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Door Design

DOOR TYPES & CONVENTIONAL DOOR STUDY (IN BRIEF)

BY Nelson jasper W
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Automotive Door Development process in conceptual phase


STYLING

DOOR TYPE

PROJECT MODULES

ERGONOMICS & COMFORT

SHUT LINE STUDY

DOOR OPENING STUDY

WINDOW KINEMATICS

SEALING CONCEPTS

CONCEPT GEOMENTRY

PACKAGE

STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION

PROJECT DURATION
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STYLING

The way in which something is made, designed, or performed is styling.

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DOOR TYPES
CONVENTIONAL DOOR

SCISSOR DOOR

BUTTERFLY DOOR

DOOR TYPES

SUICIDE DOOR

GULL-WING DOOR

SLIDING DOOR

CANOPY DOOR

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DOOR TYPES
CONVENTIONAL DOOR
A conventional door, also known as a regular door is a type of door that is hinged
at the front-facing edge of the door, and so allows the door to swing outward from the body of the car.
These doors are relatively safe, in that if they are opened during forward motion of the vehicle, the wind
resistance will work against the opening door, and will effectively force its closure

Panel Door

Sash Door

SCISSOR DOOR
Scissor doors (also beetle-wing doors, turtles, switchblade doors, Lamborghini doors,
and Lambo doors) are automobile doors that rotate vertically at a fixed hinge at the front of the door,
rather than outwardly as with a conventional door.

BUTTERFLY DOOR
Butterfly doors or vertical doors are a type of door sometimes seen on high-performance automobiles.
They are similar to scissor doors. While scissor doors move straight up via hinge points at the bottom of
the A-pillar, butterfly doors move up and out via hinges along the A-pillar. This makes for easier entry/exit
at the expense of requiring more opening space than needed for scissor doors.

SUICIDE DOOR
A "suicide door" is the slang term for a door hinged at its rear rather than the front.
Such doors were originally used on horse-drawn carriages, but are rarely found on modern vehicles
due primarily to safety concerns.
Popularized in the custom car trade, the term is avoided by major automobile manufacturers in favor
of alternatives such as "coach doors" (Rolls-Royce),"Flex Doors" (Opel), "freestyle doors" (Mazda),
"rear access doors" (Saturn), and "rear-hinged doors.

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DOOR TYPES
SLIDING DOOR
A sliding door is a type of door is mounted on or suspended from a track for the door to slide, usually
horizontally. It is a feature predominately relegated to minibuses and buses to provide a large entrance
or exit for passengers without obstructing the adjacent pathway between the vehicle and any adjoining
object or the side(s) of passenger and commercial vans so as to allow a larger unobstructed access to
the interior for loading and unloading.
Sliding doors are often used in mini MPVs

CANOPY DOOR
A vehicle canopy is a rarely used type of door for cars. It has no official name so it is also known as an
articulated canopy, bubble canopy, cockpit canopy, canopy door, or simply a canopy.
A canopy is a type of door which sits on top of a car and lifts up in some way, to provide access
for passengers. It is similar to an aircraft canopy. There are no set rules to canopies, so they can be
hinged at the front, side, or back, although hinging at the front is most common.
Canopy doors are rarely used on production cars, and are sometimes used on concept cars.

GULL-WING DOOR
Gull-wing door is an automotive industry term describing car doors that are hinged at the roof rather
than the side, as pioneered by the 1952 Mercedes-Benz 300SL race car (W194) and
its road-legal version (W198) introduced in 1954.

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ERGONOMICS & COMFORT


Ergonomics is the science of refining the design of products to optimize them for human use. Human characteristics, such as height, weight,
and proportions are considered, as well as information about human hearing, sight, temperature preferences, and so on.
Ergonomics is sometimes known as human factors engineering.

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CONVENTIONAL DOOR DESIGN


ROOF

B PILLAR

C PILLAR
A PILLAR
ORVM
BSO

FENDER

SILL AREA

CLOSURES
DOOR STUDY

SHUT LINE STUDY


HINGE AXIS STUDY
LATCH STUDY
DOOR OPEN STUDY
CHECK LINK STUDY
GLASS DROP STUDY
DOOR SEAL STUDY

TAIL GATE

HOOD

FRONT DOOR

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REAR DOOR

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SHUT LINE STUDY or DOOR GAP

What is shut line?

