft HTML Web Help

Workshop 4.0, JavaScript and a Graphics edit tool Microsoft help Image Editor. The

package is very easy to use. The password control regulates its access to valid users. The

package also works as a text editor with usual facilities for preparing and editing data file.

The concepts of Dynamic Linked Library (DLL) and Component Object Model (COM)/

Dynamic Component Object Model (DCOM) in Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 has been

utilized in SPAR 2.0 for complex mathematical calculations. A system with minimum of

SPAR 2.0

64 MB RAM and 2 GB Hard Disk capacity is required to run this package and it is

compatible on Microsoft Windows 98, ME, 2000 and XP.

3. Features of SPAR 2.0

Flash screen of SPAR 2.0 is given in Fig. 3.1. SPAR 2.0 is password protected and after

entering the password, screen out put which is main screen, is given in Fig. 3.2.

Fig, 3.2: First screen of SPAR 2.0 after entering password and clicking the Analysis link

The Data Management Module consists of a sub module for Transformation of Data. One

can generate new variables, from the existing variables, that already exist. Any variable

and any number of variables one can transform. User can compute the data using the

Relational operators, Arithmetic operators, Numeric operators and Logical operators. One

can transform the data using various Logarithmic, Trigonometric, Inverse and other

mathematical functions. User can either enter the data through the SPAR 2.0 Editor or can

browse any type of file from any directory.

SPAR 2.0

On selection of Menu "Data Management", a sub-menu "Transformation of Data" will

open (Fig. 3.3).

After entering the Characters and Rows and clicking on OK command button will open a

dialog box. One can select the type of file form from the Combo Box control, then press

OK for browsing the file and select the file and fetch the data (Fig. 3.4). This procedure of

selection of data to be processed either through an existing file or entering the data

through a worksheet is followed in all the modules. After fetching the data either through

a file or entering the data directly on a worksheet, one can click the "Proceed" command

button to enter information on parameters like target variable (output variable name), type

label, numerical expression, relational operators, numerals, functions (Fig. 3.5). Clicking

the "Finish" button will lead to termination of the transformation of data.

SPAR 2.0

Numeric Expression to be Computed

Destination

Variable

The Descriptive Statistics Module consists of six Sub Modules, Measures of Central

Tendency such as Mean, Median, Mode, Geometric Mean and Harmonic Mean; Measures

and Coefficients of Dispersion such as Range, Mean Deviation, Quartile Deviation,

Standard Deviation, Root Mean Square Deviation, Mean Square Deviation and Variance;

Measures of Skewness based on difference between Mean and Median, difference

between Mean and Mode and (Q3 (2 x Median) Q1), Coefficients of Skewness due to

Karl Pearsons, Bowels and Moments; Coefficient of Kurtosis; Measures of Partition

Values and Generation of Moments (Inclusion of Sheppard Correction in case of

Continuous Distribution). Facility is there to compute the Test of Independence of

Attributes and Chi Square Test. Sample screen for some of the options are given in Fig.

3.6 and Fig.3.7.

Total Number of

Characters Available

Selected Character to

be Analyzed

SPAR 2.0

Coefficient of Skewness

Measures of Skewness

Fig. 3.7: User choice: Selection for measures and coefficients of skewness and kurtosis

The Estimation of Breeding Values Module predicts breeding values by fitting of

Generations means (as three, five and six parameter models) and performing Scaling and

Joint Scaling Tests. Adequacy of scale must satisfy two conditions namely, additively of

gene effects and independence of heritable components from non-heritable ones. The test

of first condition provides information regarding absence or presence of gene interactions.

The test of adequacy of scales is important because in most of the cases the estimation of

additive and dominance components of variances is made assuming the absence of gene

interaction. Sample screen for some of the options are given in Fig. 3.8.

Fig. 3.8: Scaling test: Selection of scaling test, and selection of five parameter model

SPAR 2.0

This module consists of sub-modules for correlation, regression and path analysis.

3.4.1 Correlation Analysis

The correlation analysis gives Simple Correlation, Partial and Multiple Correlations.

3.4.2 Regression Analysis

The Regression Analysis computes the Regression Coefficient, Analysis of Variance of

Regression and Regression Equation.

3.4.3 Path Analysis

The path analysis module gives Direct Effects, Indirect Effects and Residual Effects.

The Variance and Covariance Component Estimation Module consists of computation of

ANOVA, Components of Variances such as Phenotypic and Genotypic Coefficient of

Variation and Heritability (Broad Sense), Standard Error and Critical Difference, Analysis

of Covariance such as Phenotypic Covariance, Genotypic Covariance for an experiment

conducted in RBD layout.

3.6 Stability Analysis

Stability analysis can be performed using the three models (i) Eberhart and Russell (1966)

(ii) Perkins and Jinks (1968) and (iii) Freeman and Perkins (1971). On selection of

Stability Analysis module, a Window Dialog Box will open up that asks about the

information on parameters Locations, Varieties, Replications, Characters (Fig. 3.9).