Shut lines are the small spaces where sections of the vehicle body meet, i.e. between front wing and front door
Or
The line between a closed door and the bodywork.

Shut line Design Consideration

Shut line gap will be minimum 3.5- 5mm gap

Shut line depends on the Hinge axis study and door opening study

Shut line study will be engineered by the technical team from the given
styling shut line.

Shut line can be seen in all closure part.

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HINGE AXIS STUDY

What is Hinge axis ?


Hinge axis is the connecting line between two hinge centre
Hinge axis Design Consideration
Hinge axis is inboard 86.5-88 deg in front view
Hinge axis is 90-92 deg at side view
Hinge axis inboard at front view and side view will vary as per door mass and weight
HINGE AXIS 90 - 92 Deg - SIDE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW
HINGE AXIS INBOARD
FRONT VIEW

86.5 - 88 deg

90 92 deg

NOTE: THE ABOVE SHOWN HINGE AXIS ANGLE ARE NOT MANDATORY,IT DEPENDS ON THE OEM AND DOOR MASS.

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LATCH STUDY & STRIKER POSITION


UPR HINGE

LATCH STUDY DEPENDS ON THE HINGE POSITION

LATCH POSITION

UPR HINGE

CENTER POINT

LWR HINGE

LWR HINGE

LATCH POSITION
AND
STRIKER POSITION

A - DISTANCE BETWEEN SILL AREA AND LOWER HINGE


B - DISTANCE BETWEEN UPR AND LWR HINGE
A & B DISTANCE WILL BE VARY AS PER DOOR MASS
HINGE POSITION AND LATCH POSITION DEPENDS ON THE DOOR MASS
LATCH POSITION CAN BE POSITIONED WITH RESPECT TO CENTER POINT BETWEEN THE UPR AND LWR HINGE

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DOOR OPEN ANGLE

72 deg + 10 deg tolerance

Door closed condition

Hinge axis

Door Open condition

Front & Rear Door Opening angle 72 deg + 10 deg tolerance


Conditions Front Door should not clash with fender, A pillar, proper clearance should be maintain
between BSO
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CAR SIDE WINDOW

FRONT DOOR SIDE WINDOW GLASS

Glass A surface is always proposed by stylist

Olden days car windows are Planar windows


Present car windows are Curved windows (circular &Spherical)

d - Day light curve


b - Boundary curve towards the B Pillar
c - Roof curve
S car side window

Advantages of curved windows


Strength
Aesthetic
Aerodynamic Enhancement

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GLASS DROP STUDY

GLASS RUN PATH WILL BE DERIVED FROM THE BELOW SHOWN BOUNDRYS B-PILLAR BOUNDRY & ORVM BOUNDRY
B-PILLAR AND ORVM BOUNDRYS ARE FROM STYLING

ORVM BOUNDRY LINE

B PILLAR BOUNDRY LINE


GLASS RUN PATHS

Thickness 3.8 to 4.1 mm

Material - LAMINATED GLASS

GLASS DROPPED CONDITION

At the 80% glass dropped condition, proper clearance should be maintain with environment part

NOTE: THE ABOVE SHOWN GLASS DROP STUDY IS NOT THE COMPLETE STUDY , BUT IT IS THE BASIC IDEA TO UNDERSTAND THE STUDY.

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DOOR SEALS
SEAL TYPES

DOOR PRIMARY SEAL


WAIST BELT INR & OTR
GLASS RUN
ENCAPSULATED GLASS SEAL
SUNROOF SEAL
HOOD SEAL
BACK WINDOW / LIFT GATE SEAL

13 mm

seal

Door

Sec A-A
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CAD -DEVELOPMENT STAGE


STAGE 1
STAGE 2
HINGE AXIS STUDY
SHUT LINE STUDY

1st SHUT LINE BY STYLING

SHUT LINE GAP


W R T FRT DOOR
LATCH STUDY

A - SURFACE EXTRACTED FROM STYLING

REAR DOOR
VEHICLE CENTER
4 mm
STAGE 1
1. FROM THE GIVEN STYLING THE DOOR OTR SURFACE WILL BE EXTRACTED
2. EXTRACTED DOOR OTR SURFACE WILL BE TRIMMED WITH THE GIVEN STYLING SHUT LINE
STAGE 2
1.HINGE AXIS STUDY
2.SHUT LINE STUDY
3.LATCH STUDY