Sample results are given in Fig. 3.10.

SPAR 2.0

SPAR 2.0

This module has three sub modules viz., (i) Cluster Analysis, (ii) Discriminant Analysis

and (iii) Principal Component Analysis.

3.7.1 Cluster Analysis

Cluster analysis sub module is further partitioned into Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and

Non- Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The Hierarchal Cluster analysis by using the various

techniques such as Single Linkage (Minimum Distance or Nearest Neighbor), Complete

Linkage (Maximum Distance or Farthest Neighbor), Average Linkage (Average Distance)

and Distance Matrix Methods included in the computation are the Co-efficient of Shape

Difference, the Cosine Co-efficient ,the Correlation Co-efficient , The Canbera Metric Coefficient, the Bray Curtis Co-efficient, the Eucleidean Distance. For the graphical

representation of the above analysis provision is there in the software package for

Dendogram (Plot) Development. Sample screen outputs for Hierarchical Cluster Analysis

are given in Fig. 3.11 and Fig. 3.12.

SPAR 2.0

Fig. 3.11: Hierarchical cluster analysis: Clicking analysis command button and choosing

multivariate analysis sub-module and then cluster analysis and finally

hierarchical cluster analysis option.

Non Hierarchical Clustering can be done by four methods viz., (i) K-Means Method (ii)

K-Medians Method (iii) K-Modes Method and (iv) K-Mediod Method. Provision is there

to analyze the data both Cases and Variable wise. On selection of Non-Hierarchical

Cluster Analysis from SPAR 2.0, a Window Dialog Box will open up that asks about the

parameters information on characters and rows. From the Frame Cluster, one can select

the select one of the options from the two Radio Buttons, Cases and Variables. If one

selects the Radio Button Cases, it will compute the Distance Matrix Row wise and If

one Selects the Radio Button Variables, it will compute the Distance Matrix Column

wise.

After selection of input file, if one presses the Method Command Button a Window

Dialog Box will open up which asks parameter information on Cluster Method option

where one can choose from the four options, K- Means, K-Median, K-Mode and KMediod (Fig. 3.13).

SPAR 2.0

If one clicks the Command Button Solution, a Window Dialog Box will open up which

asks the following parameter information from the user on the two options, Single

Solution and Multiple Solution (Fig. 3.14).

Click it for Further Processing

If one clicks the Single Solution Radio Button, a Window Dialog Box will open up

which will asks the parameter information, Range (number of clusters).

10

SPAR 2.0

After entering the Range in the Text Box, user can click the Continue Command

Button. If one clicks the Multiple Solution Radio Button Option, a Window Dialog Box

will come up which asks the following parameter information, Lower Range and Upper

Range. User can specify the number of cluster range using Lower Range for the minimum

number of clusters to Upper Range for the maximum number of clusters (Fig. 3.16).

After entering all the information in the various Window Dialog Box, One can click the

Proceed" Command Button for Final Execution of the Non-Hierarchical Cluster

Analysis.

11

SPAR 2.0

Discriminant Analysis can be used for estimation of Variance-Covariance matrix,

Discriminant function, Optimal linear combination and Testing the validity of

significance.

3.7.3 Principal Component Analysis

Principal Component Analysis can be employed for computation of Variance-Covariance

matrix, Correlation matrix, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, Principal Components, Variance of

principal components, Total variation by original variables, Total variation by principal

components and proportion of total variation accounted for by each of the principal

components and principal component scores. On selection of Principal Component

Analysis, a Window Dialog Box will open up that asks about the following parameters

information on characters, rows and the computational process (Fig. 3.17).

Parameters

This module consists of seven sub modules viz., (i) Complete Diallel, (ii) Partial Diallel

(iii) Line x Tester (with parents) and Line x Tester (without parents) (iv) Three way cross

(v) Double cross and (vi) North Carolina Designs.

3.8.1 Complete Diallel Analysis

Complete Diallel Analysis has been done by using two approaches (i) Haymans approach

and (ii) Griffings approach.

The Haymans Approach includes the computations viz., ANOVA, Estimation of

components of variation such as Testing the Significance of Genotypic Differences,

Estimation of Variances and Covariance, Testing the Validity of the Hypothesis, Wr,VrGraph, Estimation of Components of Variation, Other Parameters, Estimation of Most

Dominant and Recessive Parent, Estimation of Components of Variation in F2,

Computation of Proportion of the Genetic Components.

12

SPAR 2.0

The Griffings Approach includes the Analysis using Parents (n), (n-1)/2 F1s and

reciprocals, Analysis using Parents and F1s only, Analysis using F1s and reciprocals and

Analysis using F1s only. All the above analysis computes Significance of Genotypic

Difference, Combining Ability Analysis, gca, sca, reciprocal effects, Standard Error and

Critical Differences. Sample screen shots are given in Fig. 3.18.