FRONT DOOR
SHUT LINE

REAR DOOR SHUT LINE

Detail A
Detail A

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CAD -DEVELOPMENT STAGE


TOOLING DIRECTION

STAGE 3

ENGINEERED
SEAL SURFACE

SEAL SURFACE WILL BE SHARED WITH BSO

DOOR SEAL AREA


STAGE 3
1.SEAL SURFACE ENGINEERED AND DESIGNED BY ENGINEERING DEPT
2.MAINTAIN PROPER DRAFT ANGLE AND FLOW WITH TOOLING DIRECTION
3.LATCH MOUNTING AREA SHOULD BE FLAT

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LATCH AREA

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CAD -DEVELOPMENT STAGE


STAGE 5

STAGE 4

AB FLANGE

SECTION DEVELOPMENT WITH RESPECT TO INPUTS


SEAL SURFACE

NO OF SECTIONS

INPUT FOR DEVELOPING THE INR PANEL ARE


1.STYLING A SURFACE
2.SEAL SURFACE
3.AB FLANGE

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A PILLAR SECTION
B PILLAR SECTION
ROOF SECTION
UPR AND LWR HINGE SECTION
CHECK LINK SECTION
LATCH SECTION
SILL SECTION
OTR HANDLE SECION

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DEVELOPED SECTION FROM THE INPUTS

STAGE 5
EXAMPLE FOR ROOF SECTION
A

STYLING A SURFACE
OTR PANEL

SEAL SURFACE

AB FLANGE
OF BSO

SEC A-A

STAGE 6

STAGE 7

STAGE 8

PACKAGE

STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION

DEVELOPED (CONSEPT GEOMENTRY) INNER PANEL FROM THE SECTIONS

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DIFFERENTS BETWEEN PANEL AND SASH DOOR


PANEL DOOR

SASH DOOR

Panel Door- Both the inr and otr panel will be stamped completely with
multiple stage operation

Sash Door- Both the inr and otr panel will be stamped up to the waist level with
Multiple stage operation, sash will be manufactured
separately

INR AND OTR PANEL


WAIST AREA

A OUTER PANEL
B INNER PANEL

A OUTER PANEL
B INNER PANEL

F OTR BELT REINFO

C GLASS CHANNEL

G INTRUSION BAR

C1 FRAME ASSEMBLY MODULAR DOOR

D - HINGE REINFO

H HINGES

C2 WINDOW FRAME SASH

E INR BELT REINFO

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Examples of Door saftey beam positioning

Safety beam are other wise called Door Guard Beam


Door Guard beam is designed to absorb the impact energy

Door safety beam Cross Sections

Door Guard Beam

ABOVE FIGURE SHOWS THE DOOR GUARD BEAM PLACED IN DIRERENT POSITION
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HINGE TYPES AND ITS PARTS

Forged steel hinges

CHECK LINK
Regarding automobile doors, a door is held at intermediate holding positions and fully-opened holding position by a
check link device in order to prevent the door from being closed due to externally applied load such as wind, etc.
In addition, during parking on a sloping road or on a curbstone, a door is opened and should be held in this intermediate
open position, and therefore the following device has been known: the door can be held in an intermediate open position
in addition to the fully-opened angle position, and the door can be moved from such holding positions upon application
of a certain level or more of opening/closing force.

Lift gate single joint 3 screw hinge

1.Movable Half Hinge


2.Fixed Half Hinge
3.Pin retaining screw
4.End stop tooth

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DOOR PARTS

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DOOR PARTS
OTR PANEL

SHEET METAL PARTS


LATCH MECH

MECHANISM PARTS

WINDOW WINDING MECH

INR PANEL
HINGE REIFO UPR & LWR
LATCH REIFO

INSIDE HANDLE MECH


DOOR GUARD BEAM
OUTSIDE HANDLE MECH

WAIST REINFO INR & OTR


CHECK LINK MECH
SASH REIFO
DOOR TRIM

DOOR PARTS

TRIM PARTS

LOCK REIFO

INR HANDLE
WINDOW WINDER HANDLE
OUTSIDE HANDLE MECH

PRIMARY SEAL

SEAL PARTS

GLASS RUNS
WAIST BELT INR / OTR

GLASS

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To be continue with some more details

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