The Partial Diallel Analysis in SPAR 2.0 computes the Sampling Procedure, Testing the

Significance of genotypic Differences, Combining Ability Analysis, Component of

Variances and Genetic Interpretations and Standard Error.

3.8.3 Line x Tester Analysis

Line x Tester Analysis computes ANOVA with Parents and Crosses, ANOVA for Line x

Tester Analysis, ANOVA for Line x Tester Analysis including Parents, gca Effects, sca

Effects, Standard Error for Combining Ability Effects, Genetic Components and

Proportional Contribution of Lines, Testers and their Interactions to Total Variance.

3.8.4 Three-Way Cross Analysis

Three-Way Cross Analysis computes ANOVA for Triallel, Testing the Significance of

Genotypic (Crosses) Differences, Estimation of Effects and Variances, Estimation of the

Various Effects such as Estimation of General and Two-line Specific Effects, Three-line

Effect, Analysis of Variance for Specific and General Line Effects, Standard Errors (S.E.)

Estimation of Parameters Useful for the Evaluation of Lines, Estimation of the Variance

Components.

3.8.5 Double Cross Hybrids Analysis

Double Cross Hybrids Analysis includes the computation of Statistical Model, ANOVA,

Components of variances, Combining Ability Effects.

.

3.8.6 North Carolina Designs Analysis

North Carolina Designs Analysis computes the ANOVA and Component of Variances for

NCD I, II and III Designs.

13

SPAR 2.0

4. HELP

A complete Context Sensitive Web HTML Help with Index, Contents, Search and

Favorites facility is available. The package can be run without the aid of a manual. This

package consists of all the necessary details to use the software and also the basic

definitions including mathematical formulae related to the methods used in the package. It

also includes sample inputs and outputs of all the modules. Fig. 3.19 gives the home page

of Help. Fig. 3.20 gives how to use help for a specified analysis. Fig. 3.21 gives the SPAR

2.0 Help Samples Inputs and Outputs.

14

SPAR 2.0

Beale, E.M.L. (1969). Euclidean Cluster Analysis. Contributed paper to 37th Session of

International Statistical Institute.

Cavelli, L.L. (1952). An analysis of linkage in quantitative inheritance in: E.C.R. Reeve

and C.H. Waddington (Eds.), Quantitative Inheritance, HSMO (London), pp. 135144.characters

Eberhart, S.A. and Russell, W.A. (1966). Stability parameters for comparing varieties.

Crop Sci. 6, 36-40.

Freeman, G.H. and Perkins, J.M.(1971). Environmental and genotype-environmental

components of variability. VIII. Relations between genotypes grown in different

environments and measure of these environments. Heredity, 26, 15-23.

Gupta,S.C. and Kapoor, V.K.(1996). Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics, IX Ed.,

Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi.

Hayman, B.I. (1958). The theory and analysis of diallel crosses. Genetics, 43, 63-85.

Hayman, B.I.and Mather, K. (1955). The description of genic interactions in continuous

variation. Biometrics, 11, 69-82.

Jeff , Prosise (1999). Programming Windows with MFC, II Edition. Microsoft Press,

Washington.

Jinks, J.L. and Jones, R.M. (1958). Estimation of components of heterosis. Genetics, 43,

223-234.

Kearsey, M.J. and Jinks, J.L. (1968). A general method of detecting additive, dominance

and epistatic variation for metrical traits. I. Theory. Heredity, 23, 403-409.

15

SPAR 2.0

Kempthorne, O. and Curnow, R.N. (1961). The partial diallel crosses. Biometrics, 17,

229-250.

Krishnamurthy, E.V. and Sen, S.K. (1986). Numerical Algorithms, Second Edition.

E.W.Press, New Delhi.

Kruglinski, David. (1996). Inside Visual C++, I Edition. Microsoft Press, Washington.

Mather, K. (1949). Biometrical Genetics. Methuen and Co.Ltd. London.

Narain, Prem, Bhatia, V.K. and Malhotra, P.K. (1979). Handbook of Statistical Genetics,

IASRI Publication, New Delhi.

Perkins, J.M. and Jinks, J.L. (1968). Environmental and genotype-environmental

components of variability. III. Multiple lines and crosses. Heredity, 23, 339-356.

Richter, Jeffrey. (1999). Programming Applications for Microsoft Windows, IV Edition.

Microsoft Press, Washington.

Singh, R.K. and Choudhry (1977). Biometrical Methods in Quantitative Genetic Analysis,

Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.

Smith Eric, A., Whisler, Valore. and Marquis, Hank (1998).Visual Basic 6 Programming

Bible, I Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Yates, F. (1937). The Design and Analysis of Factorial Experiments. Imp. Bur. Soil. Sci.

Tech. Comm., 35.

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